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Sample records for chronic toluene abuse

  1. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with toluene abuse.

    PubMed

    Vural, Mutlu; Ogel, Kultegin

    2006-01-01

    The use of paint thinner and glue to achieve an euphoric state has been associated with serious social and health problems in children and young adults. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy occurring following abuse of paint thinner and glue containing toluene as main compound. After cessation of toluene abuse, the patient recovered rapidly and completely. Because of the increasing prevalence of toluene abuse, harmful effects of this volatile agent on the heart are also discussed. PMID:16479101

  2. Chronic solvent abuse. 1. Cognitive sequelae.

    PubMed

    Zur, J; Yule, W

    1990-01-01

    Twelve adolescent males with a history of chronic solvent abuse were compared with 12 delinquent controls on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Toluene was the active constituent most commonly abused. Solvent abusers tended to have lower overall intelligence test scores. On the Bexley Maudsley Automated Screening Test, the solvent abusers scored significantly lower on tests involving visual processing, especially the Symbol Digit Coding test. These results are cautiously interpreted as indicating that chronic solvent abuse carries an increased risk of cognitive impairment. PMID:2311197

  3. Alterations in Rat Fetal Morphology Following Abuse Patterns of Toluene Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Scott E.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Stefanski, Adrianne L.

    2009-01-01

    Toluene is a commonly abused organic solvent. Inhalant abusers are increasingly women in their prime childbearing years. Children born to mothers who abused solvents during pregnancy may exhibit characteristics of a “fetal solvent syndrome” which may include dysmorphic features. This study examined the teratological effects of an abuse pattern of binge toluene exposure during gestation on skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, body weight, and body size in fetal rats. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed for 30 min, twice daily, from gestational day (GD) 8 through GD20 to either air (0 ppm), 8,000 ppm, 12,000 ppm, or 16,000 ppm toluene. Two-thirds of each litter was prepared for skeletal examination using Alizarin Red S staining while the remaining third of each litter was fixed in Bouin’s solution for Wilson’s soft tissue evaluation. Exposure to toluene at all levels significantly reduced growth, including decreases in placental weight, fetal weight, and crown-rump length. In addition, numerous gross morphological anomalies were observed such as short or missing digits and missing limbs. Skeletal examination revealed that ossification of the extremities was significantly reduced as a result of toluene exposure at all levels. Specific skeletal defects included misshapen scapula, missing and supernumerary vertebrae and ribs, and fused digits. Soft tissue anomalies were also observed at all toluene levels and there was a dose-dependent increase in the number of anomalies which included cryptorchidism, displaced abdominal organs, gastromegaly, distended/hypoplastic bladder, and delayed cardiac development, among others. These results indicate that animals exposed prenatally to levels and patterns of toluene typical of inhalant abuse are at increased risk for skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities. PMID:19429395

  4. Toluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Toluene ; CASRN 108 - 88 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  5. Protective effects of quercetine on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Mehmet

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effects of quercetine (QE) on the neuronal injury in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the three experimental groups, namely, groups A (control), B (toluene treated) and C (toluene-treated with QE), where each group contains 10 animals. Control group received 1 ml of normal saline solution, and toluene treatment was performed by the inhalation of 3000 ppm toluene in an 8-h/day and 6-day/week order for 12 weeks. The rats in QE-treated group was given QE (15 mg/kg body weight) once a day intraperitoneally for 12 weeks, starting just after toluene exposure. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathological investigation. To date, no histopathological changes of neurodegeneration in the frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats by QE treatment have been reported. In this study, the morphology of neurons in the QE treatment group was well protected. Chronic toluene exposure caused severe degenerative changes, shrunken cytoplasm and extensively dark picnotic nuclei in neurons of the frontal cortex. We conclude that QE therapy causes morphologic improvement in neurodegeneration of frontal cortex after chronic toluene exposure in rats. We believe that further preclinical research into the utility of QE may indicate its usefulness as a potential treatment on neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. PMID:22252859

  6. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, chronic fatigue, and chronic fatigue syndrome: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R R; Jason, L A

    2001-10-01

    Using a randomly selected community-based sample, this investigation examined whether histories of childhood sexual, physical, and death threat abuse predicted adulthood outcomes of specific medical and psychiatric conditions involving chronic fatigue. This study also tested prior suggestions that most individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome report a past history of interpersonal abuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between abuse history and chronic fatigue group outcomes while controlling for the effects of sociodemographics. Compared with healthy controls, childhood sexual abuse was significantly more likely to be associated with outcomes of idiopathic chronic fatigue, chronic fatigue explained by a psychiatric condition, and chronic fatigue explained by a medical condition. None of the abuse history types were significant predictors of chronic fatigue syndrome. A closer examination of individuals in the chronic fatigue syndrome group revealed that significantly fewer individuals with CFS reported abuse as compared with those who did not. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11708672

  7. Neurologic manifestations of chronic methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chronic methamphetamine abuse has devastating effects on the central nervous system. The degree to which addicts will tolerate the dysfunction in the way they think, feel, move, and even look, is a powerful testimony to the addictive properties of this drug. While the mechanisms behind these disorders are complex, at their heart they involve the recurring increase in the concentrations of central monoamines with subsequent dysfunction in dopaminergic neurotransmission. The mainstay of treatment for the problems associated with chronic methamphetamine abuse is abstinence. However, by recognizing the manifestations of chronic abuse, clinicians will be better able to help their patients get treatment for their addiction and to deal with the neurologic complications related to chronic abuse. PMID:21803215

  8. Phenotype-dependent inhibition of glutamatergic transmission on nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons by the abused inhalant toluene.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Randall, Patrick K; Smith, Rachel J; Hughes, Benjamin A; Kalivas, Peter W; Woodward, John J

    2016-05-01

    Abused inhalants are voluntarily inhaled at high concentrations to produce intoxicating effects. Results from animal studies show that the abused inhalant toluene triggers behaviors, such as self-administration and conditioned place preference, which are commonly associated with addictive drugs. However, little is known about how toluene affects neurons within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region within the basal ganglia that mediates goal-directed behaviors and is implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Here we report that toluene inhibits a component of the after-hyperpolarization potential, and dose-dependently inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated currents in rat NAc medium spiny neurons (MSN). Moreover, using the multivariate statistical technique, partial least squares discriminative analysis to analyze electrophysiological measures from rat NAc MSNs, we show that toluene induces a persistent depression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-mediated currents in one subtype of NAc MSNs, and that the electrophysiological features of MSN neurons predicts their sensitivity to toluene. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 blocked the toluene-induced long-term depression of AMPA currents, indicating that this process is dependent on endocannabinoid signaling. The neuronal identity of recorded cells was examined using dual histochemistry and shows that toluene-sensitive NAc neurons are dopamine D2 MSNs that express preproenkephalin mRNA. Overall, the results from these studies indicate that physiological characteristics obtained from NAc MSNs during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reliably predict neuronal phenotype, and that the abused inhalant toluene differentially depresses excitatory neurotransmission in NAc neuronal subtypes. PMID:25752326

  9. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rusyniak, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    COMMENTARY ON METHAMPHETAMINE ABUSE FOR PSYCHIATRIC PRACTICE Every decade seems to have its own unique drug problem. The 1970s had hallucinogens, the 1980s had crack cocaine, the 1990s had designer drugs, the 2000s had methamphetamine (Meth), and in the 2010s we are dealing with the scourge of prescription drug abuse. While each of these drug epidemics has distinctive problems and history, the one with perhaps the greatest impact on the practice of Psychiatry is Meth. By increasing the extracellular concentrations of dopamine while slowly damaging the dopaminergic neurotransmission, Meth is a powerfully addictive drug whose chronic use preferentially causes psychiatric complications. Chronic Meth users have deficits in memory and executive functioning as well as higher rates of anxiety, depression, and most notably psychosis. It is because of addiction and chronic psychosis from Meth abuse that the Meth user is most likely to come to the attention of the practicing Psychiatrist/Psychologist. Understanding the chronic neurologic manifestations of Meth abuse will better arm practitioners with the diagnostic and therapeutic tools needed to make the Meth epidemic one of historical interest only. PMID:23688691

  10. Chronic pain, substance abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Compton, Peggy; Athanasos, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Health care professionals face numerous challenges in assessing and treating chronic pain patients with a substance abuse history. Societal perspectives on morality and criminality, imprecise addiction terminology, litigation fears, and genuine concern for a patient's relapse into or escalation of substance abuse result in unrelieved and under-relieved pain in precisely the population that--as increasing evidence indicates--is generally intolerant of pain. Before adequate pain relief can occur in chronic pain patients with current or past substance abuse issues, it is imperative that the clinician recognize addiction as a disease with known symptoms and treatments. Further, the clinician must realize the difference between true addiction and similar conditions, so the patient's condition can be monitored and regulated properly. Although clinicians are often reluctant to medicate with opioids, it is always best to err on the side of adequate pain relief. Withholding opioids from chronic pain patients in order to avoid the onset or relapse of addiction is contrary to the growing body of evidence and results only in unnecessary pain for the patient. Chronic pain in patients with a history of addictive disease can be treated successfully with opiate analgesia; it just requires caution and careful monitoring of medication use. If addiction is treated as a known risk when providing opioid analgesia to a recovering addict, its development can be minimized while pain relief is provided. PMID:14567207

  11. Chronic biliary colic associated with ketamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nowfal, Ahmed; Al-Abed, Yahya A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biliary colic is a common clinical presentation, with the majority of cases being related to gallstone disease. However, rarely, patients may present with biliary symptoms without evidence of gallbladder stones – referred to as acalculous gallstone disease. This case report details a rare case of chronic biliary colic associated with ketamine abuse. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian female presented to the emergency department with a history of intermittent right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and malaise. She had experienced bouts of similar symptoms three times a year for the past 4 years. Various investigations had been conducted during her multiple admissions, which showed possible dilatation of the common bile duct, with no evidence of gallstones. Conclusion Patients can present with a dilated common bile duct and an acalculous cholecystitis. This requires considerable investigation, with an emphasis on drug history, especially with the current rise of recreational hallucinogenic drug abuse. PMID:27330331

  12. Charcot foot associated with chronic alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathi, Christina; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Jude, Edward B

    2013-01-01

    Two patients without a history of diabetes mellitus but with a history of chronic alcohol abuse were referred to our foot clinic due to pain and deformity of the midfoot. On examination both of the feet of the first patient and the left foot of the second patient were swollen and warm but all the inflammatory markers were negative. Subsequent imaging revealed Charcot deformity and the patients were treated with casting and special shoes. The temperature and the swelling of the feet after the offloading improved. x-Rays which were performed 1 and 2 years after the diagnosis did not show any progression of the Charcot deformity. PMID:23563675

  13. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  14. [Acute and chronic alcohol abuse and work].

    PubMed

    Riboldi, L; Bordini, L

    2008-01-01

    A not moderate alcohol consumption or its abuse have relevant consequences not only on the health of the general population but also on the possibility to carry out any work in safety conditions. These behaviours have focused the attention of the institutions, which have promoted in the last years a growing number of preventive and informative actions and have adopted specific laws that have significantly involved the figure of occupational physician. Over the clinical implications, in fact, those behaviours, in the employment context, are associated with an increased risk of injuries (from 10 to 30% of total), an increase in the number of absences from work, with greater precariousness, with the possible interaction and/or strengthening of other occupational toxics and with the progressive reduction of working capacity. Diagnostic tools available for the detection of alcohol abuse or dependency consist, in acute cases by direct measuring of alcohol on blood, saliva and exhaled air, while in the chronic situations in addiction to the more traditional indicators (AST, ALT, GGT, MCV) there are recently introduced marker (CDT)--or in validation (ethyl glucuronide)--that representing, also with specific questionnaires (AUDIT, MAST, MALT, CAGE), useful integrated tools in the clinical-diagnostic path. The role and contribution of occupational medicine in the management of alcohol related problems is vital and relevant. Must be clear however that these are problems associated with a particular behaviour of the person and not with risks present on work-site. PMID:19288791

  15. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D. )

    1990-06-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval.

  16. Effects of the abused solvent toluene on recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, S L; Mirshahi, T; Thomas, B; Balster, R L; Woodward, J J

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that toluene, which is commonly abused, depresses neuronal activity and causes behavioral effects in both animals and man similar to those observed for ethanol. In this study, the oocyte expression system was used to test the hypothesis that toluene, like ethanol, inhibits the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Oocytes were injected with mRNA for specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA subunits and currents were recorded using conventional two-electrode voltage clamp. To enhance the low water solubility of toluene, drug solutions were prepared by mixing toluene with alkamuls (ethoxylated castor oil) at a 1:1 ratio (v:v) and diluting this mixture to the appropriate concentration with barium-containing normal frog Ringer solution. Alkamuls, up to 0.1%, had no significant effects on membrane leak currents or on NMDA-induced currents. Toluene, up to approximately 9 mM, had only minor effects on membrane leak currents but dose-dependently inhibited NMDA-mediated currents in oocytes. The inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by toluene was rapid, reversible and the potency for toluene's effects was subunit dependent. The NR1/2B subunit combination was the most sensitive with an IC50 value for toluene-induced inhibition of 0.17 mM. The NR1/2A and NR1/2C receptors were 6- and 12-fold less sensitive with IC50 values of 1.4 and 2.1 mM, respectively. In contrast, toluene up to approximately 9 mM did not inhibit kainate-induced currents in oocytes expressing GluR1, GluR1(+)R2 or GluR6 subunits. These results suggest that some of the effects of toluene on neuronal activity and behavior may be mediated by inhibition of NMDA receptors. PMID:9655877

  17. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  18. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  19. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF 30 DAY CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed to 1000 ppm toluene or 0 ppm toluene 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days. Following removal from the exposure conditions (18-26 hr) flash-evoked potentials were recorded to paired light flashes and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure properties were ...

  20. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites during Early Abstinence from Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Marc C.; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. Methods: We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. Results: In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5–15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. PMID:25522400

  1. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  2. History of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D; Darke, L L; Stampler, F M; Naliboff, B D

    1990-07-01

    The history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood was assessed in 31 women with chronic pelvic pain, 142 women with chronic pain in other locations, and 32 controls. Thirty-nine percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain had been physically abused in childhood. This percentage was significantly greater than that observed in other chronic-pain patients (18.4%) or controls (9.4%), though the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse did not differ among the groups (19.4, 16.3, and 12.5%, respectively). Abuse in adulthood was less common and was not significantly more likely to have occurred in patients with chronic pelvic pain than in other chronic-pain patients or controls. These data suggest that pelvic pain is unlikely to be specifically and psychodynamically related to sexual abuse but that the pernicious nature of abuse, whether physical or sexual, may promote the chronicity of painful conditions. PMID:2359571

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in chronic solvent abusers.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Yamanouchi, N; Kodama, K; Uchida, Y; Hirai, S; Sakamoto, T; Noda, S; Komatsu, N; Sato, T

    1999-06-01

    This study aimed to reveal regional abnormalities of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and their relation to amotivational syndrome which causes poor social prognosis in solvent abusers Sixteen chronic solvent abusers (12 males and four females) along with five normal subjects underwent single photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p[123I]iodoamphetamine. The patients received a clinical evaluation with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Using a semiquantitative method (normalized by the parietal cortex count), patients showed a statistically significant decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (P<0.01). In addition, the severity of hypoperfusion in the bilateral prefrontal cortices was related to the degree of severity of the avolition-apathy scale on SANS (left; P<0.05, right; P<0.01) even after excluding the effect of antipsychotics. These results suggest that rCBF abnormalities, especially in the prefrontal cortex, develop in chronic solvent abusers, and that this frontal hypoperfusion may be a biological basis of amotivational syndrome. PMID:10459736

  4. DNA damage and neurotoxicity of chronic alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kruman, Inna I; Henderson, George I; Bergeson, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse results in a variety of pathological effects including damage to the brain. The causes of alcohol-induced brain pathology are presently unclear. Several mechanisms of pathogenicity of chronic alcoholism have been proposed, including accumulation of DNA damage in the absence of repair, resulting in genomic instability and death of neurons. Genomic instability is a unified genetic mechanism leading to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Ethanol also likely interacts with various metabolic pathways, including one-carbon metabolism (OCM). OCM is critical for the synthesis of DNA precursors, essential for DNA repair, and as a methyl donor for various methylation events, including DNA methylation. Both DNA repair and DNA methylation are critical for maintaining genomic stability. In this review, we outline the role of DNA damage and DNA repair dysfunction in chronic alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:22829701

  5. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    PubMed

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication. PMID:25605280

  6. Effects of Physical and Emotional Child Abuse and Its Chronicity on Crime Into Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Klika, J Bart; Skinner, Martie L

    2015-01-01

    Analyses tested hypotheses that pertain to direct and indirect effects of parent-reported physical and emotional abuse on later self-reported criminal behavior in a sample of 356 adults of a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. Childhood antisocial behavior was included in analyses as a potential mediator. Physical abuse only predicted adult crime indirectly through childhood antisocial behavior, whereas emotional abuse predicted adult outcome both directly and indirectly. Chronicity of physical abuse was indirectly related to later crime in a subsample test for those who had been physically abused (n=318), whereas chronicity of emotional abuse was neither directly nor indirectly related to adult crime in a test of those who had been emotionally abused (n=225). Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26439922

  7. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories. PMID:26275087

  8. Sexual Abuse and its Relation to Chronic Pain among Women from a Methadone Maintenance Clinic versus a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of sexual abuse history on chronic pain and its relation to opioid addiction and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), we studied current women MMT patients, and women patients from a sexual abuse treatment center with no history of opioid addiction. Questionnaires included Chronic Pain, Chronic Severe Pain, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (complex-PTSD). Chronic severe pain was most prevalent among sexually abused women with no history of opioid addiction (64% of 25), followed by sexually abused MMT women (30.9% of 68), and MMT women with no history of sexual abuse (25% of 8, p = 0.01). Pain severity correlated with dissociation and complex-PTSD scores. The sexually abused non-MMT women had higher rates of high dissociation scores (DES ≥ 30) and complex-PTSD, but fewer obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scored ≥16) than the MMT sexually abused women. Chronic pain was found to be highly prevalent among sexually abused women, independent of being methadone-maintained with an addiction history. The high known prevalence of chronic pain among MMT patients, which may be attributable to opioid-induced hyperalgesia, may partially reflect the sexual abuse history, and should be targeted in future studies evaluating pain indices. PMID:27430532

  9. Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Zhang, Minling; Xu, Ke; Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. Methods Eighty-one ketamine abusers who were hospitalized for the treatment of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Serum VEGF level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Serum level of VEGF was significantly lower in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls (64.6 ± 42.1 vs. 92.4 ± 59.4 pg/ml, F = 7.243, p = 0.008). Conclusions Serum level of VEGF decreased in chronic ketamine abusers compared to healthy controls. PMID:26003336

  10. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  11. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations.

    PubMed

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; Young, Erin E; Starkweather, Angela R; Guite, Jessica W; Russell, Beth S; Manworren, Renee C B

    2016-01-01

    In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity and earning potential, and decreased quality of life. There are distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain represents a significant health issue. This article focuses on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlights the need for a multimodal approach from multiple health care professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk. PMID:26614727

  12. Effects of Chronic Solvent Abuse on Public School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullwood, Harry L.; Fournet, Glenn P.

