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Sample records for cigarette flavoring ingredient

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  2. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  3. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  4. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flavor ingredients. 58.718 Section 58.718 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products...

  5. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D.; Leischow, Scott J.; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  6. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D; Leischow, Scott J; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers' interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers' view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  7. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  8. Invited review: The effect of native and nonnative enzymes on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are used in a wide array of foods from soups to bars to beverages. The popularity of dried dairy ingredients, including but not limited to sweet whey powder, whey proteins and milk powders, is increasing. Dried dairy ingredient flavor can carry through into the finished product and influence consumer liking; thus, it is imperative to produce a consistent product with bland flavor. Many different chemical compounds, both desirable and undesirable, contribute to the overall flavor of dried dairy ingredients, making the flavor very complex. Enzymatic reactions play a major role in flavor. Milk contains several native (indigenous) enzymes, such as lactoperoxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, proteinases, and lipases, which may affect flavor. In addition, other enzymes are often added to milk or milk products for various functions such as milk clotting (chymosin), bleaching of whey products (fungal peroxidases, catalase to deactivate hydrogen peroxide), flavor (lipases in certain cheeses), or produced during the cheesemaking process from starter culture or nonstarter bacteria. These enzymes and their possible contributions will be discussed in this review. Understanding the sources of flavor is crucial to produce bland, flavorless ingredients. PMID:23769377

  9. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Goodman, J I; Munro, I C; Newberne, P; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Wagner, B M; Weil, C S; Woods, L A; Ford, R A

    1997-08-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) has assessed the safety of furfural for its continued use as a flavour ingredient. The safety assessment takes into account the current scientific information on exposure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Furfural was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) as a flavour ingredient under conditions of intended use based on: (1) its mode of metabolic detoxication in humans; (2) its low level of flavour use compared with higher intake levels as a naturally occurring component of food; (3) the safety factor calculated from results of subchronic and chronic studies, (4) the lack of reactivity with DNA; and (5) the conclusion that the only statistically significant finding in the 2-year NTP bioassays, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the high-dose group of male mice, was secondary to pronounced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these data do not indicate any risk to human health under conditions of use as a flavour ingredient. This evidence of safety is supported by the occurrence of furfural as a natural component of traditional foods, at concentrations in the diet resulting in a 'natural intake' that is at least 100 times higher than the intake of furfural from use as a flavour ingredient. PMID:9350219

  11. Dealing With an Innovative Industry: A Look at Flavored Cigarettes Promoted by Mainstream Brands

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, M. Jane; Wackowski, Olivia

    2006-01-01

    Product and marketing innovation is key to the tobacco industry’s success. One recent innovation was the development and marketing of flavored cigarettes as line extensions of 3 popular brands (Camel, Salem, and Kool). These products have distinctive blends and marketing as well as innovative packaging and have raised concerns in the public health community that they are targeted at youths. Several policy initiatives have aimed at banning or limiting these types of products on that basis. We describe examples of the products and their marketing and discuss their potential implications (including increased smoking experimentation, consumption, and “someday smoking”), as well as their potential impact on young adults. PMID:16380563

  12. Identification of Toxicants in Cinnamon-Flavored Electronic Cigarette Refill Fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2013-10-25

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users. PMID:24513812

  13. Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2014-03-01

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users. PMID:24516877

  14. EVALUATION OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE MIXING OF FLAVORINGS CONTAINING DIACETYL AND OTHER VOLATILE INGREDIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Deborah V.L.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Hammond, Duane R.; Sestito, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to diacetyl, a primary ingredient of butter flavoring, have been shown to cause respiratory disease among workers who mix flavorings. This study focused on evaluating ventilation controls designed to reduce emissions from the flavor mixing tanks, the major source of diacetyl in the plants. Five exhaust hood configurations were evaluated in the laboratory: standard hinged lid-opened, standard hinged lid-closed, hinged lid-slotted, dome with 38-mm gap, and dome with 114-mm gap. Tracer gas tests were performed to evaluate quantitative capture efficiency for each hood. A perforated copper coil was used to simulate an area source within the 1.2-meter diameter mixing tank. Capture efficiencies were measured at four hood exhaust flow rates (2.83, 5.66, 11.3, and 17.0 cubic meters per minute) and three cross draft velocities (0, 30, and 60 meters per minute). All hoods evaluated performed well with capture efficiencies above 90% for most combinations of exhaust volume and cross drafts. The standard hinged lid was the least expensive to manufacture and had the best average capture efficiency (over 99%) in the closed configuration for all exhaust flow rates and cross drafts. The hinged lid-slotted hood had some of the lowest capture efficiencies at the low exhaust flow rates compared to the other hood designs. The standard hinged lid performed well, even in the open position, and it provided a flexible approach to controlling emissions from mixing tanks. The dome hood gave results comparable to the standard hinged lid but it is more expensive to manufacture. The results of the study indicate that emissions from mixing tanks used in the production of flavorings can be controlled using simple inexpensive exhaust hoods. PMID:24649880

  15. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures associated with cigarette smoking: implications for risk assessment of food and flavoring workers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Abelmann, Anders; Spicer, Lauren J; Adams, Rebecca E; Finley, Brent L

    2014-05-01

    Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione inhalation have been suggested as causes of severe respiratory disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, in food/flavoring manufacturing workers. Both compounds are present in many food items, tobacco, and other consumer products, but estimates of exposures associated with the use of these goods are scant. A study was conducted to characterize exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with cigarette smoking. The yields (μg/cigarette) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke were evaluated for six tobacco products under three smoking regimens (ISO, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and Health Canada Intense) using a standard smoking machine. Mean diacetyl concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 250 to 361 ppm for all tobacco products and smoking regimens, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 1.1 to 1.9 ppm-years. Mean 2,3-pentanedione concentrations in MS smoke ranged from 32.2 to 50.1 ppm, and mean cumulative exposures associated with 1 pack-year ranged from 0.14 to 0.26 ppm-years. We found that diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures from cigarette smoking far exceed occupational exposures for most food/flavoring workers who smoke. This suggests that previous claims of a significant exposure-response relationship between diacetyl inhalation and respiratory disease in food/flavoring workers were confounded, because none of the investigations considered or quantified the non-occupational diacetyl exposure from cigarette smoke, yet all of the cohorts evaluated had considerable smoking histories. Further, because smoking has not been shown to be a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans, our findings are inconsistent with claims that diacetyl and/or 2,3-pentanedione exposure are risk factors for this disease. PMID:24635357

  16. Antimicrobial potential of flavoring ingredients against Bacillus cereus in a milk-based beverage.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, Maria C; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez-López, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Natural ingredients--cinnamon, cocoa, vanilla, and anise--were assessed based on Bacillus cereus vegetative cell growth inhibition in a mixed liquid whole egg and skim milk beverage (LWE-SM), under different conditions: ingredient concentration (1, 2.5, and 5% [wt/vol]) and incubation temperature (5, 10, and 22 °C). According to the results obtained, ingredients significantly (p<0.05) reduced bacterial growth when supplementing the LWE-SM beverage. B. cereus behavior was mathematically described for each substrate by means of a modified Gompertz equation. Kinetic parameters, lag time, and maximum specific growth rate were obtained. Cinnamon was the most bacteriostatic ingredient and cocoa the most bactericidal one when they were added at 5% (wt/vol) and beverages were incubated at 5 °C. The bactericidal effect of cocoa 5% (wt/vol) reduced final B. cereus log10 counts (log Nf, log10 (colony-forming units/mL)) by 4.10 ± 0.21 log10 cycles at 5 °C. PMID:23909775

  17. Corrective Taxes and Cigarette Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Paul; Petkov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    If cigarette design was exogenous, inefficiencies arising from smoking could be addressed either with a tax per packet or with an ad valorem tax. However, it is well known that the consequences of these two instruments differ when product characteristics are endogenous. We consider three such characteristics: nicotine, tar, and flavor. Implementation of the first-best social optimum typically requires the capacity to tax or regulate harmful ingredients. Without such a capacity, the next-best policy often combines a per-unit tax on cigarettes with an ad valorem subsidy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25919448

  18. Electronic cigarettes: a short review.

    PubMed

    Bertholon, J F; Becquemin, M H; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dautzenberg, B

    2013-01-01

    Marketed since 2004 as an alternative to nicotine delivery and advertised as a valid means to smoking cessation, the electronic (e)-cigarette has been the subject of much controversy but very little experimental study. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of this product. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the main ingredients of the fluid that is vaporized, have proved to be harmless in the fog machines of the entertainment industry. However, in the case of the e-cigarette fluid, the composition is not properly labeled: additives like nicotine and flavors vary between and within brands and contamination with various chemicals has been detected. The short-term toxicity seems low, but the long-term toxicity is unknown. The usefulness of the e-cigarette in smoking cessation has still to be clinically established. PMID:24080743

  19. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included “light” cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and “light” variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as “light,” and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.† PMID:22431010

  20. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  1. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S. . E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  2. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Chad A; Sundar, Isaac K; Yao, Hongwei; Gerloff, Janice; Ossip, Deborah J; McIntosh, Scott; Robinson, Risa; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to

  3. Vapors Produced by Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices with Flavorings Induce Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Response in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Chad A.; Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei; Gerloff, Janice; Ossip, Deborah J.; McIntosh, Scott; Robinson, Risa; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a “vaping” session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to

  4. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... be used. 3 In the past, the tobacco industry categorized low-yield cigarettes using measurements of tar ...

