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Sample records for cigarette burley tobacco

  1. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each lot of burley tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have a minimum space of...

  2. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each...

  3. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors... COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75a Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. (a)(1) Each...

  4. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR-Based Strategy for Molecular Evaluation of Nicotine Conversion in Burley Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Xue, Sheng-Ling; Zhang, Fen; Luo, Zhao-Peng; Wu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Qing; Tang, Hao-Ru; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nornicotine production in Nicotiana tabacum is undesirable because it is the precursor of the carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine. In some individual burley tobacco plants, a large proportion of the nicotine can be converted to nornicotine, and this process of nicotine conversion is mediated primarily by enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine which is controlled mainly by CYP82E4. Here we report a novel strategy based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, which analyzed the ratio of nicotine conversion through examining the transcript level of CYP82E4 in burley leaves and do not need ethylene induction before detected. The assay was linear in a range from 1 × 101 to 1 × 105 copies/mL of serially diluted standards, and also showed high specificity and reproducibility (93%–99%). To assess its applicability, 55 plants of burley cultivar Ky8959 at leaf maturing stage were analyzed, and the results were in accordance with those from gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Moreover, a linear correlation existed between conversion level and CYP82E4 transcript abundance. Taken together, the quantitative real-time PCR assay is standardized, rapid and reproducible for estimation of nicotine conversion level in vivo, which is expected to shed new light on monitoring of burley tobacco converter. PMID:26593897

  5. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)–acetonitrile–methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3–100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32–9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  6. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2016-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C(18) column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)-acetonitrile-methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3-100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32-9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  7. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use. PMID:23673789

  8. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  9. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  10. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  11. Application of GC-MS/MS for the analysis of tobacco alkaloids in cigarette filler and various tobacco species.

    PubMed

    Lisko, Joseph G; Stanfill, Stephen B; Duncan, Bryce W; Watson, Clifford H

    2013-03-19

    This publication reports the first known use of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitation of five minor tobacco alkaloids (nornicotine, myosmine, anabasine, anatabine, and isonicoteine) in various tobacco samples. A summary of the concentrations of these minor alkaloid levels in the filler from 50 popular cigarette brands were found to be 659-986 μg/g nornicotine, 8.64-17.3 μg/g myosmine, 127-185 μg/g anabasine, 927-1390 μg/g anatabine, and 23.4-45.5 μg/g isonicoteine. Levels of minor alkaloids found in reference cigarettes (1R5F, 2R4F, 3R4F, CM4, and CM6) as well as burley, flue-cured, oriental, reconstituted, and Nicotiana rustica and Nicotiana glauca tobacco types are also reported. Quantitation of the minor tobacco alkaloids is important because the alkaloids have been shown to be precursors of carcinogenic tobacco specific N'-nitrosamines. PMID:23394466

  12. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  14. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  15. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  16. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines NNN and NNK levels in cigarette brands between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Renaud, J-M; Hofer, R; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke is investigated based on smoke and tobacco chemistry data of cigarette brands sold by Philip Morris International (PMI) between 2000 and 2014. A total of 315 cigarette samples representing a wide range of product and design characteristics manufactured by PMI between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed and compared to a previously published dataset of PMI brands manufactured in 2000. The data indicate that there is a substantial reduction of NNN and NNK levels in tobacco fillers and MS cigarette smoke per mg of tar and per mg of nicotine using Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine-smoking regime. This observed reduction in NNN and NNK levels in MS cigarette smoke is also supported by the downward trend observed on NNN and NNK levels in USA flue-cured Virginia and Burley tobacco lots from 2000 to 2014 crops, reflecting effectiveness of measures taken on curing and agricultural practices designed to minimize TSNA formation in tobacco. PMID:26806560

  17. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. PMID:26800860

  18. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  19. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. PMID:26585203

  20. 210Po concentration analysis on tobacco and cigarettes in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco or better known as the cigarette was smoked since ages. Although many efforts had been made by the Ministry of Health to prevent or reduce the cigarette problem, the smokers still consider that cigarette are not harmful to health. This work is conducted to study the concentration of radionuclides alpha in tobacco and tobacco products in Malaysia. The radionuclide sought in this study is 210Po which is an alpha emitter. The sample used are tobacco and cigarettes, the tobacco samples were taken from tobacco farms in Malaysia while the sample branded cigarettes Marlboro and Gudang Garam were bought in the supermarket. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of radionuclides 210Po in tobacco and tobacco products as well as to estimate the radioactivity doses contributing to the smokers in Malaysia. The results for Marlboro cigarettes and Gudang Garam were found to be on the average radionuclide concentration of 210Po is 13.3 mBq/g (Marlboro cigarettes) and 11.9 mBq/g (Gudang Garam). From the total concentration of the cigarette, the estimated annual contribution dose to smokers for every 20 cigarettes smoked per day are 111.9 ± 14.7 μSv/year for Marlboro cigarettes and 100.2 ± 3.3 μSv/year for Gudang Garam cigarettes. The average concentration of radionuclides for tobacco leaf tobacco for each area taken is 3.6 mBq / g for Bachok, 2.4 mBq / g for Tumpat and 3.1 mBq / g for Semerak district.

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations. PMID:22525279

  2. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (<=3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  4. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  5. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  6. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  7. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  8. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    PubMed

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention. PMID:22932830

  9. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. PMID:25083263

  10. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  11. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  12. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  13. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in some Nigerian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1995-10-20

    Ten popular brands of cigarettes on the Nigerian market were analyzed for tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco and in mainstream smoke, as well as nitrate in tobacco. TSNA was analyzed using a gas chromatography/thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA), while nitrate was determined spectrophotometrically as nitrite following on-line reduction with copper, diozatization with sulfanilamide and coupling with N-(1-naphthyl) ethylene diamine to form an azo dye. In mainstream smoke, the concentration of NNN, NAB/NAT and NNK were respectively, between 8 and 90 ng, 10 and 65 ng, and between 15 and 72 ng/cigarette. Preformed NNN ranged between 64 and 565 ng/cigarette, while preformed NAB/NAT and NNK ranged respectively from 109 to 476 ng/cigarette, and from 55 to 317 ng/cigarette. Nitrate levels ranged between 1.5 and 6.1 mg/g tobacco. In general, the results indicate that the TSNA content of Nigerian cigarettes are within the range found for European and American cigarettes. PMID:7585468

  14. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  15. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  16. Relationships between cigarette consumption and biomarkers of tobacco toxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anne M; Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E; Carmella, Steven G; Le, Chap T; Zhang, Yan; Han, Shaomei; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a dose-response relationship between cigarettes per day and health outcomes such as heart and lung disease, and health outcomes are related to some biomarkers of tobacco exposure. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between cigarettes per day and levels of selected biomarkers of tobacco toxin exposure: carbon monoxide (CO), metabolites of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), respectively], and total cotinine (cotinine plus cotinine-N-glucuronide). We did a cross-sectional analysis of merged data from (a) two clinical trials and (b) two cohorts of light smokers (total n = 400). The mean age of participants was 50.4 years and the range of cigarette consumption was 1 to 100/d; however, few subjects smoked >45 cigarettes/d (n = 12). Results show that levels of the biomarkers CO, total NNAL, and total cotinine increase with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, but not in a linear fashion. 1-HOP is a less discriminating biomarker as levels are relatively stable regardless of the number of cigarettes smoked per day. There is considerable variability in toxin measurement, especially at high levels of smoking. There was a significant correlation between cigarettes per day and total NNAL, 1-HOP, total cotinine, and CO. Total NNAL was highly significantly correlated with total cotinine and CO and also significantly correlated with 1-HOP. These findings suggest that the number of cigarettes smoked per day is not necessarily a reliable measure of toxin exposure and may underestimate tobacco toxin exposure at low levels of smoking or overestimate exposure at high levels of smoking. PMID:16365017

  17. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  18. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  19. [Chemicals added to cigarettes and their effects on tobacco dependence].

    PubMed

    Gonseth, S; Cornuz, J

    2009-07-01

    This paper summarizes data on the factors involved in addiction and dependence to cigarettes. Nicotine has been intensively studied by the tobacco industry, for instance for its addictive effect at the lowest possible rates. The addition of diammonium phosphate and urea produces an alcalinization of the pH of cigarette smoke, and promotes the absorption and the trans-membrane passage of nicotine. The taste, the smell of smoke, and the visual aspect of the pack of cigarettes are also sensory components that promote addiction. Finally, menthol, sugar, cocoa and liquorice added to cigarettes also play a role in dependence and addiction to cigarettes by, for instance, making an anesthetic effect on the airways. PMID:19634533

  20. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The manufacturer of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes shall be liable for the taxes imposed...

