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Sample records for cigarette smoke-related end-points

  1. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  2. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

  3. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking-related cancers revisited: an ecologic examination.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is assessing whether menthol should be banned as an additive to cigarettes. An important part of this determination concerns the health effects of mentholated relative to non-mentholated cigarettes. We examined the ecologic association between sales of mentholated cigarettes for the period 1950-2007, menthol preference by race and sex, and incidence rates of four tobacco-related cancers during 1973-2007. Total sales of mentholated cigarettes (market share) increased from about 3% in 1950 to slightly less than 30% in 1980 and remained fairly stable thereafter. Additional data show consistently that, compared to White smokers, Black smokers favor mentholated cigarettes by roughly a 3-fold margin. Differences in the incidence of lung cancer, squamous cell cancer of the esophagus, oropharyngeal cancer, and laryngeal cancer by race and sex and trends over a 35-year period, during which menthol sales were relatively stable and during which Black smokers were much more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared to Whites, are not consistent with a large contribution of menthol, over and above the effect of smoking per se. PMID:22429780

  4. Systems toxicology approaches enable mechanistic comparison of spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumor development in the A/J mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yang; Iskandar, Anita; Sewer, Alain; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Berges, An; Veljkovic, Emilija; Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Schlage, Walter; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The A/J mouse is highly susceptible to lung tumor induction and has been widely used as a screening model in carcinogenicity testing and chemoprevention studies. However, the A/J mouse model has several disadvantages. Most notably, it develops lung tumors spontaneously. Moreover, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary chemical carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse. Therefore, we examined the differences between spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumors in the A/J mouse model using mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) profiling. Male A/J mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) for 18 months. Gene expression interaction term analysis of lung tumors and surrounding non-tumorous parenchyma samples from animals that were exposed to either 300 mg/m3 MS or sham-exposed to fresh air indicated significant differential expression of 296 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA®) indicated an overall suppression of the humoral immune response, which was accompanied by a disruption of sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism and a deregulation of potentially oncogenic miRNA in tumors of MS-exposed A/J mice. Thus, we propose that MS exposure leads to severe perturbations in pathways essential for tumor recognition by the immune system, thereby potentiating the ability of tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. Further, exposure to MS appeared to affect expression of miRNA, which have previously been implicated in carcinogenesis and are thought to contribute to tumor progression. Finally, we identified a 50-gene expression signature and show its utility in distinguishing between cigarette smoke-related and spontaneous lung tumors. PMID:26109882

  5. Are Young People’s Beliefs About Menthol Cigarettes Associated With Smoking-Related Intentions and Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Laura; Momjian, Ani; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the beliefs that youth and young adults hold about menthol cigarettes or the influence of these beliefs on tobacco use initiation. Methods: Online cross-sectional surveys with 13- to 17-year-old current nonsmokers (n = 553) and 18- to 25-year-old never (n = 586) and current tobacco users (n = 307) in the United States assessed the association between endorsing each of 9 pro-menthol beliefs and (a) intentions to smoke menthol cigarettes over the next year, (b) current use of menthol cigarettes, (c) intentions to use tobacco in general over the next year, and (d) current use of tobacco products in general. Results: Menthols were perceived to be less harmful and addictive than nonmenthol cigarettes by between 13% and 23% of respondents. Between 20% and 58% believed that menthols had favorable sensory properties, and 7%–25% believed that menthol smokers were more popular and attractive than nonmenthol smokers. Logistic regression analyses (adjusting for confounders) indicated that, on the whole, those who endorsed pro-menthol beliefs were more likely to intend to use, and to currently use, both menthols and tobacco products in general. For example, respondents who believed that menthol cigarettes were more refreshing in sensation (one of the most frequently endorsed beliefs) were significantly more likely to (a) intend to smoke menthol cigarettes (13- to 17-year-olds, odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 4.34; 18- to 25-year olds, OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.04, 6.60), (b) currently use menthol cigarettes (18- to 25-year olds, OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 2.20, 5.26), (c) intend to use tobacco (13- to 17-year-olds OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.65), and (d) currently use tobacco (18- to 25-year olds, OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.44, 2.93). Conclusions: Youth and young adults who do not currently smoke and who hold favorable beliefs about menthol cigarettes are at greater risk for beginning to use tobacco products, indicating that

  6. IS CIGARETTE SMOKING RELATED TO ALCOHOL USE DURING THE 8 YEARS FOLLOWING TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE?

    PubMed Central

    MYERS, MARK G.; DORAN, NEAL M.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims The present study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol use outcomes over an 8-year period following treatment for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. Methods The present study was based on a sample of 166 adolescents recruited during inpatient AOD abuse treatment. Included in this study were 123 (74% of the full sample) participants, of whom 41% were female, 81% identified themselves as White and who averaged 15.9 years of age (SD = 1.3) when entering treatment. Data for the present study were drawn from interviews conducted at the time of treatment and 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-years post-treatment. Results Twenty six percent of participants had quit smoking for >1 year at the 8-year assessment, while 44% reported persistent smoking over time. Overall smoking rates decreased significantly over time. Subjects associated with the highest alcohol involvement trajectory reported significantly greater likelihood of persistent smoking as well as higher current smoking and cigarette consumption across time points. Conclusions The significant declines observed in smoking from adolescence into young adulthood were contrary to expectations, indicating that this behaviour may be less stable than previously thought among adolescent AOD abusers. Smoking involvement over time was greater within the highest alcohol use trajectory, consistent with previous evidence for a positive relationship between these behaviours. However, when compared with the general population smoking rates remained very high regardless of alcohol involvement. Thus, individuals treated for AOD abuse as adolescents remained at elevated risk for tobacco related disease regardless of post-treatment AOD use outcomes. PMID:17526632

  7. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  8. EndPoints 2000

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-13

    The application leads the user through a logical framework to determine the minimum effort and cost necessary to reach the desired end state for each space, system, and facility. Endpoints are used to plan the project work, track and manage the determination, management, verification, and closure of D&D endpoints, consistent with DOE End Point guidance documents.

  9. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information.

  10. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22365253

  11. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith; Fiala, Zdenĕk; Smejkalová, Jindra; Jacob, Vimal; Somanathan, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    This article reviewed smoking related systemic diseases and oral diseases. Smoking is related to lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other systemic diseases. Cigarette smoke affects the oral cavity first, so it is evident that smoking has many negative influences on oral cavity, for example, staining of teeth and dental restorations, wound healing, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and development of oral diseases such as oral cancer, periodontitis, smoker's palate, smoker's melanosis, hairy tongue, leukoplakia, oral candidiasis and implant survival rate. The article also discusses the relationship between smoking and dental caries in detail. PMID:18254267

  12. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A review.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Harari, Sergio; Caminati, Antonella; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2016-01-01

    For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). Other entities in which smoking has a definite or suggested role include pulmonary Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of smoking-related lung damage and on the clinical aspects of these disorders with the exception of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which will be reviewed elsewhere in this review series. PMID:26138798

  13. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  14. Smoking-related lung disease.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J

    2009-11-01

    Dyspneic smokers who come to clinical attention demonstrate varying combinations of emphysema, airway inflammation, and fibrosis in addition to the changes of pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. There is also growing acceptance of a link between cigarette smoke and alveolar wall fibrosis. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a dramatic response to recent-onset smoking seen in a small number of individuals. The interconnected pathways that lead to lung inflammation and fibrosis in cigarette smokers are slowly coming into focus. PMID:19935224

  15. Megavoltage bremsstrahlung end point voltage diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Feroli, T; Litz, M S; Merkel, G; Smith, T; Pereira, N R; Carroll, J J

    2009-03-01

    In a material, a beam of x rays is accompanied by various kinds of secondary radiation, including Compton electrons from collisions between the x rays and the material's electrons. For megavoltage bremsstrahlung in air, many of these Compton electrons are forward-directed and fast enough to be deflected outside the beam's edge by a magnetic field perpendicular to the beam. At the beam's edge, the dose from the deflected Compton electrons has a pattern that depends on the radiation's end point energy. Dose patterns measured with radiochromic film on a nominally 1 and 2 MV linear accelerator agree reasonably well with the corresponding Monte Carlo computations. With further development, the dose pattern produced outside the beam by such a sweeper magnet could become a noninvasive way to monitor megavoltage bremsstrahlung, when the end point energies are difficult to determine with other methods. PMID:19334938

  16. Megavoltage bremsstrahlung end point voltage diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Feroli, T.; Litz, M. S.; Merkel, G.; Smith, T.; Pereira, N. R.; Carroll, J. J.

    2009-03-15

    In a material, a beam of x rays is accompanied by various kinds of secondary radiation, including Compton electrons from collisions between the x rays and the material's electrons. For megavoltage bremsstrahlung in air, many of these Compton electrons are forward-directed and fast enough to be deflected outside the beam's edge by a magnetic field perpendicular to the beam. At the beam's edge, the dose from the deflected Compton electrons has a pattern that depends on the radiation's end point energy. Dose patterns measured with radiochromic film on a nominally 1 and 2 MV linear accelerator agree reasonably well with the corresponding Monte Carlo computations. With further development, the dose pattern produced outside the beam by such a sweeper magnet could become a noninvasive way to monitor megavoltage bremsstrahlung, when the end point energies are difficult to determine with other methods.