    School youth have been increasingly involved in the dangerous abuse of volatile inhalants. The basic reason to inhale substances is to reach an altered state of consciousness. The 12-17 and 18-25-year-old age groups had the highest rates of inhalant abuse in 1993. Among eighth graders, almost one in five (19%) said they have used inhalants and 5%…

  13. Talc in liver tissue of intravenous drug abusers with chronic hepatitis. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Allaire, G S; Goodman, Z D; Ishak, K G; Rabin, L

    1989-11-01

    To determine the frequency of talc microcrystals in liver tissue of intravenous (IV) drug abusers and the significance of this finding, the authors reviewed, with light and polarizing microscopy, sections of liver tissue from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis and a history of active (45) or past (25) IV drug abuse. Birefringent crystalline particles consistent with talc were found in 44 cases (63%), 31 associated with active and 13 with past drug abuse. The microcrystals were situated predominantly in hypertrophied portal macrophages; there were no well-formed granulomas. Scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive spectrophotometry performed on eight of the positive cases showed the characteristic "flake-pastry" appearance and chemical composition (silicon and magnesium) of talc. For comparison, the authors similarly examined 70 cases of posttransfusion chronic hepatitis, all of which had negative findings for talc, and 70 cases of chronic hepatitis with no documented risk factors for viral hepatitis, of which two had positive findings for talc, even though IV drug abuse was denied by the two patients. The authors conclude that talc is frequently present in the liver of IV drug abusers and whenever encountered it strongly suggests IV drug abuse. Only two patients (1.4%) with a negative history also had talc. PMID:2816811

  14. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal

  15. Progression of chronic subdural haematomas in an infant boy after abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Wuerfel nee Tysiak, E; Petersen, Dirk; Gottschalk, Stefan; Gerling, Ivana; Gliemroth, Jan; Thyen, Ute

    2012-11-01

    Abusive head trauma is a serious form of child abuse that can lead to severe neuropsychological sequelae or death in infants. In questionable cases, without a confession from the caregivers and ambiguous clinical information, evidence for the diagnosis of abusive head trauma is often based on typical patterns that have been observed in neuro-imaging. This study shows the progressive evolution of multifocal chronic subdural haematomas, including re-bleedings, in a case of abusive head trauma in an infant boy who was documented with repeated magnetic resonance imaging. The chronic subdural haematomas occurred during closely monitored in-patient rehabilitative care, and repeated maltreatment did not appear to be likely. Due to excessive growth, neurosurgical intervention with endoscopic craniotomy, evacuation of the subdural haematomas and temporal external cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed with a favourable recovery. This study discusses the current pathophysiological knowledge concerning the development and clinical course of chronic subdural haematomas and draws relevant conclusions for the clinical practice and psychosocial management of caring for victims of abusive head trauma. PMID:22421521

  16. Prescription Drug Abuse: Epidemiology, Regulatory Issues, Chronic Pain Management with Narcotic Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Manubay, Jeanne M.; Muchow, Carrie; Sullivan, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The epidemic of prescription drug abuse has reached a critical level, which has received national attention. Physicians must learn strategies to effectively treat chronic pain, and help reduce the rates of prescription drug abuse. This chapter will provide insight into the epidemiology of prescription drug abuse, explain regulatory issues, and provide guidelines for the assessment and management of pain, particularly with chronic opioid therapy. The use of informed consent forms, treatment agreements, risk documentation tools, and regular monitoring of the 4 “A's” helps to educate patients, as well as guide management based on treatment goals. By using universal precautions, and being aware of aberrant behaviors, physicians may feel more confident in identifying and addressing problematic behaviors. PMID:21356422

  17. Chronic keratoconjunctivitis with dermatitis as a presenting sign of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel B; Herlihy, Erin P; Weiss, Avery H

    2012-04-01

    A 13-month-old girl presented with chronic keratoconjunctivitis with dermatitis. She was initially diagnosed with corneal abrasion and mild preseptal cellulitis and was treated with topical and oral antibiotics. After failing to respond to standard therapy, she was eventually identified as a victim of abuse. We discuss key findings that could have provoked earlier recognition. PMID:22525179

  18. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  19. Use and abuse of opioid analgesics in chronic pain.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, B.

    1993-01-01

    Primary care physicians are frequently required to treat patients with chronic debilitating pain. Opioid analgesics can successfully manage chronic pain. To prescribe opioid analgesics effectively, physicians must identify appropriate patients. Several methods can be used to identify and distinguish appropriate patients, addicted patients, and for-profit drug seekers. PMID:8097128

  20. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  1. Occurrence, characteristics, and impact of chronic pain in formerly abused women.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Janice; Cooper, Bruce A; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the occurrence of chronic pain and to evaluate for differences in pain characteristics and intimate partner violence between women who reported mild compared with moderate to severe chronic pain. A convenience sample of community-based women (N = 84) was recruited. The 77% of women who reported chronic pain were dichotomized into two groups. Women with moderate to severe pain (n = 49) were significantly more likely to be unemployed, to be in the abusive relationship longer, to report more minor injuries and threats of violence, and to report pain in multiple locations that significantly interfered with every aspect of their lives. PMID:22071093

  2. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history.

    PubMed

    Michna, Edward; Ross, Edgar L; Hynes, Wilfred L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Soumekh, Sharonah; Janfaza, David; Palombi, Diane; Jamison, Robert N

    2004-09-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five (145) patients who were taking long- and short-acting opioids for their pain were classified as high or low risk on the basis of their responses to interview questions about 1) substance abuse history in their family, 2) past problems with drug or alcohol abuse, and 3) history of legal problems. The treating physicians completed a questionnaire about problems that they had encountered with their patients. Problem behaviors were verified through chart review. No differences in demographic characteristics were found between those classified as high and low risk. Patients who admitted to a family history of substance abuse, a history of legal problems, and drug or alcohol abuse were prone to more aberrant drug-related behaviors, including a higher incidence of lost or stolen prescriptions and the presence of illicit substances in their urine (P < 0.05). Patients classified as high risk also had a significantly higher frequency of reported mental health problems and motor vehicle accidents. More of these patients smoked cigarettes, tended to need a cigarette within the first hour of the day, took higher doses of opioids, and reported fewer adverse effects from the medications than did those without such a history (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that questions about abuse history and legal problems can be useful in predicting aberrant drug-related behavior with opioid use in persons with chronic noncancer pain. PMID:15336337

  3. Safe management of chronic pain in pregnancy in an era of opioid misuse and abuse.

    PubMed

    Pritham, Ursula A; McKay, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Safe and effective management of chronic pain in pregnancy is challenging. Use of over-the-counter analgesics, opioids, opioid substitution therapies, complementary and alternative therapies, antidepressants, and anxiolytics each have benefits and risks for the mother and neonate that must be considered. Because of their potency, opioids are often used despite associated risks for adverse effects, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Development of a pain management protocol for the counsel and care of pregnant women with pain is necessary. PMID:25123962

  4. Dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to chronic cocaine abuse: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a potent sympathomimetic agent associated with the development of possible fatal cardiovascular complications. Dysrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, hypertension and dilated cardiomyopathy are just some of many cardiovascular effects related to the abuse of cocaine. Case presentation A 38-year-old Hispanic male with a past medical history of hypertension presented with a chief complaint of progressive shortness of breath. The patient confessed to the use of cocaine for almost 18 years once per week. On examination he was hypertensive and tachycardic with a systolic murmur over the 5th intercostal space at the level of the left mid-clavicular line. Laboratory workup revealed an elevated Brain natriuretic peptide; urine toxicology was positive for cocaine. 2D-echocardiogram showed dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac catheterization excluded angioischemic cause. He was managed medically and subsequently discharged with drug rehabilitation. On follow-up diagnostic evaluation after 5 months of cocaine cessation, his ejection function improved significantly. Conclusion The exact incidence of cocaine related cardiomyopathy is unknown and likely underreported. The clinical course is abrupt and comparatively similar to other types of cardiomyopathy. The management is like other forms of cardiomyopathy; however β-blockers should be avoided. The myocardial dysfunction is reversible with abstaining from additional cocaine ingestion. Non-invasive testing should be performed after several months to re-evaluate the treatment response. PMID:24341463

  5. The importance of assessing for abuse and neglect in children with chronic health conditions referred for neuropsychological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Katie; Jacobson, Kristin K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic childhood illnesses have been demonstrated to negatively impact family functioning by introducing new or additive stress on all members of the family system, as well as by increasing financial burden and social isolation. Although these factors have not necessarily been shown to have a direct causal effect on increased rates of abuse in children with chronic illnesses, these children have nonetheless been demonstrated to be at greater risk for neglect and physical and sexual abuse. Children with chronic health care needs are increasingly likely to be referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Thorough assessment of maltreatment would be a valuable addition to all neuropsychological evaluations of children presenting with chronic health conditions. PMID:24236944

  6. Does hypokalemia contribute to acute kidney injury in chronic laxative abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoon, Hyaejin; Yi, Joo-Hark; Jung, Woon-Yong; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged hypokalemia from chronic laxative abuse is recognized as the cause of chronic tubulointerstitial disease, known as “hypokalemic nephropathy,” but it is not clear whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). A 42-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease as a result of chronic laxative abuse from a purging type of anorexia nervosa (AN-P), developed an anuric AKI requiring hemodialysis and a mild AKI 2 months later. Both episodes of AKI involved severe to moderate hypokalemia (1.2 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively), volume depletion, and mild rhabdomyolysis. The histologic findings of the first AKI revealed the remnants of acute tubular necrosis with advanced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ischemic glomerular injury. Along with these observations, the intertwined relationship among precipitants of recurrent AKI in AN-P is discussed, and then we postulate a contributory role of hypokalemia involved in the pathophysiology of the renal ischemia-induced AKI. PMID:26484031

  7. Does hypokalemia contribute to acute kidney injury in chronic laxative abuse?

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Young; Yoon, Hyaejin; Yi, Joo-Hark; Jung, Woon-Yong; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged hypokalemia from chronic laxative abuse is recognized as the cause of chronic tubulointerstitial disease, known as "hypokalemic nephropathy," but it is not clear whether it contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). A 42-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney disease as a result of chronic laxative abuse from a purging type of anorexia nervosa (AN-P), developed an anuric AKI requiring hemodialysis and a mild AKI 2 months later. Both episodes of AKI involved severe to moderate hypokalemia (1.2 and 2.7 mmol/L, respectively), volume depletion, and mild rhabdomyolysis. The histologic findings of the first AKI revealed the remnants of acute tubular necrosis with advanced chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and ischemic glomerular injury. Along with these observations, the intertwined relationship among precipitants of recurrent AKI in AN-P is discussed, and then we postulate a contributory role of hypokalemia involved in the pathophysiology of the renal ischemia-induced AKI. PMID:26484031

  8. Distributed attentional deficits in chronic methamphetamine abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month–5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults were administered a multimodal version of the Attentional Network Task (ANT-I). In this task subjects identified the direction of a centrally presented arrow using a key press. Analyses examined the interaction between alerting tones, location cueing and congruency between the target arrows and flanking distractor stimuli. Results All participants were faster when an auditory tone preceded the trial onset (p < 0.001), on trials in which a valid cue preceded the location of the target arrow (p < 0.001), and on congruent trials (i.e., when all display arrows faced in the same direction) (p < 0.001). Of primary interest was the finding that MA abusers were more influenced by the conflict between the peripheral arrows and the central target arrow (p = 0.009). There were also correlations between length of drug sobriety and executive function as well as between drug-induced psychiatric symptoms and alertness. Conclusions These results suggest that chronic MA abusers display cognitive deficits that may reflect a specific vulnerability to distraction on a task of executive function. These findings are consistent with other studies that have reported deficits in anterior attentional systems and top-down cognitive control. PMID:21906864

  9. Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after chronic cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Liou, Cher-Ming; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Ting, Hua; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse. PMID:24722570

  10. Assessment and treatment of abuse risk in opioid prescribing for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Robert N; Serraillier, Juliana; Michna, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no "gold standard" for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management. PMID:22110936

  11. Assessment and Treatment of Abuse Risk in Opioid Prescribing for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Serraillier, Juliana; Michna, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many physicians have concerns about adverse effects, tolerance, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic back pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help physicians offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. In this review, we discuss opioid abuse and misuse issues that often arise in the treatment of patients with chronic back pain and present an overview of assessment and treatment strategies that can be effective in improving compliance with the use of prescription opioids for pain. Many persons with chronic back pain have significant medical, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities that affect treatment decisions and a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed history, physical, and mental health evaluation is essential. Although there is no “gold standard” for opioid misuse risk assessment, several validated measures have been shown to be useful. Controlled substance agreements, regular urine drug screens, and interventions such as motivational counseling have been shown to help improve patient compliance with opioids and to minimize aberrant drug-related behavior. Finally, we discuss the future of abuse-deterrent opioids and other potential strategies for back pain management. PMID:22110936

  12. Cardiovascular effects of oral toluene exposure in the rat monitored by radiotelemetry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a hazardous air pollutant that can be toxic to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. The cardiotoxicity data for toluene come from acute studies in anesthetized animals and from clinical observations made on toluene abusers and there is little known on the response o...

  13. Personality profile and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine-abusers.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Lubomski, M; Murray, S; King, K

    2001-09-01

    Little is known about the association between personality disorders and neuropsychological test performance in chronic cocaine users. The aims of the present study were to (1) pinpoint the specific neuropsychological characteristics of chronic cocaine abusers, (2) analyze their personality profile, and (3) explore the association between personality traits and neuropsychological test performance. A sample of 42 drug-abusers (mean age = 34.15; SD = 6.73; mean educational level = 11.44; SD = 2.01) was selected from a state rehabilitation facility and was compared to a control group (mean age = 34.53; SD = 9.01; mean educational level = 12.29; SD = 1.31). The following information was collected for each subject: (1) A clinical history adapted from Horton (1996). (2) The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991). (3) A neuropsychological test battery including: Arithmetic and Digits subtests from the WAIS-R, California Verbal Learning Test, Trial Making Test, Verbal Fluency tests, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Stroop Neurological Screening Test and Hooper Visual Organization. Thirty-seven of the drug-dependent subjects obtained an abnormal score in at least one PAI scale. The personality profile of the drug-dependent subjects found via the PAI pointed to a Borderline/Antisocial personality, frequently associated with mania features. In six of the drug-abusers, a normal personality profile was observed. Neuropsychological test performance scores were within the low average or borderline range. The most abnormal scores were observed in attention, memory, and executive functioning tests. The results did not show any robust association between personality profile and neuropsychological test performance. PMID:11697211

  14. Benzodiazepine-like discriminative stimulus effects of toluene vapor

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Keith L.; Nicholson, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro studies show that the abused inhalant toluene affects a number of ligand-gated ion channels. The two most consistently implicated of these are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors which are positively modulated by toluene and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors which are negatively modulated by toluene. Behavioral studies also suggest an interaction of toluene with GABAA and/or NMDA receptors but it is unclear if these receptors underlie the abuse-related intoxicating effects of toluene. Seventeen B6SJLF1/J mice were trained using a two-choice operant drug discrimination procedure to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 2000 ppm toluene vapor from 10 min of exposure to air. The discrimination was acquired in a mean of 65 training sessions. The stimulus effects of 2000 ppm toluene vapor were exposure concentration-dependent but rapidly diminished following the cessation of vapor exposure. The stimulus effects of toluene generalized to the chlorinated hydrocarbon vapor perchloroethylene but not 1,1,2-trichloroethane nor the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. The competitive NMDA antagonist CGS-17955, the uncompetitive antagonist dizocilpine and the glycine-site antagonist L701,324 all failed to substitute for toluene. The classical nonselective benzodiazepines midazolam and chlordiazepoxide produced toluene-like stimulus effects but the alpha 1 subunit preferring positive GABAA modulator zaleplon failed to substitute for toluene. The barbiturates pentobarbital and methohexital and the GABAA-positive modulator neurosteroid allopregnanolone did not substitute for toluene. These data suggest that the stimulus effects of toluene may be at least partially mediated by benzodiazepine-like positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors containing alpha 2, 3 or 5 subunits. PMID:24436974

  15. Anticonvulsant and antipunishment effects of toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.W.; Coleman, J.B.; Schuler, R.; Cox, C.

    1984-01-01

    Toluene can have striking acute behavioral effects and is subject to abuse by inhalation. To determine if its actions resemble those of drugs used in the treatment of anxiety (anxiolytics), two sets of experiments were undertaken. Inasmuch as prevention of pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions is an identifying property of this class of agents, the authors first demonstrated that pretreatment of mice with injections of toluene delayed the onset of convulsive signs and prevented the tonic extension phase of the convulsant activity in a dose-related manner. Injections of another alkyl benzene, m-xylene, were of comparable potency to toluene. Inhalation of toluene delayed the time of death after pentylenetetrazol injection in a manner related to the duration and concentration of exposure; at lower convulsant doses, inhalation of moderate concentrations (EC/sub 58/, 1300 ppm) prevented death. Treatment with a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro 15-1788) failed to reduce the anticonvulsant activity of inhaled toluene. Anxiolytics also attenuate the reduction in response rate produced by punishment with electric shock. Toluene increased rates of responding suppressed by punishment when responding was maintained under a multiple fixed-interval fixed-interval punishment schedule of reinforcement. Distinct antipunishment effects were observed in rats after 2 hr of exposure to 1780 and 3000 ppm of toluene; the rate-increasing effects of toluene were related to concentration and to time after the termination of exposure. Thus, toluene and m-xylene resemble in several respects clinically useful drugs such as the benzodiazepines. 51 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  17. Prescription opioid abuse, chronic pain, and primary care: a Co-occurring Disorders Clinic in the chronic disease model.

    PubMed

    Pade, Patricia A; Cardon, Karen E; Hoffman, Richard M; Geppert, Cynthia M A

    2012-12-01

    Abuse of opioids has become a public health crisis. The historic separation between the addiction and pain communities and a lack of training in medical education have made treatment difficult to provide, especially in primary care. The Co-occurring Disorders Clinic (COD) was established to treat patients with co-morbid chronic pain and addiction. This retrospective chart review reports results of a quality improvement project using buprenorphine/naloxone to treat co-occurring chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and opioid dependence in a primary care setting. Data were collected for 143 patients who were induced with buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) between June 2009 and November 2011. Ninety-three patients (65%) continued to be maintained on the medication and seven completed treatment and were no longer taking any opioid (5%). Pain scores showed a modest, but statistically significant improvement on BUP/NLX, which was contrary to our expectations and may be an important factor in treatment retention for this challenging population. PMID:22980449

  18. The Interface between Substance Abuse and Chronic Pain Management in Primary Care: A Curriculum for Medical Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Erik W.; Coffin, Phillip O.; Chang, Nancy; Polydorou, Soteri; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and assess a housestaff curriculum on opioid and other substance abuse among patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). Methods: The two-hour, case-based curriculum delivered to small groups of medical housestaff sought to improve assessment and management of opioid-treated CNCP patients, including those with a substance…

  19. Oxycodone/Naloxone: role in chronic pain management, opioid-induced constipation, and abuse deterrence.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Anne Z; Miller, Katie

    2014-06-01

    The use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain is widespread; the prevalence of specific opioids varies from country to country and depends on product availability, national formulary systems, and provider preferences. Patients often receive opioids for legitimate treatment of pain conditions, but on the opposite side of the spectrum, nonmedical use of opioids is a significant public health concern. Opioids are associated with several side effects, and constipation is the most commonly reported and persistent symptom. Unlike some adverse effects associated with opioid use, tolerance does not develop to constipation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most prevalent patient complaint associated with opioid use and has been associated with declines in various quality of life measures. OIC can be extremely difficult for patients to tolerate and may prompt patients to decrease or discontinue opioid treatment. Current management strategies for OIC are often insufficient. A prolonged-release formulation of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) has been investigated for the treatment of nonmalignant and cancer pain and mitigation of OIC, and evidence is largely favorable. Studies have demonstrated the capability of OXN to alleviate OIC while maintaining pain control comparable to oxycodone-only regimens. There is insufficient evidence for OXN efficacy for patients with mild OIC or patients maintained on high doses of opioids, and use in these populations is controversial. The reduction of costs associated with OIC may provide overall cost effectiveness with OXN. Additionally, the presence of naloxone may deter abuse/misuse by those seeking to misuse the formulation by modes of administration other than oral ingestion. Most studies to date have occurred in European countries, and phase 3 trials continue in the United States. This review will include current therapeutic options for pain and constipation, unique characteristics of OXN, evidence related to use of OXN and its

  20. The Healing Power of Play: Therapeutic Work with Chronically Neglected and Abused Children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Fraser

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article focuses on the play-based methods that were employed to aid the children’s recovery, while at the same time highlighting the general benefits of this very specific therapeutic approach to children’s recovery and development. In particular, there is an exploration of concepts such as symbolic representation, negative capability, joining, and the significance of play cues. However, despite the clear value of these individually focused techniques, the article proposes the tentative hypothesis that the most powerful healing factor was the unfettered playful interaction between the children themselves. In other words, the children in a very real sense may have healed each other while playing. PMID:27417492