  1. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke. PMID:17905505

  2. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and...

  3. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and...

  4. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  5. Cardiac Development in Zebrafish and Human Embryonic Stem Cells Is Inhibited by Exposure to Tobacco Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Palpant, Nathan J.; Hofsteen, Peter; Pabon, Lil; Reinecke, Hans; Murry, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking is a risk factor for low birth weight and other adverse developmental outcomes. Objective We sought to determine the impact of standard tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Methods Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to assess developmental effects in vivo and cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) was used as a model for in vitro cardiac development. Results In zebrafish, exposure to both types of cigarettes results in broad, dose-dependent developmental defects coupled with severe heart malformation, pericardial edema and reduced heart function. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than e-cigarettes at comparable nicotine concentrations. During cardiac differentiation of hESCs, tobacco smoke exposure results in a delayed transition through mesoderm. Both types of cigarettes decrease expression of cardiac transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells, suggesting a persistent delay in differentiation. In definitive human cardiomyocytes, both e-cigarette- and tobacco cigarette-treated samples showed reduced expression of sarcomeric genes such as MLC2v and MYL6. Furthermore, tobacco cigarette-treated samples had delayed onset of beating and showed low levels and aberrant localization of N-cadherin, reduced myofilament content with significantly reduced sarcomere length, and increased expression of the immature cardiac marker smooth muscle alpha-actin. Conclusion These data indicate a negative effect of both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects. PMID:25978043

  6. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

  7. Electronic cigarettes: a friend or foe in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Versha; Pemberton, Michael N

    2014-08-01

    Many dental practitioners will be aware of patients using electronic cigarettes over the last few years. These products are now widely used, but are they of help in tobacco control? And what are the implications of their use? The regulatory framework concerning these products is evolving rapidly with many opinions on what their final legal status should be. This paper explains their origin, explores some of the arguments and looks at possible future developments. PMID:25198644

  8. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: sidestream cigarette smoke review

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods, and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION...

  10. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION...

  11. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION...

  12. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION...

  13. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION...

  14. Tobacco flakes on cigarette filters grow bacteria: a potential health risk to the smoker?

    PubMed

    Pauly, J L; Waight, J D; Paszkiewicz, G M

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial growth from a single flake of tobacco was documented for cigarettes that had been purchased recently from local vendors and from cigarettes that had been stored for more than six years in a warehouse. In a novel tobacco flake assay, a pack of cigarettes was opened within the sterile environment of a laminar flow hood. A single flake of tobacco was collected randomly and aseptically from the middle of the cigarette column and placed onto the surface of a blood agar plate. The test cigarettes included eight different popular US brands, and these were from three different tobacco companies. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, the plates showed bacterial growth for tobacco from all brands of cigarettes. Further, more than 90% of the individual tobacco flakes of a given brand grew bacteria. Likewise, bacteria grew from microparticulate tobacco that had been sieved from cigarettes. Tobacco flakes were observed lying loosely on the cut surface of the filter of cigarettes in newly opened packs, and bacteria grew from cigarette filters that had been touched to the surface of a blood agar plate. In conclusion, the results of these studies predict that diverse microbes and microbial toxins are carried by tobacco microparticulates that are released from the cigarette during smoking, and carried into mainstream smoke that is sucked deep into the lung. PMID:18768459

  15. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within the ... regular cigarettes, they do carry a risk of addiction.” Data were collected as part of a longitudinal ...

  16. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  17. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  18. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  19. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  20. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  1. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  2. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into...

  3. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  4. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  5. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  6. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects' experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26554277

  7. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects’ experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26554277

  8. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Avey, Jaedon P.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Beans, Julie A.; Robinson, Renee F.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes. PMID:26487575

  9. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  10. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-01-01

    Background Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. Objective To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Outcome measures Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents‐off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Results Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (p<0.01), and are higher in market areas with high tobacco control programme funding (p<0.01) and high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a multipack promotion is higher since the MSA (p<0.01) and in market areas with high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a cents‐off promotion is negatively related to the MSA (p<0.01), with mixed results for tobacco control programme funding (p<0.05), and is unassociated with tax. Conclusions Higher promoted cigarette sales and increased promotional values in market areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas. PMID:17130375

  11. Cigarettes, social reinforcement, and culture: a commentary on "Tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China".

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-03-01

    As Rich and Xiao suggested, cigarette sharing and gifting play an important role in China's smoking epidemic. Understanding the cultural roots, history, and impacts of such practices should be emphasized in tobacco control efforts. "Tobacco as a social currency" is a consequence of the tobacco industry usurping traditional values and cultural customs to make cigarette gifting acceptable, desirable, and socially reinforcing. The cigarettes-social reinforcement link created by the tobacco industry can be broken by deglamorizing smoking and cigarette gifting and by reinforcing alternative healthful behaviors. A behavioral ecological perspective, with an emphasis of understanding and engineering cultures, should guide future health promotion efforts to reduce smoking and other risk practices in China. PMID:22180592

  12. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  13. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  14. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  15. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  17. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  18. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  19. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  3. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  4. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  5. Risk Factors for Exclusive E-Cigarette Use and Dual E-Cigarette Use and Tobacco Use in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J.; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. METHODS: School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). RESULTS: Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. PMID:25511118

  6. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this...

  7. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this...

  8. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals. PMID:27184265

  9. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525962

  10. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525962

  11. [Change of the trace elements content from cigarettes (tobacco) to its ash and to look at harm of stuck cigarette].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nai-Xing; Cui, Xue-Gui; Han, Ling; Zhaxi, Yongxi; Dawa, Zhuoga

    2007-09-01

    After the digestion of cigarettes and its ash are digested with concentrated nitric acid and perchloric acid, the change in mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb and Cd) content in the cigarette and its ash were determined by flame atomic absorptionspectrophotometry. The experimental results showed that there were differences between the cigarette (tobacco) and its ash, especially, the contents of Pb and Cd harmful to human health in the ash are lowed 26.4% and 44.2%, respectively. It is concluded that a part of Pb and Cd in the cigarette passes through the human lung respiration and air environment. PMID:18051543

  12. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty‐three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb‐only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb‐only product. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal‐tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal‐tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal‐tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

  13. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:10224986

  14. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  15. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects' disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  16. 75 FR 13225 - Regulations Restricting the Sale and Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco To Protect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... cigarettes and smokeless tobacco identical in its provisions to the regulation issued by FDA in 1996 (61 FR... United States (section 2(13) of the Tobacco Control Act; 61 FR 44398). Tobacco use causes more than 400... Control Act; 60 FR 41314 at 41315; August 11, 1995). As Congress recognized, the 1996 final rule was...

  17. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  18. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  19. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    PubMed

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies. PMID:25742539

  20. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Methods Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. Results From 1980–1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. Conclusions BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting. PMID:21282136

  1. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P.; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50–1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p value < 0.001). Among lower-income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

  2. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  3. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  4. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  5. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  6. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  7. Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in U.S. Cigarettes -Three Decades of Remarkable Neglect by the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Irina; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major U.S. cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. Since there is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the U.S., we examined the levels of these carcinogens in currently marketed brands. Seventeen brands of cigarettes were purchased in April of 2010 from retail stores in Minnesota. In all brands, the sum of two potent carcinogenic TSNA – 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and N′-nitrosonornicotine – in cigarette filler averaged 2.54 (±1.05) μg/g tobacco. This value is virtually identical to the sum of these two carcinogens reported for the tobacco of a U.S. filtered cigarette in 1979. TSNA levels in smoke positively correlated with those in tobacco filler of the same cigarettes. We found no indication that any meaningful attempt was made to reduce or even control TSNA levels in the new varieties of the popular brands Marlboro and Camel introduced over the last decade. In light of the recently granted regulatory authority to the FDA over tobacco products, regulation of TSNA levels in cigarette tobacco should be strongly considered to reduce the levels of these potent carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:21602537

  8. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke. PMID:12198849

  9. Effect of the tobacco price support program on cigarette consumption in the United States: an updated model.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, P; Husten, C; Giovino, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the direct effect of the tobacco price support program on domestic cigarette consumption. METHODS: We developed an economic model of demand and supply of US tobacco to estimate how much the price support program increases the price of tobacco. We calculated the resultant increase in cigarette prices from the change in the tobacco price and the quantity of domestic tobacco contained in US cigarettes. We then assessed the reduction in cigarette consumption attributable to the price support program by applying the estimated increase in the cigarette price to assumed price elasticities of demand for cigarettes. RESULTS: We estimated that the tobacco price support program increased the price of tobacco leaf by $0.36 per pound. This higher tobacco price translates to a $0.01 increase in the price of a pack of cigarettes and an estimated 0.21% reduction in cigarette consumption. CONCLUSION: Because the tobacco price support program increases the price of cigarettes minimally, its potential health benefit is likely to be small. The adverse political effect of the tobacco program might substantially outweigh the potential direct benefit of the program on cigarette consumption. PMID:10800423