  17. UO3 deactivation end point criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, L.D.

    1994-10-01

    The UO{sub 3} Deactivation End Point Criteria are necessary to facilitate the transfer of the UO{sub 3} Facility from the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) to the office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The criteria were derived from a logical process for determining end points for the systems and spaces at the UO{sub 3}, Facility based on the objectives, tasks, and expected future uses pertinent to that system or space. Furthermore, the established criteria meets the intent and supports the draft guidance for acceptance criteria prepared by EM-40, {open_quotes}U.S. Department of Energy office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Decontamination and Decommissioning Guidance Document (Draft).{close_quotes} For the UO{sub 3} Facility, the overall objective of deactivation is to achieve a safe, stable and environmentally sound condition, suitable for an extended period, as quickly and economically as possible. Once deactivated, the facility is kept in its stable condition by means of a methodical surveillance and maintenance (S&M) program, pending ultimate decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Deactivation work involves a range of tasks, such as removal of hazardous material, elimination or shielding of radiation fields, partial decontamination to permit access for inspection, installation of monitors and alarms, etc. it is important that the end point of each of these tasks be established clearly and in advance, for the following reasons: (1) End points must be such that the central element of the deactivation objective - to achieve stability - is unquestionably achieved. (2) Much of the deactivation work involves worker exposure to radiation or dangerous materials. This can be minimized by avoiding unnecessary work. (3) Each task is, in effect, competing for resources with other deactivation tasks and other facilities. By assuring that each task is appropriately bounded, DOE`s overall resources can be used most fully and effectively.

  18. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  19. Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara Cn; Ritter, Simone M; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger Cme; van Baaren, Rick B

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence. PMID:24567301

  20. End-Point Detection With Laser Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busta, Heinz H.

    1981-04-01

    A laser interferometric method was developed to detect end-of-etching of materials such as doped and undoped polysilicon, Si3N4, Si02 and metals used during different stages of IC and thin film device processing. For metal etching, a detector trace of constant magnitude is obtained until the underlying layers are exposed. At this point, a step change in re-flectivity occurs, signaling the end-point. For the other above mentioned films, a sinu-soidal waveform is obtained which changes its frequency once the film of interest is etched and the underlying layers become exposed. The method is applicable to all of the dry etch-ing processes and will be illustrated in some detail for polysilicon and silicon nitride etching applications using a barrel-type plasma reactor.

  1. Exposure of Japanese school children to smoking-related environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Sone, T

    2000-05-01

    Japan has no legal restrictions on cigarette advertising and vending machines. This lack of smoking control measures is a possible contributor to smoking initiation by adolescents. This study was conducted to provide primary data on environmental factors related to smoking, such as cigarette advertising and candy cigarettes, that influence elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire at two elementary schools in Kitakyushu City, Japan in 1995. Questionnaire sheets were anonymously filled out by 282 elementary school children at school. The effective response rate was 91.5% (128 boys and 130 girls). Over 90% of respondents had seen cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes and cigarette vending machines. Over 75% had at least one smoker in their family. Fewer female children expressed an intent to smoke in the future despite the fact that there were no significant sex differences in smoking-related experiences. Children were higher exposed to cigarette advertising on TV, candy cigarettes, vending machines and family members' smoking. Control of such smoking-related factors in the environment would be crucial to keeping children from initiating smoking behavior. PMID:10860303

  2. End points in dermatologic clinical trials: A review for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wei, Erin X; Kirsner, Robert S; Eaglstein, William H

    2016-07-01

    Clinical trials are critical for the development of new therapies in dermatology, and their results help determine US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and guide care. Of special relevance is the clinical trial efficacy end point, the metric from which statistically significant outcome is derived. Clinicians' understanding of a clinical trial's end point is necessary for critical analysis of the trial results and for applying those results to daily practice. This review provides practical knowledge and critical evaluation of end points used in treatment approvals by the FDA. The end points for actinic keratosis, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and cutaneous ulcer serve as examples. PMID:26936300

  3. Surfactant Proteins in Smoking-Related Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Andriana I; Papiris, Spyridon; Papadaki, Georgia; Manali, Effrosyni D; Roussou, Aneza; Spathis, Aris; Karakitsos, Petros; Kostikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a highly surface-active mixture of proteins and lipids that is synthesized and secreted in the alveoli by type II epithelial cells and is found in the fluid lining the alveolar surface. The protein part of surfactant constitutes two hydrophilic proteins (SP-A and SP-D) that regulate surfactant metabolism and have immunologic functions, and two hydrophobic proteins (SP-B and SP-C), which play a direct role in the organization of the surfactant structure in the interphase and in the stabilization of the lipid layers during the respiratory cycle. Several studies have shown that cigarette smoke seems to affect, in several ways, both surfactant homeostasis and function. The alterations in surfactants' biophysical properties caused by cigarette smoking, contribute to the development of several smoking related lung diseases. In this review we provide information on biochemical and physiological aspects of the pulmonary surfactant and on its possible association with the development of two major chronic diseases of the lung known to be related to smoking, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Additional information on the possible role of surfactant protein alterations and/or dysfunction in the combination of these two conditions, recently described as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) are also provided. PMID:26420367

  4. Motor contagion: the contribution of trajectory and end-points.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James W; Hayes, Spencer J; Uji, Makoto; Bennett, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Increased involuntary arm movement deviation when observing an incongruent human arm movement has been interpreted as a strong indicator of motor contagion. Here, we examined the contribution of trajectory and end-point information on motor contagion by altering congruence between the stimulus and arm movement. Participants performed cyclical horizontal arm movements whilst simultaneously observing a stimulus representing human arm movement. The stimuli comprised congruent horizontal movements or vertical movements featuring incongruent trajectory and end-points. A novel, third, stimulus comprised curvilinear movements featuring congruent end-points, but an incongruent trajectory. In Experiment 1, our dependent variables indicated increased motor contagion when observing the vertical compared to horizontal movement stimulus. There was even greater motor contagion in the curvilinear stimulus condition indicating an additive effect of an incongruent trajectory comprising congruent end-points. In Experiment 2, this additive effect was also present when facing perpendicular to the display, and thus with end-points represented as a product of the movement rather than an external spatial reference. Together, these findings support the theory of event coding (Hommel et al., Behav Brain Sci 24:849-878, 2001), and the prediction that increased motor contagion takes place when observed and executed actions share common features (i.e., movement end-points). PMID:24947759

  5. Spectrum of Smoking-related Lung Diseases: Imaging Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Madan, Rachna; Matalon, Shanna; Vivero, Marina

    2016-03-01

    There is increased awareness of smoking-related lung diseases other than lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Concurrently, there is general acceptance that there is difficulty in establishing a specific diagnosis of smoking-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), as many patients may not undergo biopsy to facilitate a specific histopathologic diagnosis. Cases that do proceed to biopsy may demonstrate multiple abnormalities, and histologic overlap between different disease processes may confound the picture. This review outlines the key aspects of smoking-related lung disease, including entities secondary to smoking-related lung inflammation such as respiratory bronchiolitis-ILD, desquamative idiopathic pneumonia, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, as well as chronic fibrosing lung diseases strongly associated with cigarette smoke including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and rheumatoid arthritis-ILD. The focus will be on incorporation of clinical findings, key pulmonary function testing parameters, high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) findings, and pathologic correlates in refining the differential diagnosis and differentiating between the various entities. PMID:26479130

  6. Environmental genotoxicity evaluation using cytogenetic end points in wild rodents.

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Bueno, A M; de Bragança Pereira, C A; Rabello-Gay, M N

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed cytogenetic end points in three populations of two species of wild rodents--Akodon montensis and Oryzomys nigripes--living in an industrial, an agricultural, and a preservation area at the Itajaí Valley, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Our purpose was to evaluate the performance of the following end points in the establishment of a genotoxic profile of each area: the polychromatic/normochromatic cell ratio; the mitotic index; the frequency of micronucleated cells both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood; and the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations in the bone marrow. Preparations were obtained using conventional cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a) the role of the end points used as biomarkers in the early detection of genotoxic agents and in the identification of species and populations at higher risk; b) the difference in sensitivity of the species selected as bioindicators in relation to the cytogenetic end points analyzed; c) the need to use at least two sympatric species to detect the presence of genotoxins in each locality; and d) the need to use several end points when trying to establish a genotoxic profile of an area. PMID:11133397

  7. Continuous Speech Recognition without End-point Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Osamu; Takeda, Kazuya; Itakura, Fumitada

    A new continuous speech recognition method that does not need the explicit speech end-point detection is proposed. A one-pass decoding algorithm is modified to decode the input speech of infinite length so that, with appropriate non-speech models for silence and ambient noises, continuous speech recognition can be executed without the explicit end-point detection. The basic algorithm 1) decodes a processing block of the predetermined length, 2) tracebacks and finds the boundaries of the processing blocks where the word history in the preceding processing block is merged into one, and 3) restarts decoding from the boundary frame with the merged word history. The effectiveness of the method is verified by the spoken dialogue transcription experiments. With a 5-minute dialogue in a moving car, the proposed method gives better results in word accuracy than the results using the explicit end-point detection method and the conventional one-pass decoder.

  8. End point behaviour of the pion distribution amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcepaniak, Adam; Mankiewicz, Lech

    1991-08-01

    We study the end point structure of the pion distribution amplitude and reexamine the perturbative analysis of the high-Q2 pion form factor in the factorization approach. Permanent address: Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw, Poland.