  5. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Michelle R.; Butler, Karen E.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain. PMID:27621706

  6. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Butler, Karen E; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain. PMID:27621706

  7. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  8. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  9. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  10. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  11. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  12. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring or a smoke flavoring is added as an ingredient in the formula of any poultry product, there shall... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  13. E-cigarettes: promise or peril?

    PubMed

    Riker, Carol A; Lee, Kiyoung; Darville, Audrey; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use a heating element to vaporize nicotine and other ingredients, simulating the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking without the combustion of tobacco. An ever-growing number of companies around the world manufacture a wide variety of e-cigarette brands, despite scant information on the safety of the ingredients for human inhalation. This article provides an overview of the history, production, and marketing of e-cigarettes, the contents of e-cigarettes and vapor, how they are used, public health concerns, and implications for nursing practice, research, and policy development. PMID:22289406

  14. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  15. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  16. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  17. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  18. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  19. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  20. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  1. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  2. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  3. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  4. Chemical hazards present in liquids and vapors of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Christoph; Paschke, Meike; Kruschinski, Svetlana; Henkler, Frank; Hahn, Jürgen; Luch, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Electronic (e-)cigarettes have emerged in recent years as putative alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. These products do not contain typical carcinogens that are present in tobacco smoke, due to the lack of combustion. However, besides nicotine, hazards can also arise from other constituents of liquids, such as solvents, flavors, additives and contaminants. In this study, we have analyzed 28 liquids of seven manufacturers purchased in Germany. We confirm the presence of a wide range of flavors to enhance palatability. Although glycerol and propylene glycol were detected in all samples, these solvents had been replaced by ethylene glycol as dominant compound in five products. Ethylene glycol is associated with markedly enhanced toxicological hazards when compared to conventionally used glycerol and propylene glycol. Additional additives, such as coumarin and acetamide, that raise concerns for human health were detected in certain samples. Ten out of 28 products had been declared "free-of-nicotine" by the manufacturer. Among these ten, seven liquids were identified containing nicotine in the range of 0.1-15 µg/ml. This suggests that "carry over" of ingredients may occur during the production of cartridges. We have further analyzed the formation of carbonylic compounds in one widely distributed nicotine-free brand. Significant amounts of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were only found at 150 °C by headspace GC-MS analysis. In addition, an enhanced formation of aldehydes was found in defined puff fractions, using an adopted machine smoking protocol. However, this effect was delayed and only observed during the last third of the smoking procedure. In the emissions of these fractions, which represent up to 40 % of total vapor volume, similar levels of formaldehyde were detected when compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes. By contrast, carbonylic compounds were hardly detectable in earlier collected fractions. Our data demonstrate the

  5. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  6. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  7. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes. PMID:25416451

  8. Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air.

    PubMed

    Tayyarah, Rana; Long, Gerald A

    2014-12-01

    Leading commercial electronic cigarettes were tested to determine bulk composition. The e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes were evaluated using machine-puffing to compare nicotine delivery and relative yields of chemical constituents. The e-liquids tested were found to contain humectants, glycerin and/or propylene glycol, (⩾75% content); water (<20%); nicotine (approximately 2%); and flavor (<10%). The aerosol collected mass (ACM) of the e-cigarette samples was similar in composition to the e-liquids. Aerosol nicotine for the e-cigarette samples was 85% lower than nicotine yield for the conventional cigarettes. Analysis of the smoke from conventional cigarettes showed that the mainstream cigarette smoke delivered approximately 1500times more harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) tested when compared to e-cigarette aerosol or to puffing room air. The deliveries of HPHCs tested for these e-cigarette products were similar to the study air blanks rather than to deliveries from conventional cigarettes; no significant contribution of cigarette smoke HPHCs from any of the compound classes tested was found for the e-cigarettes. Thus, the results of this study support previous researchers' discussion of e-cigarette products' potential for reduced exposure compared to cigarette smoke. PMID:25444997

  9. Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Espinoza, Luis; Asthana, Deshratan

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH. PMID:24581861

  10. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS ... Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  11. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  12. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  13. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths. PMID:26421418

  14. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Hansen, R. S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G. G.

    2016-03-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency Δ m2/2E. However, even in the simple case of a νe beam interacting with an opposite-moving bar nue beam, and allowing for spatial inhomogeneities, the growth rate of the fastest-growing Fourier mode is of order μ=√2 GF nν, a typical ν-ν interaction energy. This growth rate is much larger than the vacuum oscillation frequency and gives rise to flavor conversion on a much shorter time scale. This phenomenon of "fast flavor conversion" occurs even for vanishing Δ m2/2E and thus does not depend on energy, but only on the angle distributions. Moreover, it does not require neutrinos to mix or to have masses, except perhaps for providing seed disturbances. We also construct a simple homogeneous example consisting of intersecting beams and study a schematic supernova model proposed by Ray Sawyer, where νe and bar nue emerge with different zenith-angle distributions, the key ingredient for fast flavor conversion. What happens in realistic astrophysical scenarios remains to be understood.

  15. Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding why young people try and stop electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is critical to inform e-cigarette regulatory efforts. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (N = 127) in 1 middle school (MS), 2 high schools (HSs), and 2 colleges in Connecticut to assess themes related to e-cigarette experimentation and discontinuation. We then conducted surveys to evaluate these identified themes in 2 MSs, 4 HSs, and 1 college (N = 1,175) to explore whether reasons for e-cigarette experimentation and/or discontinuation differed by school level or cigarette smoking status. Results: From the focus groups, we identified experimentation themes (i.e., curiosity, flavors, family/peer influence, easy access, and perceptions of e-cigarettes as “cool” and as a healthier/better alternative to cigarettes) and discontinuation themes (i.e., health concerns, loss of interest, high cost, bad taste, and view of e-cigarettes as less satisfying than cigarettes). The survey data showed that the top reasons for experimentation were curiosity (54.4%), appealing flavors (43.8%), and peer influences (31.6%), and the top reasons for discontinuation were responses related to losing interest (23.6%), perceiving e-cigarettes as “uncool” (16.3%), and health concerns (12.1%). Cigarette smokers tried e-cigarettes because of the perceptions that they can be used anywhere and to quit smoking and discontinued because they were not as satisfying as cigarettes. School level differences were detected. Conclusions: E-cigarette prevention efforts toward youth should include limiting e-cigarette flavors, communicating messages emphasizing the health risks of use, and changing social norms surrounding the use of e-cigarettes. The results should be interpreted in light of the limitations of this study. PMID:25481917

  16. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  17. The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 450 tobacco ingredients added to tobacco on the forty-four "Hoffmann analytes" in mainstream cigarette smoke have been determined. These analytes are believed by regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. They are based on lists published by D. Hoffmann and co-workers of the American Health Foundation in New York. The ingredients comprised 431 flavours, 1 flavour/solvent, 1 solvent, 7 preservatives, 5 binders, 2 humectants, 2 process aids and 1 filler. The cigarettes containing mixtures of the ingredients were smoked using the standard ISO smoking machine conditions. The levels of the "Hoffmann analytes" in the smoke from the test cigarettes containing the ingredient mixture were compared to those from control cigarettes without the ingredients. In practice, flavouring ingredients are typically added to tobacco that also contains casing ingredients and reconstituted tobacco materials. In order to keep the tobacco mixtures as authentic as possible, three comparisons have been made in this study. These are: (a) control cigarette containing a typical US blended, cased tobacco incorporating reconstituted tobacco versus test cigarettes that had flavouring ingredients added to this tobacco; (b) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarettes with the tobacco cased and incorporating flavourings; (c) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarette incorporating additives made in an experimental sheet material. The significances of differences between the test and control cigarettes were determined using both the variability of the data on the specific occasion of the measurement, and also taking into account the long-term variability of the analytical measurements over the one-year period in which analyses were determined in the present study. This long-term variability was determined by measuring the levels of the 44 "Hoffmann analytes" in a reference cigarette on many occasions

  18. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  19. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-06-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  20. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  1. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  2. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish. PMID:8744606

  3. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  4. Insights in Public Health Electronic Cigarettes: Marketing to Hawai‘i's Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai‘i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates. PMID:25755916

  5. Insights in public health: Electronic cigarettes: marketing to Hawai'i's adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai'i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates. PMID:25755916

  6. Electronic cigarettes: a review of safety and clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael; Breland, Alison; Spindle, Tory; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case conference discusses 3 cases of patients using electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes, also referred to as electronic nicotine delivery systems or "e-cigarettes," generally consist of a power source (usually a battery) and a heating element (commonly referred to as an atomizer) that vaporize a solution (e-liquid). The user inhales the resulting vapor. E-liquids contain humectants such as propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorings, and usually, but not always, nicotine. Each patient's information is an amalgamation of actual patients and is presented and then followed by a discussion of clinical issues. PMID:25089953