  10. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, G. Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes at reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. Objectives First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users’ tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of sixteen low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Methods We use data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and the type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We use self-reported information about the source of a smoker’s last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France. Findings We find prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the United Kingdom, more than 10% of smokers report last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources while in Malaysia, some prevalence estimates suggest substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also find important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, vary both in

  11. Tobacco Use and Usual Source of Cigarettes among High School Students--United States, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that investigated the prevalence of tobacco use by high school students (n=10,904) and the usual source of cigarettes. Survey data indicated that smoking increased from 1991-95. Most students bought cigarettes from vending machines, one-third borrowed them from someone else, and 15% had someone else buy them. (SM)

  12. Chemical, physical, and in vitro characterization of research cigarettes containing denicotinized tobacco.

    PubMed

    Coffa, Bonnie G; Coggins, Christopher R E; Werley, Michael S; Oldham, Michael J; Fariss, Marc W

    2016-08-01

    The use of very low nicotine tobacco cigarettes is currently being investigated as a possible harm reduction strategy. Here, we report the smoke chemistry, toxicity, and physical characteristics of very low nicotine cigarettes that were made using blended tobacco processed through a supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, which resulted in elimination of 96% of nicotine content (denicotinized (denic) tobacco). Three types of test cigarettes (TCs) were manufactured with tobacco filler containing 100% denic tobacco (TC100), 50% denic tobacco and 50% unextracted tobacco (TC50/50), and 100% unextracted tobacco (TC0). Mainstream smoke (MS) was generated for measurement of 46 analytes and cytotoxicity and mutagenicity determination. Analysis of physical characteristics of TCs demonstrated they were well made with <5% variability among cigarettes for most parameters measured. We observed significant changes in the levels of smoke constituents, including decreases in formaldehyde, nitrosamines, and phenol, and increases in aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic nitrogen compounds, aromatic amines, halogen compounds, and metals. Use of denic tobacco resulted in changes in the chemical composition of MS, but these changes did not modify biological activity as measured in the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity assays. PMID:27181452

  13. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  14. Establishment of Toxic Metal Reference Range in Tobacco from U.S. Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Pappas, R. Steven; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. There are numerous harmful substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among the more than 4,000 identified compounds in smoke, many metals contribute to the health risks associated with tobacco use. Specific metals found in tobacco and tobacco smoke have been classified as carcinogens by the IARC. Exposures to toxic metals can cause outcomes including inflammation, sensitization, and carcinogensis. Metals in tobacco are transported in tobacco smoke proportionally with their concentrations in tobacco filler for a given cigarette design. To quantitatively examine metal content in numerous tobacco products, high throughput methods are desired. We developed a simple, rapid tobacco digestion method coupled with a sensitive analytical method using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Because of mercury's known memory effects and volatility, quantitative determinations of mercury were made with a direct combustion analyzer. The methods were utilized to examine arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel content in cigarette tobacco and to establish a reference range for the metals in 50 varieties of cigarettes available in the U.S. Our results are comparable to the limited datasets reported by others and with available standard reference material (SRM) values. PMID:23548667

  15. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... areas as defined in the Air Commerce Regulations (19 CFR part 122). Deliveries may not be made to a... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commerce Regulations (19 CFR part 122). Deliveries may not be made to a vessel or aircraft stationed in the... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  17. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... areas as defined in the Air Commerce Regulations (19 CFR part 122). Deliveries may not be made to a... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  18. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... areas as defined in the Air Commerce Regulations (19 CFR part 122). Deliveries may not be made to a... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  19. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... areas as defined in the Air Commerce Regulations (19 CFR part 122). Deliveries may not be made to a... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  20. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  1. Area Disparity in Children's Perceptions of Access to Tobacco and Cigarette Purchasing Experiences in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Li; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Ted; Lu, Di-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who perceive easy access to tobacco are more likely to acquire cigarettes and experience smoking. This study assesses area disparities in perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences among schoolchildren. Methods: Data on children's tobacco-related variables were obtained from the Control of…

  2. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use. PMID:21127030

  3. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Results Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African–Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. Conclusions The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find ‘regular’ cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit. PMID:21504928

  4. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  5. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS ... Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  6. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  7. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  8. 75 FR 35302 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter'' published in the Federal Register on May 27, 2010 (75 FR... Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24534, 24535), the complex verification requirements for the PACT... 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail...

  9. The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nitzkin, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  10. The case in favor of E-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Nitzkin, Joel L

    2014-06-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  11. Tobacco industry scientific advisors: serving society or selling cigarettes?

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1991-07-01

    According to industry documents, the tobacco industry has executed a "brilliantly conceived" strategy to "creat[e] doubt" in the public's mind about whether cigarette smoking is in fact a serious cause of disease. A component of this strategy has been the funding of scientific research "into the gaps in knowledge in the smoking controversy." Grant review and selection are performed by a group of independent scientists. Knowledgeable observers believe that the existence of this research funding program in general, and the Scientific Advisory Board in particular, is intended by the industry to reinforce doubts in the public mind about the severity of the hazards posed by smoking. Because the Advisory Board has never taken a public stance against the industry's position that the causal relationship between smoking and disease remains unproven, I polled these scientists to determine whether they believed that smoking is a cause of lung cancer. Despite repeated opportunities, only four of 13 board members responded, all affirmatively; two others have expressed their judgment that smoking causes lung cancer in their professional publications. Thus, over half of the Board members, and the Board as a whole, have not gone on record as rejecting the industry's "party line." It might be hoped that the American scientists would follow the lead of the members of a similar body of scientists in Australia who have taken a strong and public stand against the industry position that smoking is not an established cause of disease. PMID:2053656

  12. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  13. Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

  14. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

  15. DECOY: Documenting Experiences with Cigarettes and Other Tobacco in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Haardörfer, Regine; Lewis, Michael; Getachew, Betelihem; Lloyd, Steven A.; Thomas, Sarah Fretti; Lanier, Angela; Trepanier, Kelleigh; Johnston, Teresa; Grimsley, Linda; Foster, Bruce; Benson, Stephanie; Smith, Alicia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined psychographic characteristics associated with tobacco use among Project DECOY participants. Methods Project DECOY is a 2-year longitudinal mixed-methods study examining risk for tobacco use among 3418 young adults across 7 Georgia colleges/universities. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, tobacco use, and psychographics using the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of tobacco use. Results Past 30-day use prevalence was: 13.3% cigarettes; 11.3% little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs); 3.6% smokeless tobacco; 10.9% e-cigarettes; and 12.2% hookah. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and intellectual curiosity (p = .010) and less interest in tangible creation (p = .002) and social conservatism (p < .001). Correlates of LCC use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and greater fashion orientation (p = .007). Correlates of smokeless tobacco use included greater novelty seeking (p = .006) and less intellectual curiosity (p < .001). Correlates of e-cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and less social conservatism (p = .002). Correlates of hookah use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001), fashion orientation (p = .044), and self-focused thinking (p = .002), and less social conservatism (p < .001). Conclusions Psychographic characteristics distinguish users of different tobacco products. PMID:27103410

  16. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  17. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis. PMID:22392377

  18. PB-210 concentrations in cigarettes tobaccos and radiation doses to the smokers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Alaamer, A S

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a source of radiation exposure due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the tobacco leaves. From the health point of view, measurement of (210)Pb and (210)Po contents in cigarette tobacco is important to assess the radiological effects associated with the tobacco smoking for the smokers. In the present study, activity concentrations of (210)Pb, which is a (210)Po precursor in the (238)U-decay series, were measured in cigarette tobaccos. Samples of nine different commonly sold brands of cigarette tobaccos were analysed by employing a planar high purity germanium (HPGe) low background detector. Activity concentrations of (210)Pb were measured from its gamma peak at 47 keV. Mean activity concentration of (210)Pb was measured to be 13 +/- 4 Bq kg(-1) from all samples analysed. The annual committed effective dose for a smoker and the collective committed effective dose corresponding to annual cigarettes production were estimated to be 64 +/- 20 microSv and 0.6 x 10(2) man-Sv, respectively. PMID:18359803

  19. Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays the European Union faces a debate on the ban of sale of flavoured cigarettes. There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers are more vulnerable to the use of flavoured cigarettes. However in some European countries, figures on the use of these cigarettes are still scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of flavoured cigarettes use in Poland, and examine whether its use among adults varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data on tobacco use including flavoured cigarettes and other characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals covering 2,254 current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected socio-economic variables on the use of flavoured cigarettes. Results Among females the aromatized cigarettes use was 26.1% compared to 10.5% in males (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.62–3.2; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aged 20–29 years had an increased likelihood of using flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects aged 60 years or older (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aware of negative health consequences of smoking had OR = 1.4 95% CI: 1.1–2.1 (p ≤ 0.05) of smoking aromatized cigarettes compared to those who were unaware. Participants who perceived some kinds of cigarettes less harmful than others were also more likely to use flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects who were convinced that all cigarettes are equally harmful (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8; p ≤ 0.01). High educational attainment, living in large cities, being non-economically active was also associated with use of flavoured cigarettes. Conclusion Our results are consistent with majority of epidemiology studies on this topic to date and

  20. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products. PMID:27608034

  1. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  2. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  4. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  7. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  8. 27 CFR 41.85 - Release from customs custody of imported tobacco products or cigarette papers or tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release from customs custody of imported tobacco products or cigarette papers or tubes. 41.85 Section 41.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  9. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. Non-cigarette tobacco products: What have we learned and where are we headed?