  9. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

  10. Origin of electrical signals for plasma etching end point detection: Comparison of end point signals and electron density

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewski, Mark A.; Lahr, David L.

    2012-09-15

    Electrical signals are used for end point detection in plasma etching, but the origin of the electrical changes observed at end point is not well understood. As an etch breaks through one layer and exposes an underlayer, the fluxes and densities of etch products and reactants in the gas phase will change. The resulting perturbation in gas composition may alter the plasma electron density, which in turn may affect the electrical signals. Alternatively, changes in substrate electrical properties or surface properties, such as work function or emitted electron yield, may be involved. To investigate these effects, experiments were performed in a radio-frequency (rf)-biased, inductively coupled reactor, during CF{sub 4}/Ar plasma etching of silicon dioxide films on silicon substrates. A complete set of electrical parameters, for the bias as well as the inductive source, was measured and compared. The most useful end point signal was found to be the fundamental rf bias impedance, which decreases when the oxide is removed. A simultaneous increase in plasma electron density was measured by a wave cutoff probe. Analytical sheath models indicate that the measured change in electron density accounts for nearly all of the impedance decrease. The change in electron density can in turn be explained by the effects of etch products or reactants on gas composition. In contrast, electrons emitted from the wafer surface play at most a minor role in the changes in electron density and impedance observed at end point.

  11. In Vitro Systems Toxicology Assessment of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product Shows Reduced Toxicity Compared to That of a Conventional Cigarette.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Martin, Florian; Marescotti, Diego; Guedj, Emmanuel; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Dariusz; Goedertier, Didier; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-19

    Cigarette smoke increases the risk for respiratory and other diseases. Although smoking prevalence has declined over the years, millions of adults choose to continue to smoke. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are potentially valuable tools for adult smokers that are unwilling to quit their habit. Here, we investigated the biological impact of a candidate MRTP, the tobacco-heating system (THS) 2.2, compared to that of the 3R4F reference cigarette in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemical characterization of the THS 2.2 aerosol showed reduced levels of harmful constituents compared to those of a combustible cigarette. Multiparametric indicators of cellular toxicity were measured via real-time cellular analysis and high-content screening. The study was complemented by a whole transcriptome analysis, followed by computational approaches to identify and quantify perturbed molecular pathways. Exposure of cells to 3R4F cigarette smoke resulted in a dose-dependent response in most toxicity end points. Moreover, we found a significant level of perturbation in multiple biological pathways, particularly in those related to cellular stress. By contrast, exposure to THS 2.2 resulted in an overall lower biological impact. At 3R4F doses, no toxic effects were observed. A toxic response was observed for THS 2.2 in some functional end points, but the responses occurred at doses between 3 and 15 times higher than those of 3R4F. The level of biological network perturbation was also significantly reduced following THS 2.2 aerosol exposure compared to that of 3R4F cigarette smoke. Taken together, the data suggest that THS 2.2 aerosol is less toxic than combustible cigarette smoke and thus may have the potential to reduce the risk for smoke-related diseases. PMID:26651182

  12. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  13. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  14. Dynamical realization of end-point memory in consolidated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O.; Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.; TenCate, James A.; Shankland, Thomas J.

    2006-05-01

    Starting with a soft-ratchet model of slow dynamics in nonlinear resonant response of sedimentary rocks we predict the dynamical realization of end-point memory in resonating bar experiments with a cyclic frequency protocol. The effect we describe and simulate is defined as the memory of previous maximum amplitude of alternating stress and manifested in the form of small hysteretic loops inside the big hysteretic loop on the resonance curve. It is most clearly pronounced in the vicinity of bar resonant frequency. These theoretical findings are confirmed experimentally.

  15. Determining End Points for Critical Limb Ischemia Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kyle J; Peña, Constantino; Benenati, James

    2016-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia is a condition that has increased in prevalence and carries a high degree of morbidity. Although endovascular therapy for treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia has undergone significant advances with improved outcomes over the past decade, these patients often have multilevel disease, and it may take weeks or months for ulceration healing. For this reason, the acceptable therapeutic end points during and immediately following revascularization remain somewhat obscure. There are multiple tools available to guide the treating vascular specialist in this regard. Establishment of in-line flow to the foot and the angiosome containing the ulceration, appearance of a "wound blush," restoration of pulses, and bleeding at the ulcer site are basic tenets intraprocedurally. Postprocedural noninvasive testing including the ankle-brachial and toe-brachial indices, segmental pressure measurements, pulse volume recordings, transcutaneous oxygen tension, skin perfusion pressures (SPPs), and toe pressures all play a role in determining the likelihood of clinical improvement. Newer technologies such as two-dimensional (2D) perfusion angiography, fluorescence angiography, and tissue oxygen saturation mapping may allow better real-time assessment of flow restoration. In combination with close clinical follow-up and wound care, these tools provide treating physicians with a better grasp of the necessary end points to optimize patients for clinical improvement. PMID:27423992

  16. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Palmer, M.J.

    1997-10-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements.

  17. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease *

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Gomez, Dario Maldonado; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Villegas, Claudia Jaramillo; Pérez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. PMID:23670499

  18. End points of clinical trials in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Giuseppe; Venturino, Antonella; Governato, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To review the definition and performance of the commonly used end points in trials of systemic therapies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken on PubMed database to identify studies meeting established criteria, with the aim of selecting randomized clinical trials and study definition and performance of their end points. The end points were grouped into three categories: overall survival (OS), time-to-event end points, and response end points. A special analysis was performed for secondary end points of the studies which documented a benefit in OS in the experimental arm. Finally, publishes analyses for surrogacy of the included end points were also reported. RESULTS: OS, time-to-event and response end points in 31 selected trials were analyzed. OS was the primary end point in 14 trials, and the secondary end point in 17. A time-to-event end point was the primary end point in 8 studies, and the secondary end point in 22; the most reported time-to-event end points were composite end points, and the events changed among trials. A response end point was the primary end point in 9 studies, in 3 it was prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related, in 3 pain-related and in 3 mixed. A response end point was the secondary end point in 19 studies: PSA response and radiologic response were the most frequently used secondary end points in 19 and 11 trials, respectively, while pain response was used in 5 studies. CONCLUSION: A homogeneous definition of progression in future trials is mandatory. Among response end points, pain-response and PSA-response appear to be the most reliable. PMID:25332911

  19. The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Hernández-Ortiz, Saúl; Raya, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP) to be (μCEP /Tc, TCEP /Tc) ∼ (1.2, 0.8), where Tc is the (pseudo)critical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.

  20. Oxidative DNA damage induced by a metabolite of 2-naphthylamine, a smoking-related bladder carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2002-07-01

    2-Naphthylamine (2-NA), a bladder carcinogen, is contained in cigarette smoke. DNA adduct formation is thought to be a major cause of DNA damage by carcinogenic aromatic amines. We have investigated whether a metabolite of 2-NA, 2-nitroso-1-naphthol (NO-naphthol) causes oxidative DNA damage, using (32)P-labeled DNA fragments. We compared the mechanism of DNA damage induced by NO-naphthol with that by N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP(NHOH)), a metabolite of 4-aminobiphenyl, another smoking-related bladder carcinogen. NO-naphthol caused Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage at T > C > G residues, with non-enzymatic reduction by NADH. Catalase and bathocuproine, a Cu(I)-specific chelator, inhibited the DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of H(2)O(2) and Cu(I). Some free. OH scavengers also attenuated NO-naphthol-induced DNA damage, while free. OH scavengers had no effect on the DNA damage induced by 4-ABP(NHOH). This difference suggests that the reactive species formed by NO-naphthol has more free. OH-character than that by 4-ABP(NHOH). A high-pressure liquid chromatograph equipped with an electrochemical detector showed that NO-naphthol induced 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the presence of NADH and Cu(II). The oxidative DNA damage by these amino-aromatic compounds may participate in smoking-related bladder cancer, in addition to DNA adduct formation. PMID:12149138

  1. Surrogate end points in women's health research: science, protoscience, and pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2010-04-01

    A surrogate end point (e.g., a laboratory test or image) serves as a proxy for a clinical end point of importance (e.g., fracture, thrombosis, or death). Adoption and use of surrogate end points lacking validation, especially in cardiovascular medicine, have caused thousands of patients' deaths, a serious violation of the ethical principle of beneficence. PMID:20153470

  2. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes. PMID:25416451

  3. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  4. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed. PMID:16794241

  5. Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.

  6. [Smoking-related self-efficacy and smoking intention in young people: Factorial validity and structural association].