  7. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among a purposive sample of 50 current adult users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. Results Several important themes emerged. Although most users started with “closed system” products, the majority switched from that type of e-cigarette to “open system” devices. Responses were diverse on preferred flavors, although mixing flavors was a common practice. Many users had difficulty estimating the total amount of e-liquid they used within a given period and described an iterative process in which they experimented with different nicotine levels to determine their preferred concentration. Reported frequency of use and puffing behaviors varied greatly between users and also differed from the way traditional cigarettes are smoked. Conclusion Results from this study have implications for developing appropriate survey metrics for e-cigarette surveillance, the regulation of flavorings, and reporting of e-cigarette product constituents. PMID:26766848

  8. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Working Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver a heated aerosol, which typically contains nicotine, flavorings, and other additives, to the user. The e-cigarette marketplace is rapidly evolving, but the long-term health effects of these products are not known. Carcinogens and toxins such as diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and other harmful chemicals have been documented in the aerosol from some e-cigarettes (1-3). On May 5, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) finalized a rule extending its authority to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.* The prevalence of e-cigarette use among U.S. adults has increased in recent years, particularly among current and former conventional cigarette smokers (4); in 2014, 3.7% of all U.S. adults, including 15.9% of current cigarette smokers, and 22.0% of former cigarette smokers, used e-cigarettes every day or some days (5). The extent of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults has not been assessed. Therefore, CDC analyzed 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for adults aged ≥18 years who were working during the week before the interview, to provide national estimates of current e-cigarette use among U.S. working adults by industry and occupation. Among the estimated 146 million working adults, 3.8% (5.5 million) were current (every day or some days) e-cigarette users; the highest prevalences were among males, non-Hispanic whites, persons aged 18-24 years, persons with annual household income <$35,000, persons with no health insurance, cigarette smokers, other combustible tobacco users, and smokeless tobacco users. By industry and occupation, workers in the accommodation and food services industry and in the food preparation and serving-related occupations had the highest prevalence of current e-cigarette use. Higher prevalences of e-cigarette use among specific groups and the effect of e-cigarette use on patterns of conventional tobacco use underscore the importance

  9. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  10. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  11. Tobacco Products Sold by Internet Vendors Following Restrictions on Flavors and Light Descriptors

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act bans characterizing flavors (e.g., grape, strawberry) in cigarettes, excluding tobacco and menthol, and prohibits companies from using misleading descriptors (e.g., light, low) that imply reduced health risks without submitting scientific data to support the claim and obtaining a marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This observational study examines tobacco products offered by Internet cigarette vendors (ICV) pre- and postimplementation of the ban on characterizing flavors in cigarettes and the restriction on misleading descriptors. Methods: Cross-sectional samples of the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were identified. Data were analyzed in 2012 and 2013. Results: In 2011 the odds for selling cigarettes with banned flavors or misleading descriptors were 0.40 times that for selling the products in 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.88). However, 89% of vendors continued to sell the products, including 95.8% of international vendors. Following the ban on characterizing flavors, ICVs began selling potential alternative products. In 2010, the odds for selling flavored little cigars were 1.71 (95% CI = 1.09, 2.69) times that for selling the product in 2009 and, for clove cigars, were 5.50 (95% CI = 2.36, 12.80) times that for selling the product in 2009. Conclusions: Noncompliance with the ban on characterizing flavors and restriction on misleading descriptors has been high, especially among international vendors. Many vendors appear to be circumventing the intent of the flavors ban by selling unbanned flavored cigars, in some cases in lieu of flavored cigarettes. PMID:25173777

  12. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. PMID:25297908

  13. Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Ian C.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Turner, Douglas J.; Butler, Jenny M.; Hanft, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Hyoshin; Kroeger, Robyn R.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Tefft, Margaret E.; Clark, Pamela I.; Buehler, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of L-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette’s menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands) of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25) without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.7 mg/g [n = 25]). We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke. PMID:25621204

  14. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  15. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  16. Quantitation of Ten Flavor Compounds in Unburned Tobacco Products†

    PubMed Central

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on unburned tobacco has focused on the harmful chemicals associated with the tobacco itself. However, certain flavor additives in tobacco products can pose additional health risks. Flavors like camphor, coumarin, pulegone, eugenol, methyl salicylate, menthol and diphenyl ether have exhibited biological activity and/or toxicity in both lab animals and humans. This publication presents a new GC/MS method for the quantitation of ten flavor compounds (eucalyptol, camphor, menthol, pulegone, ethyl salicylate, methyl salicylate, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, diphenyl ether and coumarin) in a variety of tobacco products, including smokeless products and cigar filler. Excellent linearity (>0.997), accuracy (93.9% - 106.6%) and precision (C.V., 0.5% - 3.0%) were achieved for all flavor analytes measured. A summary of the concentrations of these flavors in selected international smokeless tobacco (SLT) products including zarda, quiwam, gutkha, and khaini varieties from Southeast Asia and snuff, clove cigarette filler and flavored cigar filler from the United States is reported. High concentrations of eugenol (2110 μg/g), coumarin (439 μg/g), camphor (1060 μg/g) and diphenyl ether (4840 μg/g) were found in selected products. Accurate identification and quantitation of potentially hazardous flavor compounds is important because they can exist in relatively high levels in some tobacco products, including international SLT products. We outline a versatile method which can be used to quantitate flavor compounds in multiple types of tobacco products. PMID:26388954

  17. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  18. Flavor Changes During Frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep-fat frying is a popular food preparation method because it imparts a desirable deep-fried flavor that is not developed during other cooking methods such as baking. Understanding how flavors are developed in oils during the frying process is important to know in order to enhance positive flavor...

  19. [Toothpastes: ingredients, brands, categories and their utilization].

    PubMed

    Yavnai, N

    2010-04-01

    Toothpaste is one of the most widely used dental products, with the largest sales. Its use is one of the most popular oral hygiene behaviors in developed countries. In the last 30 years there has been a large variety of changes in toothpaste composition. One of the main changes is utilizing the toothpaste as a delivery system for therapeutic agents to the oral cavity. A large variety of toothpastes can be found on the market, for different purposes: caries prevention, gingivitis prevention, anti calculus formation, dentine hypersensitivity prevention and for teeth whitening. Toothpastes have a wide range of ingredients: abrasives, humectants, preservatives, thickening or binding agents, detergents, flavoring agents and therapeutic agents. This review provides details on the ingredients of dentifrices, the evidence about the different brands and categories, and questions about their utilization. PMID:21250403

  20. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  1. The Role of Cocoa as a Cigarette Additive: Opportunities for Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited the use of characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, some of these flavors are still used in cigarettes at varying levels. We reviewed tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the role of one of these flavors, cocoa, with the objective of understanding its relationship to sensory and risk perception, promotion of dependence, and enhancement of attractiveness and acceptability. Methods: We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library to identify documents relevant to our research questions. Initial search terms were generated following an examination of published literature on cocoa, other cigarette additives, and sensory and risk perception. Further research questions and search terms were generated based on review of documents generated from the initial search terms. Results: Cocoa is widely applied to cigarettes and has been used by the tobacco industry as an additive since the early 20th century. Cocoa can alter the sensory properties of cigarette smoke, including by providing a more appealing taste and decreasing its harshness. The tobacco industry has experimented with manipulating cocoa levels as a means of achieving sensory properties that appeal to women and youth. Conclusions: Although cocoa is identified as a flavor on tobacco industry Web sites, it may serve other sensory purposes in cigarettes as well. Eliminating cocoa as an additive from tobacco products may affect tobacco product abuse liability by altering smokers’ perceptions of product risk, and decreasing product appeal, especially among vulnerable populations. PMID:24610479

  2. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  3. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  4. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  5. Magnetism of cigarette ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Henry, Bernard; Le Goff, Maxime; Dimov, Dimo; Tsacheva, Tsenka

    2006-06-01

    Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively high amount of magnetic iron minerals, similar to that in wood ash from our study and other literature data. Magnetization data suggest that cigarette ashes contain some 0.1 wt% or lower quantity of magnetite, depending on the brand. Analyses of magnetic mineralogy imply that the main magnetic minerals in ashes from higher quality cigarette brands are magnetite and iron carbide cementite, while in ashes from lower quality brands without additives magnetic minerals are pure and substituted with foreign ions magnetite. Magnetic grain-size analysis shows that cigarette ashes contain significant amount of very fine, nano-meter sized magnetic particles, as well as coarser (up to several microns), magnetically stable grains. Thus, the magnetic study of cigarette ashes proved that these plant ashes possess non-negligible magnetic properties. The results could serve for better elucidation of mineralogy of cigarette ashes as a whole, as well as for future investigation on the presence of magnetic ultra fine particles in cigarette smoke, which may be inhaled in lungs during smoking.

  6. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  7. [Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha].