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exists and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks, and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in both form and health hazards, with some clearly toxic forms (e.g. South Asia), and some forms with far fewer hazards (e.g., Sweden). There are also emerging nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco (e.g. electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]). The presence of such products presents both challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smokefree environments, product health warnings, and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity. PMID:22345243

  14. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue. PMID:25795345

  15. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. Methods We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1,303±2,676 μg/m2; p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the amount of nicotine in homes of e-cigarette users and non-users (p>0.05). Conclusions Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25869751

  16. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Gillman, I. Gene; Melvin, Matt S.; Paolantonio, Amelia R.; Gardow, Wendy J.; Humphries, Kathy E.; Brown, Sherri E.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products. PMID:25811768

  17. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2011-01-01

    Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918

  18. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766 571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

  19. Big tobacco, E-cigarettes, and a road to the smoking endgame.

    PubMed

    Branston, J Robert; Sweanor, David

    2016-03-01

    The provision of the extraordinarily deadly product of cigarettes is dominated by a small number of large and incredibly profitable shareholder owned companies that are focussed on cigarettes. The legal duty of their managers to maximise shareholder wealth means that such companies vigorously fight any new public health measures that have the potential to disrupt their massive profit making, and have the resources to do so. Protecting the public health is therefore made a lot more difficult and expensive. We suggest that one way to counter this would be to actively design future tobacco control policies so that tobacco companies face mechanisms and incentives to develop in such a way that they no longer achieve the greatest shareholder value by focusing on cigarettes. A proper tobacco diversification and exit strategy for the shareholders of the profit-seeking tobacco industry would protect the public health by addressing the current addiction to the continuation of the cigarette market. The increasing popularity of e-cigarettes presents a particular opportunity in this regard, and we therefore suggest a possible policy response in order to start discussion in this area. PMID:26774225

  20. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  1. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J; Shane, B S; Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed. PMID:3428180

  2. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed young adults’ use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. Methods In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Results Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75–19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. Conclusions The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband. PMID:23577796

  3. Tobacco‐related disease mortality among men who switched from cigarettes to spit tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Henley, S Jane; Connell, Cari J; Richter, Patricia; Husten, Corinne; Pechacek, Terry; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although several epidemiological studies have examined the mortality among users of spit tobacco, none have compared mortality of former cigarette smokers who substitute spit tobacco for cigarette smoking (“switchers”) and smokers who quit using tobacco entirely. Methods A cohort of 116 395 men were identified as switchers (n = 4443) or cigarette smokers who quit using tobacco entirely (n = 111 952) when enrolled in the ongoing US American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II. From 1982 to 31 December 2002, 44 374 of these men died. The mortality hazard ratios (HR) of tobacco‐related diseases, including lung cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression modelling adjusted for age and other demographic variables, as well as variables associated with smoking history, including number of years smoked, number of cigarettes smoked and age at quitting. Results After 20 years of follow‐up, switchers had a higher rate of death from any cause (HR 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.15), lung cancer (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.73), coronary heart disease (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.29) and stroke (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.53) than those who quit using tobacco entirely. Conclusion The risks of dying from major tobacco‐related diseases were higher among former cigarette smokers who switched to spit tobacco after they stopped smoking than among those who quit using tobacco entirely. PMID:17297069

  4. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  5. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers...

  6. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers...

  7. How did the Master Settlement Agreement change tobacco industry expenditures for cigarette advertising and promotions?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the tobacco industry restricted cigarette advertising and promotions. The MSA monetary settlement was also associated with an average cigarette price increase of U.S.$1.19/pack between 1998 and 2001 to fund, in part, industry payments to the states. We examined Federal Trade Commission reports on how the tobacco industry spends its cigarette advertising and promotional dollars to see if changes expected as a result of the MSA occurred. Expected changes included reduced total expenditures and reductions for outdoor advertising, specialty promotional items identified with a brand (e.g., caps, t-shirts, lighters), and public entertainment. However, tobacco industry spending for advertising and promotions increased 96% between 1995 and 2001, with large increases in 1998 and 1999, as the MSA took effect. Between 1997 and 2001, outdoor advertising declined 98%, expenditures for specialty promotional items decreased 41%, although public entertainment increased 45%. However, in 2001, these categories represented only a small fraction of the total budget. Expenditures for retail-value-added increased 344% between 1997 and 2001 (to 42.5% of total), perhaps to mitigate increased cigarette prices. In 2001, the incentives-to-merchants and retail-value-added categories comprised more than 80% of total expenditures. To adequately monitor tobacco industry expenditures as they adapt to the MSA and other tobacco control efforts, more refined reporting categories are essential. PMID:15231101

  8. Radioactive uranium in various Indian tobaccos and consumable products (snuff, chutta, bidi and cigarette).

    PubMed

    Lal, N; Sharma, P K; Nagpaul, K K; Behera, D; Malik, S K

    1987-01-01

    Tobacco is chewed in the form of snuff and thus its radioactivity--if there is any--goes directly into the body. Besides normal smoking, tobacco is also smoked in reverse manner in the form of "chutta", an indigenously prepared cigar made from the home grown plants of Nicotinia tobacum in South East coastal towns and villages in India. The burnt residue and the radioactive element--if there is any--in the case of chutta smoking will also go directly in the body causing hazardous effects. Uranium traces were determined in commercially available samples of snuff, chutta, bidi and cigarette tobacco using radiation damage etch technique. The analysis showed that uranium levels varied from 7.4 to 19.1 ppm in snuff, 0.16 to 0.37 ppm in chutta, 0.13 to 0.23 in bidi and 0.037 to 0.12 ppm in cigarette tobacco. PMID:3557727

  9. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. PMID:24732441

  10. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  11. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  12. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol's relation to smoking cessation behaviour. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 15 May to 1 August 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. A final collection of 509 documents relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) perceived sensory and taste rewards of menthol and potential relation to quitting; and (2) motivation to quit among menthol users. Results Menthol's cooling and anaesthetic effects mask the short-term negative physiological effects of smoking such as throat pain, burning and cough. This provides superficial physical relief as well as psychological assurance against concerns about the health dangers of smoking that would otherwise motivate smokers to quit. Menthol smokers, particularly women, perceive the minty aroma of menthol cigarettes to be more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Discussion Consumers believe menthol's sensory effects equate to health protections and that menthol cigarettes are more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol in cigarettes may encourage experimenters who find non-mentholated cigarettes too harsh, including young or inexperienced users, to progress to regular smoking rather than quitting, and may lessen the motivation to quit among established menthol smokers. The perception of menthol cigarettes as more socially acceptable lessens the impact of smoking denormalisation on quitting motivation. Menthol makes cigarettes easier and more palatable to smoke and less desirable to quit among established smokers. Fewer smokers quitting contributes to the incidence of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:21504932

  13. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  14. Problems with E-Cigarettes, Vape Products, Hookah, Cigarettes or Tobacco? Tell FDA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ... To report problems with tobacco products, go to the Safety Reporting Portal Get Consumer Updates by E-mail ...

  15. 75 FR 24534 - Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... 111 Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter AGENCY: Postal Service TM... advertisement, by any person that the person will mail matter which is nonmailable under this section in return... website, or an advertisement, by any person that the person will mail matter which is nonmailable...

  16. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  17. 75 FR 29662 - Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 24534-24541) to implement the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act of 2009.... Noncontiguous States: Intrastate shipments within Alaska or Hawaii; Business/Regulatory Purposes: Shipments transmitted between verified and authorized tobacco industry businesses for business purposes, or between...