    PubMed

    Palacios Delgado, Jorge Raúl

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain, in a structural equation model, the factorial validity of smoking-related self-efficacy, as well as its structural association with behavior and smoking intention. The sample was made up of 1012 young people aged 14 to 22 (mean 16.76) from public high schools in Mexico City. These young people filled out a questionnaire that assessed tobacco use (current smokers' age at first cigarette, smoking frequency and quantity of cigarettes smoked). They were also asked about intention to smoke in the future. Self-efficacy was assessed using items that measured one's capacity to avoid smoking. The results indicated the factorial validity of the smoking-related self-efficacy measure in this sample. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested (X²= 113.319, p<.001; CFI= .99; NFI= .99; GFI= .95; RMSEA= .05) that those young people with lower confidence in their ability to avoid smoking would have higher levels of smoking intention and smoking behavior; moreover, intention to smoke in the future predicts level of smoking. The discussion analyzes the utility of the results for the assessment of self-efficacy, as well as the clinical implications for the people in treatment. PMID:21152851

  7. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  8. The effects of cigarette smoking on human sexual potency.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D G; Hagen, R L; D'Agostino, J A

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male cigarette smokers, age 18 to 44, were randomly assigned to high-nicotine, low-nicotine, or control groups in a study relating cigarette smoking to sexual response. Subjects watched erotic film segments while their penile diameters, heart rates, and finger pulse amplitudes were continuously recorded by a polygraph. Subjects in the smoking groups smoked relatively high-nicotine (.9 mg) or very low-nicotine (.002 mg) cigarettes prior to watching the last two films, while control subjects ate candy. Smoking two high-nicotine cigarettes in immediate succession significantly decreased the rate of penile diameter change relative to the other conditions. These effects were not seen after a single cigarette was smoked. High-nicotine cigarettes caused significantly more vasoconstriction and heart rate increase than did low-nicotine cigarettes, which did not differ from control conditions. PMID:3812052

  9. Clinical trial end points for high-grade glioma: the evolving landscape.

    PubMed

    Reardon, David A; Galanis, Evanthia; DeGroot, John F; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Lassman, Andrew B; Gilbert, Mark R; Sampson, John H; Wick, Wolfgang; Chamberlain, Marc C; Macdonald, David R; Mehta, Minesh P; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Chang, Susan M; Van den Bent, Martin J; Wen, Patrick Y

    2011-03-01

    To review the strengths and weaknesses of primary and auxiliary end points for clinical trials among patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Recent advances in outcome for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG, coupled with the development of multiple promising therapeutics with myriad antitumor actions, have led to significant growth in the number of clinical trials for patients with HGG. Appropriate clinical trial design and the incorporation of optimal end points are imperative to efficiently and effectively evaluate such agents and continue to advance outcome. Growing recognition of limitations weakening the reliability of traditional clinical trial primary end points has generated increasing uncertainty of how best to evaluate promising therapeutics for patients with HGG. The phenomena of pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse have made imaging-based end points, including overall radiographic response and progression-free survival, problematic. Although overall survival is considered the "gold-standard" end point, recently identified active salvage therapies such as bevacizumab may diminish the association between presalvage therapy and overall survival. Finally, advances in imaging as well as the assessment of patient function and well being have strengthened interest in auxiliary end points assessing these aspects of patient care and outcome. Better appreciation of the strengths and limitations of primary end points will lead to more effective clinical trial strategies. Technical advances in imaging as well as improved survival for patients with HGG support the further development of auxiliary end points evaluating novel imaging approaches as well as measures of patient function and well being. PMID:21310734

  10. Clinical trial end points for high-grade glioma: the evolving landscape*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David A.; Galanis, Evanthia; DeGroot, John F.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Sampson, John H.; Wick, Wolfgang; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Macdonald, David R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Chang, Susan M.; Van den Bent, Martin J.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    To review the strengths and weaknesses of primary and auxiliary end points for clinical trials among patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Recent advances in outcome for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG, coupled with the development of multiple promising therapeutics with myriad antitumor actions, have led to significant growth in the number of clinical trials for patients with HGG. Appropriate clinical trial design and the incorporation of optimal end points are imperative to efficiently and effectively evaluate such agents and continue to advance outcome. Growing recognition of limitations weakening the reliability of traditional clinical trial primary end points has generated increasing uncertainty of how best to evaluate promising therapeutics for patients with HGG. The phenomena of pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse have made imaging-based end points, including overall radiographic response and progression-free survival, problematic. Although overall survival is considered the “gold-standard” end point, recently identified active salvage therapies such as bevacizumab may diminish the association between presalvage therapy and overall survival. Finally, advances in imaging as well as the assessment of patient function and well being have strengthened interest in auxiliary end points assessing these aspects of patient care and outcome. Better appreciation of the strengths and limitations of primary end points will lead to more effective clinical trial strategies. Technical advances in imaging as well as improved survival for patients with HGG support the further development of auxiliary end points evaluating novel imaging approaches as well as measures of patient function and well being. PMID:21310734

  11. Cigarette smoking and pain: depressive symptoms mediate smoking-related pain symptoms.

    PubMed

    Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M; Hassett, Afton L

    2012-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between smoking and pain, with smokers reporting more pain and worse functioning. However, little is known about factors that impact this complex relationship. This study investigated the association between smoking, pain, and depressive symptoms. Participants were new patients seen at a multidisciplinary pain clinic. All patients were mailed an intake packet of validated questionnaires as part of an ongoing research and clinical care initiative. Of the 497 patients evaluated, 426 had valid smoking data. Among these patients, 32.6% (n = 139) reported being current smokers, 31.7% (n = 135) were classified as former smokers, and 35.7% (n = 152) were never smokers. A multivariate analysis of covariance (smoking status, age, gender, education) revealed a main effect for pain severity (F = 7.36, P<0.001), pain interference (F = 4.03, P = 0.001), and depressive symptoms (F = 7.87, P<0.001). Current smokers demonstrated higher pain severity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms compared with former smokers and never smokers (P<0.01 for all analyses), while there were no differences between the former-smoker and never-smoker groups. However, the effect of smoking on pain severity (P = 0.06) and pain interference (P = 0.22) was no longer significant after controlling for depressive symptoms in a mediation model. Additionally, among former smokers, longer quit duration was associated with less pain severity. In conclusion, smoking rates were high and smoking was associated with a worse chronic pain phenotype. Importantly, depressive symptoms emerged as a critical mediating factor in helping to explain the relationship between smoking and pain. PMID:22703693

  12. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  13. Smoking-related thoughts and microbehaviours and their predictive power for quitting: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Wang, Lili; Partos, Timea R.; Thrasher, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Negative attitudes to smoking are well-established predictors of intentions to quit and quit behaviours, but less attention has been given to whether quitting is influenced by smoking-related thoughts and microbehaviours that reflect a concern about smoking. Objectives This paper aimed to describe the occurrence of smoking-related thoughts and microbehaviours among Chinese smokers and to examine their predictive power for making quit attempts and sustained abstinence. Methods The data came from the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control China Survey. Four measures of recent thoughts about smoking and two microbehaviour measures (collectively referred to as micro indicators) were examined. Results Most smokers (around three quarters) reported thinking about harms of smoking to themselves or to others at least occasionally, and an increasing minority reported the two microbehaviours of prematurely butting out cigarettes and forgoing them. All micro indicators were positively related to subsequent quit attempts in individual predictor analyses, but only serious thoughts about quitting and -butting out cigarettes had independent relationships. Overall, there was no clear relationship between these micro indicators and sustained abstinence. Conclusions There was a moderately high level of occurrence of recent smoking-related thoughts and microbehaviours among the Chinese adult smokers in the six cities studied. Like in the west, micro indicators of concern about smoking were positively associated with subsequent quit attempts, but unlike in the west, they were largely unrelated to sustained abstinence. PMID:24570098

  14. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  15. S-maltoheptaose targets syndecan-bound effectors to reduce smoking-related neutrophilic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Chan, Stanley CH; Mak, Judith CW; Freeman, Craig; Ip, Mary SM; Shum, Daisy KY

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces injury and neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of smokers. The stability and activity of inflammatory effectors, IL8 and neutrophil elastase (NE), can be prolonged by binding to airway heparan sulfate (HS)/syndecan-1, posing risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). We hypothesize that antagonizing HS/syndecan-1 binding of the inflammatory effectors could reduce smoking-related neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) of COPD patients found both total and unopposed NE levels to be significantly higher among smokers with COPD than non-COPD subjects. Similar NE burden was observed in smoke-exposed rats compared to sham air controls. We chose sulfated-maltoheptaose(SM), a heparin-mimetic, to antagonize HS/sydecan-1 binding of the inflammatory mediators in airway fluids and lung tissues of the smoke-exposed rat model. Airway treatment with SM resulted in displacement of CINC-1 and NE from complexation with bronchio-epithelial HS/syndecan-1, dissipating the chemokine gradient for neutrophil flux across to the bronchial lumen. Following SM displacement of NE from shed HS/syndecan-1 in bronchial fluids, NE became accessible to inhibition by α1-antitrypsin endogenous in test samples. The antagonistic actions of SM against syndecan-1 binding of NE and CINC-1 in smoke-exposed airways suggest new therapeutic opportunities for modulating airway inflammation in smokers with SM delivery. PMID:26256047

  16. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    SciTech Connect

    Malling, H.V.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  17. Exposure–Response Modeling of Clinical End Points Using Latent Variable Indirect Response Models

    PubMed Central

    Hu, C

    2014-01-01

    Exposure–response modeling facilitates effective dosing regimen selection in clinical drug development, where the end points are often disease scores and not physiological variables. Appropriate models need to be consistent with pharmacology and identifiable from the time courses of available data. This article describes a general framework of applying mechanism-based models to various types of clinical end points. Placebo and drug model parameterization, interpretation, and assessment are discussed with a focus on the indirect response models. PMID:24897307