    PubMed

    Bertholon, J-F; Becquemin, M H; Roy, M; Roy, F; Ledur, D; Annesi Maesano, I; Dautzenberg, B

    2013-11-01

    In previous studies of the smoke from regular cigarettes and water pipes, we measured aerosol particle sizes in three streams; S1, inhaled by the smoker, S2, released by the device itself and S3, exhaled by the smoker. We used an electrostatic low-pressure impactor (ELPI), giving particle size distributions in real time and calculated median diameters, D50, and dispersion (σg). This allowed us to predict airway deposition. In addition, the aerosol particle half-life in the air was used as a measure of the risk to others from passive smoking. With the same equipment, we measured the particle sizes and persistence in air of the liquid aerosol generated by e-cigarettes (Cigarettec®) containing water, propylene glycol and flavorings with or without nicotine. Aerosol generation was triggered by a syringe or by the inspiration of volunteer smokers. The D50 data obtained in S1, were 0.65 μm with nicotine and 0.60 μm without nicotine. Deposition in the airways could then be calculated: 26% of the total would deposit, of which 14% would reach the alveoli. These data are close to those found with regular cigarettes. For S3, D50 data were 0.34 μm and 0.29 μm with or without nicotine. The half-life in air of the S3 stream was 11 seconds due to a rapid evaporation. The-e-cigarette aerosol, as measured here, is made of particles bigger than those of cigarette and water pipe aerosols. Their deposition in the lung depends on their fate in the airways, which is unknown. Contrary to tobacco smoke, which has a half-life in air of 19 to 20 minutes, the risk of passive "smoking" exposure from e-cigarettes is modest. PMID:24267765

  8. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations. PMID:18038494

  9. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government. PMID:6582366

  10. Concentration of Nicotine and Glycols in 27 Electronic Cigarette Formulations.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Baird, Tyson R; Smith, Nathaniel; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-07-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. Electronic cigarettes and their e-cigarette liquid formulations are virtually unregulated. These formulations are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring components and an active drug, such as nicotine. Twenty-seven e-cigarette liquid formulations that contain nicotine between 6 and 22 mg/L were acquired within the USA and analyzed by various methods to determine their contents. They were screened by Direct Analysis in Real Time™ Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS). Nicotine was confirmed and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the glycol composition was confirmed and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The DART-MS screening method was able to consistently identify the exact mass peaks resulting from the protonated molecular ion of nicotine, glycol and a number of flavor additives within 5 mmu. Nicotine concentrations were determined to range from 45 to 131% of the stated label concentration, with 18 of the 27 have >10% variance. Glycol composition was generally accurate to the product description, with only one exception where the propylene glycol to glycerin percentage ratio was stated as 50:50 and the determined concentration of propylene glycol to glycerin was 81:19 (% v/v). No unlabeled glycols were detected in these formulations. PMID:27165804

  11. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes. PMID:26822067

  12. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  13. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

  14. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  15. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  16. The Association Between Smokers’ Perceived Importance of the Appearance of Cigarettes/Cigarette Packs and Smoking Sensory Experience: A Structural Equation Model

    PubMed Central

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the reliability of a measure of the latent construct “smoking sensory experience.” We further measured the relationship between “smoking sensory experience” and smokers’ rating of the importance of the appearance of cigarettes/cigarette packs in brand choice and smoking dependence. Methods: Analyses involved a national sample of smokers (n = 633) who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey (N = 3,112). Smokers ranked on a scale of 1–5, the importance of the following attributes in choosing their cigarette brand: health concerns, cost, packaging, taste, satisfaction, and flavor/strength. Using structural equation modeling, an a priori model was specified based on the hypothesis that taste, satisfaction, and flavor/strength are measures of a construct of “smoking sensory experience” and that cigarette packaging would be positively related to “smoking sensory experience.” Furthermore, “smoking sensory experience” would be positively related to cigarettes smoked per day. Results: The latent construct—“smoking sensory experience” was considered reliable (Cronbach’s α = 0.75). The structural equation model confirmed that the specified model fitted the data well (goodness of fit index = 0.993; normed fit index = 0.978; root mean square error of approximation = 0.031). Higher “smoking sensory experience” was positively associated with increasing cigarettes smoked per day (β = 0.12). Higher rating of the cigarette package in brand choice positively covaried with both “smoking sensory experience” (β = 0.29), and higher rating of health considerations (β = 0.42). Conclusions: These findings support the regulation of the appearance of cigarettes/cigarette packs to reduce cigarettes’ appeal and abuse liability in line with Article 11 of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25200812

  17. 78 FR 68850 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations; List of Ingredients...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 FR Doc. 2013-26469 Filed 11-4-13; 8:45am. SUMMARY: The Centers for... Products (FR Doc. 2013-26469), which was submitted on October 30, 2013 for public inspection in the Federal... Comment and Recommendations; List of Ingredients Added to Tobacco in the Manufacture of Cigarette...

  18. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  19. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  20. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  1. Flavored and Nonflavored Smokeless Tobacco Products: Rate, Pattern of Use, and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Andrew J.; Jensen, Joni A.; Vogel, Rachel I.; Anderson, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The initiation and maintenance of tobacco use are influenced by several factors, but of equal and often overlooked importance, until recently, is the palatability of the product. Because of the role that flavor may play in the initiation and maintenance of tobacco use, the Food and Drug Administration has decided to ban the use of flavorings, other than menthol, from cigarettes. To date, little attention has been paid to the impact of flavoring in smokeless tobacco (ST) products. Methods: This study combined the data from 5 previously completed treatment or switching studies to examine the choice of brand flavor in the course of ST use, from initiation to regular use. Results: The analyses revealed that a majority of subjects’ first and current choice of product was flavored, specifically mint or wintergreen, and that a significant number of ST users switched to a flavored brand after already initiating ST use with a regular nonflavored product. In this population, however, flavored products did not appear to lead to greater dependence or increased exposure to nicotine or carcinogens. Conclusions: More treatment seeking ST users began by using mint-flavored product and switched to and were current users of mint-flavored products. It is possible that mint products play a role in the initiation and maintenance of ST use. PMID:22529222

  2. Volatile flavor components of stored nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Karagül-Yüceer, Yonca; Cadwallader, Keith R; Drake, MaryAnne

    2002-01-16

    Nonfat dry milk (NDM) is widely used both as an ingredient in other preparations and for direct consumption. Flavor quality of NDM is a critical parameter because it can directly impact final product quality. Flavors can be formed in NDM during subsequent storage. Identification of compounds responsible for storage-induced flavors is necessary to correlate sensory quality with potential sources of the flavors. Six NDM samples were selected for volatile flavor analysis based on sensory analysis and storage time. Volatile components were extracted by direct solvent extraction/high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were separated into neutral/basic and acidic fractions and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A variety of aldehydes, ketones, and free fatty acids were responsible for generation of flavors in stored NDM. The following compounds exhibited high aroma impact by AEDA: 3-(methylthio)propanal (boiled potato); o-aminoacetophenone (corn tortilla); 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one (burnt sugar); butanoic acid (cheesy); pentanoic acid (sweaty); acetic and hexanoic acids (sour/vinegar); octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acids (waxy); p-cresol (cowy/barny); 3-methylindole (fecal); dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage); (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (fried/fatty); furfuryl alcohol (rubber/vitamin); phenylacetic acid (rose-like); and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom). PMID:11782199

  3. Glycerol, an underestimated flavor precursor in the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Devaud-Goumoens, Stéphanie; Viton, Florian

    2013-10-30

    The objective of the present work was to investigate in depth the role of glycerol in Maillard reactions and its potential to act as an active flavor precursor. Reactions using isotopically labeled compounds (various reducing sugars, proline, and glycerol) unambiguously demonstrated that, in addition to its role of solvent, glycerol actively contributes to the formation of proline-specific compounds in Maillard model systems. Additionally, rhamnose and fucose/proline/glycerol systems generated the 2-propionyl-1(3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridines, known for their roasty, popcorn aroma. Their formation from such systems is unprecedented. The results presented here have direct implications for flavor generation during thermal processing of foods containing glycerol, which is a ubiquitous food ingredient and an underestimated flavor precursor. PMID:23373461

  4. Sampling and analysis of cigarette smoke using the solid adsorbent Tenax

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The commercial introduction of ultra-low-tar delivery cigarette products has posed challenges in the analysis of their smoke constituents. The application of solid sorbent trapping and thermal desorption, programmed-temperature glass-capillary-column gas chromatography has proven useful for both gas phase and particulate matter analyses. In gas phase analysis the cigarette is smoked directly through a Cambridge filter and Tenax trap, and in whole smoke analysis through the Tenax trap alone. For cigarettes having deliveries of < 1 mg tar/cigarette the entire trap content, or a fraction thereof, is desorbed at 250/sup 0/C in the injection port of the gas chromatograph, and the cryothermally trapped organic desorbate is separated by programmed temperature gas chromatography. Tenax used to trap smoke from higher tar delivery cigarettes is duluted with clean Tenax and homogenized before analysis. Quantitation is made by the method of external standards, the RSD for smoke components averaging generally +-20%. Higher RSD's of +-60% in the case of some ultra-low cigarette smoke components may be influenced by mainstream enrichment by sidestream smoke drifting near the air dilution vents in the filter rod. This method of analysis when applied to whole smoke can determine the entire cigarette delivery of many gas phase and particulate matter components, and has sufficient sensitivity that flavor related components in cigarette smoke are analyzable. The distribution of some semivolatile components between gas and particulate phases has been determined by application of this method and is reported.