  1. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  2. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  3. Monitoring of chronic Cannabis abuse: an LC-MS/MS method for hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Protti, Michele; Conti, Matteo; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2013-03-25

    An advanced analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), has been developed for the identification and determination in hair of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol together with its major metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Since the latter is formed endogenously, it allows the assessment of chronic use excluding passive exposure to Cannabis. The sample pre-treatment procedure is based on a feasible incubative extraction followed by a liquid-liquid extraction step. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution with a formic acid/acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The limits of quantitation and of detection were 3pg/mg and 1pg/mg, respectively, for both analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of hair samples from Cannabis abusers; the analyte concentrations found ranged from 55 to 100pg/mg for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and from 5 to 10pg/mg for 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Accuracy studies also gave satisfactory results (recovery>87%), thus confirming the suitability of the assay for chronic consumption monitoring. PMID:23305934

  4. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor decreased in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xiaoyin; Ding, Yi; Xu, Ke; He, Hongbo; Zhang, Minling; Wang, Daping; Deng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xifan; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Yuping; Ning, Yuping; Fan, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in a group of chronic ketamine abusers in comparison to healthy controls. The correlations between the serum BDNF, NGF level with the subjects’ demographic, pattern of ketamine use were also examined. Methods 93 subjects who met the criteria of ketamine dependence and 39 healthy subjects were recruited. Serum BDNF and NGF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results Both serum levels of BDNF and NGF were significant lower in the ketamine users compared to the healthy control subjects (9.50 ± 6.68 versus 14.37 ± 6.07 ng/ml, p = 0.019 for BDNF; 1.93 ± 0.80 versus 2.60 ± 1.07 ng/ml, p = 0.011 for NGF). BDNF level was negatively associated with current frequency of ketamine use (r = −0.209, p = 0.045). Conclusions Both BDNF and NGF serum concentrations were significantly lower among chronic ketamine users than among health controls. PMID:25064020

  5. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. PMID:25963926

  6. Psychosocial aspects of chronic pelvic pain, with special reference to sexual abuse. A study of 164 women.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, R. P.; Crisp, A. H.; Beard, R. W.; McGuigan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with chronic pelvic pain attending a tertiary referral centre show certain social, developmental and psychological characteristics. Specifically, they appear to have fewer children and to report more paternal overprotection, and a trend towards low maternal care compared to normals. They also show more depression, free-floating anxiety and somatic anxiety than such populations. The levels are similar to those found in other outpatient populations presenting with migraine or irritable bowel syndrome. Hostility levels are greater than those in normal subjects. Overall the present patient population reports the same degree of childhood sexual abuse as do many other female clinic and community sample populations. Sexual abuse is unlikely to be a specific aetiological factor in the development of chronic pelvic pain though it may yet be found to be important in subsets of the population. PMID:8415346

  7. Erythromelalgia-like presentation of chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy in a setting of past alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Dhand, Upinder K

    2016-02-01

    Erythromelalgia may be primary or secondary to an underlying medical condition. Association with small fiber neuropathy and axonal large fiber peripheral neuropathy has been described. Erythromelalgia in the setting of acquired demyelinating neuropathy has not been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman with severe erythromelalgia, pain and burning, progressive weakness, hyporeflexia and distal pan-sensory deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid protein was 219 mg/dL. Nerve conduction study revealed extreme (ten-fold) prolongation of distal motor latencies, markedly slow motor nerve conduction, reduced terminal latency index, reduced distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude, possible conduction blocks, and distal denervation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, prednisone and azathioprine resulted in marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement. Our patient fulfills the diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); however, the unique electrodiagnostic features and presentation with erythromelalgia may represent a CIDP variant or a novel dysimmune neuropathy, or may partly be related to neurotoxic effects of prior alcohol abuse. PMID:26804376

  8. [Risk factors for substance abuse and dependence in opioid therapy for chronic noncancer-related pain].

    PubMed

    Jage, J; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Maier, C

    2005-10-01

    Opioids are valuable analgesics, capable of providing pain relief and functional improvement not only in patients with cancer-related pain, but also in chronic noncancer-related pain patients. However, recent data have shown that the increasing prescription of opioids is associated with a rise in aberrant drug-related behaviour. The causes of this behaviour are multifactorial. Some pharmacotherapeutic, but in particular psychosocial risk and etiologic pain factors have been identified. The indication for the prescription of opioids must be very carefully weighed in the presence of any risk factors. In these cases the integration into a multimodal, interdisciplinary therapy programme is mandatory. A contractual agreement on the opioid therapy including goals, side effects, controls including urine drug testing and criteria to finish the opioid therapy are advisable. Assessment of the progress of therapy is based on the following factors: analgesic efficacy, adverse side effects, functional status and aberrant drug-related behaviour. In the absence of a successful opioid therapy, the treatment must be discontinued to avoid iatrogenic damage, substance abuse and illegal diversion. After discontinuation of the therapy, a comprehensive interdisciplinary re-evaluation is required. PMID:16133301

  9. Toluene inducing acute respiratory failure in a spray paint sniffer

    PubMed Central

    Peralta, Diego P.; Chang, Aymara Y.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Toluene, formerly known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feedstock and as a solvent. Like other solvents, toluene is sometimes also used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties. It has potential to cause multiple effects in the body including death. Case Report: I report a case of a 27-year-old male, chronic spray paint sniffer, who presented with severe generalized muscle weakness and developed acute respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. Toluene toxicity was confirmed with measurement of hippuric acid of 8.0 g/L (normal <5.0 g/L). Conclusions: Acute respiratory failure is a rare complication of chronic toluene exposure that may be lethal if it is not recognized immediately. To our knowledge, this is the second case of acute respiratory failure due to toluene exposure. PMID:23569498

  10. Distributed Attentional Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods: Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month-5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults…

  11. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  12. Maternal and Fetal Blood and Organ Toluene Levels in Rats Following Acute and Repeated Binge Inhalation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Scott E.; Hannigan, John H.; Irtenkauf, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Inhalation of organic solvents is a persistent form of drug abuse with particular concern being the abuse of inhalants by women of child-bearing age. While studies have begun assessing postnatal outcomes of offspring exposed prenatally to inhalants, relatively little is known about the distribution of toluene in blood and body tissues of pregnant, inhalant-abusing women, or in the fetuses. The present study assessed the tissue toluene levels attained following brief toluene exposures using a pre-clinical rat model of maternal inhalant abuse. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene at 8,000 or 12,000 parts per million (ppm) for 15, 30 or 45 min/exposure. Exposures occurred twice each day from gestational day 8 (GD8) through GD20. Immediately following the second exposure on GD8, GD14 and GD20 blood was taken from the saphenous vein of the dams. Following saphenous vein blood collection on GD20, dams were sacrificed and trunk blood was collected along with maternal tissue specimens from cerebellum, heart, lung, kidney and liver. The placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brain were also collected. Results demonstrated that maternal saphenous blood toluene levels increased as the inhaled concentration of toluene and duration of exposure increased. The maternal cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver appeared to be saturated after 30 min on GD20 such that toluene levels in those organs were equivalent across all ambient concentrations of inhaled toluene. Toluene levels also increased in fetal brain as the inhaled concentration of toluene increased and in placenta and amniotic fluid as the duration of exposure increased. Toluene levels in all tissues at GD20, except maternal lung and amniotic fluid, were higher than in maternal saphenous blood suggesting that toluene concentrated in those organs. Measurement of toluene levels in blood and other tissues following repeated toluene exposure demonstrated that toluene readily reaches a variety of potential sites

  13. Reproductive and developmental toxicity of toluene: a review.

    PubMed

    Donald, J M; Hooper, K; Hopenhayn-Rich, C

    1991-08-01

    Toluene is a widely used industrial solvent, and humans may also have high exposures to toluene from the deliberate inhalation ("sniffing") of paint reducer, paint thinner, or paint for their narcotic effects. A number of case reports describe neonatal effects that have been attributed to toluene abuse during pregnancy. These effects may include intrauterine growth retardation, premature delivery, congenital malformations, and postnatal developmental retardation. The possibility of exposures to other fetotoxic agents, either as impurities or admixtures in toluene-containing products, or by deliberate or accidental exposures to other chemicals or drugs, cannot be excluded in these cases. The fetotoxic effects of toluene have been demonstrated in controlled studies in animals and are comparable to those observed in humans who have abused toluene-containing products before or during pregnancy. Intrauterine developmental retardation is the most clearly established effect in animals, as evidenced by decreased late fetal weight and retarded skeletal development. There is also limited evidence in rodents for skeletal and kidney abnormalities, as well as some evidence for effects on postnatal physical and possibly neurobehavioral development. Estimated daily exposures from experimental studies in animals are compared to estimated human daily intakes at the occupational permissible exposure level and at the level reported to produce euphoria in humans. Acceptable human intakes under California's Proposition 65 and under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures are discussed. PMID:1954933

  14. Serum type III procollagen peptide and laminin (Lam-P1) detect alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Annoni, G; Colombo, M; Cantaluppi, M C; Khlat, B; Lampertico, P; Rojkind, M

    1989-05-01

    The diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis is difficult to establish by conventional clinical and laboratory methods, and a firm diagnosis relies on liver histology. Since there are severe limitations in following patients with repeated liver biopsies, noninvasive procedures are needed to assess the presence of alcoholic hepatitis in chronic alcohol abusers. It has been suggested that serum Type III procollagen peptide levels correlates with the degree of inflammation in chronic liver disease. Since inflammation is a major histological finding in alcoholic hepatitis, we therefore studied the usefulness of measuring serum Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values in 45 consecutive chronic alcohol abusers, with or without cirrhosis, in detecting those with alcoholic hepatitis. The results showed that both Type III procollagen peptide and laminin values were elevated in all of the patients with established liver damage. However, the values were highest in those with liver cirrhosis plus alcoholic hepatitis (Type III procollagen peptide 50.4 +/- 36.4 ng per ml vs. 8.1 +/- 2.6 in controls, p less than 0.01; laminin 4.50 +/- 1.49 units per liter vs. 1.24 +/- 0.26 units per liter in controls, p less than 0.01), followed by subjects with alcoholic hepatitis alone (Type III procollagen peptide 23.5 +/- 17.6 ng per ml, p less than 0.01; laminin 2.60 +/- 1.09 units per liter, p less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2707736

  15. Characterization of an inhaled toluene drug discrimination in mice: effect of exposure conditions and route of administration

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Keith L.; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina

    2009-01-01

    The drug discrimination procedure in animals has been extensively utilized to model the abuse related, subjective effects of drugs in humans, but it has seldom been used to examine abused volatile inhalants like toluene. The present study sought to characterize the temporal aspects of toluene's discriminative stimulus as well assess toluene blood concentrations under identical exposure conditions. B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 6000 ppm inhaled toluene vapor from air. Toluene vapor concentration dependently substituted for the training exposure condition with longer exposures to equivalent concentrations producing greater substitution than shorter exposures. Toluene's discriminative stimulus effects dissipated completely by 60 min after the cessation of exposure. Injected liquid toluene dose-dependently substituted for toluene vapor as well as augmenting the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene. Toluene blood concentrations measured under several exposure conditions which produced full substitution were all nearly identical suggesting that the concentration of toluene in the animals tissues at the time of testing determined discriminative performance. These results indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene vapor are likely mediated by CNS effects rather than by it's pronounced peripheral stimulus effects. PMID:19268500

  16. Chronic inflammation and the role for cofactors (hepatitis C, drug abuse, antiretroviral drug toxicity, aging) in HAND persistence.

    PubMed

    Gill, Alexander J; Kolson, Dennis L

    2014-09-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a group of syndromes of varying degrees of cognitive impairment affecting up to 50 % of HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathogenesis of HAND is thought to be driven by HIV invasion and productive replication within brain perivascular macrophages and endogenous microglia, and to some degree by restricted infection of astrocytes. The persistence of HAND in individuals experiencing suppression of systemic HIV viral load with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is incompletely explained, and suggested factors include chronic inflammation, persistent HIV replication in brain macrophages, effects of aging on brain vulnerability, and co-morbid conditions including hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection, substance abuse, and CNS toxicity of ART, among other factors. This review discusses several of these conditions: chronic inflammation, co-infection with HCV, drugs of abuse, aging, and antiretroviral drug effects. Effectively managing these co-morbid conditions in individuals with and without HAND is critical for improving neurocognitive outcomes and decreasing HIV-associated morbidity. PMID:24929842

  17. Contingency management of reliable attendance of chronically unemployed substance abusers in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-02-01

    The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting by using a salary that drug abusers earn for work. Drug abuse patients are trained and hired to become data entry operators in a Therapeutic Workplace business. Despite the opportunity to earn a high wage, participants frequently arrive at work late and fail to work complete shifts. In the present study, a contingency management intervention to promote consistent and reliable attendance was evaluated in 4 participants. Participants were not allowed to work on days that they arrived late, and their pay was temporarily reduced each time they arrived late at work or failed to complete a work shift. A within-subject reversal design showed that the intervention increased the frequency with which participants arrived at work on time and completed work shifts. PMID:14769098

  18. National Respite Guidelines: Respite Services for Families of Children with Disabilities, Chronic and Terminal Illnesses, and Children at Risk of Abuse or Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Maggie; Uhl, Monica

    These guidelines are intended to assist states and local communities in developing quality respite services that meet the diverse needs of families and children with disabilities, with chronic and terminal illnesses, or at risk of abuse or neglect. The guidelines support the philosophy that all families can benefit from temporary intervals of rest…

  19. Differences in Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Lifetime Trauma Exposure in Formerly Abused Women with Mild versus Moderate to Severe Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Janice; Cooper, Bruce A.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Although associations between intimate partner violence, chronic pain, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and lifetime trauma exposure are well known, previous studies are limited by their recruitment of women from shelters. These relationships were explored with a community-based sample of formerly abused women ( N = 84).…

  20. [Diuretic-Abuse in Chronic Bulimia Nervosa--Case Report and Clinical Management].

    PubMed

    Greetfeld, Martin; Bröckel-Ristevski, Nicole; Fumi, Markus; Cuntz, Ulrich; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    We give account of a patient, who works in health care, with bulimia nervosa (BN) and a long term abuse of Furosemide. Due to patients' tendency to conceal addictive behavior and symptoms of BN, the prevalence of purging behavior caused by the intake of diuretics is difficult to quantify 10% of BN patients exhibit a long-term harmful abuse. Discontinuation of diuretics causes the development of edema, attributable to pathophysiological changes with hyperaldosteronism. These can lead to renewed escalation of purging behaviour, provoked either by phobia of weight gain or by unbearable feelings of tension in the facial area or in the legs. For an adequate clinical management, it is vital to have thorough knowledge of the pathophysiological context which consists of psychoeducation, provision of information, treatment of water-electrolyte imbalance and, in individual cases, the administration of aldosterone antagonists. PMID:26039368

  1. Rorschach indicators of chronic childhood sexual abuse in female borderline inpatients.

    PubMed

    Saunders, E A

    1991-01-01

    Recent research indicates a high incidence of childhood sexual abuse and incest among female patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The author investigated the detection and long-term aftereffects of this abuse using a constellation of Rorschach scores that were predicted to occur more frequently in borderline patients with extended sexual victimization before age 14. Sixty-two subjects were divided into two groups (33 with and 29 without such a history) and compared on the following features: color-dominated percepts, primary-process content, confabulation, activity versus passivity, and two new scores related to dissociative symptoms. Some subjects were also administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the DSM-III Structured Clinical Interview for posttraumatic stress disorder. The sexually abused group had significantly higher scores both on the Rorschach features and on the clinical measures. The author contends that the identified Rorschach constellation reflects symptoms associated with these trauma-related syndromes, which are more central to the profile of BPD, both on psychological tests and clinically, than is generally recognized. PMID:2009409

  2. Binge toluene exposure in pregnancy and pre-weaning developmental consequences in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2013-01-01

    Binge Toluene Exposure in Pregnancy and Pre-weaning Developmental Consequences in Rats. Bowen, S.E. and Hannigan, J.H. The persistent rate of abuse of inhaled organic solvents, especially among women of child-bearing age, raises the risk for teratogenic effects of maternal toluene abuse. In this study, timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed from Gestation Day (GD) 8 to GD20 to 12,000 or 8000 parts per million (ppm) toluene, or 0ppm (controls) for 30min twice daily, 60min total daily exposure. Pups were assessed from postnatal day (PN) 4 to PN21 using a developmental battery measuring growth (i.e., body weight), maturational milestones (e.g., eye opening & incisor eruption), and biobehavioral development (e.g., negative geotaxis & surface righting). Pups exposed in utero to 12,000ppm or 8000ppm toluene weighed significantly less than the non-exposed control pups beginning at PN4 and PN12 (respectively) until PN21. Toluene resulted in significant increases in an index of poor perinatal outcome, specifically a composite of malformations, defined "runting" and neonatal death. No significant delays were observed in reaching maturational milestones. The results reveal that brief, repeated, prenatal exposure to high concentrations of toluene can cause growth retardation and malformations in rats. A comparison of the present, conservative results with findings in previous studies implies that binge patterns of toluene exposure in pregnant rats modeling human solvent abuse can result in developmental and morphological deficits in offspring. These results do not exclude the possibility that maternal toxicity as well as teratogenic effects of toluene may contribute to outcomes. The results suggest that abuse of inhaled organic solvents like toluene may result in similar early developmental outcomes in humans. PMID:23597557

  3. Differential Effects of Inhaled Toluene on Locomotor Activity in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse is a world-wide public health concern among adolescents. Most preclinical studies have assessed inhalant effects in adult animals leaving unclear how behavioral effects differ in younger animals. We exposed adolescent (postnatal day [PN] 28) and adult (PN90) male rats to toluene using 1 of 3 exposure patterns. These patterns modeled those reported in toluene abuse in teens and varied concentration, number and length of exposures, as well as the inter-exposure interval. Animals were exposed repeatedly over 12 days to toluene concentrations of 0, 8,000 or 16,000 parts per million (ppm). Locomotor activity was quantified during toluene exposures and for 30 min following completion of the final daily toluene exposure. For each exposure pattern, there were significant toluene concentration-related increases and decreases in locomotor activity compared to the 0-ppm “air” controls at both ages. These changes depended upon when activity was measured – during or following exposure. Compared to adults, adolescents displayed greater locomotor activity on the first day and generally greater increases in activity over days than adults during toluene exposure. Adults displayed greater locomotor activity than adolescents in the “recovery” period following exposure on the first and subsequent days. Age group differences were clearest following the pattern of paced, brief (5-min) repeated binge exposures. The results suggest that locomotor behavior in rats during and following inhalation of high concentrations of toluene depends on age and the pattern of exposure. The results are consistent with dose-dependent shifts in sensitivity and sensitization or tolerance to repeated toluene in the adolescent animals compared to the adult animals. Alternate interpretations are possible and our interpretation is limited by the range of very high concentrations of toluene used. The results imply that both pharmacological and psychosocial factors contribute to the teen

  4. The treatment of chronic insomnia: drug indications, chronic use and abuse liability. Summary of a 2001 New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit meeting symposium.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Wallace B; Roth, Thomas; Cassella, James; Roehrs, Timothy; Walsh, James K; Woods, James H; Buysse, Daniel J; Meyer, Roger E

    2004-02-01

    This paper summarizes a group of presentations and panel discussions on chronic insomnia at the 2001 NCDEU meeting. The presentations and discussions focused on the twin issues of efficacy and concerns of abuse liability with long-term hypnotic therapy. The panel concluded that insomnia may be an epidemiological marker for a variety of difficulties including accidents, increased health care utilization and subsequent development of major depression. Whether or not treatment of insomnia will prevent these long-term problems has not yet been determined. Since the mid-1980s there has been a rapid rise in the off-label use of antidepressants, particularly trazodone, for treating insomnia. Some participants expressed concern at the lack of data for this practice, particularly the absence of dose-response and tolerance information, and noted that the small amount of efficacy data available is not encouraging. Similarly, there are minimal data to support the use of antihistamines as sleep aids; moreover, their side effect profile and interactions with other drugs may be under appreciated. The limited data available on nightly long-term usage of the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, primarily of six-months' duration, suggest an absence of tolerance, but more data for both nightly and non-nightly administration are needed. Insomniacs tend to show therapy-seeking, rather than drug-seeking behavior, and patients without histories of drug abuse are unlikely to self-escalate dosage of currently available hypnotics. There is fairly good agreement on the characteristics of an ideal hypnotic. All currently available agents, while effective and safe, do not achieve this ideal. The next few years are likely to see the appearance of a variety of agents with new and promising mechanisms of action. PMID:15062207

  5. Tramadol chronic abuse: an evidence from hair analysis by LC tandem MS.

    PubMed

    Verri, Patrizia; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Palazzoli, Federica; Vandelli, Daniele; Marchesi, Filippo; Ferrari, Anna; Licata, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis, as complementary matrix, has expanded across the spectrum of toxicological investigations for misuse drug monitoring. Hair has become an important matrix for drug analysis, owing to the possibility to detect target analytes for long time periods, depending on hair length. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the quantitation of tramadol, a widely used centrally acting analgesic, and its main metabolites in hair (ODMT, NDMT, NOT). Hair samples were decontaminated and incubated overnight in diluted hydrochloric acid; the extracts were purified by mixed-mode solid phase cartridges and analyzed by LC-MS/MS in positive ionization mode monitoring two transitions per analyte. The procedure was fully validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and selectivity. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards; for all analytes, responses were linear over the range 0.04-40.00 ng/mg hair, with R(2) values of at least 0.995. The method offered satisfactory precision (RSD < 10%), accuracy (90-110%) and recovery (> 90%) values. The found LLOQ values for tramadol and metabolites were in the range 0.010-0.030 ng/mg hair. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to quantify tramadol and metabolites in real hair samples submitted to our laboratory: three cases of tramadol assumption within the therapeutic dosage (3 × 2 segments) and one case of tramadol abuse in a binge pattern (8 segments). The ranges found for TRAM, ODMT, NDMT and NOT were markedly higher in the abuse case (63.42-107.30, 3.76-6.26, 24.88-45.66, 0.22-1.18 ng/mg hair, respectively) compared to the other case reports (3.29-20.12, 0.28-1.87, 0.45-4.32, 0.07-0.80 ng/mg, respectively); also the values of NMDT/ODMT ratio differed significantly. According to the obtained data, we hypothesized that the binge pattern may

  6. Behavioral Effects of Sub-Acute Inhalation of Toluene in Adult Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of behavioral effects of repeated inhalation of toluene in rats have Yielded inconsistent fmdings. A recent study from this laboratory (Beasley et al., 2010) observed that after 13 weeks of inhaled toluene ("sub-chronic" exposure scenario), rats showed mild but persiste...