  18. 78 FR 44484 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments... (Pub. L. 111-31, 123 Stat. 1776). Among other things, section 907(e) of the FD&C Act (21 U.S.C 387g(e...MeetingMaterials/TobaccoProductsScientificAdvisoryCommittee/UCM249320.pdf . Two cigarette...

  19. 75 FR 37308 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Service published a final rule in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35302), adding a new... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International...

  20. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  1. Association of electronic cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Strong, David R.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Stone, Matthew D.; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Importance Exposure to nicotine in electronic (e-) cigarettes is common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. Objectives To evaluate whether e-cigarette ever-use among 14-year-olds who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of three combustible tobacco products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Design Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, Mean age=14.1) and 6-month (spring 2014, 9th grade) and 12-month (fall 2014, 10th grade) follow-ups. Setting and Participants Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, CA were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and underwent follow-up assessment (N=2,530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Exposure Self-report of e-cigarette ever-use (yes/no) at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Six- and 12-month follow-up reports of use of each of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes/no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes/no), (3) cigars (yes/no); (4) hookah (yes/no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0–3). Results Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever-users (N=222) than never-users (N=2,308) at the 6-month (30.7% vs. 8.1%, % difference [95% CI]=22.7[16.4, 28.9]) and 12-month (25.2% vs. 9.3%, % difference [95% CI]= 15.9[10.0, 21.8]) follow-ups. Baseline ever e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of combustible tobacco use averaged across the two follow-ups in unadjusted analyses (OR[95% CI]=4.27[3.19, 5.71]) and in analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, environmental, and intrapersonal risk factors for smoking (OR[95% CI]=2.73[2.00, 3.73]). Product-specific analyses showed that baseline e-cigarette ever-use was

  2. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  3. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Collishaw, Neil E; Callard, Cynthia

    2006-03-01

    A lack of scientific data remains the principal obstacle to regulating cigarette toxicity. In particular, there is an immediate need to improve our understanding of the interaction between smoking behaviour and product design, and its influence on cigarette deliveries. This article reviews internal tobacco industry documents on smoking behaviour research undertaken by Imperial Tobacco Limited (ITL) and British-American Tobacco (BAT). BAT documents indicate that smokers vary their puffing behaviour to regulate nicotine levels and compensate for low-yield cigarettes by smoking them more intensely. BAT research also shows that the tar and nicotine delivered to smokers is substantially greater than the machine-smoked yields reported to consumers and regulators. Internal documents describe a strategy to maximise this discrepancy through product design. In particular, BAT developed elastic cigarettes that produced low yields under standard testing protocols, whereas in consumers' hands they elicited more intensive smoking and provided higher concentrations of tar and nicotine to smokers. Documents also show that BAT pursued this product strategy despite the health risks to consumers and ethical concerns raised by senior scientists, and paired it with an equally successful marketing campaign that promoted these cigarettes as low-tar alternatives for health-concerned smokers. Overall, the documents seem to reveal a product strategy intended to exploit the limitations of the testing protocols and to intentionally conceal from consumers and regulators the potential toxicity of BAT products revealed by BAT's own research. Tobacco industry research underscores the serious limitations of the current cigarette testing protocols and the documents describe deceptive business practices that remain in place. PMID:16517278

  4. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. PMID:15799598

  5. Impact of Tobacco Control on Adult per Capita Cigarette Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Donald W.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Levy, David T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of tobacco control on adult per capita cigarette consumption in the United States from 1964 to 2011. Methods. We used logit regression to model the diffusion of smoking from 1900 to 2011. We also projected hypothetical cigarette consumption after 1963 in the absence of tobacco control. Model predictors included historical events such as wars, specific tobacco control interventions, and other influences. Results. Per capita consumption increased rapidly through 1963, consistent with S-shaped (sigmoid) diffusion. The course reversed beginning in 1964, the year of publication of the first surgeon general’s report on smoking and health. Subsequent tobacco control policy interventions significantly reduced consumption. Had the tobacco control movement never occurred, per capita consumption would have been nearly 5 times higher than it actually was in 2011. Conclusions. Tobacco control has been one of the most successful public health endeavors of the past half century. Still, the remaining burden of smoking in the United States augurs hundreds of thousands of deaths annually for decades to come. Reinvigorating the tobacco control movement will require novel interventions as well as stronger application of existing evidence-based policies. PMID:24228645

  6. Neutrophil Priming by Cigarette Smoke Condensate and a Tobacco Anti-Idiotypic Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, Susan M.; Kuhnmuench, John R.; Becker, Carl G.

    2000-01-01

    A polyphenol-rich reagent, referred to as CSC, was isolated from cigarette smoke condensate and shown to prime purified human neutrophils. A mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody directed against the polyphenol-reactive determinants on a rabbit polyclonal anti-tobacco glycoprotein antibody was generated and shown to also prime neutrophils. After priming by CSC or tobacco anti-idiotypic antibody, there was a 2.5-fold to threefold increase in CD11b/18 expression and doubling of the number of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptors on the cells. The primed cells showed a twofold increase, compared with unprimed cells, in production of superoxide and release of neutrophil elastase after stimulation with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Neutrophils in peripheral blood of cigarette smokers have been shown to be primed and more responsive to activating agents. The priming effects attributed to whole cigarette smoke have been demonstrated in these studies using purified neutrophils and CSC or tobacco anti-idiotypic antibody. These studies are a first step in testing the hypothesis that the inflammatory process contributing to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in ex-smokers may be driven, in part, by tobacco anti-idiotypic antibodies. This hypothesis is novel and carries with it the implication of a heretofore unrecognized autoimmune component in the disease process manifested through production of anti-idiotypic antibodies with tobacco-like activity. PMID:11073832

  7. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco. PMID:8776289

  8. Cigarettes Become a Dangerous Product: Tobacco in the Rearview Mirror, 1952–1965

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Andrew; Gottlieb, Mark A.; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Friedman, Lissy C.; Daynard, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control’s unparalleled success comes partly from advocates broadening the focus of responsibility beyond the smoker to include industry and government. To learn how this might apply to other issues, we examined how early tobacco control events were framed in news, legislative testimony, and internal tobacco industry documents. Early debate about tobacco is stunning for its absence of the personal responsibility rhetoric prominent today, focused instead on the health harms from cigarettes. The accountability of government, rather than the industry or individual smokers, is mentioned often; solutions focused not on whether government had a responsibility to act, but on how to act. Tobacco lessons can guide advocates fighting the food and beverage industry, but must be reinterpreted in current political contexts. PMID:24228675

  9. Cigarettes become a dangerous product: tobacco in the rearview mirror, 1952-1965.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Cheyne, Andrew; Gottlieb, Mark A; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Friedman, Lissy C; Daynard, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control's unparalleled success comes partly from advocates broadening the focus of responsibility beyond the smoker to include industry and government. To learn how this might apply to other issues, we examined how early tobacco control events were framed in news, legislative testimony, and internal tobacco industry documents. Early debate about tobacco is stunning for its absence of the personal responsibility rhetoric prominent today, focused instead on the health harms from cigarettes. The accountability of government, rather than the industry or individual smokers, is mentioned often; solutions focused not on whether government had a responsibility to act, but on how to act. Tobacco lessons can guide advocates fighting the food and beverage industry, but must be reinterpreted in current political contexts. PMID:24228675

  10. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco..., Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

  11. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Delivery of tobacco..., Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

  12. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Delivery of tobacco..., Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

  13. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  14. Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Maynard, Olivia M; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-01-01

    Aims To gain insight into the potential impact of plain tobacco packaging policy, two experiments were undertaken to test whether ‘prototype’ plain compared with branded UK cigarette pack stimuli would differentially elicit instrumental tobacco-seeking in a nominal Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure. Design, Setting and Participants Two experiments were undertaken at the University of Bristol UK, with a convenience sample of adult smokers (experiment 1, n = 23, experiment 2, n = 121). Measurement In both experiments, smokers were trained on a concurrent choice procedure in which two responses earned points for cigarettes and chocolate, respectively, before images of branded and plain packs were tested for capacity to elicit the tobacco-seeking response in extinction. The primary outcome was percentage choice of the tobacco- over the chocolate-seeking response in plain pack, branded pack and no-stimulus conditions. Findings Both experiments found that branded packs primed a greater percentage of tobacco-seeking (overall mean = 62%) than plain packs (overall mean = 53%) and the no-stimulus condition (overall mean = 52%; Ps ≤ 0.01, ŋp2s ≥ 0.16), and that there was no difference in percentage tobacco-seeking between plain packs and the no-stimulus condition (Ps ≥ 0.17, ŋp2s ≤ 0.04). Plain tobacco packs showed an overall 9% reduction in the priming of a tobacco choice response compared to branded tobacco packs. Conclusions Plain packaging may reduce smoking in current smokers by degrading cue-elicited tobacco-seeking. PMID:25292280

  15. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  16. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers’ beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Rini, Christine M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand smokers’ perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  17. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    MedlinePlus

    ... t the U.S ban tobacco production? Eric Wargo Hi jgarcia, Because that would require congress to pass ... New Hampshire: Are vaporizer pens dangerous? Albert Avila Hi Kearsarge! Thanks for your question! 'Vape pens', or ...