  5. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  6. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design. PMID:25815982

  7. SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhard, Guy; Feng, Jonathan L.; Galon, Iftah; Sanford, David; Yu, Felix

    2010-01-01

    We describe SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events. SPICE takes as input two ingredients: a standard flavor-conserving supersymmetric spectrum and a set of flavor-violating slepton mass parameters, both of which are specified at some high "mediation" scale. SPICE then combines these two ingredients to form a flavor-violating model, determines the resulting low-energy spectrum and branching ratios, and outputs HERWIG and SUSY Les Houches files, which may be used to generate collider events. The flavor-conserving model may be any of the standard supersymmetric models, including minimal supergravity, minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking supplemented by a universal scalar mass. The flavor-violating contributions may be specified in a number of ways, from specifying charges of fields under horizontal symmetries to completely specifying all flavor-violating parameters. SPICE is fully documented and publicly available, and is intended to be a user-friendly aid in the study of flavor at the Large Hadron Collider and other future colliders. Program summaryProgram title: SPICE Catalogue identifier: AEFL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8153 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 67 291 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Personal computer Operating system: Tested on Scientific Linux 4.x Classification: 11.1 External routines: SOFTSUSY [1,2] and SUSYHIT [3] Nature of problem: Simulation programs are required to compare theoretical models in particle physics with present and future data at particle colliders. SPICE determines the masses and decay branching ratios of

  8. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors. PMID:27085401

  9. Gluino meets flavored naturalness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Monika; Fuks, Benjamin; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2016-04-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizable stop-scharm mixing and a relatively light squark state are still viable and could be observed in the near future.

  10. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  11. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  12. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    PubMed Central

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  13. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products☆

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products. PMID:26740911

  14. [Electronic cigarette: Reliable and efficient?].

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Dautzenberg, Marie-Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Before 2010, the e-cigarette remains inefficient then, its dissemination explodes in 2013 where more than 10 million people have tried it in France. The best made e-cigarette will always be potentially toxic and an addictive product. The e-cigarette is not a suitable product for non-smokers and could participate to normalize tobacco in society. To end tobacco, e-cigarette must provide a pleasant throat hit to the smoker in the first 6 seconds then deliver an adequate dose of nicotine. The majority of smokers who have tried the e-cigarette do not adopt the product because they did not like it. Health professional must help those who smoke and use e-cigarettes to remove the last cigarettes. PMID:24890639

  15. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed. PMID:22167909

  16. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation

    PubMed Central

    Velicer, Clayton; Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use previously secret tobacco industry documents to assess tobacco companies’ routine claims of trade secret protection for information on cigarette ingredients, additives and construction made to regulatory agencies, as well as the companies’ refusal to publicly disclose this information. Methods We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) to identify 100 examples of seven major tobacco companies’ reverse engineering of their competitors’ brands between 1937 and 2001. Results These reverse engineering reports contain detailed data for 142 different measurements for at least two companies, including physical parameters of the cigarettes, tobacco types, humectants, additives, flavourings, and smoke constituents of competitors’ cigarettes. These 100 documents were distributed to 564 employees, including top managers in domestic and foreign offices across multiple departments, including executive leadership, research and design, product development, marketing and legal. These documents reported new competitors’ products, measured ingredient changes over time, and informed companies’ decisions regarding ingredients in their own products. Conclusions Because cigarette companies routinely analyse their competitors’ cigarettes in great detail, this information is neither secret nor commercially valuable and, thus, does not meet the legal definition of a ‘trade secret.’ This information is only being kept ‘secret’ from the people consuming cigarettes and the scientific community. Public agencies should release this detailed information because it would provide valuable information about how ingredients affect addictiveness and toxicity, and would help the public health community and consumers better understand the impact of cigarette design on human health. PMID:24920577

  17. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke. PMID:17905505

  18. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  19. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  20. Suppressing flavor anarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Ann E.; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2000-09-01

    We present a new mechanism, which does not require any flavor symmetry, to explain the small Yukawa couplings and CKM mixing angles. The Yukawa matrices are assumed to be random at short distances and the hierarchical structure is generated in the infrared by renormalization group flow. The generic qualitative predictions of this mechanism are in good agreement with observation. We give several simple examples in supersymmetric theories. We show that our mechanism can also ameliorate the supersymmetric flavor problem, and make predictions for the superpartner mass spectrum. The mechanism is fully consistent with grand unification, and in SU(5)-based models of neutrino mass, predicts a large mixing angle for νμleftrightarrowντ oscillations.

  1. Flavor Programming During Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Cara E.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Although individuals differ substantially in their flavor and food preferences, the source of such differences remains a mystery. The present experimental study was motivated by clinical observations that early experience with formulas establishes subsequent preferences. Design. Infants whose parents had chosen to formula-feed them were randomized into 1 of 4 groups by the second week of life. One group was assigned to be fed a milk-based formula (Enfamil), whereas another was assigned to be fed (Nutramigen), a particularly unpleasant-tasting protein hydrolysate formula. The remaining groups were assigned to be fed Nutramigen for 3 months and Enfamil for 4 months; the timing of exposure differed between the groups. After 7 months of exposure, infants were videotaped on 3 separate days while feeding, in counterbalanced order, Enfamil, Nutramigen, and Alimentum, a novel hydrolysate formula. Results. For each of the 4 interrelated measures of behavior (intake, duration of formula feeding, facial expressions, and mothers’ judgments of infant acceptance), previous exposure to Nutramigen significantly enhanced subsequent acceptance of both Nutramigen and Alimentum. Seven months of exposure led to greater acceptance than did 3 months. Conclusions. The bases for clinical difficulties in introducing hydrolysate formulas during older infancy are clarified in this study. More broadly, variation in formula flavor provided a useful model for demonstrating experimentally the effects of long-term exposure differences on later acceptance. Such early variation, under more species-typical circumstances (eg, via exposure to different flavors in amniotic fluid and mothers’ milk), may underlie individual differences in food acceptability throughout the life span. Pediatrics 2004;113:840–845; protein hydrolysate, formula, taste, flavor, infants, programming, development, nutrition. PMID:15060236

  2. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  3. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  4. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  7. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  8. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  9. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry--California, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-04-27

    Bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare and life-threatening form of fixed obstructive lung disease, is known to be caused by exposure to noxious gases in occupational settings and has been described in workers in the microwave-popcorn industry who were exposed to artificial butter-flavoring chemicals, including diacetyl. In August 2004, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) and Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA) received the first report of a bronchiolitis obliterans diagnosis in a flavor-manufacturing worker in California. In April 2006, a second report was received of a case in a flavor-manufacturing worker from another company. Neither worker was employed in the microwave-popcorn industry; both were workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry, which produces artificial butter flavoring and other flavors such as cherry, almond, praline, jalapeno, and orange. Both workers had handled pure diacetyl, an ingredient in artificial butter and other flavorings, and additional chemicals involved in the manufacturing process. Studies have indicated that exposure to diacetyl causes severe respiratory epithelial injury in animals. Because the manufacture of flavorings involves more than 2,000 chemicals, workers in the general flavor-manufacturing industry are exposed to more chemicals than workers in the microwave-popcorn industry, which primarily uses butter flavorings. Food flavorings are designated "generally recognized as safe" when approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; flavorings are not known to put consumers at risk for lung disease. This report describes the first two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor-manufacturing workers in California, the findings of the public health investigation, and the actions taken by state and federal agencies to prevent future cases of occupational bronchiolitis obliterans. To identify cases and reduce risk for lung disease from occupational exposure to flavorings, a timely, effective

  10. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  11. Flavor effects in thermal leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2007-06-01

    We review recent developments in leptogenesis on flavor effects. Their account discloses an important connection between the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and CP violation at low energies. Besides, they modify the upper bound on the neutrino masses holding in the unflavored case. In this respect, it is important to identify the exact condition for flavor effects to be relevant and for the 'fully flavored' Boltzmann equations to be valid.

  12. Flavor mediation delivers natural SUSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    If supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem, then naturalness considerations coupled with recent LHC bounds require non-trivial superpartner flavor structures. Such "Natural SUSY" models exhibit a large mass hierarchy between scalars of the third and first two generations as well as degeneracy (or alignment) among the first two generations. In this work, we show how this specific beyond the standard model (SM) flavor structure can be tied directly to SM flavor via "Flavor Mediation". The SM contains an anomaly-free SU(3) flavor symmetry, broken only by Yukawa couplings. By gauging this flavor symmetry in addition to SM gauge symmetries, we can mediate SUSY breaking via (Higgsed) gauge mediation. This automatically delivers a natural SUSY spectrum. Third-generation scalar masses are suppressed due to the dominant breaking of the flavor gauge symmetry in the top direction. More subtly, the first-two-generation scalars remain highly degenerate due to a custodial U(2) symmetry, where the SU(2) factor arises because SU(3) is rank two. This custodial symmetry is broken only at order ( m c /m t )2. SUSY gauge coupling unification predictions are preserved, since no new charged matter is introduced, the SM gauge structure is unaltered, and the flavor symmetry treats all matter multiplets equally. Moreover, the uniqueness of the anomaly-free SU(3) flavor group makes possible a number of concrete predictions for the superpartner spectrum.