  7. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    BIDAKI, Reza; ZAREPUR, Ehsan; AKRAMI, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse’s trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  8. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bidaki, Reza; Zarepur, Ehsan; Akrami, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse's trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  9. The Use and Abuse of Tranquillizing Drugs for Chronic Mental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Robert; Ross, Hugo

    1962-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the necessity of administering maintenance doses of tranquillizing drugs to chronic mental patients. The behaviour of 16 female psychotic patients in a mental hospital was measured while they received maintenance doses of chlorpromazine (average dose, 50 mg. q.i.d.) and again while receiving identical doses of a placebo. The double-blind technique was employed. Nurses used a behaviour rating scale to measure noisiness, personal cleanliness, interpersonal relations among patients, occupational activities, hostility, activity, co-operation, dress, eating, and sleeping. Patients' behaviour over a six-week period of chlorpromazine administration was compared with behaviour over an equal period of placebo administration. There was no evident difference in behaviour in 90% of the cases. Among the others there was a slight trend towards improved behaviour while the patients received placebo. It was concluded that tranquillizing drugs are often used needlessly for chronic mental patients. Implications of the use of tranquillizing drugs with chronic mental patients are discussed. PMID:14027427

  10. Inhaled toluene produces pentobarbital-like discriminative stimulus effects in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, D.C.; Coggeshall, E.; Balster, R.L.

    1985-10-07

    The abuse of volatile solvents may be due to their ability to produce an intoxication similar to that produced by classical central nervous system depressants such as the barbiturates and ethanol. To evaluate this hypothesis, mice were trained to discriminate pentobarbital from saline injections in a two-lever operant task. Stimulus generalization was examined following 20-min inhalation exposures to toluene (300-5400 ppm). In 8 of 10 subjects, pentobarbital-lever responding occurred following toluene exposure indicating an overlap in the discriminative stimulus properties of toluene and pentobarbital.

  11. Application of metabolomics to toxicology of drugs of abuse: A mini review of metabolomics approach to acute and chronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Hayashi, Yumi; Kusano, Maiko; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akira

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics has been widely applied to toxicological fields, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of toxicity. In this review, metabolomics application with focus on the studies of chronic and acute toxicities of drugs of abuse like stimulants, opioids and the recently-distributed designer drugs will be presented in addition to an outline of basic analytical techniques used in metabolomics. Limitation of metabolomics studies and future perspectives will be also provided. PMID:26613805

  12. Sarcosine attenuates toluene-induced motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not brain stimulation reward enhancement in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chung, Shiang-Sheng; Stoker, Astrid K.; Markou, Athina; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2012-12-01

    Toluene, a widely used and commonly abused organic solvent, produces various behavioral disturbances, including motor incoordination and cognitive impairment. Toluene alters the function of a large number of receptors and ion channels. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been suggested to play a critical role in toluene-induced behavioral manifestations. The present study determined the effects of various toluene doses on motor coordination, recognition memory, body temperature, and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds in mice. Additionally, the effects of sarcosine on the behavioral and physiological effects induced by toluene were evaluated. Sarcosine may reverse toluene-induced behavioral manifestations by acting as an NMDA receptor co-agonist and by inhibiting the effects of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1). Mice were treated with toluene alone or combined with sarcosine pretreatment and assessed for rotarod performance, object recognition memory, rectal temperature, and ICSS thresholds. Toluene dose-dependently induced motor incoordination, recognition memory impairment, and hypothermia and lowered ICSS thresholds. Sarcosine pretreatment reversed toluene-induced changes in rotarod performance, novel object recognition, and rectal temperature but not ICSS thresholds. These findings suggest that the sarcosine-induced potentiation of NMDA receptors may reverse motor incoordination, memory impairment, and hypothermia but not the enhancement of brain stimulation reward function associated with toluene exposure. Sarcosine may be a promising compound to prevent acute toluene intoxications by occupational or intentional exposure. -- Highlights: ► Toluene induces impairments in Rotarod test and novel object recognition test. ► Toluene lowers rectal temperature and ICSS thresholds in mice. ► Sarcosine reverses toluene-induced changes in motor, memory and body temperature. ► Sarcosine pretreatment does not affect toluene

  13. Relationship of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 and schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Luo, Yayan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Minling; Ke, Xiaoyin; Huang, Xini; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposing to NMDAR receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, produces schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and deteriorates symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Meanwhile, schizophrenia is associated with alterations of cytokines in the immune system. This study aims to examine the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels in chronic human ketamine users as compared to healthy subjects. The correlations between the serum cytokines levels with the demographic, ketamine use characteristics and psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Methods 155 subjects who fulfilled the criteria of ketamine dependence and 80 healthy control subjects were recruited. Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The psychiatric symptoms of the ketamine abusers were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results Serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher, while serum TNF-α level was significantly lower among ketamine users than among healthy controls (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α levels showed a significant negative association with PANSS total score (r = −0.210, p < 0.01) and negative subscore (r = −0.300, p < 0.01). No significant association was found between PANSS score and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18. Conclusions Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 were altered in chronic ketamine abusers which may play a role in schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers. PMID:26589393

  14. VISUAL FUNCTION CHANGES AFTER SUBCHRONIC TOLUENE INHALATION IN LONG-EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposure to volatile organic compounds, including toluene, has been associated with visual deficits such as reduced visual contrast sensitivity or impaired color discrimination in studies of occupational or residential exposure. These reports remain controversial, howeve...

  15. Changes in cerebral CB1 receptor availability after acute and chronic alcohol abuse and monitored abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Jenny; Hompes, Titia; Verhaeghen, Anne; Casteels, Cindy; Peuskens, Hendrik; Bormans, Guy; Claes, Stephan; Van Laere, Koen

    2014-02-19

    Involvement of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in the effects of alcohol on the brain is supported by animal experiments, but how in vivo CB1R levels are altered in alcoholic patients is still unclear. To assess the short-time effects of a binge drinking episode on CB1R availability, 20 healthy social drinkers underwent [(18)F]MK-9470-positron emission tomography (PET) at baseline and after intravenous ethanol administration (ALC ACU). Moreover, 26 alcoholic patients underwent sequential CB1R PET after chronic heavy drinking (ALC CHR) and after 1 month of abstinence (ALC ABST). Seventeen healthy subjects served as controls. Compared with baseline, ALC ACU resulted in a global increase of CB1R availability (+15.8%). In contrast, a global decreased CB1R availability was found in ALC CHR patients (-16.1%) compared with controls, which remained unaltered after abstinence (-17.0%). Voxel-based analysis showed that ALC CHR patients had reduced CB1R availability, especially in the cerebellum and parieto-occipital cortex. After abstinence, reduced CB1R availability extended also to other areas such as the ventral striatum and mesotemporal lobe. In conclusion, whereas the acute alcohol effect is an increase in CB1R availability, chronic heavy drinking leads to reduced CB1R availability that is not reversible after 1 month of abstinence. Longer follow-up is required to differentiate whether this is a compensatory effect of repeated endocannabinoid overstimulation or an enduring trait-like feature. An enhanced CB1R signaling may offer a new therapeutic direction for treatment of the negative affective state produced by alcohol withdrawal and abstinence, which is critical for the maintenance of alcohol addiction. PMID:24553924

  16. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  17. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  18. Gestational Toluene Exposure Effects on Spontaneous and Amphetamine-Induced Locomotor Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Michael H.; Batis, Jeffery C.; Hannigan, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of volatile organic solvents (inhalants) continues to be a major health concern throughout the world. Toluene, which is found in many products such as glues and household cleaners, is among the most commonly abused organic solvents. The neurobehavioral teratogenic sequelae of solvent abuse (i.e., repeated, brief inhalation exposures to very high concentrations of solvents) have not been examined thoroughly. In a preclinical model of inhalant abuse, timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 8,000, or 12,000 parts per million (ppm) for 15 min twice daily from gestation day 8 (GD8) through GD20. In the first experiment, separate groups of offspring were observed individually in an open-field on postnatal day 22 (PN22), PN42 or PN63. In the second experiment, other offspring given identical prenatal toluene exposures were observed in an “open-field” following an acute i.p. injection of amphetamine (0, 0.56, 1.78 mg/kg) on PN28. Automated measurements of distance traveled and ambulatory time were recorded. Prenatal toluene exposure resulted in small alterations in spontaneous activity compared to non-exposed rats. Prenatal exposure to 12,000 ppm toluene resulted in significant hyposensitivity to the locomotor stimulatory effects of the amphetamine challenge in male but not female rats on PN28. The results demonstrate that prenatal exposure to abuse patterns of high concentrations of toluene through inhalation can alter spontaneous and amphetamine-induced locomotor behavior in rats. The expression of these effects also appears to depend upon the postnatal age of testing. These results imply that abuse of organic solvents during pregnancy in humans may also produce long-lasting effects on biobehavioral development. PMID:17112700

  19. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  20. Abuse-related effects of µ-opioid analgesics in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation in rats: modulation by chronic morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Altarifi, Ahmad A; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-09-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is an operant procedure in which responding is maintained by electrical brain stimulation. Stimulation frequency can be varied rapidly to maintain a wide range of baseline response rates, and drugs' effects can be evaluated simultaneously on both low ICSS rates maintained by low stimulation frequencies and high ICSS rates maintained by high stimulation frequencies. ICSS 'facilitation' indicates drug-induced increases in low ICSS rates and is often considered an abuse-related effect, whereas ICSS 'depression' indicates decreases in high ICSS rates and may indicate abuse-limiting effects. This study examined the roles of µ-agonist efficacy and of previous µ-agonist exposure as determinants of µ-agonist effects on ICSS in rats with electrodes implanted into the medial forebrain bundle. The high-efficacy, intermediate-efficacy, and low-efficacy µ agonists methadone, fentanyl, and nalbuphine were tested during escalating regimens of morphine exposure (vehicle, 3.2, and 18 mg/kg/day). During vehicle treatment, methadone and fentanyl primarily depressed ICSS, whereas nalbuphine produced weak facilitation that was not dose dependent. Chronic morphine produced tolerance to ICSS depression and increased expression of ICSS facilitation. These results suggest that µ-agonist exposure increases the expression of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by µ agonists with a broad range of efficacies at µ receptors. PMID:23881045

  1. Leaching of toluene-neoprene adhesive wastes.

    PubMed

    Font, R; Sabater, M C; Martínez, M A

    2001-03-01

    This work consists of the study of the extraction of solvent (toluene) from a polymeric (neoprene) substrate during a leaching process. Total organic carbon (TOC) is the main contaminant parameter in the leaching of these systems due to the solution of the toluene and the dispersion of the polymer. The toxicity of the extracts was measured with a Microtox equipment, using Photobacteria phosphoreum, deducing that the toxicity of the extracts is low due to the low solubility of toluene but that the toxicity of toluene is high. On the basis of the experimental results, the amount of toluene diffused vs time in plane sheet systems was studied. A kinetic model has been developed considering two stages: In the first stage, the toluene diffuses into the system across the neoprene chains at a constant rate, not depending on the initial toluene concentration. This fact is explained by considering that there is a constant difference of the toluene concentration between the interface with the water and the inner part of the sample. In the second stage, the dispersion of the polymer with the corresponding amount of toluene takes place. The diffusion of toluene in the leaching process is compared and analyzed considering the diffusion of toluene in a desorption process in air so that the difference of toluene concentration between the interface and the interior can be estimated. A mathematical model is also proposed for considering the leaching process in other operating conditions. PMID:11351545

  2. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  3. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  4. Alkylation of toluene with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Walendziewski, J.; Trawczynski, J.

    1996-10-01

    A series of Y and ZSM-5 zeolite based catalysts was prepared. Zeolites were cation exchanged and formed with 50% of aluminum hydroxide as a binder, and the obtained catalysts were finally thermally treated. Activity tests in alkylation of toluene with ethanol were carried out in the temperature range of 325--400 C, in nitrogen or hydrogen stream, and a pressure up to 3 MPa. The feed consisted of toluene and ethanol mixed in a mole ratio 1/1 or 2/1. The obtained results showed that among the studied catalysts the highest activity in the alkylation reaction was attained by ZSM-5 zeolite based catalyst with a moderate acidity and medium silica to alumina ratio, i.e., {approximately}50. Activity and selectivity of the most active catalyst as well as conversion of the feed components were similar to those reported in other papers. The content of p-ethyltoluene in alkylation products attained ca. 60%.

  5. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  6. The Role of Opioid Prescription in Incident Opioid Abuse and Dependence Among Individuals with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain: The Role of Opioid Prescription

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Mark J.; Martin, Bradley C.; Russo, Joan E.; Devries, Andrea; Braden, Jennifer Brennan; Sullivan, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing rates of opioid use disorders (abuse and dependence) among patients prescribed opioids are a significant public health concern. We investigated the association between exposure to prescription opioids and incident opioid use disorders (OUDs) among individuals with a new episode of a chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) condition. Methods We utilized claims data from the HealthCore Database for 2000–2005. The dataset included all individuals aged 18 and over with a new CNCP episode (no diagnosis in the prior 6 months), and no opioid use or OUD in the prior 6 months (n=568,640). We constructed a single multinomial variable describing prescription opioid days supply (none, acute, and chronic) and average daily dose (none, low dose, medium dose, and high dose), and examined the association between this variable and an incident OUD diagnosis. Results Patients with CNCP prescribed opioids had significantly higher rates of OUDs compared to those not prescribed opioids. Effects varied by average daily dose and days supply: low dose, acute (odds ratio (OR)=3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 2.32, 3.95); low dose, chronic (OR=14.92, 95% CI=10.38, 21.46); medium dose, acute (OR=2.80, 95% CI=2.12, 3.71); medium dose, chronic (OR=28.69, 95% CI=20.02, 41.13); high dose, acute (OR=3.10 95% CI=1.67, 5.77); and high dose, chronic (OR=122.45, 95% CI=72.79, 205.99). Conclusion Among individuals with a new CNCP episode, prescription opioid exposure was a strong risk factor for incident OUDs; magnitudes of effects were large. Duration of opioid therapy was more important than daily dose in determining OUD risk. PMID:24281273

  7. Deinococcus radiodurans Engineered for Complete Toluene Degradation Facilitates Cr(VI) Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Hassan; Osborne, Jeffrey P.; Kostandarithis, Heather M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Wackett, L. P.; Daly, Michael J.

    2006-08-01

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous US Department of Energy sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which naturally reduces Cr(VI) to the less mobile and less toxic Cr(III), was engineered for complete toluene degradation by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed incorporation of carbon from 14C-labelled toluene into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic ionizing radiation. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, and recombinant cells reduced Cr(VI) in sediment microcosms. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain could provide a model for examining the reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide-contaminated sediments.

  8. Fogging in Polyvinyl Toluene Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Richard J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hurlbut, Charles; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ramey, Ashley; Smola, Richard

    2015-02-01

    It has been observed that large polyvinyl toluene (PVT)-based gamma ray detectors can suffer internal “fogging” when exposed to outdoor environmental conditions over long periods of time. When observed, this change results in reduced light collection by photomultiplier tubes connected to the PVT. Investigation of the physical cause of these changes has been explored, and a root cause identified. Water penetration into the PVT from hot, high-humidity conditions results in reversible internal water condensation at room temperature, and permanent micro-fracturing of the PVT at very low environmental temperatures. Mitigation procedures and methods are being investigated.

  9. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  10. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  11. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  12. 27 CFR 21.132 - Toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toluene. 21.132 Section 21.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.132 Toluene. (a) Distillation range. (For...

  13. HEALTH EFFECTS OF TOLUENE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluative review covers the neurotoxic effects of toluene. General health effects of toluene are also discussed in more limited detail. A brief description of chemical properties and environmental prevalence is given, followed by a review of pharmacokinetic data. General he...

  14. 27 CFR 21.132 - Toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toluene. 21.132 Section 21.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.132 Toluene. (a) Distillation range. (For...

  15. 27 CFR 21.132 - Toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Toluene. 21.132 Section 21.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.132 Toluene. (a) Distillation range. (For...

  16. 27 CFR 21.132 - Toluene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toluene. 21.132 Section 21.132 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.132 Toluene. (a) Distillation range. (For...