  18. The value, qualification, and regulatory use of surrogate end points in drug development.

    PubMed

    Lathia, C D; Amakye, D; Dai, W; Girman, C; Madani, S; Mayne, J; MacCarthy, P; Pertel, P; Seman, L; Stoch, A; Tarantino, P; Webster, C; Williams, S; Wagner, J A

    2009-07-01

    The acceptance and use of either surrogate end points (SEPs) or efficient clinical end points are associated with greater and more rapid availability of new medicines as compared with disease situations for which clinical end points are inefficient or no surrogates exist. This review of the history of the development, qualification, and acceptance of key SEPs shows that both successes and failures had three key characteristics: (i) apparent biologic plausibility, (ii) prognostic value for the outcome of the disease, and (iii) an association between changes in the SEP and changes in outcome with therapeutic intervention--the three factors recommended for SEPs in the International Conference on Harmonisation's "Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials." We recommend that only prognostic value be an absolute prerequisite for surrogacy, because therapeutic interventions may not exist a priori, and biological plausibility can be subjective. Ideally, all three of these factors would be traded off against one another in a consistent and transparent risk-management process. PMID:19474783

  19. Radiation acquisition and RBF neural network analysis on BOF end-point control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Wen, Hong-yuan; Zhou, Mu-chun; Chen, Yan-ru

    2008-12-01

    There are some problems in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steelmaking end-point control technology at present. A new BOF end-point control model was designed, which was based on the character of carbon oxygen reaction in Basic Oxygen Furnace steelmaking process. The image capture and transformation system was established by Video for Windows (VFW) library function, which is a video software development package promoted by Microsoft Corporation. In this paper, the Radial Basic Function (RBF) neural network model was established by using the real-time acquisition information. The input parameters can acquire easily online and the output parameter is the end-point time, which can compare with the actual value conveniently. The experience results show that the predication result is ideal and the experiment results show the model can work well in the steelmaking adverse environment.

  20. A numerical method of finding potentiometric titration end-points by use of approximative spline functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, K

    1990-07-01

    A new numerical method of determining potentiometric titration end-points is presented. It consists in calculating the coefficients of approximative spline functions describing the experimental data (e.m.f., volume of titrant added). The end-point (the inflection point of the curve) is determined by calculating zero points of the second derivative of the approximative spline function. This spline function, unlike rational spline functions, is free from oscillations and its course is largely independent of random errors in e.m.f. measurements. The proposed method is useful for direct analysis of titration data and especially as a basis for construction of microcomputer-controlled automatic titrators. PMID:18964999

  1. Calculation of a velocity distribution from particle trajectory end-points.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Lowell A.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal component of the velocity of a particle at or near a glacier surface is considered, its position as a function of time being termed its trajectory. Functional relationships are derived for obtaining the trajectory from the spatial distribution of velocity and for obtaining the velocity distribution from the trajectory. It is established that the trajectory end-points impose only an integral condition on the velocity distribution and that no individual point on the velocity distribution can be determined if only the end-points are known.-from Author

  2. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  3. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  4. Tobacco Control and the Reduction in Smoking-related Premature Deaths in the United States, 1964–2012

    PubMed Central

    Holford, Theodore R.; Meza, Rafael; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meernik, Clare; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Levy, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking and health is celebrated in 2014. This seminal document inspired efforts by government s, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce the toll of cigarette smoking through reduced initiation and increased cessation. Objective To quantify reductions in smoking -related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Design, Setting and Participants Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking -related mortality from 1964–2012 was compared to estimated mortality under no tobacco control that included a likely scenario (primary counterfactual) and upper and lower bounds that would capture plausible alternatives. Exposure National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the US adult population from 1964–2012. Main Outcomes and Measures Number of premature deaths avoided and years of life saved were primary outcomes. Change in life expectancy at age 40 associated with change in cigarette smoking exposure constituted another measure of overall health outcomes. Results From 1964–2012, an estimated 17.6 million deaths were related to smoking, an estimated 8.0 (7.4–8.3, for the lower and upper tobacco control counterfactuals, respectively) million fewer premature smoking-induced deaths than what would have occurred under the alternatives and thus associated with tobacco control (5.3 (4.8–5.5) million males and 2.7 (2.5–2.7) million females). This resulted in an estimated 157 (139–165) million years of life saved, a mean of 19.6 years for each beneficiary, (111 (97–117) million for males, 46 (42–48) million for females). During this

  5. Phase diagram and critical end point in nonlocal PNJL models with wavefunction renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, Gustavo A.; Orsaria, Milva G.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2010-11-12

    We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature and chemical potential considering a non-local chiral quark model which includes wave-function renormalization and coupling to the Polyakov loop. In particular, we determine the position of the Critical End Point as well as the value of the associated critical exponents for different model parameterizations.

  6. Current state of clinical end-points assessment in transplant: Key points.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Domingo; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Víctor

    2016-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ disease. However, organ transplantation can stress the cardiovascular system and decrease immune surveillance, leading to early mortality and graft loss due to multiple underlying comorbidities. Clinical end-points in transplant include death and graft failure. Thus, generating accurate predictive models through regression models is crucial to test for definitive clinical post-transplantation end-points. Survival predictive models should assemble efficient surrogate markers or prognostic factors to generate a minimal set of variables derived from a proper modeling strategy through regression models. However, a few critical points should be considered when reporting survival analyses and regression models to achieve proper discrimination and calibration of the predictive models. Additionally, population-based risk scores may underestimate risk prediction in transplant. The application of predictive models in these patients should therefore incorporate both classical and non-classical risk factors, as well as community-based health indicators and transplant-specific factors to quantify the outcomes in terms of survival properly. This review focuses on assessment of clinical end-points in transplant through regression models by combining predictive and surrogate variables, and considering key points in these analyses to accurately predict definitive end-points, which could aid clinicians in decision making. PMID:26948088

  7. Detecting Blending End-Point Using Mean Squares Successive Difference Test and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Milad; Amigo, José M; Bertelsen, Poul; Van Den Berg, Frans; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    An algorithm based on mean squares successive difference test applied to near-infrared and principal component analysis scores was developed to monitor and determine the blending profile and to assess the end-point in the statistical stabile phase. Model formulations consisting of an active compound (acetylsalicylic acid), together with microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of calcium carbonate with dramatically different particle shapes, were prepared. The formulation comprising angular-shaped calcium carbonate reached blending end-point slower when compared with the formulation comprising equant-shaped calcium carbonate. Utilizing the ring shear test, this distinction in end-point could be related to the difference in flowability of the formulations. On the basis of the two model formulations, a design of experiments was conducted to characterize the blending process by studying the effect of CaCO3 grades and fill level of the bin on blending end-point. Calcium carbonate grades, fill level, and their interaction were shown to have a significant impact on the blending process. PMID:26094601

  8. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

  9. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS ... Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  10. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  11. Genetic evaluation of carcass traits in Simmental-sired cattle at different slaughter end points.

    PubMed

    Shanks, B C; Tess, M W; Kress, D D; Cunningham, B E

    2001-03-01

    Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits and evaluate the influence of slaughter end point on estimated breeding values (BV). Data provided by the American Simmental Association were divided into three sets: 1) 9,604 records of hot carcass weight (CW) and percentage retail cuts (PRC), 2) 6,429 records of CW, PRC, and marbling score (MS), and 3) 1,780 records of CW, PRC, MS, fat thickness (FT), and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Weaning weights (WW) from animals with carcass data and from their weaning contemporaries were used. Data were analyzed with a multiple-trait animal model and REML procedures to estimate genetic parameters and BV on an age-, CW-, MS-, or FT-constant basis. The model for carcass traits included fixed contemporary group and covariates for breed, heterozygosity, and slaughter end point and random additive direct genetic and residual effects. Weaning weight was preadjusted for founder effects, direct and maternal heterosis, age of dam, and age of calf. The model for WW included fixed contemporary group and random additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects. Heritabilities from data set 1 were 0.34 for CW and 0.25 for PRC on an age-constant basis and 0.25 for PRC on a CW end point. Heritabilities for data set 2 were 0.35, 0.24, and 0.36 for CW, PRC, and MS, respectively, on an age-constant basis. Data set 2 heritabilities were 0.25 for PRC and 0.34 for MS on a CW-constant basis and 0.33 for CW and 0.25 for PRC at a constant MS end point. Heritabilities on an age-constant basis for data set 3 were as follows: CW, 0.32; PRC, 0.09; MS, 0.12; FT, 0.10; and LMA, 0.26. Heritability estimates for data set 3 on a CW-, MS-, and FT-constant basis were similar to those on an age-constant basis. Heritabilities were 0.12 for PRC, 0.12 for MS, 0.14 for FT, and 0.22 for LMA on a CW-constant basis; 0.30 for CW, 0.09 for PRC, 0.10 for FT, and 0.28 for LMA at a constant MS end point

  12. The Effect of Combination Oral Contraceptives on Smoking-Related Symptomatology during Short-Term Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hinderaker, Katie; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S.