  18. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  19. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory. PMID:25620723

  20. 7. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BURLEY SUBSTATION WITH DRYCLEANERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF BURLEY SUBSTATION WITH DRYCLEANERS IN FOREGROUND AND SIDE OF SUBSTATION WITH BREAK BETWEEN 1913-1914 AND 1921 CONSTRUCTION PHASES IN BACKGROUND - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:18639603

  2. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Methods Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students’ current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. Results The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%–10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Conclusion Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users. PMID:27490368

  3. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Methods Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Results Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2–15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133–337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. Conclusions The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. PMID:25566812

  4. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  5. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  6. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1 Section 45... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This part contains...

  7. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  8. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  9. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  10. [Excise taxes on tobacco and the problem of smuggling - concerning the credibility of the tobacco industry's "Discarded-Cigarette-Packages-Study"].

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Effertz, T

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of tobacco products is one of the main causes of illnesses. An often neglected but highly effective instrument for fiscal and preventive purposes is higher taxes on tobacco products. The tobacco industry however claims that higher taxes have tremendous effects on smuggling activity with additional costs with regard to law enforcement. The claim appears to be substantiated by a study which collects and documents the amounts of discarded empty cigarette packs, and which is used to estimate the fraction of illegally imported cigarettes. We show that this study makes use of systematic misspecifications and impreciseness and thus seems to pursue the aim of showing an exaggerated high amount of illegally imported cigarettes. The industry's claim that two thirds of non-taxed cigarettes in Germany are imported illegally, thus lacks any sound, well-grounded empirical corroboration. PMID:20848381

  11. Talk is cheap: the tobacco companies' violations of their own cigarette advertising code.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2005-01-01

    In two studies, adolescents and adults were shown a series of cigarette advertisements and asked to respond to a variety of questions concerning aspects of the Cigarette Advertising and Promotion Code, specifically, their perceptions of the ages of the models in the ads and of whether the ads depicted smoking as essential to sexual attraction or essential to success. For many of the ads, especially ads for brands most popular among youth, a majority of the participants perceived the models to be less than 25 years old. A majority also perceived many of the ads to depict smoking as essential to sexual attraction or essential to success. Thus, despite their public pledge, the tobacco companies routinely violate a variety of aspects of the Cigarette Advertising and Promotion Code. PMID:16199386

  12. Evaluation of 210Pb and 210Po in cigarette tobacco produced in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, A C; Hiromoto, G

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the pathways that might contribute significantly to the increase in the radiation dose reaching man, due to the relatively large concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po found in tobacco leaves. In the present study, the concentrations of these two radionuclides were determined in eight of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Brazil. 210Pb was determined by counting the beta activity of 210Bi with a gas flow proportional detector after radiochemical separation and precipitation of PbCrO4. 210Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a surface barrier detector after radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of Po on a copper disk. The results showed concentrations ranging from 11.9 to 30.2 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210Pb and from 10.9 to 27.4 mBq per gram of dry tobacco for 210Po. The collective committed effective dose resulting from the use of cigarettes produced in Brazil per year is estimated to be 1.5 x 10(4) man-Sv. PMID:12141603

  13. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  14. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (19 CFR part 127) on sales of articles by customs officers, the payment of tax on such articles must... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25...

  15. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (19 CFR part 127) on sales of articles by customs officers, the payment of tax on such articles must... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25...

  16. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (19 CFR part 127) on sales of articles by customs officers, the payment of tax on such articles must... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25...

  17. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 127) on sales of articles by customs officers, the payment of tax on those articles must be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25...

  18. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (19 CFR part 127) on sales of articles by customs officers, the payment of tax on such articles must... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25...

  19. The impact of product information and trials on demand for smokeless tobacco and cigarettes: Evidence from experimental auctions

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; O'Connor, Richard; Thrasher, James F; June, Kristie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests lower risk of smokeless tobacco (ST) products compared to cigarettes. Less is known, however, about consumer perceptions and use of novel forms of ST, including snus and dissolvable tobacco. Methods In this study, we conducted in-person experimental auctions in Buffalo, NY, Columbia, SC, and Selinsgrove, PA with 571 smokers to test the impact of information and product trials on smokers’ preferences. Auctions were conducted between November 2010-November 2011. Results We found no evidence of an impact of product trials on demand in our auctions. Anti-ST information increased demand for cigarettes when presented alone, but when presented with Pro-ST information it decreased demand for cigarettes. It did not decrease demand for ST products. Anti-smoking information increased demand for ST products, but did not affect cigarette demand. Conclusions These findings suggest that credible and effective communications about tobacco harm reduction should reinforce the negative effects of smoking. PMID:24321456

  20. Plutonium-239, /sup 240/Pu and /sup 210/Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-08-01

    The /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the /sup 210/Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of /sup 210/Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers.

  1. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  2. Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements. PMID:22567159

  3. Density and proximity of tobacco outlets to homes and schools: relations with youth cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Jackson, Phoenix; Watson, Derrik

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and school addresses within city boundaries. Observations in the 45 cities were conducted to document addresses of tobacco outlets. City- and buffer-level demographics were obtained and negative binomial regression analyses with cluster robust standard errors were conducted. All models were adjusted for youth gender, age, and race. Greater densities of tobacco outlets within both a 0.75 and 1-mile buffer of youth homes were associated with higher smoking frequency. Neither tobacco outlet densities around schools nor distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from home or school were associated with youths past-30-day smoking frequency. Lower population density and percent of African Americans in areas around homes and lower percent of unemployed in areas around schools were associated with greater smoking frequency. Results of this study suggest that restricting outlet density within at least 1-mile surrounding residential areas will help to reduce youth smoking. PMID:24254336

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor. PMID:25914259

  5. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  6. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  7. Tobacco industry response to public health concern: a content analysis of cigarette ads.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1985-01-01

    Public awareness of the health hazards of smoking intensified when the subject received national publicity. To assess tobacco industry tactics to counter adverse publicity, we performed a content analysis of cigarette ads in selected issues of Time magazine, for selected years from 1929-84. The analysis showed direct responses to health concerns in all of the years of major smoking-and-health "events," with the possible exception of 1964, the year of the first Surgeon General's report. During these years large percentages of ads emphasized health themes instead of the conventional cigarette ad imagery. On average, health-theme ads have a higher verbal content than the more pictorial traditional ads. Correspondingly, they employ many fewer models. Health-theme ads tend to emphasize the "technological fix," such as the scientifically designed filter and the low-tar cigarette. Subtle changes in cigarette advertising include the elimination of visible smoke from ads. A decade's concentration on standard health themes, prompted by the "tar wars" of the 1970s, appears to have ended in the 1980s. Advertisers seem to have reverted to the "good times" nonhealth imagery of a bygone era, though possibly to deliver a subtle implicit health message. Understanding industry advertising tactics can assist public health professionals in developing insights into the promotion of smoking and in formulating smoking control strategies. Though highly exploratory and tentative in nature, this study is offered in the spirit of increasing such understanding. PMID:3997535

  8. British American Tobacco and the “insidious impact of illicit trade” in cigarettes across Africa

    PubMed Central

    LeGresley, E; Lee, K; Muggli, M E; Patel, P; Collin, J; Hurt, R D

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in the illicit trade of cigarettes across the African continent in terms of rationale, supply routes and scale. Methods: Analysis of internal BAT documents and industry publications. Results: BAT has relied on illegal channels to supply markets across Africa since the 1980s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy in order to gain leverage in negotiating with governments for tax concessions, compete with other transnational tobacco companies, circumvent local import restrictions and unstable political and economic conditions and gain a market presence. BAT worked through distributors and local agents to exploit weak government capacity to gain substantial market share in major countries. Conclusions: Documents demonstrate that the complicity of BAT in cigarette smuggling extends to Africa, which includes many of the poorest countries in the world. This is in direct conflict with offers by the company to contribute to stronger international cooperation to tackle the illicit tobacco trade. PMID:18617598

  9. Fast analysis of nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke by megabore capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Lin, Ping; Su, Qingde