  17. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  18. Ethnic Differences in the Metabolism of Toluene: Comparisons between Korean and Foreign Workers Exposed to Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Won, Young Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual characteristics, lifestyle habits, exposure levels, and genetic diversity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in toluene metabolism in Korean and foreign workers exposed to toluene at a manufacturing plant. This study was conducted to determine the effects of culture or ethnicity on toluene metabolism. The results showed that blood and urinary toluene concentrations were dependent on the level of exposure to toluene. We analyzed the correlation between toluene metabolism and genetic diversity in glutathione S-transferase (GST) (M1), GSTT1, and cytochrome p-450 (CYP) 2E1*5 as well as lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, and exercise habits). The results revealed significant correlations between toluene metabolism and GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic diversity, as well as smoking and exercise. PMID:25874030

  19. Review of toluene action: clinical evidence, animal studies and molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Silvia L.; Rivera-García, María Teresa; Woodward, John J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical and pharmacological properties of toluene, a representative member of a large class of organic solvents commonly used as inhalants. This is followed by a brief summary of the clinical and pre-clinical evidence showing that toluene and related solvents produce significant effects on brain structures and processes involved in the rewarding aspects of drugs. This is highlighted by tables highlighting toluene’s effect on behaviors (reward, motor effects, learning, etc.) and cellular proteins (e.g. voltage and ligand-gated ion channels) closely associated the actions of abused substances. These sections demonstrate not only the significant progress that has been made in understanding the neurobiological basis for solvent abuse but also reveal the challenges that remain in developing a coherent understanding of this often overlooked class of drugs of abuse. PMID:25360325

  20. Psychological Autopsy and Necropsy of an Unusual Case of Suicide by Intravenous Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Hemanth Kumar, RG; Kulkarni, Pratibha R.; Kotabagi, Raghavendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Toluene (methylbenzene; volatile hydrocarbon) is an industrial solvent that causes major injury to the lungs; the organ being the first capillary bed encountered. We report an unusual case of suicide by a 24-year-old male, paramedical professional, with fatal outcome within 16 h of intentional, intravenous self-administration of toluene, with clinical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Psychological autopsy revealed severe depressive disorder and solvent (inhalant) abuse, with marital disharmony as the precipitating stressor for suicide. Necropsy revealed diffuse congestion of internal organs like lungs and liver, epicardial petechial hemorrhages, and gastric hemorrhages. Treatment of toluene poisoning includes supportive care as no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive management may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae. Relevant literature of toluene poisoning was identified via PubMed, PubChem, ToxNet, Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Embase, and PsycINFO. To our knowledge, this is the first case of suicide by intravenous administration of toluene in the literature. PMID:25969615

  1. Chronic Avoidance Helps Explain the Relationship between Severity of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychological Distress in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Rasmussen Hall, Mandra L.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have found that chronic avoidance of unpleasant internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, memories) is a maladaptive means of affect regulation often adopted by women with a history of sexual victimization in childhood. The primary aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings suggesting that higher levels of…

  2. Effects of reinforcer magnitude on data-entry productivity in chronically unemployed drug abusers participating in a Therapeutic Workplace.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Sheppard, Jeannie-Marie; Dallery, Jesse; Bedient, Guy; Robles, Elias; Svikis, Dace; Silverman, Kenneth

    2003-02-01

    The Therapeutic Workplace is a substance abuse treatment wherein patients are hired and paid to work in a job contingent on daily drug-free urine samples. The present study examined data-entry productivity of 6 unemployed methadone patients who demonstrated relatively variable and low data-entry response rates. A within-subject reversal design was used to determine whether increasing reinforcement magnitude tenfold could increase response rates. Four of the 6 participants showed the highest rates of responding in the high magnitude reinforcement condition. Two participants, who had the lowest overall response rates, showed less robust changes to the magnitude manipulation. The results suggest that reinforcement magnitude can be used to improve productivity in Therapeutic Workplace participants. PMID:12622343

  3. A multicenter, primary care-based, open-label study to identify behaviors related to prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion in opioid-experienced patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain

    PubMed Central

    Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Pixton, Glenn C; Berke, Robert; Calkins, Anne; Goli, Veeraindar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the investigator assessment of patient risk for prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion with patient self-reports of these activities in a population with chronic pain. Methods As a secondary objective of an open-label, multicenter, primary care-based clinical study to evaluate the success of converting opioid-experienced patients with chronic pain to morphine sulfate with sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride, risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion was assessed using two nonvalidated questionnaires: one was completed by the investigator and another by the patient (Self-Reported Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion [SR-MAD]). In addition, the validated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) test and urine drug test were used. Results Of the 684 patients assessed by the investigators, 537 returned the self-assessment, SR-MAD. Most patients were assigned by the investigator as low risk for misuse (84.2%), abuse (89.3%), and diversion (94.3%). Of the patients who returned SR-MAD, 60% indicated having taken more opioids than prescribed and 10.9% reported chewing or crushing their opioids in the past. Of the patients who completed COMM, 40.6% were deemed as having aberrant behaviors. COMM results correlated with the risk levels from the investigator assessment. One-third of patients (33.8%) had at least one abnormal urine drug test result. Conclusion More research is needed to better understand the gap between the investigator assessment of potential risk for misuse, abuse, and diversion and the actual extent of these behaviors among patients with chronic pain. PMID:26185467

  4. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF LONG EVANS RATS FOLLOWING A 13-WEEK SUBCHRONIC TOLUENE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current study sought to develop an animal model of the neurotoxicity of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which may be used to predict the effects of chronic exposure to VOCs on public health. The effects of Subchronic inhalation exposure to toluene (0,...

  5. Composition of Toluene-Degrading Microbial Communities from Soil at Different Concentrations of Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Casey; Shen, Yin; Voordouw, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    Toluene-degrading bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by incubating liquid enrichment cultures and agar plate cultures in desiccators in which the vapor pressure of toluene was controlled by dilution with vacuum pump oil. Incubation in desiccators equilibrated with either 100, 10, or 1% (wt/wt) toluene in vacuum pump oil and testing for genomic cross-hybridization resulted in four genomically distinct strains (standards) capable of growth on toluene (strains Cstd1, Cstd2, Cstd5, and Cstd7). The optimal toluene concentrations for growth of these standards on plating media differed considerably. Cstd1 grew best in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene, but Cstd5 failed to grow in this atmosphere. Conversely, Cstd5 grew well in the presence of 10% (wt/wt) toluene, which inhibited growth of Cstd1. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and cross-hybridization analysis indicated that both Cstd1 and Cstd5 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. An analysis of the microbial communities in soil samples that were incubated with 10% (wt/wt) toluene with reverse sample genome probing indicated that Pseudomonas strain Cstd5 was the dominant community member. However, incubation of soil samples with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene resulted in a community that was dominated by Pseudomonas strain Q7, a toluene degrader that has been described previously (Y. Shen, L. G. Stehmeier, and G. Voordouw, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:637–645, 1998). Q7 was not able to grow by itself in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene but grew efficiently in coculture with Cstd1, suggesting that toluene or metabolic derivatives of toluene were transferred from Cstd1 to Q7. PMID:10388704

  6. Composition of toluene-degrading microbial communities from soil at different concentrations of toluene.

    PubMed

    Hubert, C; Shen, Y; Voordouw, G

    1999-07-01

    Toluene-degrading bacteria were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil by incubating liquid enrichment cultures and agar plate cultures in desiccators in which the vapor pressure of toluene was controlled by dilution with vacuum pump oil. Incubation in desiccators equilibrated with either 100, 10, or 1% (wt/wt) toluene in vacuum pump oil and testing for genomic cross-hybridization resulted in four genomically distinct strains (standards) capable of growth on toluene (strains Cstd1, Cstd2, Cstd5, and Cstd7). The optimal toluene concentrations for growth of these standards on plating media differed considerably. Cstd1 grew best in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene, but Cstd5 failed to grow in this atmosphere. Conversely, Cstd5 grew well in the presence of 10% (wt/wt) toluene, which inhibited growth of Cstd1. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and cross-hybridization analysis indicated that both Cstd1 and Cstd5 are members of the genus Pseudomonas. An analysis of the microbial communities in soil samples that were incubated with 10% (wt/wt) toluene with reverse sample genome probing indicated that Pseudomonas strain Cstd5 was the dominant community member. However, incubation of soil samples with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene resulted in a community that was dominated by Pseudomonas strain Q7, a toluene degrader that has been described previously (Y. Shen, L. G. Stehmeier, and G. Voordouw, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:637-645, 1998). Q7 was not able to grow by itself in an atmosphere equilibrated with 0.1% (wt/wt) toluene but grew efficiently in coculture with Cstd1, suggesting that toluene or metabolic derivatives of toluene were transferred from Cstd1 to Q7. PMID:10388704

  7. The pyrolysis of toluene and ethyl benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolovskaya, V. G.; Samgin, V. F.; Kalinenko, R. A.; Nametkin, N. S.

    1987-01-01

    The pyrolysis of toluene at 850 to 950 C gave mainly H2, CH4, and benzene; PhEt at 650 to 750 C gave mainly H2, CH4, styrene, benzene, and toluene. The rate constants for PhEt pyrolysis were 1000 times higher than those for toluene pyrolysis; the chain initiation rate constants differed by the same factor. The activation energy differences were 46 kJ/mole for the total reaction and 54 kJ/mole for chain initiation. The chain length was evaluated for the PhEt case (10 + or - 2).

  8. Effect of vehicle on brain uptake of [11C]toluene.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Madina R; Logan, Jean; Ferrieri, Richard A; Muller, Ryan D; Alexoff, David; Dewey, Stephen L

    2002-07-01

    With the goal of investigating the pharmacokinetics of the abused solvent, toluene we have adapted the rapid coupling of methyl iodide with tributylphenylstannane mediated by palladium(0) complex to the synthesis of no-carrier-added [11C]toluene starting with 11CH(3)I. Two methods for purification and formulation of the tracer were developed. The first one yielded [11C]toluene dissolved in dimethylacetamide/saline solution, for the second one we adapted supercritical fluid technology where the tracer was purified using and conventional C(18) HPLC column and pure supercritical CO(2) fluid as a mobile phase operating at 2000 psi. Formulation of the tracer in cyclodextrin resulted in a significantly higher integrated uptake and distribution volume values. Additionally, we observed higher uptake and slower clearance of 11C-toluene in white matter, consistent with higher lipid content and neurotoxicological evidence indicating restricted and diffuse white matter changes in toluene abusers. This trend was observed when either DMA or cyclodextrin was used as a vehicle. It appears then, that the choice of a vehicle affected only the degree of bioavailability, but not the regional brain pharmacokinetics. Finally, we demonstrated the effect of a decreased percent difference between DV values for the studies performed on the same day, that is, test/retest variability was lower for all brain regions in beta-cyclodextrin experiments. Present results clearly demonstrate that the choice of a vehicle has a significant effect on tracer uptake and should be considered as a potential factor contributing to the pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:12088732

  9. Polydispersity of asphaltenes in toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, E.Y.; Liang, K.S.; Sinha, S.K.; Overfield, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Asphaltenes have been reported to exhibit colloidal behavior in solutions. However, the thermodynamics of their self-association and the resulting particle polydispersity was not yet fully investigated. In this paper, the authors measured the structure and polydispersity of the asphaltene particles in toluene using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). To study their self-association they systematically increased the solution temperature to observe the evolution, if any, of the particle structure and size. In order to determine the asphaltene size distribution and the corresponding polydispersity they fitted the SANS data with a polydispersity model in which one more adjustable parameter (than monodisperse analysis) was used to account for the particle size distribution. Because of one more free parameter used in data fitting, an ambiguous result due to multiple convergence may lead to a misinterpretation. In order to minimize this ambiguity and obtain a realistic particle size distribution they developed a method by which one can self-consistently verify the obtained particle size distribution. From SANS data analysis they found that the Schultz distribution function properly described the asphaltene particle sizes and the polydispersity decreases whenever temperature or concentration increases.

  10. Oxidation Mechanisms of Toluene and Benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1995-01-01

    An expanded and improved version of a previously published benzene oxidation mechanism is presented and shown to model published experimental data fairly successfully. This benzene submodel is coupled to a modified version of a toluene oxidation submodel from the recent literature. This complete mechanism is shown to successfully model published experimental toluene oxidation data for a highly mixed flow reactor and for higher temperature ignition delay times in a shock tube. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis showing the most important reactions is presented for both the benzene and toluene reacting systems. The NASA Lewis toluene mechanism's modeling capability is found to be equivalent to that of the previously published mechanism which contains a somewhat different benzene submodel.

  11. Primary atmospheric oxidation mechanism for toluene.

    PubMed

    Baltaretu, Cristian O; Lichtman, Eben I; Hadler, Amelia B; Elrod, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    The products of the primary OH-initiated oxidation of toluene were investigated using the turbulent flow chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique at temperatures ranging from 228 to 298 K. A major dienedial-producing pathway was detected for the first time for toluene oxidation, and glyoxal and methylglyoxal were found to be minor primary oxidation products. The results suggest that secondary oxidation processes involving dienedial and epoxide primary products are likely responsible for previous observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal products from toluene oxidation. Because the dienedial-producing pathway is a null cycle for tropospheric ozone production and glyoxal and methylglyoxal are important secondary organic aerosol precursors, these new findings have important implications for the modeling of toluene oxidation in the atmosphere. PMID:19118482

  12. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  13. Reduction of benzene toxicity by toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Plappert, U.; Barthel, E.; Seidel, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    BDF{sub 1} mice were exposed in inhalation chambers to benzene (900 ppm, 300 ppm) and/or toluene (500 ppm, 250 ppm) 6 hr per day, 5 days per week, for up to 8 weeks. Benzene alone induced a slight anemia after 4 and 8 weeks and a reduction of BFU-E and CFU-E numbers in the marrow. The coexposure to toluene reduced the degree of anemia. These results confirm previous studies where toluene was found to reduce benzene toxicity. This protective effect was most pronounced when DNA damage was studied in peripheral blood cells, bone marrow, and liver using the single cell gel (SCG) assay. With benzene alone, either with 300 or 900 ppm, a significant increase in DNA damage was detected in cells sampled from all three organs. Toluene alone did not induce a significant increase in DNA damage. The coexposure of benzene and toluene reduced the extent of DNA damage to about 50% of benzene alone. This result is considered a clear indication for a protective effect of toluene on the genetic toxicity of benzene. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Toluene-induced ototoxicity by subcutaneous administration

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, G.T.; Howd, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Inhalation exposure of rats to toluene causes irreversible hearing loss (e.g., Pryor et al.). To determine whether noise emanating from the inhalation system was a major contributing factor and whether exposure by a noninhalation route would cause a similar effect, weanling, male Fischer-344 rats were injected SC twice daily in a quiet environment with PEG-300 (control) or with 1.5 or 1.7 g/kg of toluene for 7 days. After being trained to perform a multisensory conditioned avoidance response (CAR) task, tone intensity-response functions were generated at 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz, and behavioral auditory response thresholds were estimated. Toluene caused a dose-related hearing loss at frequencies of 8 kHz and above, with no effect on performance of the CAR in response to light, nonaversive footshock, or the 4-kHz tone. The similarity of this effect to that observed following inhalation exposure indicates that noise is not a major factor in the toluene-induced hearing loss, although possible interactions between noise and toluene remain to be investigated. These results also demonstrate that direct penetration of the toluene vapors through the external ear structure, as might occur during inhalation exposure, is not a necessary condition for inducing the hearing loss.

  15. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  16. Assessment of reinforcement enhancing effects of toluene vapor and nitrous oxide in intracranial self-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Matthew E.; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina G.; Shelton, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Despite widespread abuse there are few validated methods to study the rewarding effects of inhalants. One model that that may have utility for this purpose is intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Objectives We wished to compare and contrast the ICSS reward-facilitating effects of abused inhalants to other classes of abused drugs. Compounds were examined using two different ICSS procedures in mice to determine the generality of each drug's effects on ICSS and the sensitivity of the procedures. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained under a three component rate-frequency as well as a progressive ratio (PR) ICSS procedure. The effects of nitrous oxide, toluene vapor, cocaine and diazepam on ICSS were then examined. Results Concentrations of 1360-2900 ppm inhaled toluene vapor significantly facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 1360 ppm increased PR breakpoint. A concentration of 40% nitrous oxide facilitated ICSS in the rate-frequency procedure but reduced PR breakpoint. Doses of 3-18 mg/kg cocaine facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 10 and 18 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg diazepam facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 3 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Conclusions The reinforcement facilitating effect of toluene in ICSS is at least as great as diazepam. In contrast, nitrous oxide weakly enhances ICSS in only the rate frequency procedure. The data suggest that the rate frequency procedure may be more sensitive than the PR schedule to the reward facilitating effects of abused inhalants. PMID:24186077

  17. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  18. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  19. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  20. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  1. Profile of solvent abusers (glue sniffers) in East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zabedah, M Y; Razak, M; Zakiah, I; Zuraidah, A B

    2001-12-01

    Solvent abuse is deliberate sniffing of an organic solvent for the intention of altering the physiological state of the individual. It is also commonly known as glue sniffing because glue is the most commonly abused substance. This form of substance abuse is widespread throughout the world and usually popular among secondary school children and young adults because of its easy availability and it is cheaper compared with most drugs of abuse. In Malaysia this problem has been recognized especially among the children in East Malaysia. In this study, 37 children and young adults from or around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah were referred to Bukit Padang Psychiatric Hospital by the Anti-drug Task force for suspected solvent abuse. These children were interviewed using questionaire and examined physically. Blood and urine were analysed for toluene and hippuric acid. 27 of the children, age ranging between 8 and 20 years, willingly admitted to sniffing glue for a period between a few months to 2 years. Most of them were children of Fillipino illegal immigrants in Kota Kinabalu. Biochemical parameters were found to be normal. Two of them were pale with low hemoglobin and 7 had eosinophilia. Haematuria and proteinuria were found in 21 children (78%). 16 blood samples with toluene levels ranging from 0.3 to 41 microg/ml and 10 urine samples have elevated urinary hippuric acid levels ranging from 1.2 to 7.4 mg/ml. Strong positive correlation was noted between mean blood toluene levels and duration of abuse. PMID:12166590

  2. Excited state of protonated benzene and toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves-López, Natalia; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2015-08-21

    We present photo-fragmentation electronic spectra of the simplest protonated aromatic molecules, protonated benzene and toluene, recorded under medium resolution conditions and compared with the photo-fragmentation spectrum of protonated pyridine. Despite the resolution and cold temperature achieved in the experiment, the electronic spectra of protonated benzene and toluene are structure-less, thus intrinsically broadened. This is in agreement with the large geometrical changes and the fast dynamic toward internal conversion predicted by ab initio calculations for protonated benzene [Rode et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 5865–5873 (2009)].

  3. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25084799

  4. Toluene Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Epoxidation of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    McClay, Kevin; Fox, Brian G.; Steffan, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Several toluene monooxygenase-producing organisms were tested for their ability to oxidize linear alkenes and chloroalkenes three to eight carbons long. Each of the wild-type organisms degraded all of the alkenes that were tested. Epoxides were produced during the oxidation of butene, butadiene, and pentene but not hexene or octadiene. A strain of Escherichia coli expressing the cloned toluene-4-monooxygenase (T4MO) of Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 was able to oxidize butene, butadiene, pentene, and hexene but not octadiene, producing epoxides from all of the substrates that were oxidized. A T4MO-deficient variant of P. mendocina KR1 oxidized alkenes that were five to eight carbons long, but no epoxides were detected, suggesting the presence of multiple alkene-degrading enzymes in this organism. The alkene oxidation rates varied widely (ranging from 0.01 to 0.33 μmol of substrate/min/mg of cell protein) and were specific for each organism-substrate pair. The enantiomeric purity of the epoxide products also varied widely, ranging from 54 to >90% of a single epoxide enantiomer. In the absence of more preferred substrates, such as toluene or alkenes, the epoxides underwent further toluene monooxygenase-catalyzed transformations, forming products that were not identified. PMID:10788354

  5. Dynamics of toluene degradation in biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Hsiu-Mu; Hwang, Shyh-Jye; Hwang, Sz-Chwun

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation processes have been validated as a promising alternative to other conventional air pollution control technologies. The objective of this research was to systematically investigate the transient behavior of shut down and restart-up operation and shock loading of the biofilter. Experiments were conducted in three laboratory-scale biofilters with mixtures of chaff/compost, D.E. (diatomaceous earth)/compost, and GAC (granular activated carbon)/compost, respectively as the filter materials. Toluene was used as the gas pollutant in this study. The response of each biofilter to shock loading was studied by abruptly changing the concentration or flow rate of the inlet gas. For each transient operation, toluene concentration was continuously measured until a new steady state was achieved. The results indicated that the biofilters responded effectively to the shut down and restart-up operation and shock loading of toluene concentration or gas flow rate. Moreover, the highly adsorptive GAC could improve the biofilter performance, especially for the treatment of less water soluble compounds such as toluene. Therefore, the GAC/compost biofilter had the highest maximum elimination capacity of 97 (g hr{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}3}). 17 refs., 8 figs.

  6. HEALTH ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT FOR TOLUENE. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health effect of primary concern with regard to exposures of humans to toluene is dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS). Occupational exposures in the range of 200 to 1,500 ppm have elicited dose-related CNS alterations. Although myelotoxicity was previously attribu...

  7. Project Overview: IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR TOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is used as an additive to gasoline mixtures (BTEX) to increase octane ratings, in benzene production, and as a solvent in paints, coatings, inks, adhesives, and cleaners. Additionally, toluene is used in the production of nylon, plastics, and polyurethanes. Toluene was o...