    2014-01-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec ™) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91 ± 1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23 ± 1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts. PMID:25452059

  13. The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23±1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts. PMID:25452059

  14. Kinetic titration with differential thermometric determination of the end-point.

    PubMed

    Sajó, I

    1968-06-01

    A method has been described for the determination of concentrations below 10(-4)M by applying catalytic reactions and using thermometric end-point determination. A reference solution, identical with the sample solution except for catalyst, is titrated with catalyst solution until the rates of reaction become the same, as shown by a null deflection on a galvanometer connected via bridge circuits to two opposed thermistors placed in the solutions. PMID:18960338

  15. Improvement of end-point detection in the non-aqueous titration of sulphacetamide sodium.

    PubMed

    Soliman, S A; Belal, S; Bediar, M

    1984-04-01

    The sluggish end-point in the non-aqueous titration of sulphacetamide sodium in glacial acetic acid can be improved by addition of acetic anhydride to the titration medium, and selective determination of sulphacetamide sodium in presence of phenylephrine hydrochloride in eye drops then becomes possible. A mixture of sulphacetamide sodium and the antihistamine drug phenyltoloxamine dihydrogen citrate can also be analysed. PMID:18963589

  16. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

  17. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. Images p290-a p293-a p294-a PMID:9258294

  18. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. PMID:9258294

  19. Clearing the Air: Summarizing the Smoking-related Relative Risks of Bladder and Kidney Cancer.

    PubMed

    Purdue, Mark P; Silverman, Debra T

    2016-09-01

    This Platinum Priority editorial discusses the strengths and limitations of a recent meta-analysis summarizing the published smoking-related relative risks for bladder cancer and kidney cancer. PMID:27130147

  20. Characteristics Associated With Important Clinical End Points in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia at Initial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wierda, William G.; O'Brien, Susan; Wang, Xuemei; Faderl, Stefan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Do, Kim-Anh; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Cortes, Jorge; Thomas, Deborah; Koller, Charles; Burger, Jan; Lerner, Susan; Kantarjian, Hagop; Keating, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Response to front-line treatment and subsequent clinical course for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are heterogeneous. Identifying pretreatment patient characteristics or prognostic factors associated with clinical outcomes is important for counseling patients, conducting clinical research, and evaluating trial results. Patients and Methods We evaluated the pretreatment characteristics of 595 previously untreated patients who had National Cancer Institute Working Group indications to initiate front-line therapy for predictors of complete response (CR), time to treatment failure (TTF), and overall survival (OS). Multivariable models were developed for all three end points. Results CR is an important treatment end point correlated with longer TTF and OS. In this retrospective analysis, front-line treatment regimen was a significant independent predictive factor for all three end points; chemoimmunotherapy was the superior treatment regimen. Considering front-line treatment regimen, other independent patient characteristics associated with CR included age and β2-microglobulin (β-2M). TTF was independently associated with age, β-2M, percent lymphocytes in bone marrow, and treatment regimen. Improved OS was independently associated with younger age, lower β-2M, and treatment regimen. Two weighted prognostic models or nomograms, one including and one excluding treatment regimen, were constructed using significant characteristics to predict 5- and 10-year survival probability and estimate median survival time. Conclusion Identifying pretreatment patient characteristics associated with CR, TTF, and OS establishes a baseline to compare and incorporate new prognostic factors. Treatment had an impact on the significance of these factors. Prognostic models may help patients and clinicians in decision making as well as facilitate clinical research through design and analyses of clinical trials. PMID:19224852

  1. Determination of end point of primary drying in freeze-drying process control.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal M; Doen, Takayuki; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-03-01

    Freeze-drying is a relatively expensive process requiring long processing time, and hence one of the key objectives during freeze-drying process development is to minimize the primary drying time, which is the longest of the three steps in freeze-drying. However, increasing the shelf temperature into secondary drying before all of the ice is removed from the product will likely cause collapse or eutectic melt. Thus, from product quality as well as process economics standpoint, it is very critical to detect the end of primary drying. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose as model systems. The apparent end point of primary drying was determined by comparative pressure measurement (i.e., Pirani vs. MKS Baratron), dew point, Lyotrack (gas plasma spectroscopy), water concentration from tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, condenser pressure, pressure rise test (manometric temperature measurement or variations of this method), and product thermocouples. Vials were pulled out from the drying chamber using a sample thief during late primary and early secondary drying to determine percent residual moisture either gravimetrically or by Karl Fischer, and the cake structure was determined visually for melt-back, collapse, and retention of cake structure at the apparent end point of primary drying (i.e., onset, midpoint, and offset). By far, the Pirani is the best choice of the methods tested for evaluation of the end point of primary drying. Also, it is a batch technique, which is cheap, steam sterilizable, and easy to install without requiring any modification to the existing dryer. PMID:20058107

  2. Phase transition and critical end point driven by an external magnetic field in asymmetric quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Márcio; Hansen, Hubert; Menezes, Débora P.; Providência, Constança

    2014-03-01

    The location of the critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is determined under different scenarios. The effect of strangeness, isospin/charge asymmetry and an external magnetic field is investigated. The discussion is performed within the 2+1 flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop. It is shown that isospin asymmetry shifts the CEP to larger baryonic chemical potentials and smaller temperatures. At large asymmetries the CEP disappears. However, a strong enough magnetic field drives the system into a first order phase transition.

  3. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  4. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  5. Indications for a Critical End Point in the Phase Diagram for Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.

    2015-04-01

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout2-Rside2) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au +Au (√{sN N }=7.7 - 200 GeV ) and Pb +Pb (√{sN N }=2.76 TeV ) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T ,μB) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates Tcep˜165 MeV and μBcep˜95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν ≈0.66 and γ ≈1.2 ) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class.

  6. Marine and estuarine porewater toxicity testing -- species and end point comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.

    1994-12-31

    As part of their continuing development and evaluation of the porewater toxicity test approach for assessing the quality of marine and estuarine sediments, a variety of studies involving species and endpoint comparisons as well as validation studies have recently been conducted. The results from numerous extensive sediment quality assessment surveys have demonstrated that porewater toxicity tests are considerably more sensitive than the standard solid-phase tests and invariably exhibit a higher degree of concordance with sediment quality assessment guidelines than the standard tests. Species that have been evaluated for use in testing marine and estuarine pore water include a life-cycle test with the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, survival and hatching success with embryo-larval stages of red drum Sciaaenops ocellatus, survival of nauplii stages of the harpacticoid copepod Longipedia sp., and three different assays (fertilization, embryological development, and cytogenetic) with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The different species and end points have been compared using sediment pore water from a variety of contaminated sites. Although the results of tests with the different species and end points were often comparable, in general, the sea urchin embryological development assay appears to be the most sensitive porewater test evaluated thus far in their laboratory.

  7. Indications for a critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Roy A

    2015-04-10

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (R_{out}^{2}-R_{side}^{2}) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7-200  GeV) and Pb+Pb (sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μ_{B}) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates T^{cep}∼165  MeV and μ_{B}^{cep}∼95  MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class. PMID:25910113

  8. Observation of the critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2015-10-01

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout2 -Rside2) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7 . 7 - 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2 . 76 TeV) collisions, are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed non-monotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature vs. baryon chemical potential (T ,μB) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling (DFSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates Tcep 165 MeV and μBcep 95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν 0 . 66 and γ 1 . 2) extracted via the same DFSS analysis, places this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class. This research is supported by the US DOE under Contract DE-FG02-87ER40331.A008.

  9. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  10. Surrogate end-point biomarker analysis in a retinol chemoprevention trial in current and former smokers with bronchial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Stephen; Xu, Xiaochun; Parker-Klein, Helga; Le Riche, Jean C; Macaulay, Calum; Guillaud, Martial; Coldman, Andy; Gazdar, Adi; Lotan, Reuben

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that vitamin A may be protective against lung cancer, however, recent chemoprevention trials with beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, demonstrated enhancement of lung carcinogenesis among smokers. Whether vitamin A is beneficial or harmful in chemoprevention of lung cancer in smokers has not been resolved. This study was designed to determine the effect of retinol alone in current and former smokers using bronchial dysplasia, nuclear morphometry and retinoic acid receptor-beta (RAR-beta) mRNA expression as surrogate end-point biomarkers (SEBs). Eighty-one current or former smokers with a smoking history of >/=30 pack-years were randomized to receive either placebo or retinol (50,000 IU per day) for six months. Fluorescence bronchoscopy was performed prior to treatment to localize areas suggestive of dysplasia. At least 4 bronchial biopsies were taken per subject including at least two biopsies from apparently normal areas. The same areas were precisely re-biopsied after 6 months. Any new areas suggestive of dysplasia were also biopsied. Changes in the SEBs were assessed before and after treatment. At baseline, the frequency of biopsies negative for RAR-beta expression was: normal (23%), hyperplasia (28%), metaplasia (41%), mild dysplasia (41%), and moderate/severe dysplasia (44%). There was no significant difference in the regression rate between the retinol and placebo groups using histopathology and nuclear morphometry as SEBs. The likelihood of regression was found to be lower in those who continued to smoke during the study (OR=1.86 for those smoking >10 cigarettes per day, p=0.084 to OR=0.95, p=0.26 for those smoking 20+ per day compared to ex-smokers). Retinol was not effective in the up-regulation of RAR-beta in lesions with bronchial dysplasia. We postulate that the lack of effect of retinol on RAR-beta expression among individuals who continued to smoke while taking retinol may be due to suppressive effect of tobacco

  11. Nature of the Roberge-Weiss transition end points in two-flavor lattice QCD with Wilson quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang-Kai; Meng, Xiang-Fei

    2013-05-01

    We make simulations with 2 flavor Wilson fermions to investigate the nature of the end points of Roberge-Weiss (RW) first order phase transition lines. The simulations are carried out at 9 values of the hopping parameter κ ranging from 0.155 to 0.198 on different lattice spatial volume. The Binder cumulants, susceptibilities, and reweighted distributions of the imaginary part of the Polyakov loop are employed to determine the nature of the end points of RW transition lines. The simulations show that the RW end points are of first order at the values of κ in our simulations.