    2003-10-31

    A novel fast megabore capillary gas chromatographic (MCGC) method for analysis of 7 nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke, including nicotine, nornicotine, myosmine, nicotyrine, anabasine, anatabine and 2,3-dipyridyl, was developed. The use of megabore capillary column GC methodology, equipped with flame ionization detector (FID), provided rapid, unambiguous nicotine related alkaloids analysis. One gram flue-cured tobacco (or Cambridge filter pad), 20 ml ether, and 5 ml 10% sodium hydroxide solution, added with n-heptadecane as the internal standard, were placed in a flask, and the flask was capped and placed in an ultrasonic bath for 15 min. A 1 microl volume was analyzed by capillary GC operating in split-injection mode on a mega bore Simplicity-5 column. This simple procedure was compared with the previously reported packed column GC method and the Griffith still-colorimetric method. The application of the method for analysis of various flue-cured tobaccos and cigarette smoke was discussed. PMID:14584703

  10. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D.; Cooper, Bethany T.; Bennett, Melanee B.; Brown, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:25361047

  11. Measurement of Multiple Nicotine Dependence Domains Among Cigarette, Non-cigarette and Poly-tobacco Users: Insights from Item Response Theory*

    PubMed Central

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J.; Conway, Kevin P.; Hoffman, Allison; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; White, Martha; Green, Victoria R.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine dependence (ND) is a key construct that organizes physiological and behavioral symptoms associated with persistent nicotine intake. Measurement of ND has focused primarily on cigarette smokers. Thus, validation of brief instruments that apply to a broad spectrum of tobacco product users is needed. Methods We examined multiple domains of ND in a longitudinal national study of the United States population, the United States National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We used methods based in item response theory to identify and validate increasingly brief measures of ND that included symptoms to assess ND similarly among cigarette, cigar, smokeless, and poly tobacco users. Results Confirmatory factor analytic models supported a single, primary dimension underlying symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis generated little support for systematic differences in response to symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. We established significant concurrent and predictive validity of brief 3- and 5- symptom indices for measuring ND. Conclusions Measuring ND across tobacco use groups with a common set of symptoms facilitates evaluation of tobacco use in an evolving marketplace of tobacco and nicotine products. PMID:26005043

  12. Mycoflora and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in tobacco from cigarettes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    el-Maghraby, O M; Abdel-Sater, M A

    1993-06-01

    Forty-two species and 4 varieties belonging to 21 genera were collected from 40 tobacco samples on glucose- and cellulose-Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C and 45 degrees C. The most common mesophiles (at 28 degrees C) in tobacco on the two types of media were: Aspergillus flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. funiculosum. Two samples were heavily contaminated with members of Fusarium (F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. solani). Some fungi were encountered only on plates of cellulose agar as Chaetomium globosum, Stachybotrys atra var. microspora and S. chartarum. At 45 degrees C the most prevalent fungus was A. fumigatus. Truely thermophiles were also collected: Humicola grisea var. thermoidae, Rhizomucor pusillus and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Based on biological assays (brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L.) and Bacillus megatherium test) and chemical analysis of chloroform extraction of tobacco (TLC and UV spectrophotometric), four samples (out of 40) had toxicity and four compounds of mycotoxins were detected namely; aflatoxins B1 & B2 (2 samples; 15.5 and 20.7 micrograms/kg), zearalenone (1 sample, 5.5 micrograms) and T-2 toxin (1 sample, 2.8 micrograms). For studying the tracing of aflatoxins in smoking cigarettes, three doses (10, 20 and 50 micrograms) of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (w/w, 1:1) were injected each in ten cigarettes. All extracts of cigarettes smoke proved to be non-toxic and mycotoxins not detected. However, aflatoxins were detected in topping filter (2.8, 3.5 and 8.8 micrograms/the three doses, respectively). PMID:8368025

  13. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-01

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking. PMID:26907315

  14. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains

    PubMed Central

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.

    2016-01-01

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking. PMID:26907315

  15. Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

  16. Effects of type of smoking (pipe, cigars or cigarettes) on biological indices of tobacco exposure and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Funck-Brentano, Christian; Raphaël, Mathilde; Lafontaine, Michel; Arnould, Jean-Pierre; Verstuyft, Céline; Lebot, Martine; Costagliola, Dominique; Roussel, Ronan

    2006-10-01

    Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to compare CYP1A2 activity in individuals smoking pipes or cigars only, cigarettes only and in non-smokers. We studied 30 smokers of pipes or cigars only, 28 smokers of cigarettes only, and 30 non-smokers male subjects matched for age. CYP1A2 activity was assessed as the caffeine metabolic ratio in plasma. One-day urine collection was used for determining exposure to products of tobacco metabolism. Nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adducts were measured in lymphocytes. CYP1A2 activity was greater (p<0.0001) in cigarette smokers (median: 0.61; interquartile range: 0.52-0.76) than in pipe or cigar smokers (0.27; 0.21-0.37) and non-smokers (0.34; 0.25-0.42) who did not differ significantly. Urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene levels were higher in cigarette smokers than in pipe or cigar smokers and higher in the later than in non-smokers. DNA adducts levels were significantly lower in pipe or cigar smokers than in cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity (p<0.0001) and of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in urine (p=0.0012). In this study, pipe or cigar smoking was associated with lower exposure to products of tobacco metabolism than cigarette smoking and to an absence of CYP1A2 induction. Cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity in smokers. However, inhalation behaviour, rather than the type of tobacco smoked, may be the key factor linked to the extent of tobacco exposure and CYP1A2 induction. Our results provide a reasonable explanation for the results of epidemiological studies showing pipe or cigar smoking to present fewer health hazards than

  17. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The changing cigarette, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Hoffmann, I

    1997-03-01

    than 12 mg "tar" and 1.0 mg nicotine per cigarette. During the same time, other smoke constituents changed correspondingly. These reductions of smoke yields were primarily achieved by the introduction of filter tips, with and without perforation, selection of tobacco types and varieties, utilization of highly porous cigarette paper, and incorporation into the tobacco blend of reconstituted tobacco, opened and cut ribs, and "expanded tobacco." In most countries where tobacco blends with air-cured (burley) tobacco are used, the nitrate content of the cigarette tobacco increased. In the United States nitrate levels in cigarette tobacco rose from 0.3-0.5% to 0.6-1.35%, thereby enhancing the combustion of the tobacco. More complete combustion decreases the carcinogenic PAH, yet the increased generation of nitrogen oxides enhances the formation of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, especially the TSNA in the smoke. However, all analytical measures of the smoke components have been established on the basis of standardized machine smoking conditions, such as those introduced by the Federal Trade Commission, that call for 1 puff to be taken once a minute over a 2-s period with a volume of 35 ml. These smoking parameters may have simulated the way in which people used to smoke the high-yield cigarettes; however, they no longer reflect the parameters applicable to contemporary smokers, and especially not those applicable to the smoking of low- and ultra-low-yield filter cigarettes. Recent smoking assays have demonstrated that most smokers of cigarettes with low nicotine yield take between 2 and 4 puffs per minute with volumes up to 55 ml to satisfy their demands for nicotine. The overview also discusses further needs for reducing the toxicity and carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke. From a public health perspective, nicotine in the smoke needs to be lowered to a level at which there is no induction of dependence on tobacco. PMID:9120872

  19. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:19125149

  20. Determination of rutin in cigarette tobacco, filters, mainstream smoke and burned ash of different branded cigarettes by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yinshi; Li, Wei; Wang, Jianhua; Bi, Jianjie; Su, Shudong

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco consists of at least 3,800 chemical constituents. Among them, rutin is an important polyphenolic secondary metabolite in tobacco, which has positive actions such as antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and vasoactive, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-protozoal properties. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze rutin in tobacco and filters, mainstream smoke, and burned ash of ten varieties of cigarettes made in China. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS2 column with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 350 nm using a photodiode array detector. The calibration curves for the determination of analytes showed good linearity over the investigated ranges (R2 > 0.9998). Precision and reproducibility were evaluated by six replicated analyses, and the R.S.D. values were less than 0.59% and 1.53%. The recoveries were between 98.47 and 100.84%. Under the optimized conditions, namely 45 mL/g of solvent to solid ratio, 30 min of extraction time and 200 W of ultrasound power, the concentrations of rutin in tobacco and filter, mainstream smoke, burned ash of different brands cigarettes were 10.20-63.98, 0.10-0.32, 0.06-0.16 and 0 μg/per cigarette, respectively. PMID:22450684