  8. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  9. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  10. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  11. Socio-demographic and Clinical Profile of Substance Abusers Attending a Regional Drug De-addiction Centre in Chronic Conflict Area: Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Yasir Hassan; Bashir, Wiqar; Sheikh, Ajaz Ahmad; Amin, Marya; Zahgeer, Yasir Arafat

    2013-01-01

    Background: The menace of substance abuse is not only a socially unacceptable reality, but in its entirety is a disease and emerging as a major public health challenge. Objective: To study the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients attending the drug de-addiction centre. Methods: A descriptive study was undertaken in a drug de-addiction centre at the Police Hospital in Srinagar, and all patients (198) who were admitted during this period were interviewed. Results: The mean (SD) age of patients was 26.8 years (SD 7.37), and over half (56%) belonged to the lower-middle social class. Poly-substance abuse was seen in 91.9%; medicinal opioids and cannabis were the most common substances abused. Most common age of initiation was 11–20 years (76.8%), with peer pressure and relief from a negative mood state being the most common reasons given for starting the drug(s). Prevalence of a co-morbid psychiatric disorder was high, on the order of 49.5%. A high rate of volatile substance use was observed among adolescents (54.5%). Conclusion: A pattern of poly-substance abuse was found to be quite common in patients, and use of volatile substances at a very young age emerged as a new trend. The dreadful repercussions of substance abuse justify the urgency to evolve a comprehensive strategy. PMID:23966822

  12. Cytogenetic methods for assessing human exposure to toluene in Coimbatore, South India.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, Pappuswamy; Balachanadar, Vellinggiri; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Mohanadevi, Subramanium; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Khan Mustaq Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed; Krishnan, Balasubramanian Balamurali; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify genetic alterations occurring in rotograving workers chronically exposed to toluene. A total of 60 samples from 30 exposed subjects and 30 age-matched controls, selected based on the toluene level present in their urine, were recruited. Exposed subjects were categorized based on their duration of exposure and smoking habitats. Controls were normal and healthy and categorized based on their smoking habits. Cell cultures were established from blood samples collected from the control and experimental subjects after obtaining informed consent. G-banding and comet assays were used to identify genetic alterations. A higher degree of total chromosome aberration was identified in exposed subjects compared to controls. As expected, controls exhibited minimal number of alterations. The overall CA frequency due to toluene exposure was significantly different from that of the controls for both chromatid and chromosome type aberrations (P\\0.05 by ANOVA). . The habit of cigarette smoking among the workers had a synergistic effect on inducing DNA damage. In conclusion, this work shows a clear genotoxic effect associated with toluene exposure, our results also reinforcing the conclusion of higher sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for the biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. There is a strong need to educate those who work with potentially hazardous materials about adverse effects and highlight the importance of using protective measures. PMID:21338217

  13. Decomposition characteristics of toluene by a corona radical shower system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zu-liang; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhong-yang; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma technologies offer an innovative approach to decomposing various volatile organic compounds(VOCs). The decomposition of toluene from simulated flue gas was investigated using a pipe electrode with nozzles for the generation of free radicals. Corona characteristics and decomposition of toluene were investigated experimentally. In addition, the decomposition mechanism of toluene was explored in view of reaction rate. The experimental results showed that the humidity of additional gas has an important effect on corona characteristics and modes and stable streamer corona can be generated through optimizing flow rate and humidity of additional gas. Applied voltage, concentration of toluene, humidity of toluene and resident time are some important factors affecting decomposition efficiency. Under optimizing conditions, the decomposition efficiency of toluene can reach 80%. These results can give a conclusion that the corona radical shower technology is feasible and effective on the removal of toluene in the flue gas. PMID:15495952

  14. Effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene concentrations on TCE and toluene biodegradation and the population density of TCE and toluene degraders in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, D.Y.; Scow, K.M.

    1994-07-01

    Toluene is one of several cosubstrates able to support the cometabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) by soil microbial communities. Indigenous microbial populations in soil degraded TCE in the presence, but not the absence, of toluene after a 60- to 80-h lag period. Initial populations of toluene and TCE degraders ranged from 0.2 x 10{sup 3} to 4 x 10{sup 3} cells per g of soil and increased by more than 4 orders of magnitude after the addition of 20 {mu}g of toluene and 1 {mu}g of TCE per mol of soil solution. The numbers of TCE and toluene degraders and the percent removal of TCE increased with an increase in initial toluene concentration. As the initial TCE concentration was increased from 1 to 20 {mu}g/ml, the numbers of toluene and TCE degraders and the rate of toluene degradation decreased, and no TCE degradation occurred. No toluene or TCE degradation occurred at a TCE concentration of 50 {mu}g/ml. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Unresolved Childhood Sexual Abuse: Are Older Adults Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…

  16. Health effects of the alkylbenzenes. I. Toluene.

    PubMed

    Low, L K; Meeks, J R; Mackerer, C R

    1988-03-01

    The alkylbenzenes, toluene being the most common example, represent a class of six-membered ring aromatic compounds that have a variety of alkyl groups attached. These chemicals are liquids with relatively low boiling points and are used primarily as solvents or as starting materials in the synthesis of other chemicals and drugs. They are also integral components of gasoline, distillate fuels and other petroleum products. These substituted aromatics are economically important in the chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, polymer, paint and dye industries. Alkylbenzenes such as toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene and cumene are toxicologically important since they are produced, used or disposed of in the largest quantities and therefore might pose significant and potential health risks to man and the environment. In general, the toxicity of alkylbenzenes has been found to be relatively low. Also, for the most part, human and environmental risks are low; however, there may be a few operations where the potential for high exposure could exist. These exposures are minimized by workplace controls or personal protective equipment. Furthermore, health risks for humans are minimized by guidelines for maximum allowable exposure concentrations which have been established for the workplace. This present paper reviews the toxicology and disposition of toluene in animals and humans. PMID:3291202

  17. Catalytic conversion of pyrolysis gasoline and toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Syunyakova, Z.F.; Valitov, R.B.; Shmelev, A.S.; Mazitov, M.F.; Faskhutdinova, R.A.; Sokolova, G.P.

    1984-11-01

    A basic process for production of benzene from petroleum, along with catalytic reforming, is processing of liquid pyrolysis products and toluene. The conversion of pyrolysis gasoline and toluene on an iron-chromium oxide catalyst in a medium of steam and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was investigated. Catalytic conversion of the pyrolysis gasoline was carried out in a medium of steam in a gradientless spherical reactor made of Kh23N18T steel under the following conditions: temperature 750 to 840/sup 0/C; steam pyrolysis gasoline weight ratio 1:1; pyrolysis gasoline feed rate 1 g per g catalyst per hour; experiment time 1 hour; catalyst volume 8 cm/sup 3/. Hydrodealkylation of toluene was also studied with the goal of producing benzene. In contrast to the conversion of pyrolysis gasoline in a medium of steam, hydrodealkylation was accomplished in a medium of steam and hydrogen. The preliminary tests showed that higher selectivity for formation of benzene is achieved in the presence of hydrogen. 11 references, 4 tables.

  18. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  19. Supercritical CO2 fluid radiochromatography system used to purify [11C]toluene for PET.

    PubMed

    Muller, Ryan D; Ferrieri, Richard A; Gerasimov, Madina; Garza, Victor

    2002-04-01

    Abuse of inhalants in today's society has become such a widespread problem among today's adolescents that in many parts of the world their use exceeds that of many other illicit drugs or alcohol. Even so, little is known how such inhalants affect brain function to an extent that can lead to an abuse liability. While methodologies exist for radiolabeling certain inhalants of interest with short-lived positron emitting radioisotopes that would allow their investigation in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET), the purification methodologies necessary to separate these volatile substances from the organic starting materials have not been developed. We've adapted supercritical fluid technology to this specific PET application by building a preparative-scale supercritical CO2 fluid radiochromatograph, and applied it to the purification of [11C]toluene. We've demonstrated that [11C]toluene can be separated from the starting materials using a conventional C18 HPLC column and pure supercritical CO2 fluid as the mobile phase operating at 2000 psi and 40 degrees C. We've also shown that the purified radiotracer can be quantitatively captured on Tenax GR, a solid support material, as it exits the supercritical fluid stream, thus allowing for later desorption into a 1.5% cyclodextrin solution that is suitable for human injection, or into a breathing tube for direct inhalation. PMID:11929706

  20. Toluene inhalation exposure for 13 weeks causes persistent changes in electroretinograms of Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Boyes, William K; Bercegeay, Mark; Degn, Laura; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Mwanza, Jean Claude; Geller, Andrew M; Pinckney, Charles; Nork, T Michael; Bushnell, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Studies of humans chronically exposed to volatile organic solvents have reported impaired visual functions, including low contrast sensitivity and reduced color discrimination. These reports, however, lacked confirmation from controlled laboratory experiments. To address this question experimentally, we examined visual function by recording visual evoked potentials (VEP) and/or electroretinograms (ERG) from four sets of rats exposed repeatedly to toluene. In addition, eyes of the rats were examined with an ophthalmoscope and some of the retinal tissues were evaluated for rod and M-cone photoreceptor immunohistochemistry. The first study examined rats following exposure to 0, 10, 100 or 1000ppm toluene by inhalation (6hr/d, 5d/wk) for 13 weeks. One week after the termination of exposure, the rats were implanted with chronically indwelling electrodes and the following week pattern-elicited VEPs were recorded. VEP amplitudes were not significantly changed by toluene exposure. Four to five weeks after completion of exposure, rats were dark-adapted overnight, anesthetized, and several sets of electroretinograms (ERG) were recorded. In dark-adapted ERGs recorded over a 5-log (cd-s/m(2)) range of flash luminance, b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced at high stimulus luminance values in rats previously exposed to 1000ppm toluene. A second set of rats, exposed concurrently with the first set, was tested approximately one year after the termination of 13 weeks of exposure to toluene. Again, dark-adapted ERG b-wave amplitudes were reduced at high stimulus luminance values in rats previously exposed to 1000ppm toluene. A third set of rats was exposed to the same concentrations of toluene for only 4 weeks, and a fourth set of rats exposed to 0 or 1000ppm toluene for 4 weeks were tested approximately 1year after the completion of exposure. No statistically significant reductions of ERG b-wave amplitude were observed in either set of rats exposed for 4 weeks. No

  1. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  2. Electronic and Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Green, Alistair M.; Tame-Reyes, Victor; Wright, Timothy G.

    2012-06-01

    Electronic and photoelectron spectra of toluene are presented and discussed. The utilization of a recently reported scheme for assigning the normal vibrations of substituted benzenes allows these spectra to be compared to those of other molecules with unprecedented clarity. Changes in vibrational activity within a series of substituted benzene molecules will be discussed, specifically the increased rate of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution observed in molecules where the substituent is a methyl group. A. M. Gardner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 135, 114305 (2011)

  3. Permeation of polymeric materials by toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Vahdat, N.

    1987-02-01

    The permeation of toluene through protective clothing materials composed of butyl, butyl-coated nomex, neoprene, and polyvinyl alcohol was tested at 25/sup 0/C and 45/sup 0/C with the use of ASTM method F-739. Butyl exhibited breakthrough of 18 min at 25/sup 0/C and 11 min at 45/sup 0/ C. Butyl nomex exhibited breakthrough times of 11 min and 25/sup 0/C and 6 min at 45/sup 0/C. PVA showed no breakthrough in 20 hr. The steady-state permeation rates and the diffusion coefficients were determined.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of toluene by a denitrifying bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P J; Mang, D T; Kim, K S; Young, L Y

    1991-01-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, designated strain T1, that grew with toluene as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions was isolated. The type of agar used in solid media and the toxicity of toluene were determinative factors in the successful isolation of strain T1. Greater than 50% of the toluene carbon was oxidized to CO2, and 29% was assimilated into biomass. The oxidation of toluene to CO2 was stoichiometrically coupled to nitrate reduction and denitrification. Strain T1 was tolerant of and grew on 3 mM toluene after a lag phase. The rate of toluene degradation was 1.8 mumol min-1 liter-1 (56 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1) in a cell suspension. Strain T1 was distinct from other bacteria that oxidize toluene anaerobically, but it may utilize a similar biochemical pathway of oxidation. In addition, o-xylene was transformed to a metabolite in the presence of toluene but did not serve as the sole source of carbon for growth of strain T1. This transformation was dependent on the degradation of toluene. Images PMID:2059037

  5. CARDIOVASCULAR AND THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSE TO ORAL TOLUENE IN THE RAT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene and other volatile organic compounds have often been shown to affect behavior in animals when given by inhalation, and less effective when given orally. Previous work showed that toluene increased heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA), and reduced core temperature (Tc) ...

  6. BEHAVIOR OF TOLUENE ADDED TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. aboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. ludge additions increased ...

  7. BEHAVIOR OF TOLUENE ADDED TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene is a priority pollutant that can be introduced to soils in a variety of wastes, including some municipal sludges. Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the behavior of toluene in two soils in the presence and absence of municipal sludge. Sludge additions increa...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF TRICKLE BED BIOFILTERS UNDER HIGH TOLUENE LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of two pelletized media biofilters, highly loaded with toluene, was evaluated in this study. oth biofilters were operated as the same influent concentration of 250 ppmv toluene. iofilter "A" was operated at 1 minute EBRT and biofilter "B" at 0.67 minute EBRT. he i...

  9. TOLUENE EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURES IN HUMANS: PHARMACOKINETICS AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene Experimental Exposures in Humans:
    Pharmacokinetics and Behavioral Effects
    (Ongoing Research)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    Human subjects will be exposed to 250 and 500 ppm toluene for one hour in the Human St...

  10. Optical emission study of radio-frequency excited toluene plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Szetsen; Liu, Shiao-Jun; Liang, Rui-Ji

    2008-12-25

    UV-visible emission spectra of radio-frequency (rf) excited toluene plasma were studied. Benzyl radicals as well as toluene monomer and excimer were observed in toluene plasma. It was found that the intensities, peak positions, and linewidths of monomer and excimer emission bands exhibit strong dependence on rf power and plasma processing time. This can be ascribed to photochemical reactions in plasma. Gas-chromatographic analysis of the deposition products from toluene plasma indicated that the main component was bibenzyl. Spectroscopic evidence has shown that the bibenzyl molecule was formed by the coupling reaction between two benzyl radicals in plasma. The spectroscopic characteristics of toluene monomer and excimer are correlated with a kinetic model in plasma. PMID:19049320

  11. Review: The neuropathology of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Büttner, A

    2011-02-01

    Drug abuse represents a significant health issue. The major substances abused include cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 'ecstasy'. Alterations of intracellular messenger pathways, transcription factors and immediate early genes within the brain reward system seem to be fundamentally important for the development of addiction and chronic drug abuse. Genetic risk factors and changes in gene expression associated with drug abuse are still poorly understood. Besides cardiovascular complications, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms are the most common manifestations of drug toxicity. A broad spectrum of changes affecting the central nervous system is seen in drug abusers. The major findings result from the consequences of ischaemia and cerebrovascular diseases. Except for a few observations of vasculitis, the aetiology of these cerebrovascular accidents is not fully understood. The abuse of amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA has been related to neurotoxicity in human long-term abusers and to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. However, whether such neurotoxicity occurs remain to be established. Systematic histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric investigations have shown profound morphological alterations in the brains of polydrug abusers. The major findings comprise neuronal loss, neurodegenerative alterations, a reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunopositive astrocytes, widespread axonal damage with concomitant microglial activation as well as reactive and degenerative changes of the cerebral microvasculature. These observations demonstrate that drugs of abuse initiate a cascade of interacting toxic, vascular and hypoxic factors, which finally result in widespread disturbances within the complex network of central nervous system cell-to-cell interactions. PMID:20946118

  12. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  13. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  14. Detailed mechanism of toluene oxidation and comparison with benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of toluene in both argon and nitrogen dilutents is presented. The mechanism was used to compute experimentally ignition delay times for shock-heated toluene-oxygen-argon mixtures with resonably good success over a wide range of initial temperatures and pressures. Attempts to compute experimentally measured concentration profiles for toluene oxidation in a turbulent reactor were partially successful. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the reactions which control the ignition process and the rates of formation and destruction of various species. The most important step was found to be the reaction of toluene with molecular oxygen, followed by the reactions of hydroperoxyl and atomic oxygen with benzyl radicals. These findings contrast with the benzene oxidation, where the benzene-molecular oxygen reaction is quite unimportant and the reaction of phenyl with molecular oxygen dominates. In the toluene mechanism the corresponding reaction of benzyl radicals with oxygen is unimportant. Two reactions which are important in the oxidation of benzene also influence the oxidation of toluene for several conditions. These are the oxidations of phenyl and cyclopentadienyl radicals by molecular oxygen. The mechanism presented successfully computes the decrease of toluene concentration with time in the nitrogen diluted turbulent reactor. This fact, in addition to the good prediction of ignition delay times, shows that this mechanism can be used for modeling the ignition and combustion process in practical, well-mixed combustion systems.

  15. Transformation of toluene and benzene by mixed methanogenic cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Grbić-Galić, D; Vogel, T M

    1987-01-01

    The aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene were anaerobically transformed by mixed methanogenic cultures derived from ferulic acid-degrading sewage sludge enrichments. In most experiments, toluene or benzene was the only semicontinuously supplied carbon and energy source in the defined mineral medium. No exogenous electron acceptors other than CO2 were present. The cultures were fed 1.5 to 30 mM unlabeled or 14C-labeled aromatic substrates (ring-labeled toluene and benzene or methyl-labeled toluene). Gas production from unlabeled substrates and 14C activity distribution in products from the labeled substrates were monitored over a period of 60 days. At least 50% of the substrates were converted to CO2 and methane (greater than 60%). A high percentage of 14CO2 was recovered from the methyl group-labeled toluene, suggesting nearly complete conversion of the methyl group to CO2 and not to methane. However, a low percentage of 14CO2 was produced from ring-labeled toluene or from benzene, indicating incomplete conversion of the ring carbon to CO2. Anaerobic transformation pathways for unlabeled toluene and benzene were studied with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The intermediates detected are consistent with both toluene and benzene degradation via initial oxidation by ring hydroxylation or methyl oxidation (toluene), which would result in the production of phenol, cresols, or aromatic alcohol. Additional reactions, such as demethylation and ring reduction, are also possible. Tentative transformation sequences based upon the intermediates detected are discussed. PMID:3105454

  16. Reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Ramanand, K; Balba, M T; Duffy, J

    1993-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes was evaluated in soil slurry microcosms under methanogenic conditions. A mixture of hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in soil slurries was biotransformed through sequential reductive dechlorination to chlorobenzene (CB). The metabolic pathway for hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene decay proceeded via 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TTCB)-->1,2,3-TCB + 1,2,4-TCB-->1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) + 1,4-DCB-->CB. In a mineral salts medium, the CB-adapted soil microorganisms dehalogenated individual 1,2,4,5-TTCB, 1,2,3,4-TTCB, 1,2,3-TCB, and 1,2,4-TCB but not 1,2,3,5-TTCB or 1,3,5-TCB. Similarly, a mixture of 2,3,6-trichlorotoluene (TCT), 2,5-dichlorotoluene (DCT), and 3,4-DCT was reductively dechlorinated in soil slurries to predominantly toluene and small amounts of 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorotoluene (CT). Toluene was further degraded. When tested individually in a mineral salts medium, the CT-adapted soil microorganisms dechlorinated several TCT and DCT isomers. Key metabolic routes for TCTs followed: 2,3,6-TCT-->2,5-DCT-->2-CT-->toluene; 2,4,5-TCT-->2,5-DCT + 3,4-DCT-->3-CT + 4-CT-->toluene. Among DCTs tested, 2,4-DCT and 3,4-DCT were dechlorinated via the removal of o- and m-chlorine, respectively, to 4-CT and subsequently to toluene via p-chlorine removal. Likewise, 2,5-DCT was dechlorinated via 2-CT to toluene. Evidently, microorganisms capable of removing o-, m-, and p-chlorines are present in the soil system, as reflected by the dechlorination of different isomers of CBs and CTs to CB and toluene, respectively. These findings help clarify the metabolic fate of chlorinated benzenes and toluenes in anaerobic environments. PMID:8250553

  17. Determination of toluene hydrogenation kinetics with neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Falkowska, Marta; Chansai, Sarayute; Manyar, Haresh G; Gladden, Lynn F; Bowron, Daniel T; Youngs, Tristan G A; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-06-29

    Total neutron scattering has been used to follow the hydrogenation of toluene-d8 to methylcyclohexane-d14 over 3 wt% platinum supported on highly ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41) at 298 K and under 150 mbar D2 pressure. The detailed kinetic information so revealed indicates that liquid reorganisation inside pores is the slowest step of the whole process. Additionally, the results were compared with the reaction performed under 250 mbar D2 pressure as well as with toluene-h8 hydrogenation using D2 at 150 mbar. PMID:27052196

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  20. Drug abuse first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who ...