  13. Determination of 10 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2007-07-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one class of chemical compounds that (1) are present at low to trace levels in unburned cigarette filler, and (2) are predominantly generated during combustion. According to a recent report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, 10 carcinogenic PAHs together with 53 other known carcinogens are present in cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals helps assess public health risk to both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smoke. We have developed and validated a specific and sensitive method for measuring these 10 carcinogenic PAHs in the particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke. Cigarette smoke particulate, produced using standard machine smoking protocols, was collected on glass fiber Cambridge filter pads. The particulate matter was solvent extracted, purified by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Our method's limits of detection ranged from 11 to 166 pg and achieved sufficient reproducibility and accuracy to provide useful information on a range of cigarettes having dramatically different machine-smoked tar and nicotine deliveries. The identity of each PAH analyte was established from chromatographic retention time, analyte-specific fragmentation patterns, and relative peak area ratios of the product/precursor ion pairs. This new method provides higher sensitivity, specificity, and throughput than did earlier methods. We found relatively consistent PAH levels among a selection of domestic full-flavor cigarettes. The PAH levels in smoke from highly ventilated light and ultralight cigarettes were low when smoked using ISO (International Organization for Standardization) conditions. However, if highly ventilated cigarettes were smoked under more intense conditions (e.g., larger or more frequent puffs, vents blocked), their PAH

  14. “It’s not smoke. It’s not tar. It’s not 4000 chemicals. Case closed”: Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Blair N.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Tessman, Greta K.; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M.; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. Methods A total of 14 focus groups (N = 116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18–29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. PMID:26708706

  15. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  16. The effect of prime emulsion components as a function of equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceptions of food products start when flavor compounds are released from foods, transported and appropriate senses in the oral and nose are triggered. However, the long-term stability of flavor compounds in food product has been a major concern in the food industry due to the complex interactions between key food ingredients (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins). Hence, this study was conducted to formulate emulsion-based beverage using natural food emulsifiers and to understand the interactions between emulsion compositions and flavor compounds. Results The influences of modified starch (x 1 ), whey protein isolate (x 2 ), soursop flavor oil (x 3 ) and deionized water (x 4 ) on the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop volatile flavor compounds were evaluated using a four-component with constrained extreme vertices mixture design. The results indicated that the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the matrix and structural compositions of the beverage emulsions. Interface formed using modified starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) proved to be capable of inhibiting the release of volatile flavor compounds from the oil to the aqueous phase. Modified starch could retard the overall flavor release through its hydrophobic interactions with volatile flavor compounds and viscosity enhancement effect. Excessive amount of modified starch was also shown to be detrimental to the stability of emulsion system. However, both modified starch and WPI showed to be a much more effective barrier in inhibiting the flavor release of flavor compounds when used as individual emulsifier than as a mixture. Conclusions Overall, the mixture design can be practical in elucidating the complex interactions between key food components and volatile flavor compounds in an emulsion system. These studies will be useful for the manufacturers for the formulation of an optimum beverage emulsion with

  17. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  18. Skew-flavored dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  19. Improving flavor of fresh potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for improved potato flavor has not been a high priority in US breeding programs. It is a difficult trait to breed for because it cannot be done in a high throughput manner and it requires an understanding of the complex biochemistry of flavor compounds and effects of cooking on those compou...

  20. Skew-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  1. Combatting wintertime off-flavors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavored catfish are not acceptable for harvest, which disrupts the orderly flow of product from farm to processing plant. Most summertime off-flavors are caused when odorous substances produced by blue-green algae are absorbed from water and deposited in the fish’s flesh. Fish can also become o...

  2. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    PubMed

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  3. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a “healthier alternative” to traditional cigarettes and their use as a “smoking cessation aid” are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  4. Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. PMID:25830075

  5. Flavor dependence of quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Chengzhong

    2001-06-01

    We study the dependence of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) on the number of light dynamical quarks. We conduct simulations on N3s × 32 (Ns = 16 or 24) lattices with two and four flavors of dynamical staggered quarks of mass 0.01 and 0.02. Most of our simulations have at least 5000 trajectories, which is significantly longer than those in previous studies by other research groups. We reproduce some of our previous 163 x 32 runs using our new supercomputer QCDSP. We complete our four-flavor 163 x 32 simulations. We perform simulations with two and four flavors on 24 3 x 32 lattices. We study the dependence of the nucleon mass on the lattice operators. We measure the pion decay constant using two different methods. We also extract the π - N σ-term. We find that, for four flavors, the masses of most hadrons show strong finite size effects, changing by as much as 10%-15% when the lattice spatial volume increases from 163 to 243. We find, in contrast, that the finite size effects on two-flavor hadron masses are less drastic: In this case all meson masses change by only a few percent; the nucleon mass changes by 10%. We find only quantitative differences in the ratios of physical quantities for the two-flavor and four-flavor QCD. The nucleon to the rho mass ratio for four flavors is about 13% higher than that for two flavors and this is significant to three standard deviations. In addition, we find that the pion decay constant for two flavors agrees well with the experimental value.

  6. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... listed in 21 CFR 182.10, and 184. (2) The term “natural flavor,” “natural flavoring,” “flavor” or... flavors include the natural essence or extractives obtained from plants listed in 21 CFR 182.10, 182.20, 182.40, 182.50 and 184, and the substances listed in 21 CFR 172.510. The term natural flavor,...

  7. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... include the spices listed in 21 CFR 182.10, and 184. (2) The term “natural flavor,” “natural flavoring... flavors include the natural essence or extractives obtained from plants listed in 21 CFR 182.10, 182.20, 182.40, 182.50 and 184, and the substances listed in 21 CFR 172.510. The term natural flavor,...

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  9. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  10. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Cigarette Design Feature Influence on ISO TNCO Yields.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Heard, Kimberly A; Lancaster, Vicki A; Bravo, Roberto; Watson, Clifford; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-20

    The aim of this study is to explore how differences in cigarette physical design parameters influence tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields in mainstream smoke (MSS) using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) smoking regimen. Standardized smoking methods were used to evaluate 50 U.S. domestic brand cigarettes and a reference cigarette representing a range of TNCO yields in MSS collected from linear smoking machines using a nonintense smoking regimen. Multivariate statistical methods were used to form clusters of cigarettes based on their ISO TNCO yields and then to explore the relationship between the ISO generated TNCO yields and the nine cigarette physical design parameters between and within each cluster simultaneously. The ISO generated TNCO yields in MSS are 1.1-17.0 mg tar/cigarette, 0.1-2.2 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 1.6-17.3 mg CO/cigarette. Cluster analysis divided the 51 cigarettes into five discrete clusters based on their ISO TNCO yields. No one physical parameter dominated across all clusters. Predicting ISO machine generated TNCO yields based on these nine physical design parameters is complex due to the correlation among and between the nine physical design parameters and TNCO yields. From these analyses, it is estimated that approximately 20% of the variability in the ISO generated TNCO yields comes from other parameters (e.g., filter material, filter type, inclusion of expanded or reconstituted tobacco, and tobacco blend composition, along with differences in tobacco leaf origin and stalk positions and added ingredients). A future article will examine the influence of these physical design parameters on TNCO yields under a Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimen. Together, these papers will provide a more robust picture of the design features that contribute to TNCO exposure across the range of real world smoking patterns. PMID:27222918

  11. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  12. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  13. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  14. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and...

  15. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  16. Heavy flavor production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-06-10

    Predictions are presented of total cross sections for charm and bottom quark production in /bar p/p, ..pi../sup /minus//p, and pp interactions at fixed target and collider energies. The calculations are done through next-to-leading order in QCD perturbation theory. The sensitivity is explored of results to the choices of renormalization/evolution scale, parton densities, ..lambda../sub QCD/, and heavy flavor masses. Comparisons with available data show that good agreement is obtained for reasonable values of charm and bottom quark masses and other parameters. Open issues in the interpretation of results are summarized including the large size of the next-to-leading order contributions, proper definition of the gluon density, the nuclear A dependence of charm cross sections, the role of final state interactions, and higher twist effects. 39 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  18. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  19. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  20. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  1. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  2. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  3. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  4. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  5. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  6. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  7. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  8. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  9. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  10. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  11. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  12. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  13. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  14. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  15. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  16. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  17. An international analysis of cigarette affordability

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, E; van Walbeek, C P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how affordable cigarettes are in developed and developing countries, and to calculate by how much the affordability of cigarettes has changed between 1990 and 2001; and secondly, to investigate the relation between cigarette affordability and consumption. Design: Affordability was defined as the cost of cigarettes relative to per capita income. Trends in cigarette affordability, and affordability elasticities of demand, were estimated using regression techniques. Subjects: Seventy countries were investigated, of which 28 are categorised as high income developed countries, while 42 are categorised as developing countries. Cigarette prices were obtained for the main city/cities in the countries. Results: Despite the fact that cigarettes are more expensive in developed countries, the high levels of income make cigarettes more affordable in these countries vis-à-vis developing countries. Of the 28 developed countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 11 and less affordable in 17 countries during the 1990s. Of the 42 developing countries, cigarettes became more affordable in 24 and less affordable in 18 countries. Based on a cross sectional analysis, a 1% increase in the relative income price (the inverse of cigarette affordability) is expected to decrease cigarette consumption by between 0.49–0.57%. Conclusions: Cigarette affordability, more than just the price, determines cigarette consumption. While cigarettes have become more affordable in many developing countries, some developing countries (for example, South Africa, Poland, and Thailand) have implemented strong and effective tobacco control policies, and have been able to decrease cigarette consumption as a result. PMID:15564616