  12. Critical behaviors near the (tri-)critical end point of QCD within the NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Du, Yi-Lun; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration at finite density and temperature within the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, and mainly focus on the critical behaviors near the critical end point (CEP) and tricritical point (TCP) of quantum chromodynamics. The multi-solution region of the Nambu and Wigner ones is determined in the phase diagram for the massive and massless current quark, respectively. We use the various susceptibilities to locate the CEP/TCP and then extract the critical exponents near them. Our calculations reveal that the various susceptibilities share the same critical behaviors for the physical current quark mass, while they show different features in the chiral limit.

  13. Initial experiments on the end-point control of a flexible one-link robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with initial experiments regarding a specific unsolved control problem which appeared to be central to advances in the art of robotics. This problem involves the control of a flexible member (one link of a robot system). The position of the end-effector, called the end point or tip, is controlled by measuring that position and using the measurement as a basis for applying control torque to the other end of the flexible member, as for instance, the robot's elbow joint. A description is presented of the features of the first experimental arm which has been made, and an outline is provided of the general strategy for controlling it using its tip sensor and shoulder torquer.

  14. Evolution and End Point of the Black String Instability: Large D Solution.

    PubMed

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-08-28

    We derive a simple set of nonlinear, (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equations that describe the dynamical evolution of black strings and branes to leading order in the expansion in the inverse of the number of dimensions D. These equations are easily solved numerically. Their solution shows that thin enough black strings are unstable to developing inhomogeneities along their length, and at late times they asymptote to stable nonuniform black strings. This proves an earlier conjecture about the end point of the instability of black strings in a large enough number of dimensions. If the initial black string is very thin, the final configuration is highly nonuniform and resembles a periodic array of localized black holes joined by short necks. We also present the equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of anti-de Sitter black branes at large D. PMID:26371636

  15. A modular planar robotic manipulandum with end-point torque control.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian S; Ingram, James N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2009-07-30

    Robotic manipulanda are extensively used in investigation of the motor control of human arm movements. They permit the application of translational forces to the arm based on its state and can be used to probe issues ranging from mechanisms of neural control to biomechanics. However, most current designs are optimized for studying either motor learning or stiffness. Even fewer include end-point torque control which is important for the simulation of objects and the study of tool use. Here we describe a modular, general purpose, two-dimensional planar manipulandum (vBOT) primarily optimized for dynamic learning paradigms. It employs a carbon fibre arm arranged as a parallelogram which is driven by motors via timing pulleys. The design minimizes the intrinsic dynamics of the manipulandum without active compensation. A novel variant of the design (WristBOT) can apply torques at the handle using an add-on cable drive mechanism. In a second variant (StiffBOT) a more rigid arm can be substituted and zero backlash belts can be used, making the StiffBOT more suitable for the study of stiffness. The three variants can be used with custom built display rigs, mounting, and air tables. We investigated the performance of the vBOT and its variants in terms of effective end-point mass, viscosity and stiffness. Finally we present an object manipulation task using the WristBOT. This demonstrates that subjects can perceive the orientation of the principal axis of an object based on haptic feedback arising from its rotational dynamics. PMID:19450621

  16. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  17. Use of ITS to develop a methodology for determining mammographic X-ray spectrum end-point energies

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, M.E.; Hertel, N.E.; Trueblood, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    Quality control of mammography is very important. The kilovoltage across the X-ray tube affects low-level contrast and image quality, which are important in detecting masses and calcifications in mammography. Creating an easily reproducible method to determine the end-point energy, or peak kilovoltage, of the X-ray beam is important to provide consistent, high standards for all mammography units. Currently, the end-point energy is routinely measured at all mammography sites, but different measuring devices and methods are used. Use of a phantom, or test object, which records the results on film for centralized analysis of the end-point energy would be useful. A phantom with foils of different elements and various thicknesses embedded in acrylic is proposed for use with the film as a detector to determine the end-point energy.

  18. Genetic and environmental contributions to the relationships between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Maes, Hermine H M; Schmitt, J Eric; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Lyons, Michael J; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kremen, William S; Neale, Michael C

    2015-03-01

    Chronic cigarette use has been consistently associated with differences in the neuroanatomy of smokers relative to nonsmokers in case-control studies. However, the etiology underlying the relationships between brain structure and cigarette use is unclear. A community-based sample of male twin pairs ages 51-59 (110 monozygotic pairs, 92 dizygotic pairs) was used to determine the extent to which there are common genetic and environmental influences between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use. Brain structure was measured by high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging, from which subcortical volume and cortical volume, thickness and surface area were derived. Bivariate genetic models were fitted between these measures and average lifetime cigarette use measured as cigarette pack-years. Widespread, negative phenotypic correlations were detected between cigarette pack-years and several cortical as well as subcortical structures. Shared genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the phenotypic correlations shared between cigarette pack-years and subcortical volume as well as cortical volume and surface area. Brain structures involved in many of the correlations were previously reported to play a role in specific aspects of networks of smoking-related behaviors. These results provide evidence for conducting future research on the etiology of smoking-related behaviors using measures of brain morphology. PMID:25690561

  19. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Smoking-Related Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. Methods Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. Results A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls) and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases), were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83) marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00). Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. Conclusion The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers. PMID:24069431

  20. Identification of potential surrogate end points in randomized clinical trials of aggressive and indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: correlation of complete response, time-to-event and overall survival end points

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L.; Wang, L.; Crump, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The correlation between efficacy end points in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of systemic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was investigated to identify an appropriate surrogate end point for overall survival (OS). Methods: RCTs of previously untreated NHL published from 1990 to 2009 were identified. Associations between absolute differences in efficacy end points were determined using nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs). Results: Thirty-eight RCTs representing 85 treatment arms for aggressive NHL and 20 RCTs representing 42 arms for indolent NHL were included. For aggressive NHL, differences in 3-year progression-free survival (PFS)/event-free survival (EFS) were high correlated with differences in 5-year OS {rs of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–0.96]} and linear regression determined that a 10% improvement in 3-year EFS or PFS would predict for a 7% ± 1% improvement in 5-year OS. For indolent histology disease, differences in complete response were strongly correlated with differences in 3-year EFS [rs 0.86 (95% CI 0.35–0.97)], but there was no correlation between 3-year time-to-event end points and 5-year OS. Conclusions: Improvements in 3-year EFS/PFS are highly correlated with improvements in 5-year OS in aggressive NHL and should be explored as a candidate surrogate end point. Definition of these relationships may inform future clinical trial design and interpretation of interim trial data. PMID:21266519

  1. Rethinking end-points for bone-targeted therapy in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez García, Susana; Clemons, Mark; Amir, Eitan

    2016-08-01

    The principal objective for any medical therapy is to improve either the duration of life and/or its quality. Metastases in bone can lead to clinically defined events termed skeletal-related events (SREs) which are a quantifiable measure of skeletal morbidity. Avoidance and/or delay of SREs have become the principal objective in trials exploring the efficacy of bone-targeted therapy in patients with skeletal metastases. Despite reductions in the frequency or rate of SRE occurrence, trials of bone-targeted therapy have failed to show any effect on either progression-free or overall survival when compared with placebo or other bone-targeting agents. Similarly, trials of bone-targeted therapy have not shown consistent effects on quality of life. The validity of SRE-based primary outcome measures in cancer clinical trials is therefore, questionable. More novel end-point selection for trials of bone-targeted therapy seems warranted. Composite measures comprising occurrence of symptomatic skeletal events and patient reported outcomes may be an effective solution and warrants further investigation. PMID:27299662

  2. Analysis of In-Situ Vibration Monitoring for End-Point Detection of CMP Planarization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hetherington, Dale L.; Lauffer, James P.; Shingledecker, David M.; Stein, David J.; Wyckoff, Edward E.

    1999-05-14

    This paper details the analysis of vibration monitoring for end-point control in oxide CMP processes. Two piezoelectric accelerometers were integrated onto the backside of a stainless steel polishing head of an IPEC 472 polisher. One sensor was placed perpendicular to the carrier plate (vertical) and the other parallel to the plate (horizontal). Wafers patterned with metal and coated with oxide material were polished at different speeds and pressures. Our results show that it is possible to sense a change in the vibration signal over time during planarization of oxide material on patterned wafers. The horizontal accelerometer showed more sensitivity to change in vibration amplitude compared to the vertical accelerometer for a given polish condition. At low carrier and platen rotation rates, the change in vibration signal over time at fixed frequencies decreased approximately ½ - 1 order of magnitude (over the 2 to 10 psi polish pressure ranges). At high rotation speeds, the vibration signal remained essentially constant indicating that other factors dominated the vibration signaL These results show that while it is possible to sense changes in acceleration during polishing, more robust hardware and signal processing algorithms are required to ensure its use over a wide range of process conditions.