  1. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...

  2. Rheology of asphaltene-toluene/water interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sztukowski, Danuta M; Yarranton, Harvey W

    2005-12-01

    The stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions is frequently attributed to a rigid asphaltene film at the water/oil interface. The rheological properties of these films and their relationship to emulsion stability are ill defined. In this study, the interfacial tension, elastic modulus, and viscous modulus were measured using a drop shape analyzer for model oils consisting of asphaltenes dissolved in toluene for concentrations varying from 0.002 to 20 kg/m(3). The effects of oscillation frequency, asphaltene concentration, and interface aging time were examined. The films exhibited viscoelastic behavior. The total modulus increased as the interface aged at all asphaltene concentrations. An attempt was made to model the rheology for the full range of asphaltene concentration. The instantaneous elasticity was modeled with a surface equation of state (SEOS), and the elastic and viscous moduli, with the Lucassen-van den Tempel (LVDT) model. It was found that only the early-time data could be modeled using the SEOS-LVDT approach; that is, the instantaneous, elastic, and viscous moduli of interfaces aged for at most 10 minutes. At longer interface aging times, the SEOS-LVDT approach was invalid, likely because of irreversible adsorption of asphaltenes on the interface and the formation of a network structure. PMID:16316096

  3. 78 FR 37818 - Request for Information on Toluene Diisocyanates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... published a Current Intelligence Bulletin on toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and toluenediamine (TDA) [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 90-101] which classified TDI and TDA (used in the manufacturing of TDI)...

  4. Atmospheric analyzer, carbon monoxide monitor and toluene diisocyanate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the atmospheric analyzer and the carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate monitors is to analyze the atmospheric volatiles and to monitor carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate levels in the cabin atmosphere of Skylab. The carbon monoxide monitor was used on Skylab 2, 3, and 4 to detect any carbon monoxide levels above 25 ppm. Air samples were taken once each week. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used only on Skylab 2. The loss of a micrometeoroid shield following the launch of Skylab 1 resulted in overheating of the interior walls of the Orbital Workshop. A potential hazard existed from outgassing of an isocyanate derivative resulting from heat-decomposition of the rigid polyurethane wall insulation. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used to detect any polymer decomposition. The atmospheric analyzer was used on Skylab 4 because of a suspected leak in the Skylab cabin. An air sample was taken at the beginning, middle, and the end of the mission.

  5. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaamini, Ahmad; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.; Pastega, D. F.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical and normalized experimental differential, momentum transfer, and integral cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from toluene (C6H5C H3 ) are presented. The differential cross sections are measured at incident energies from 1 to 20 eV and scattering angles from 15° to 130°. The calculated cross sections are obtained using the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation. Comparisons are made between the present theory and measurements with earlier available measurements. In general, the agreement between the theory and the experiment is very good. We also discuss the resonance spectra of toluene, where we find three π* shape resonances whose locations agree well with the experiment. In addition, we compare the cross sections of toluene and benzene, since the former can be considered as a benzene derivative by the substitution of a hydrogen in benzene by a C H3 group in toluene.

  6. Gamma radiolysis of toluene and deuterated toluenes—I. Isotopic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagert, Norman H.; MacFarlane, Roy; Kremers, Walter

    The γ radiolysis of liquid toluene and toluene-d 8 was studied at 50°C. For toluene, product yields were 0.14 molecules of hydrogen, 0.006 of methane, 0.090 of biphenyl and 0.9 of "polymer" for each 100 eV absorbed. For toluene-d 8, these yields are lower by a factor of two to three. Radiolysis of mixtures of toluene and toluene-d 8 shows a disproportionately high decomposition of the light toluene, suggesting that energy initially absorbed in toluene-d 8 transfers to toluene before decomposition occurs. Deuterium tracer studies indicate that about 14% of the hydrogen arises from unimolecular processes, whereas none of the methane or bibenzyl arises in this way. Studies using an electron scavenger, ethyl bromide, and a proton scavenger, ethanol, showed that the hydrogen yield did not likely have long-lived electrons or ions as precursors. Thus the energy transfer from toluene-d 8 to toluene is probably by direct excitation transfer, and not by charge transfer.

  7. Predicting toluene degradation in organic Rankine-cycle engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of toluene degradation in dynamic loop tests that simulate operation of an organic Rankine-cycle engine. Major degradation products and degradation mechanisms are identified, and degradation is quantified. Results indicate that toluene is a stable fluid with benign degradation products, provided that oxygen is excluded from the engine. A means of predicting degradation in the engine is developed. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Pseudomonas putida which can grow in the presence of toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Akira; Yamamoto, Mami; Horikoshi, Koki )

    1991-05-01

    A Pseudomonas putida strain able to grow in the presence of more than 50% toluene was isolated from soil. The strain was tolerant of other toxic solvents, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers. The stability of the solvent tolerance of strain IH-2,000 was stimulated by addition of Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} to the medium containing toluene.

  9. Toluene diffusion and reaction in unsaturated Pseudomonas putida biofilms

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, P.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Firestone, M.K.

    1997-12-20

    Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, the authors have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. They experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, the authors measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Their studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems.

  10. Toluene Diffusion and Reaction in Unsaturated Pseudomonas putida Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Patricia A.; Hunt, James R.; Firestone, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Biofilms are frequently studied in the context of submerged or aquatic systems. However, much less is known about biofilms in unsaturated systems, despite their importance to such processes as food spoilage, terrestrial nutrient cycling, and biodegradation of environmental pollutants in soils. Using modeling and experimentation, we have described the biodegradation of toluene in unsaturated media by bacterial biofilms as a function of matric water potential, a dominant variable in unsaturated systems. We experimentally determined diffusion and kinetic parameters for Pseudomonas putida biofilms, then predicted biodegradation rates over a range of matric water potentials. For validation, we measured the rate of toluene depletion by intact biofilms and found the results to reasonably follow the model predictions. The diffusion coefficient for toluene through unsaturated P. putida biofilm averaged 1.3 × 10−7 cm2/s, which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than toluene diffusivity in water. Our studies show that, at the scale of the microbial biofilm, the diffusion of toluene to biodegrading bacteria can limit the overall rate of biological toluene depletion in unsaturated systems. PMID:18642338

  11. The Young and the Volatile: Coping with Solvent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Keith

    This report on sniffing behavior and solvent abuse among children and adolescents is intended for use by health and education professionals. A brief historical overview of solvents used, methods of use, and effects is provided. Three types of sniffers (experimenters, social users, chronic abusers) are identified, and age data, children at risk,…

  12. Nurses' attitudes toward emotional, sexual, and physical abusers of children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M P; Seidl, A; Pillitteri, A; Smith, C

    1994-01-01

    Some studies have linked birth defects, disability, and chronic illness with an increased incidence of child abuse. Nurses who are involved with disabled children face a challenge in preventing child abuse and intervening in cases in which abuse has occurred. Nurse must become aware of the risk factors and signs of abuse, understand the role of their personal attitudes toward abuse and abusers, and develop the skills to intervene effectively and deal with abusers. Thus, the authors of this article undertook a study to ascertain nurses' attitudes about emotional, sexual, and physical abuse of children with disabilities and to determine if nurses' anticipated level of comfort differed when dealing with abusers of children with disabilities in contrast to abusers of children without disabilities. PMID:7831522

  13. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  14. Parent Abuse: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-01-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily…

  15. Dementia and elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, Maria R; Chen, Elaine; Gorbien, Martin J

    2005-05-01

    Dementia and elder abuse are relatively common and under-diagnosed geriatric syndromes. A unique relationship is observed when the two entities coexist. Special issues can confound the care of the dementia patient suspected of being abused. Impaired language or motor abilities to communicate abusive situations to a third party, lack of decisional capacity to address the abusive situation, disinhibited behavior that contributes to a cycle of violence, and coincident depression of the abused elder complicate the diagnosis and management of elder abuse. Education of the caregiver and attention to caregiver stress, including depression, may prevent onset and perpetuation of abuse. PMID:15804553

  16. International issues in abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Frasier, Lori D; Kelly, Patrick; Al-Eissa, Majid; Otterman, Gabriel J

    2014-12-01

    In the decades since Dr. John Caffey described a series of children with chronic subdural hematoma and long bone fractures, there has been a substantial increase in the medical recognition of various forms child abuse. In the United States, the term shaken baby syndrome was coined to explain a constellation of injuries assumed to be the result of violent shaking of infants. After improved understanding of the variety of mechanisms that occur when children are abused, abusive head trauma (AHT) has become the recommended terminology. AHT is a more comprehensive term that reflects the brain injuries that children suffer as the result of abuse. AHT continues to include shaking as a mechanism of injury as well as shaking with impact, impact alone, crushing injuries or combinations of several mechanisms. The medical community in the United States has led the way in developing new terminology and research to describe this unique and devastating form of abuse. The globalization of medicine and rapid information transfer has resulted in AHT becoming well-recognized internationally as a form of serious and fatal child abuse. This paper will review the historical basis in the United States for the diagnosis of AHT. We will also review some of the current international issue in epidemiology, diagnosis, legal processes and outcomes in selected countries/regions where child abuse physicians are actively involved in the evaluation of AHT. PMID:25501737

  17. Performance and properties of nanoscale calcium peroxide for toluene removal.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajie; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei; Zhang, Weixian; Chen, Jiabin

    2013-04-01

    Due to the large diameter and small surface, the contaminant degradation by conventional calcium peroxide (CaO2) is slow with high dosage required. The aggregation of conventional CaO2 also makes it difficult to operate. Nanoscale CaO2 was therefore synthesized and applied to remove toluene in this study. Prepared from nanoscale Ca(OH)2 and H2O2 in the ratio of 1:7, the finely dispersed nanoscale CaO2 particles were confirmed by the scanning electron microscope to be in the range of 100-200nm in size. Compared to their non nanoscale counterparts, the synthesized nanoscale CaO2 demonstrated a superior performance in the degradation of toluene, which could be eliminated in 3d at pH 6. The oxidation products of toluene were analyzed to include benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and three cresol isomers. With the addition of 2-propanol, hydroxyl radicals were indicated as the main reactive oxygen species in the oxidation of toluene by nanoscale CaO2. Superoxide radicals were also investigated as the marker of nanoscale CaO2 in the solution. Our study thus provides an important insight into the application of nanoscale CaO2 in the removal of toluene contaminants, which is significant, especially for controlling the petroleum contaminations. PMID:23466092

  18. Water stress effects on toluene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Holden, P A; Halverson, L J; Firestone, M K

    1997-01-01

    We quantified the effects of matric and solute water potential on toluene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida mt-2, a bacterial strain originally isolated from soil. Across the matric potential range of 0 to -1.5 MPa, growth rates were maximal for P. putida at -0.25 MPa and further reductions in the matric potential resulted in concomitant reductions in growth rates. Growth rates were constant over the solute potential range 0 to -1.0 MPa and lower at -1.5 MPa. First order toluene depletion rate coefficients were highest at 0.0 MPa as compared to other matric water potentials down to -1.5 MPa. Solute potentials down to -1.5 MPa did not affect first order toluene depletion rate coefficients. Total yield (protein) and carbon utilization efficiency were not affected by water potential, indicating that water potentials common to temperate soils were not sufficiently stressful to change cellular energy requirements. We conclude that for P. putida: (1) slightly negative matric potentials facilitate faster growth rates on toluene but more negative water potentials result in slower growth, (2) toluene utilization rate per cell mass is highest without matric water stress and is unaffected by solute potential, (3) growth efficiency did not differ across the range of matric water potentials 0.0 to -1.5 MPa. PMID:9396169

  19. A Review on Renal Toxicity Profile of Common Abusive Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Parkash; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse has become a major social problem of the modern world and majority of these abusive drugs or their metabolites are excreted through the kidneys and, thus, the renal complications of these drugs are very common. Morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol are the most commonly abused drugs, and their use is associated with various types of renal toxicity. The renal complications include a wide range of glomerular, interstitial and vascular diseases leading to acute or chronic renal failure. The present review discusses the renal toxicity profile and possible mechanisms of commonly abused drugs including morphine, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol. PMID:23946695

  20. Novel Pathway of Toluene Catabolism in the Trichloroethylene-Degrading Bacterium G4

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Malcolm S.; Montgomery, Stacy O.; Chapman, Peter J.; Cuskey, Stephen M.; Pritchard, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    o-Cresol and 3-methylcatechol were identified as successive transitory intermediates of toluene catabolism by the trichloroethylene-degrading bacterium G4. The absence of a toluene dihydrodiol intermediate or toluene dioxygenase and toluene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities suggested that G4 catabolizes toluene by a unique pathway. Formation of a hybrid species of 18O- and 16O-labeled 3-methylcatechol from toluene in an atmosphere of 18O2 and 16O2 established that G4 catabolizes toluene by successive monooxygenations at the ortho and meta positions. Detection of trace amounts of 4-methylcatechol from toluene catabolism suggested that the initial hydroxylation of toluene was not exclusively at the ortho position. Further catabolism of 3-methylcatechol was found to proceed via catechol-2,3-dioxygenase and hydroxymuconic semialdehyde hydrolase activities. PMID:16347956

  1. Identification of Progressive Cocaine Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L.

    1983-01-01

    Primary symptoms of cocaine use and behavioral characteristics of chronic users are pointed out. Ways that school health services can help identify and assist students who abuse the substance are suggested. Approaches such as peer identification, self-diagnosis, and use of a school ombudsman are discussed. (PP)

  2. Bullied to Death: Perceptions of Peer Abuse and Suicidal Behaviour during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Jolynn V.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of adolescents concerning relationship between chronic peer abuse and suicidal behavior, contending chronic peer abuse is a risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior. Results upheld this contention, adding that bystander perceptions supported victims' views. Suggests interventions to stop bullying should be expanded to…

  3. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment. PMID:12230967

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of a hydrocodone extended-release tablet formulated with abuse-deterrence technology for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in patients with osteoarthritis or low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Martin E; Laudadio, Charles; Yang, Ronghua; Narayana, Arvind; Malamut, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of hydrocodone extended release (ER) developed with abuse-deterrence technology to provide sustained pain relief and limit effects of alcohol and tablet manipulation on drug release. Eligible patients with chronic moderate-to-severe low back or osteoarthritis pain were titrated to an analgesic dose of hydrocodone ER (15–90 mg) and randomized to placebo or hydrocodone ER every 12 hours. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to week 12 in weekly average pain intensity (API; 0=no pain, 10=worst pain imaginable). Secondary measures included percentage of patients with >33% and >50% increases from baseline in weekly API, change from baseline in weekly worst pain intensity, supplemental opioid usage, aberrant drug-use behaviors, and adverse events. Overall, 294 patients were randomized and received ≥1 dose of placebo (n=148) or hydrocodone ER (n=146). Weekly API did not differ significantly between hydrocodone ER and placebo at week 12 (P=0.134); although, in post hoc analyses, the change in weekly API was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER when excluding the lowest dose (15 mg; least squares mean, −0.20 vs 0.40; P=0.032). Significantly more patients had >33% and >50% increase in weekly API with placebo (P<0.05), and mean weekly worst pain intensity was significantly lower with hydrocodone ER at week 12 (P=0.026). Supplemental medication usage was higher with placebo (86%) than hydrocodone ER (79%). Incidence of aberrant drug-use behaviors was low, and adverse events were similar between groups. This study did not meet the primary endpoint, although results support the effectiveness of this hydrocodone ER formulation in managing chronic low back or osteoarthritis pain. Use of the hydrocodone ER 15-mg dose, a robust placebo response, and use of supplemental analgesics, particularly in the placebo group, may have limited detection of a statistically significant

  5. Performance test plan for a space station toluene heater tube

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, M.B.

    1987-10-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems was awarded a contract to investigate the performance capabilities of a toluene heater tube integral to a heat pipe as applied to the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) solar dynamic power system for the Space Station. This heat pipe is a subassembly of the heat receiver. The heat receiver, the heat absorption component of the ORC solar dynamic power system, consists of forty liquid metal heat pipes located circumferentially around the heat receiver`s outside diameter. Each heat pipe contains a toluene heater, two thermal energy storage (TES) canisters and potassium. The function of the heater tube is to heat the supercritical toluene to the required turbine inlet temperature. During the orbit of the space station, the heat receiver and thereby the heat pipe and heater tube will be subjected to variable heat input. The design of the heater must be such that it can accommodate the thermal and hydraulic variations that will be imposed upon it.

  6. Linking Toluene Degradation with Specific Microbial Populations in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica R.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Harris, David; Scow, Kate M.

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis of a soil microbial community was coupled with 13C isotope tracer analysis to measure the community’s response to addition of 35 μg of [13C]toluene ml of soil solution−1. After 119 h of incubation with toluene, 96% of the incorporated 13C was detected in only 16 of the total 59 PLFAs (27%) extracted from the soil. Of the total 13C-enriched PLFAs, 85% were identical to the PLFAs contained in a toluene-metabolizing bacterium isolated from the same soil. In contrast, the majority of the soil PLFAs (91%) became labeled when the same soil was incubated with [13C]glucose. Our study showed that coupling 13C tracer analysis with PLFA analysis is an effective technique for distinguishing a specific microbial population involved in metabolism of a labeled substrate in complex environments such as soil. PMID:10583996

  7. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Mcintosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. Temperature of the incinerator, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC) besides carbon monoxide in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene, and is very sensitive to combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyle to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  8. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  9. Incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhuoxiong; McIntosh, M.J.; Demirgian, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This paper reports results on incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene in a small laboratory incinerator. The incinerator temperature, excess air ratio and mean residence time were varied to simulate both complete and incomplete combustion conditions. The flue gas was monitored on line using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupling with a heated long path cell (LPC). Methane, toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide in the flue gas were simultaneously analyzed. Experimental results indicate that benzene is a major product of incomplete combustion (PIC), besides carbon monoxide, in the incineration of toluene and chlorobenzene and is very sensitive to the combustion conditions. This suggests that benzene is a target analyte to be monitored in full-scale incinerators.

  10. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  11. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY, ELECTRON PROBE MICROANALYSIS, AND NMR OF TOLUENE WASTE IN CEMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    BUTLER,L.G.

    1999-07-22

    Synchrotron X-ray microtomography shows vesicular structures for toluene/cement mixtures, prepared with 1.22 to 3.58 wt% toluene. Three-dimensional imaging of the cured samples shows spherical vesicles, with diameters ranging from 20 to 250 {micro}m; a search with EPMA for vesicles in the range of 1-20 {micro}m proved negative. However, the total vesicle volume, as computed from the microtomography images, accounts for less than 10% of initial toluene. Since the cements were cured in sealed bottles, the larger portion of toluene must be dispersed within the cement matrix. Evidence for toluene in the cement matrix comes from {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, which shows a reduction in chain silicates with added toluene. Also, {sup 2}H NMR of d{sub 8}-toluene/cement samples shows high mobility for all, toluene and thus no toluene/cement binding. A model that accounts for all observations follows: For loadings below about 3 wt%, most toluene is dispersed in the cement matrix, with a small fraction of the initial toluene phase separating from the cement paste and forming vesicular structures that are preserved in the cured cement. Furthermore, at loadings above 3 wt%, the abundance of vesicles formed during toluene/cement paste mixing leads to macroscopic phase separation (most toluene floats to the surface of the cement paste).

  12. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  13. Abuse during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ... depressed, eat unhealthy foods, or pick up bad habits such as smoking or drinking . An abusive partner may try to ...