  18. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  19. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients. PMID:19562883

  20. Youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Dan; Brucks, Merrie; Wallendorf, Melanie; Boland, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions: (1) when youths are exposed to advertisements for cigarettes, do they primarily see advertisements for brands or products, and (2) is there a relationship between youths' understandings of cigarette advertisements and their susceptibility to smoking? A sample of 271 participants ranging in age from 7 to 12 viewed a series of print advertisements that included cigarette and non-tobacco-related ads. While viewing each ad, participants were asked to indicate what they thought the advertisement was trying to sell. Responses were coded into one of three categories reflecting important differences in participants' comprehension of each advertisement - no understanding, product category understanding, or brand understanding. Results show that youths typically understand the type of product an advertisement is promoting; however, the levels of brand understanding observed for cigarette advertisements were low in an absolute sense, and significantly lower than brand understanding of non-tobacco-related advertisements. Results also show that understanding cigarette ads as promoting specific brands of cigarettes is positively related to susceptibility to smoking. Taken together, these findings provide a glimpse of the psychological mechanisms that may underlie the well established link between exposure to cigarette advertising and youth smoking. PMID:18812253

  1. Heavy flavor at the Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, S.

    2016-07-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider have pioneered and established the role of hadron collisions in exploring flavor physics through a broad program that continues to offer competitive results. I report on latest results in the flavor sector obtained using the whole CDF and D0 data sets corresponding to {˜}10{ fb-1} of integrated luminosity; including B-mesons spectroscopy and production asymmetries, flavor specific decay bottom-strange mesons lifetime. I also present measurements of direct and indirect CP violation in bottom and charm meson decays.

  2. The effect of cigarette taxes on cigarette consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, M H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reexamines the work of Meier and Licari in a previous issue of the Journal. METHODS: The impact of excise taxes on cigarette consumption and sales was measured via standard regression analysis. RESULTS: The 1983 federal tax increase is shown to have an anomalous effect on the regression results. When those data are excluded, there is no significant difference between state and federal tax increases. Further investigation suggests that firms raised cigarette prices substantially in the years surrounding the 1983 federal tax increase, which accounts for the relatively large decrease in consumption during this period. CONCLUSIONS: Federal excise taxes per se do not appear to be more effective than state excise taxes in terms of reducing cigarette consumption. The reaction of cigarette firms to government policies appears to be an important determinant of the success of antismoking initiatives. PMID:9663167

  3. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by...

  4. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by...

  5. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by...

  6. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by...

  7. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition and... vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that its content of ethyl alcohol is less than 35 percent by...

  8. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flavoring agents. 58.629 Section 58.629 Agriculture.... Flavoring agents shall be one or more of those approved in § 58.605....

  9. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flavoring agents. 58.629 Section 58.629 Agriculture.... Flavoring agents shall be one or more of those approved in § 58.605....

  10. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome and... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flavoring agents. 58.629 Section 58.629 Agriculture.... Flavoring agents shall be one or more of those approved in § 58.605....

  11. Effects of Duration of Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Alayna P.; Grant, DeMond M.; Tahirkheli, Noor N.; Driskill, Leslie M.; Wagener, Theodore L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of duration electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on e-cigarette dependence, frequency of use, and strength of nicotine solution as well as number of cigarettes smoked per day. Methods: Individuals were recruited at e-cigarette retail locations in a large Midwestern metropolitan city of the United States in July 2013. A total of 159 participants completed a brief 29-item self-report measure that assessed behaviors and perceptions of use. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years; 84.4% were White, and 53.7% were male. Results: Increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day and differing patterns of dependence to e-cigarettes contingent upon smoking history. Additionally, increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with increased frequency of use; however, this finding became nonsignificant when current tobacco cigarette use was accounted for, suggesting that individuals may increase e-cigarette use frequency as they decrease cigarette use. Overall, e-cigarette users tended to decrease the strength of nicotine in their e-cigarette products regardless of duration of use. Conclusions: Although preliminary in nature, this study identifies several factors that are important to consider when examining the effects of prolonged e-cigarette use. The implications of the current results should be informative to future studies that examine these variables in longitudinal designs. PMID:24827788

  12. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  13. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hookah Pens and Vapes: Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Do stronger school ... the health behaviour in school-aged children survey Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does ...

  14. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kids and Smoking Secondhand Smoke Nicotine: What Parents Need to Know Word! Nicotine Smoking Stinks! Smokeless Tobacco E-Cigarettes Smoking Secondhand Smoke How Can I Quit Smoking? Contact Us ...

  15. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2009-08-03

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary {Omicron}(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-{tau} unification is replaced by the SU(5) breaking relation m{sub {tau}}/m{sub b} = 3/2, in better agreement with observations. Other SU(5) breaking effects in the fermion masses can easily arise directly from the flavor model itself. The symmetry breaking that triggers the generation of flavor necessarily gives rise to an axion, solving the strong CP problem. These theories contain long-lived particles whose decays could give striking signatures at the LHC and may solve the primordial Lithium problems. These models also give novel proton decay signatures which can be probed by the next generation of experiments. Measurement of the various proton decay channels directly probes the flavor symmetry breaking couplings. In this scenario the Higgs mass is predicted to lie in a range near 150 GeV.

  16. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Curwin, Brian D.; Deddens, Jim A.; McKernan, Lauralynn T.

    2015-01-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25–3124 ppb and 15–172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous. PMID:25052692

  17. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaporizes the liquid in the cartridge. The resulting aerosol or vapor is then inhaled (called "vaping"). Are ... of tobacco smoking by producing an appealingly flavored aerosol that looks and feels like tobacco smoke and ...

  18. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers. PMID:21624148

  19. Experts’ consensus on use of electronic cigarettes: a Delphi survey from Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In some countries, nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are considered a consumer product without specific regulations. In others (eg, Switzerland), the sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine is forbidden, despite the eagerness of many smokers to obtain them. As scientific data about efficacy and long-term safety of these products are scarce, tobacco control experts are divided on how to regulate them. In order to gain consensus among experts to provide recommendations to health authorities, we performed a national consensus study. Setting We used a Delphi method with electronic questionnaires to bring together the opinion of Swiss experts on e-cigarettes. Participants 40 Swiss experts from across the country. Outcome measures We measured the degree of consensus between experts on recommendations regarding regulation, sale, use of and general opinion about e-cigarettes containing nicotine. New recommendations and statements were added following the experts’ answers and comments. Results There was consensus that e-cigarettes containing nicotine should be made available, but only under specific conditions. Sale should be restricted to adults, using quality standards, a maximum level of nicotine and with an accompanying list of authorised ingredients. Advertisement should be restricted and use in public places should be forbidden. Conclusions These recommendations encompass three principles: (1) the reality principle, as the product is already on the market; (2) the prevention principle, as e-cigarettes provide an alternative to tobacco for actual smokers, and (3) the precautionary principle, to protect minors and non-smokers, since long-term effects are not yet known. Swiss authorities should design specific regulations to sell nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. PMID:25877274

  20. Electronic Cigarette Use by College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or ecigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of ecigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ecigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. Methods 4,444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Webbased survey in fall 2009. Results Ever use of ecigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or “Other race” (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Conclusions Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. PMID:23746429

  1. Lepton-flavored scalar dark matter with minimal flavor violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chao-Jung; Tandean, Jusak

    2015-04-01

    We explore scalar dark matter that is part of a lepton flavor triplet satisfying symmetry requirements under the hypothesis of minimal flavor violation. Beyond the standard model, the theory contains in addition three right-handed neutrinos that participate in the seesaw mechanism for light neutrino mass generation. The dark-matter candidate couples to standard-model particles via Higgs-portal renormalizable interactions as well as to leptons through dimension-six operators, all of which have minimal flavor violation built-in. We consider restrictions on the new scalars from the Higgs boson measurements, observed relic density, dark-matter direct detection experiments, LEP II measurements on e + e - scattering into a photon plus missing energy, and searches for flavor-violating lepton decays. The viable parameter space can be tested further with future data. Also, we investigate the possibility of the new scalars' couplings accounting for the tentative hint of Higgs flavor-violating decay h → μτ recently detected in the CMS experiment. They are allowed by constraints from other Higgs data to produce a rate of this decay roughly compatible with the CMS finding.