  1. What makes an ad a cigarette ad? Commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual press

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E.; Offen, N.; Malone, R.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the extent of commercial tobacco imagery in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) press. Methods: Content analysis of all advertising containing tobacco related text or imagery in 20 LGB community periodicals, published between January 1990 and December 2000. Results: 3428 ads were found: 689 tobacco product ads, 1607 ads for cessation products or services, 99 ads with a political message about tobacco, and 1033 non-tobacco ads that showed tobacco (NAST). Although cessation ads were numerically dominant, tobacco product ads and NAST occupied more space and were more likely to use images. NAST almost never had an anti-tobacco message. Formal sponsorship between tobacco and other companies was very rare. Lesbian periodicals had proportionally more NAST and fewer cessation ads. Conclusions: Cigarette ads were outnumbered by NAST. Although these ads do not usually show brands, and are unlikely to be the result of formal sponsorship agreements, they may be "selling" smoking. Tobacco control advocates should persuade editors to refuse tobacco product ads and those with gratuitous tobacco imagery. PMID:16286500

  2. The Heterogeneous Effects of Cigarette Prices on Brand Choice in China: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; White, Justin S.; Hu, Teh-wei; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background China has long kept its tobacco taxes below international standards. The Chinese government has cited as two rationales against raising tobacco tax, namely the unfair burden it places on low-income smokers and the ability of consumers to switch to cheaper brands. Objective This study examines how different socioeconomic subgroups of Chinese smokers switch brands in response to cigarette price changes. Methods We model smokers’ choice of cigarette tier as a function of tier-specific prices. We examine heterogeneous responses to prices by estimating mixed logit models for different income and education subgroups that allow for random variation in smokers’ preferences. We use data from three waves of the longitudinal ITC China Survey, collected in six large Chinese cities between 2006 and 2009. Findings Low-income and less educated smokers are considerably more likely to switch tiers (including both up-trading and down-trading) than are their high-socioeconomic status (SES) counterparts. For those in the second-to-lowest tier, a ¥1 ($0.16, or roughly 25%) rise in prices increases the likelihood of switching tiers by 5.6% points for low-income smokers and 7.2% points for less educated smokers, compared to 1.6% and 3.0% points for the corresponding high-SES groups. Low-income and less educated groups are also more likely to trade down compared to their high-SES counterparts. Conclusion Only a small percentage of low-income and less educated Chinese smokers switched to cheaper brands in response to price increases. Hence, the concern of the Chinese government that a cigarette tax increase will lead to large-scale brand switching is not supported by this study. PMID:25855642

  3. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. Methods The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. Results The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. Conclusions There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward

  4. Pro-Tobacco Influences and Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Arrazola, René A.; Lee, Joann; Engstrom, Martha; Malarcher, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Smoking is a leading cause of cancer, and most smokers begin during adolescence. We examined the proportion of adolescents exposed to pro-tobacco advertising and assessed the association between this exposure and susceptibility to smoking. Methods Data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey were used to calculate the proportion of susceptible middle school (MS) and high school (HS) students exposed to pro-tobacco advertisements through stores, magazines, and the Internet. Following previous work, susceptibility to smoking cigarettes was defined as “never smoked but open to trying cigarettes.” Results In 2011, 81.5% of MS students and 86.9% of HS students were exposed to tobacco advertisements in stores; 48.2% of MS students and 54.0% of HS students were exposed to such advertising in magazines. Exposure to tobacco advertisements on the Internet was similar for MS (40.8%) and HS students (40.2%). Of those surveyed, 22.5% of MS students and 24.2% of HS students were susceptible to trying cigarettes. Exposure to magazine advertising declined from 71.8% in 2000 to 46.1% in 2009 among susceptible MS students; however, exposure increased to 55.4% in 2011. Tobacco advertising seen through the Internet among susceptible HS students increased from 25.9% in 2000 to 44.7% in 2011. Conclusions Adolescents continue to be exposed to pro-tobacco advertisements. Adolescents susceptible to smoking are more likely to report exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements. In addition to continued monitoring, more effective interventions to eliminate youth exposure to pro-tobacco marketing are needed. PMID:23601611

  5. Slurry sampling for hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric determination of arsenic in cigarette tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, J; Adeloju, S B; Dhindsa, H S

    1997-06-01

    The development of a slurry sampling hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric (HGAAS) method for the determination of arsenic in cigarette tobacco samples is described. The method is relatively simple and has been shown to give values of total arsenic close to those obtained using methods requiring total dissolution and decomposition of all vegetable matter before analysis. Pre-treatment of samples slurried in nitric acid by ultrasonication permitted the extraction of about 90% of the total arsenic from tobacco samples. Further improvement in the recovery efficiency (up to 93-94%) was accomplished by the use of an additional step of short microwave-accelerated treatment. L-Cysteine was used as a pre-reduction agent. The accuracy and precision of the slurry sampling HGAAS method were studied using the certified reference material (CRM) CTA-OTL-1 Oriental Tobacco Leaves. Under the optimum conditions, as little as 2.6 ng of arsenic can be detected. The relative standard deviation of the overall procedure was calculated to be below 7.6% at arsenic concentration levels of 0.5-0.9 mg kg-1 and the analytical results obtained for the CRM agreed with the certified value. The main factors that influenced the reliability of the method were sample homogeneity, particle size and slurry concentration. PMID:9282401

  6. Perceptions of Asian American men about tobacco cigarette consumption: a social learning theory framework.

    PubMed

    Spigner, Clarence; Shigaki, Alison; Tu, Shin-Ping

    2005-10-01

    Little information exists regarding the perceptions that ethnic-specific groups of Asian American men have about tobacco cigarette smoking. Thirty Asian American men of immigrant status living in Seattle, Washington, were stratified by ethnicity (Chinese and Vietnamese), language (Mandarin, Cantonese, Vietnamese) and age to comprise six focus groups (two Mandarin speaking men aged 20-40 years and 10 aged 41-65+ years; three Cantonese men aged 20-40 years and another six aged 41-65+ years; four Vietnamese men aged 20-40 years and another five aged 41-65+ years). All group interviews were audio-taped and six separate hard-copy transcripts were produced, independently theme-coded by three investigators to ensure inter-rater reliability, and analyzed with QRS NUD*IST ethnographic software. Bandura (1969, 1986) categorized emergent contextual themes within the constructs of "predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing" behavioral determinants from Social Learning Theory. Smoking to be sociable emerged as the most salient theme. Awareness of tobacco-related diseases other than lung cancer was less evident, as was a self-perceived lack of will-power to quit. Concerns about side-stream smoking affecting family members, along with smoking to alleviate stress, were key findings. Further tobacco-related research is needed that incorporates considerations for cultural dynamics. PMID:19813295

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  8. Measurement of Trace Metals in Tobacco and Cigarette Ash by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    The ICP AES experiment reported here is suitable for use in a junior- or senior-level undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory. The objective of this experiment is to analyze trace metals present in cigarette tobacco, the cigarette filter, and the ash obtained when the cigarette is burned. Two different brands of cigarettes, one with and one without a filter, were used. The filter was analyzed before and after smoke was drawn through it. The trace metals were extracted using concentrated nitric acid at room temperature and at 100 °C respectively, to test the extraction efficiency. Some tobacco samples were spiked with ZnCl2 and FeCl3 to assess the efficiency of the recovery. Zinc and iron are shown to be present in tobacco, filter, and ash, while chromium was above the detection limit only in the ash. These metals are concentrated in the ash compared to the tobacco by factors of ˜4 (Zn), 12 17 (Fe), and ≥ 2 (Cr). If sufficient laboratory time is available, this experiment could be paired with one using atomic absorption (AA) to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of ICP when compared to AA.

  9. 75 FR 51947 - Mailing of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products to APO/FPO/DPO Destination Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...The Postal Service is revising the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 503.9 and 601.11 to permit the mailing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to APO/FPO/DPO destination addresses via Express Mail[supreg] Military Service or Priority Mail[supreg] service with Delivery...

  10. A feasibility study on oxidation state of arsenic in cut tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke and cigarette ash by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Hu, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2009-11-01

    This work describes the application of synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy to study the oxidation state of arsenic in cigarette mainstream smoke, cut tobacco and cigarette ash. The level of arsenic in the total particulate matter of the smoke is approximately 1 ppm for the standard research reference cigarette 2R4F and its replacement 3R4F. Smoke particulate samples collected by a conventional glass-fiber membrane (commercially known as Cambridge filter pad) and a jet-impaction method were analyzed and compared. In addition smoke particulate samples were aged either at ambient temperature or at 195 K. X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure spectroscopy results revealed that the cut tobacco powder and cigarette ash contained almost exclusively As V. The smoke particulate samples however contained a mixture of As III and As V. The As V in the smoke particulate was reduced to As III upon aging. Stabilizing the smoke particulate matter at 195 K by solid CO 2 slowed down this aging reaction and revealed a higher percentage of As V. This behavior is consistent with the redox properties of the arsenic species and the smoke particulate matrix.