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  16. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse. PMID:23946140

  17. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE UNDER SULFATE- REDUCING CONDITIONS AND THE INFLUENCE OF IRON ON THE PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene degradation occurred concomitantly with sulfate reduction in anaerobic microcosms inoculated with contaminated subsurface soil from an aviation fuel storage facility near the Patuxent River (Md.). Similar results were obtained for enrichment cultures in which toluene was ...

  18. FORMATION OF POLYKETONES IN IRRADIATED TOLUENE/PROPYLENE/NOX/AIR MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the formation of polyketones in secondary organic aerosol from photooxidation of the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene, a major constituent of automobile exhaust. The laboratory experiments consisted of irradiating toluene/propylene...

  19. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  20. Preventing Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  1. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  2. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  3. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  4. PERINATAL STUDY OF TOLUENE IN CD-1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene administered by inhalation at 400 ppm to CD-1 mice from Days 6 to 16 of gestation was teratogenic but not fetotoxic resulting in a significant shift in the fetal rib profile. At the lower concentration of 200 ppm, there was an increase in dilated renal pelves which might ...

  5. 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Toluene diisocyanate mixture ( TDI ) ; CASRN 26471 - 62 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Haz

  6. HYPERTENSIVE AND TACHYCARDIC RESPONSES TO ORAL TOLUENE IN THE RAT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known regarding the effects of toluene and other volatile organic compounds on autonomic processes. Such studies should be performed in unrestrained and undisturbed animals to avoid the effects of handling stress on processes regulated by the autonomic nervous system. T...

  7. Mass accommodation of aniline, phenol and toluene on aqueous droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Heal, M.R.; Pilling, M.J.; Titcombe, P.E.

    1995-11-15

    This report describes measurements of mass accommodation coefficients at a temperature of 283k for the volatile organic compounds aniline, phenol, and toluene using the droplet train method. Laser induced fluoresecence was used as a detection method for the trace molecules.

  8. Fenton-like initiation of a toluene transformation mechanism

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fenton-driven oxidation treatment systems, reaction intermediates derived from parent compounds can play a significant role in the overall treatment process. Fenton-like reactions in the presence of toluene or benzene, involved a transformation mechanism that was highly effici...

  9. TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSIS AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TOLUENE DOSE-EFFECT META ANALYSES AND IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTS
    Benignus, V.A., Research Psychologist, ORD, NHEERL, Human Studies Division,
    919-966-6242, benignus.vernon@epa.gov
    Boyes, W.K., Supervisory Health Scientist, ORD, NHEERL, Neurotoxicology Division
    919-541-...

  10. THE ROLE OF IRON IN Deinococcus radiodurans ENGINEERED FOR GROWTH ON TOLUENE AND THE ROLE OF MANGANESE IN THE EXTREME RADIATION RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan Brim; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Min Zhai; Amudhan Venkateswaran; Marina Omelchenko; Kira S. Makarova; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson; Michael J. Daly

    2004-03-17

    Toluene and other fuel hydrocarbons are commonly found in association with radionuclides at numerous Department of Energy (DOE) sites, frequently occurring together with Cr(VI) and other heavy metals. In this study, the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was engineered for complete toluene mineralization by cloned expression of tod and xyl genes of Pseudomonas putida. The recombinant Tod/Xyl strain showed significant incorporation of carbon from the toluene aromatic ring into cellular macromolecules and carbon dioxide, in the absence or presence of chronic radiation. We have shown that intracellular iron concentrations in wild-type D. radiodurans in minimal medium are exceptionally low and not sufficient to support growth on toluene using Fe-dependent oxygenases cloned from P. putida. Introducing the fur mutation into D. radiodurans increased intracellular Fe levels, and imparted on the engineered strain the ability to grow on meta-toluate as the sole carbon and energy source. The organism's native Cr(VI) reduction capabilities were facilitated by toluene when present as the sole carbon and energy source in natural sediment analogues of DOE contaminated environments. The engineered bacteria were able to oxidize toluene under both minimal and complex nutrient conditions, which is important since both conditions have environmental equivalents in the context of bioremediation processes. As such, the Tod/Xyl strain is providing a model for understanding the role of Fe and reduction of metals coupled to organic contaminant oxidation in aerobic radionuclide contaminated sediments. We have shown that D. radiodurans contains high intracellular manganese levels, and that Mn restriction sensitizes cells to irradiation. We propose that the unusually high Mn/Fe ratio of D. radiodurans facilitates survival by quenching oxidative stress during recovery.

  11. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  12. Final amended report of the safety assessment of toluene-2,5-diamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate, and toluene-3,4-diamine as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Toluene-2,5-diamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate, and toluene-3,4-diamine are diaminotoluenes used as colorants in permanent hair dyes and tints. Toluene-2,5-diamine is used in 79 products at concentrations up to 3%; toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate is used in 168 products at concentrations up to 4%. Toluene-3,4-diamine does not appear to be in current use. Previously, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that all 3 ingredients were safe for use as hair dyes. New data suggest that differences in toxicity, especially with respect to carcinogenicity, may exist as a function of placement of amine groups around the benzene ring. The Expert Panel concluded that toluene-2,5-diamine and toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate and are safe as hair dye ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations but that there are insufficient data supporting the safety of toluene-3,4-diamine. PMID:20448268

  13. Establishing relationships between chemical health stressors in urban traffic environments: Prediction of toluene concentration levels in European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Chourdakis, E.; Michalidou, A. V.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Kelessis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

    2012-08-01

    Health can be impacted in many ways by exposure to chemical stressors in urban areas. Epidemiological research community has established consistent associations between traffic related air pollution and various health outcomes. Nevertheless, many urban environments, due to practical reasons (bulk of equipment) and mainly due to economical constraints, are characterised by the absence of the necessary monitoring infrastructure, for pollutants such as toluene. This chemical stressor is associated with numerous risks to human health, mainly with acute and chronic effects on the central nervous system. Due to the lack of monitoring data, it may be convenient to identify and establish a set of possible empirical relationships between health stressors in order to assess air quality trends of traffic related pollution in an urban area and support decision making. The use of environmental statistics can be meaningful towards this direction. This paper aims at developing and presenting a tractable approach, in order to reliably forecast toluene levels in EU urban environments. Multiple stepwise regression analysis is used for this purpose and a strong statistical relationship is detected mainly between toluene, benzene and CO. The adopted regression models are validated in order to depict their applicability and representativeness. In addition the models are applied to Thessaloniki, Greece, which is considered one of the most polluted cities within Europe. A comparison between available measurements, predictions based on the developed statistical models and air quality modelling output, provides discussion for transferability issues of such statistical relations between cities, but also interesting insights for the specific city. In general the presented results demonstrate that the adopted approach is capable of capturing toluene concentration trends and should be considered as complementary to air quality monitoring.

  14. Audition and exhibition to toluene - a contribution for the theme

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Sanches Calvi; Kulay, Luiz Alexandre; Franco, Eloisa Sartori

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: With the technological advances and the changes in the productive processes, the workers are displayed the different physical and chemical agents in its labor environment. The toluene is solvent an organic gift in glues, inks, oils, amongst others. Objective: To compare solvent the literary findings that evidence that diligent displayed simultaneously the noise and they have greater probability to develop an auditory loss of peripheral origin. Method: Revision of literature regarding the occupational auditory loss in displayed workers the noise and toluene. Results: The isolated exposition to the toluene also can unchain an alteration of the auditory thresholds. These audiometric findings, for ototoxicity the exposition to the toluene, present similar audiograms to the one for exposition to the noise, what it becomes difficult to differentiate a audiometric result of agreed exposition - noise and toluene - and exposition only to the noise. Conclusion: The majority of the studies was projected to generate hypotheses and would have to be considered as preliminary steps of an additional research. Until today the agents in the environment of work and its effect they have been studied in isolated way and the limits of tolerance of these, do not consider the agreed expositions. Considering that the workers are displayed the multiples agent and that the auditory loss is irreversible, the implemented tests must be more complete and all the workers must be part of the program of auditory prevention exactly displayed the low doses of the recommended limit of exposition. PMID:25991943

  15. Kinetic study of trichloroethylene and toluene degradation by a bioluminescent reporter bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J.; Sanseverino, J.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Sayler, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A constructed bioluminescent reporter bacterium, Pseudomonas putida B2, is very briefly described in this paper. The bacterium degrades toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE), and produces light in the presence of toluene. The light response is an indication of cellular viability and expression of the genes encoding toluene and TCE degrading enzymes.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10610 - Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10610 Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene... substances identified generically as toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10610 - Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10610 Toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene... substances identified generically as toluene diisocyanate, polymers with polyalkylene glycol (PMNs...

  18. 75 FR 52768 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; Dichlorophene and Toluene Capsules AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... use of dichlorophene and toluene deworming capsules for cats and dogs. In a final rule published... withdraw approval of NADA 101-497 for TINY TIGER (dichlorophene/toluene) Worming Capsules, NADA 101-498...

  19. The neuropathology of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Andreas; Mall, Gita; Penning, Randolph; Sachs, Hans; Weis, Serge

    2003-03-01

    Cocaine abuse represents a worldwide significant forensic issue as it is becoming widely recognized as one of the most dangerous illicit drugs in common use today. Besides cardiovascular complications, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms are the most common manifestations of cocaine toxicity. The latter include seizures, movement disorders and cerebrovascular complications. In chronic cocaine abusers morphological, physiological, and neurochemical abnormalities have been demonstrated by using neuroradiological techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography. The spectrum of neuropathologic changes encountered in the brains of cocaine abusers is broad, but the major findings consist of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages and cerebral ischemia. Especially persons with underlying arteriovenous malformation or aneurysm are at risk for such events. Except for a few instances of vasculitis, the etiology of cocaine-related cerebrovascular accidents is still unclear. Besides pharmacologically-induced vasospasm, impaired hemostasis and platelet function and decreased cerebral blood flow have been proposed. At the cellular level, abnormalities in the expression of transcription factors and changes of brain neurotransmitter systems have been reported. PMID:12935600

  20. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  1. Preventing and Recognizing Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse Prescription Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Preventing and recognizing prescription drug abuse To ensure proper medical care, patients should discuss ...

  2. Erythropoietin use and abuse.

    PubMed

    John, M Joseph; Jaison, Vineeth; Jain, Kunal; Kakkar, Naveen; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2012-03-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is arguably the most successful therapeutic application of recombinant DNA technology till date. It was isolated in 1977 and the gene decoded in 1985. Since then, it has found varied applications, especially in stimulating erythropoiesis in anemia due to chronic conditions like renal failure, myelodysplasia, infections like HIV, in prematurity, and in reducing peri-operative blood transfusions. The discovery of erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) and its presence in non-erythroid cells has led to several areas of research. Various types of rhEPO are commercially available today with different dosage schedules and modes of delivery. Their efficacy in stimulating erythropoiesis is dose dependent and differs according to the patient's disease and nutritional status. EPO should be used carefully according to guidelines as unsolicited use can result in serious adverse effects. Because of its capacity to improve oxygenation, it has been abused by athletes participating in endurance sports and detecting this has proved to be a challenge. PMID:22470858

  3. Performances of toluene removal by activated carbon derived from durian shell.

    PubMed

    Tham, Y J; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Abdullah, A M; Shamala-Devi, A; Taufiq-Yap, Y H

    2011-01-01

    In the effort to find alternative low cost adsorbent for volatile organic vapors has prompted this research in assessing the effectiveness of activated carbon produced from durian shell in removing toluene vapors. Durian shells were impregnated with different concentrations of H3PO4 followed by carbonization at 500 °C for 20 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The prepared durian shell activated carbon (DSAC) was characterized for its physical and chemical properties. The removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC was performed using different toluene concentrations. Results showed that the highest BET surface area of the produced DSAC was 1404 m2/g. Highest removal efficiency of toluene vapors was achieved by using DSAC impregnated with 30% of acid concentration heated at 500 °C for 20 min heating duration. However, there is insignificant difference between removal efficiency of toluene by DSAC and different toluene concentrations. The toluene adsorption by DSAC was better fitted into Freundlich model. PMID:20884200

  4. Role of the Toll Like receptor (TLR) radical cycle in chronic inflammation: possible treatments targeting the TLR4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kurt; Maes, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex, a receptor of the innate immune system, may underpin the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including asthma, cardiovascular disorder, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, neuroinflammatory disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, clinical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, alcohol abuse, and toluene inhalation. TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here we focus on the environmental factors, which are known to trigger TLR4, e.g., ozone, atmosphere particulate matter, long-lived reactive oxygen intermediate, pentachlorophenol, ionizing radiation, and toluene. Activation of the TLR4 pathways may cause chronic inflammation and increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and oxidative and nitrosative stress and therefore TLR-related diseases. This implies that drugs or substances that modify these pathways may prevent or improve the abovementioned diseases. Here we review some of the most promising drugs and agents that have the potential to attenuate TLR-mediated inflammation, e.g., anti-LPS strategies that aim to neutralize LPS (synthetic anti-LPS peptides and recombinant factor C) and TLR4/MyD88 antagonists, including eritoran, CyP, EM-163, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, 6-shogaol, cinnamon extract, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, and molecular hydrogen. The authors posit that activation of the TLR radical (ROS/RNS) cycle is a common pathway underpinning many "civilization" disorders and that targeting the TLR radical cycle may be an effective method to treat many inflammatory disorders. PMID:23436141

  5. Evidence that anaerobic oxidation of toluene in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica is initiated by formation of benzylsuccinate from toluene and fumarate.

    PubMed

    Biegert, T; Fuchs, G; Heider, J

    1996-06-15

    Toluene is degraded anoxically to CO2 by the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica. Toluene first becomes oxidized to benzoyl-CoA by O2-independent reactions. Benzoyl-CoA is then reduced to non-aromatic products by benzoyl-CoA reductase. We set out to study the reactions employed for the initial activation of toluene and its oxidation to the level of benzoate. Evidence is provided for a novel way of toluene degradation based on experiments with cell-free extracts and with whole toluene-grown cells: Cell-free extracts oxidized [14C]toluene to [14C]benzoyl-CoA via several radioactive intermediates. This reaction was strictly dependent on the presence of fumarate, coenzyme A and nitrate as electron acceptor; acetyl-CoA and ATP were not necessary for the reaction. The first product formed in vitro was benzylsuccinate; (2H8)toluene was converted to (2H7)benzylsuccinate. Formation of benzylsuccinate from toluene was independent of coenzyme A and nitrate, but it required the presence of fumarate. Other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were converted to fumarate in cell extracts and therefore could partially substitute for fumarate. [14C]Benzylsuccinate was oxidized further to [14C]benzoyl-CoA and [14C]benzoate in cell extracts if coenzyme A and nitrate were present. No benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and no phenylpropionate could be detected as intermediates. In isotope trapping experiments with cell suspensions, two intermediates from [14C]toluene were detected, benzoate and benzylsuccinate. This corroborates the sequence of reactions deduced from in vitro experiments. A hypothetical degradation pathway for the anaerobic oxidation of toluene to benzoyl-CoA via an initial addition of fumarate to the methyl group of toluene and following beta-oxidation of the benzylsuccinate formed is suggested. PMID:8706665

  6. Imaging of Abusive Trauma.

    PubMed

    Shekdar, Karuna

    2016-06-01

    "Shaken baby syndrome" is a term often used by the physicians and public to describe abusive trauma inflicted on infants and young children. Advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and the associated clinical spectrum of injury has lead us to modify our terminology and address it as "abusive trauma" (AT). Pediatric abusive head trauma is defined as an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of an infant or a young child (< 5 y age) due to inflicted blunt impact and/or violent shaking. This chapter focuses on the imaging aspects of childhood abusive trauma along with a brief description of the mechanism and pathophysiology of abusive injury. The diagnosis of AT is not always obvious, and abusive injuries in many infants may remain unrecognized. Pediatricians should be cognizant of AT since pediatricians play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management and prevention of AT. PMID:26882906

  7. Formation of Formaldehyde and Glyoxal From The Toluene + Oh Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkamer, R.; Wirtz, K.; Platt, U.

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted into the urban atmosphere mostly as part of au- tomobile exhaust. Toluene thereby is the single most abundant aromatic compound emitted into the atmosphere. Despite the importance of aromatic hydrocarbon oxi- dation for the formation of photooxidants from urban plumes the oxidation mech- anism of aromatic hydrocarbons is far from being understood.Considerable progress has been made in recent years concerning our understanding of the ring-retaining path- ways, while major uncertainties remain to be linked with the operative ring-cleavage mechanisms. The representation of the aromatic oxidation in presently used chemical transport models (CTM) is estimated a major uncertainty for these models. This work presents data on formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal, which are two impor- tant ring-cleavage products from the the toluene + OH reaction. While glyoxal was observed to form as a high yield primary product (Volkamer et al., JPC A, 2001, 105, 7865-7874) the formation of HCHO is observed delayed, i.e. as a secondary prod- uct. The temporal behaviour of glyoxal and HCHO concentrations allowed to con- clude that short lived stable intermediate compounds must form upon ring-cleavage of toluene. With an approximate lifetime of the order of ten minutes, these highly reac- tive intermediate compounds are likely to be a significant radical source. Atmospheric implications of the results are adressed.

  8. Microbial degradation of benzene and toluene in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, U.; Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. )

    1989-10-01

    Certain organic pollutants reaching the groundwater are subject to biotransformations. Currently, remedial measures promoting microbial degradation of pollutants are becoming very attractive because of their cost-effectiveness in removal of the contaminants. Current technology for reclaiming groundwater polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons involves (i) pumping the water into an aerated stripping tower, (ii) removal by sorbents, or (iii) biodegradation in situ or pumped into a bioreactor. Among the bioreactors, fixed film and suspended growth reactors are the most popular systems. Gasoline contamination of groundwaters is becoming an alarming and widespread problem. A major concern with petroleum contamination is the benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) content reaching the groundwater because of their solubility and high toxicity. The state of California Department of Health Services now recommends that remedial action be taken when the concentration of benzene and toluene exceeds 0.7 and 100 {mu}g L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The purpose of this study was to assess biodegradation of benzene and toluene in groundwater upon amendment with nutrients and an enriched hydrocarbon oxidizing culture.

  9. Photolysis Kinetics of Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes at Ice Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Alexa A; Hendrickson-Stives, Albanie K; Kahan, Tara F

    2016-09-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) are important organic pollutants. These compounds do not undergo direct photolysis in natural waters because their absorbance spectra do not overlap with solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Recent research has suggested that benzene is able to undergo direct photolysis when present at ice surfaces. However, the photolysis of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) at ice surfaces has not been investigated. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, photolysis rate constants were measured for TEX in water, in ice cubes, and in ice granules which reflect reactivity at ice surfaces. No photolysis was observed in water or ice cubes. Photolysis was observed in ice granules; rate constants were (4.5 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) s(-1) (toluene), (5.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-4) s(-1) (ethylbenzene), and (3.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-4) s(-1) (xylenes). Photolysis of TEX molecules appears to be enabled by a red shift in the absorbance spectra at ice surfaces, although photosensitization may also occur. The results suggest that direct photolysis could be an important removal pathway for TEX in snow-covered environments. PMID:27513159

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of toluene by platinized titanium dioxide photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Young, C; Lim, T M; Chiang, K; Amal, R

    2004-01-01

    A photoreactor has been set up to study the photodegradation of volatile organic compound (VOC) in situ. In the reactor, TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts were immobilized on to UV-transparent quartz support. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements revealed that the quartz fiber support was mostly coated with catalyst with a total surface area of 4.0 +/- 0.3 m2/g. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated for the photodegradation of 160 ppm toluene-laden air. It was found that 50-70% of toluene was degraded within the first 5 min of UV illumination. Both TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts suffered from deactivation after 18 hours of continuous operation, and the photocatalysts' activity was significantly reduced. However, platinization doubled the photocatalyst life and delayed the onset of de-activation. The presence of moisture was found to shift the onset of catalyst de-activation to an earlier time. It is concluded that the de-activation of the photocatalyst was due to the accumulation of intermediates on the photocatalysts surface preventing the toluene being adsorbed on the photocatalyst surface for degradation. PMID:15484768