  2. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... additives? Q. How are ingredients listed on a product label? A . Food manufacturers are required to list all ... in the food on the label. On a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of predominance, ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  4. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  5. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  6. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  7. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  8. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    PubMed

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  9. Allergy to ingredients of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hannuksela, M; Kousa, M; Pirilä, V

    1976-04-01

    Common ingredients of vehicles such as perfumes, antibacterial agents, emulsifiers and other surface active agents, propylene glycol, lanolin and wool alcohols were tested in eczema patients over a three-year period. Perfume allergy was detected in 3.6% of the cases, sensitivity to thiomersal in 2%, to sorbic acid in 0.8%, to parabens in only 0.3%, and to wool alcohols in 1.2%. Reactions to emulsifiers were seen over 1% of those tested. PMID:1037096

  10. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  11. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  12. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  13. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  14. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Combinations of skin protectant and sunscreen active ingredients. Any one (two when required to be in... single sunscreen active ingredient, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, provided...

  15. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  16. Comparative effects between electronic and cigarette smoke in human keratinocytes and epithelial lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Cervellati, Franco; Muresan, Ximena; Sticozzi, Claudia; Gambari, Roberto; Montagner, Giulia; Forman, Henry; Torricelli, Claudia; Maioli, Emanuela; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Information about the harmful effects of vaping is sparse and inconsistent, therefore, since the use of electronic cigarettes (e-CIGs) has become increasingly popular as a tool to limit tobacco smoking, it is urgent to establish the safety or the toxicity of the liquid vaporized by the atomizer of the commercial e-CIGs. Methods Skin (HaCaT) and lung (A549) cells, the main targets of cigarette smoke, were exposed to e-CIG vapor (e-CIG Mini Touch T-Fumo T-TEX) and cigarette smoke (UK research cigarette) in a smoke chamber in vitro. The cytotoxic effect of the exposure was analyzed in both cell types by ultrastructural morphology, Trypan Blue exclusion test and LDH assay. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in culture medium by the Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. Results The cytotoxic components of e-CIG were restrained to the flavoring compound and, to a lesser extent, to nicotine and their effects were comparable to that of cigarette smoke. Humectants alone exhibited no cytotoxicity but induced the release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly in keratinocytes. Conclusions Based on our results, we can state that e-CIG vapors exposure is not completely harmless, although far less toxic than CS. In fact, besides the deleterious effect of flavor and nicotine, even the humectants alone are able to evocate some adverse cellular events, such as enhanced cytokines release. This study will hopefully promote the development of truly innocuous e-CIGs to help people quit smoking. PMID:24809892

  17. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    PubMed Central

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya’u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M.; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse. PMID:27413354

  18. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (<=3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  19. E-Cigarettes: The Science Behind the Smoke and Mirrors.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Nathan K; Sonti, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarettes are a diverse set of devices that are designed for pulmonary delivery of nicotine through an aerosol, usually consisting of propylene glycol, nicotine, and flavorings. The devices heat the nicotine solution using a battery-powered circuit and deliver the resulting vapor into the proximal airways and lung. Although the current devices on the market appear to be safer than smoking combusted tobacco, they have their own inherent risks, which remain poorly characterized due to widespread product variability. Despite rising use throughout the United States, predominantly by smokers, limited evidence exists for their efficacy in smoking cessation. Pending regulation by the FDA will enforce limited disclosures on the industry but will not directly impact safety or efficacy. Meanwhile, respiratory health practitioners will need to tailor their discussions with patients, taking into account the broad range of existing effective smoking cessation techniques, including pharmaceutical nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:27407178

  20. E-Cigarettes 'In' At Some Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158580.html E-Cigarettes 'In' at Some Schools In certain places, ... study suggests. The researchers found that differences in e-cigarette use between schools increased over time. This ...

  1. E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160107.html E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors: Study Levels depend on ... findings could be important to both makers of e-cigarettes and regulators who want to reduce the ...

  2. The Fight against the Cigarette Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzel, K. H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes progress in the fight against the "cigarette epidemic," presents evidence relating smoking to cancer, and provides suggestions for citizen action to curb cigarette-smoking and to prevent children from developing the habit. (LS)

  3. E-Cigarettes 'In' At Some Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158580.html E-Cigarettes 'In' at Some Schools In certain places, teens more likely to vape, regardless of regular cigarette use, study says To use the sharing features ...

  4. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    Electronic cigarettes; Electronic hookahs; Vaping ... There are many types of e-cigarettes and e-hookahs. Most have a battery-operated heating device. When you inhale, the heater turns on and heats a liquid cartridge ...

  5. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V{sub ub}/V{sub cb} = {radical}m{sub u}/m{sub c} and V{sub td}/V{sub ts} = {radical}m{sub d}/m{sub s}, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay {beta} {yields} s{gamma} constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan{Beta}, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  6. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  7. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  8. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  9. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    PubMed

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues. PMID:25921182

  10. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  11. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  12. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  13. Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jared A.; Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  14. Cigarette smoking and gastrointestinal diseases: the causal relationship and underlying molecular mechanisms (review).

    PubMed

    Li, L F; Chan, R L Y; Lu, L; Shen, J; Zhang, L; Wu, W K K; Wang, L; Hu, T; Li, M X; Cho, C H

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including peptic ulcers, inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and cancer. In this review, the relationship between smoking and GI disorders and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. It has been demonstrated that cigarette smoking is positively associated with the pathogenesis of peptic ulcers and the delay of ulcer healing. Mechanistic studies have shown that cigarette smoke and its active ingredients can cause mucosal cell death, inhibit cell renewal, decrease blood flow in the GI mucosa and interfere with the mucosal immune system. Cigarette smoking is also an independent risk factor for various types of cancer of the GI tract. In this review, we also summarize the mechanisms through which cigarette smoking induces tumorigenesis and promotes the development of cancer in various sections of the GI tract. These mechanisms include the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the formation of DNA adducts, the stimulation of tumor angiogenesis and the modulation of immune responses in the GI mucosa. A full understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms may help us to develop more effective therapies for GI disorders in the future. PMID:24859303

  15. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000761.htm E-cigarettes and E-hookahs To use the sharing features on this ... cigarettes because they believe these devices are safe. E-cigarettes and children Many experts also have concerns ...

  16. MedlinePlus: E-Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... hookahs Available in Spanish Electronic Cigarettes (Department of Health and Human Services) Teens and E-cigarettes (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco (National Institute on Drug Abuse) What Are ...

  17. Assessing Cigarette Sales Rates to Minors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 24 adolescents, observation of minors using cigarette vending machines, and studies of the attempts of 20 minors to purchase cigarettes over the counter all confirm that it is easy for minors to gain access to cigarettes in Chicago (Illinois). Implications for tobacco purchase laws are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Advances in assessing ingredient safety.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; York, Raymond G

    2016-08-01

    The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the "safe" dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described. PMID:27427210

  19. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Methods Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May–August 2012 and December 2013–January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. Results By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs 52.1%, p<0.01), and newer brands more likely to offer the more versatile eGos and mods (75.3% vs 57.8%, p<0.01). Older brands were significantly more likely to claim that they were healthier and cheaper than cigarettes, were good substitutes where smoking was banned and were effective smoking cessation aids. Newer brands offered more flavours per brand (49 vs 32, p<0.01) and were less likely to compare themselves with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions The number of e-cigarette brands is large and has been increasing. Older brands tend to highlight their advantages over conventional cigarettes while newer brands emphasise consumer choice in multiple flavours and product versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935895

  20. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling. PMID:26422289

  1. Avoidance of Cigarette Pack Health Warnings among Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Olivia M.; Attwood, Angela; O’Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: 1) are familiar with the health warnings, 2) preferentially attend to branding, or 3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. Method A convenience sample of 30 adult dependant smokers were recruited to participate in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Results Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding location rather than the health warning location on all three pack types (p < 0.002). This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10 seconds of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8 seconds of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Conclusion Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have policy implications for the design of health warning on cigarette packs. PMID:24485554

  2. About flavor, spin, and color

    SciTech Connect

    Jora, Renata

    2010-09-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking (restoration) for SU(N) gauge theories is a topic of great interest and not yet fully explained. We consider the phenomenon as a collective spin effect and determine its behavior in terms of the number of flavors N{sub f}.

  3. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Exposures to ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  4. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  5. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  6. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  7. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  8. Young Adults’ Favorable Perceptions of Snus, Dissolvable Tobacco Products, and Electronic Cigarettes: Findings From a Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Lindsey; Mottey, Neli; Corbett, Amanda; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored young adults’ perceptions of snus (spitless moist snuff packed in porous bags), dissolvable tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes and intention to try these products. Methods. We conducted 11 focus group discussions involving a total of 66 young adults (18–26 years old) on these new tobacco products (e.g., harmfulness, potential as quit aids, intention to try) held between July and December 2010. We analyzed discussions using a thematic approach. Results. Participants generally reported positive perceptions of the new products, particularly because they came in flavors. Few negative perceptions were reported. Although some participants believed these products were less harmful than cigarettes and helpful in quitting smoking, others thought the opposite, particularly regarding electronic cigarettes. Participants also commented that these products could be gateways to cigarette smoking. Half of the participants, including a mix of smokers and nonsmokers, admitted they would try these products if offered by a friend. Conclusions. Young adults perceive the new tobacco products positively and are willing to experiment with them. Eliminating flavors in these products may reduce young adults’ intentions to try these products. PMID:22813086

  9. CIGARETTE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps speci...

  10. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use. PMID:23673789