  3. Effect of indigenous animals on chronic end points in freshwater sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoldson, T.B.; Day, K.E.; Clarke, C.; Milani, D. )

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted using three species of benthic invertebrates, Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, and Hexagenia limbata, with various densities of the oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex. It was shown that indigenous animals, simulated by the presence of Tubifex tubifex, did not affect survival of the test species (P [>=] 0.05) but did reduce growth in all three test species and in two species at the lowest tested densities, equivalent to 1,460 worms per square meter. At densities of Tubifex tubifex equivalent to 20,000 m[sup [minus]2], the growth of Chironomus riparius was reduced by >90%, Hyalella azteca by >60%, and Hexagenia limbata by almost 50%. The densities of oligochaetes are equivalent to those found in many contaminated sites. Therefore, it is concluded that the presence of indigenous organisms can confound the interpretation of toxicity test results, based on chronic end points. It is recommended that removal of organisms by considered before toxicity tests are conducted with freshwater sediments from sites with large populations of benthic invertebrates, especially oligochaete worms.

  4. [Evolving therapeutic targets in inflammatory Bowel Disease: mucosal healing as an emerging end point].

    PubMed

    Condino, Giovanna; Margagnoni, Giovanna; Aratari, Annalisa; Luchetti, Roberto; Papi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    In the last years the therapeutic goals of inflammatory bowel disease have changed from control of symptoms only towards long term strategies aimed at modifying the natural history of the disease. In this setting mucosal healing has emerged as an important therapeutic goal both in clinical trials and in clinical practice. Growing evidence suggests that mucosal healing may be associated with lower relapse rates, reduced hospitalizations and reduced need of surgery both in ulcerative colitis and in Crohn's disease. However, a validated definition of mucosal healing is lacking: as a consequence, although several drugs are capable of inducing and maintaining mucosal healing in different clinical settings, the effect size of different treatments is difficult to assess. One of the most important question for clinical practice is if we should systematically assess mucosal healing in all patients and target our treatment strategies to achieve mucosal healing. This review focuses on the definition of mucosal healing and on the ability of different medications to induce and maintain mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease. The significance of mucosal healing as a surrogate end point of disease outcome is also discussed. PMID:26668042

  5. [Surrogate end points for clinical trials on chronic kidney disease and research of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiang-rong; Wang, Li; Dai, Xi-wen

    2008-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a kind of disease with the condition always worsening over time passing through a sequence of stages, and the evaluation on its clinical treatment is mainly by observing the speed of renal function deteriorating and the time of terminal renal failure occurrence. In order to conduct the trial go on wheels, the authors proposed that the "surrogate end points (SEP)" should be introduced. It is the biologic mark for substitute the clinical terminal point (event), formed depending upon the scientific evidences of epidemiology, pathophysiology, drug-therapy and other scientific evidence, which could be used for predicting the efficacy or damage of a certain measure, present or absent. This article aimed to explain the definition of SEP and to discuss the usable SEP for clinical trial on chronic kidney disease, such as proteinuria, declination of glomerular filtration rate and its slope coefficient as well as the time of terminal occurrence. Moreover, through analyzing the existent problems in clinical researches concerning TCM treatment of chronic kidney disease, the authors suggested that some improvements, chiefly the utilization of SEP for efficacy evaluation, are necessary in the clinical observation methodologies for chronic kidney disease. PMID:18928108

  6. End-Point Immobilization of Recombinant Thrombomodulin via Sortase-Mediated Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rui; Weingart, Jacob; Zhang, Hailong; Ma, Yong; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-01-01

    We report an enzymatic end-point modification and immobilization of recombinant human thrombomodulin (TM), a cofactor for activation of anticoagulant protein C pathway via thrombin. First, a truncated TM mutant consisting of epidermal growth factor-like domains 4–6 (TM456) with a conserved pentapeptide LPETG motif at its C-terminal was expressed and purified in E. coli. Next, the truncated TM456 derivative was site-specifically modified with N-terminal diglycine containing molecules such as biotin and the fluorescent probe dansyl via sortase A (SrtA) mediated ligation (SML). The successful ligations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence imaging. Finally, the truncated TM456 was immobilized onto N-terminal diglycine-functionalized glass slide surface via SML directly. Alternatively, the truncated TM456 was biotinylated via SML and then immobilized onto streptavidin-functionalized glass slide surface indirectly. The successful immobilizations were confirmed by fluorescence imaging. The bioactivity of the immobilized truncated TM456 was further confirmed by protein C activation assay, in which enhanced activation of protein C by immobilized recombinant TM was observed. The sortase A-catalyzed surface ligation took place under mild conditions and is rapid occurring in a single step without prior chemical modification of the target protein. This site-specific covalent modification leads to molecules being arranged in a definitively ordered fashion and facilitating the preservation of the protein’s biological activity. PMID:22372933

  7. A study of the end point path geometry in meteor burst systems using a microcomputer signal logger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsnop, John C.

    Radio propagation experiments generally need large amounts of data to be gathered over extended periods. The design of a signal logger for unattended gathering of signal statistics from a meteor burst radio path, using two receiving antennas is described. Using a VHF broadcast radio station as a signal source, the data logger was used to investigate the properties of signals received with one antenna directed at the path midpoint and a second at the receiving station zenith (end point). Calculations of path loss at 70 and 50 MHz showed that the midpoint path loss should be lower than the end point path loss by up to 3 dB for ranges up to about 900 km but higher above this range. Calculations for the 70 MHz 1173 km experimental path showed that the path loss for end point illumination should be in the order of 1 dB less than that for midpoint. Results suggested a larger percentage of large amplitude signals on the end point antenna, but the mean end point path loss in the order of 1 dB greater than midpoint. Burst durations were found to be lower on end point but not to the extent predicted by theory. The sampling rate of the data logger was initially thought to be the main contributory factor to this effect, but further experiments showed this was not the case. Duty cycle of the two path geometries was also compared, and a computer model written, predicting a 4:1 advantage for midpoint. Results confirmed the model, showing the advantage varying from 1.14 to 6.36 with a mean value of 4.0. This ratio shows a small reduction during periods of high shower activity. In conclusion, the data logger was proven, its limitation discussed, and the limitations and advantages of end point illumination investigated.

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Smoking-Related and Total Cancer Mortality in Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Do.; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking-related, nonsmoking-related, and total cancer mortality, following 25,892 men age 30-87 years who had a preventive medical evaluation that included a maximal exercise test and self-reported health habits. Results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness may have provided…

  9. A 7-month cigarette smoke inhalation study in C57BL/6 mice demonstrates reduced lung inflammation and emphysema following smoking cessation or aerosol exposure from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Peck, Michael J; Buettner, Ansgar; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Boué, Stéphanie; Schlage, Walter K; Schneider, Thomas; Titz, Bjoern; Talikka, Marja; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2015-06-01

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce smoking-related health risks. A murine model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was applied to investigate classical toxicology end points plus systems toxicology (transcriptomics and proteomics). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to conventional cigarette smoke (3R4F), fresh air (sham), or a prototypic MRTP (pMRTP) aerosol for up to 7 months, including a cessation group and a switching-to-pMRTP group (2 months of 3R4F exposure followed by fresh air or pMRTP for up to 5 months respectively). 3R4F smoke induced the typical adaptive changes in the airways, as well as inflammation in the lung, associated with emphysematous changes (impaired pulmonary function and alveolar damage). At nicotine-matched exposure concentrations of pMRTP aerosol, no signs of lung inflammation and emphysema were observed. Both the cessation and switching groups showed a similar reversal of inflammatory responses and no progression of initial emphysematous changes. A significant impact on biological processes, including COPD-related inflammation, apoptosis, and proliferation, was identified in 3R4F-exposed, but not in pMRTP-exposed lungs. Smoking cessation or switching reduced these perturbations to near sham-exposed levels. In conclusion, the mouse model indicated retarded disease progression upon cessation or switching to pMRTP which alone had no adverse effects. PMID:25843363

  10. Centralized adjudication of cardiovascular end points in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular pharmacologic trials: a report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Turner, J Rick; Geiger, Mary Jane; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, William B; Sabol, Mary Beth; Stockbridge, Norman; Sager, Philip T

    2015-02-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular (CV) end point adjudication think tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on November 6, 2013. Attention was focused on the lack of clarity concerning the need for end point adjudication in both CV and non-CV trials: there is currently an absence of widely accepted academic or industry standards and a definitive regulatory policy on how best to structure and use clinical end point committees (CECs). This meeting therefore provided a forum for leaders in the fields of CV clinical trials and CV safety to develop a foundation of initial best practice recommendations for use in future CEC charters. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding when CV end point adjudication should be considered in trials conducted by cardiologists and by noncardiologists as well as detailing key issues in the composition of a CEC and its charter. In addition, it presents several recommended best practices for the establishment and operation of CECs. The science underlying CV event adjudication is evolving, and suggestions for additional areas of research will be needed to continue to advance this science. This manuscript does not constitute regulatory guidance. PMID:25641528

  11. Evaluation of community-level end points used in ecological risk assessments for Rocky Mountain streams impacted by mining

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.; Kiffney, P.M.; Medley, N.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research was to measure sensitivity and variability of community-level end points (e.g., species diversity, richness, abundance of dominant taxa) used in ecological risk assessments for Rocky Mountain streams impacted by mining. The authors used results from stream microcosm experiments and field biomonitoring studies to examine community responses of periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates to heavy metals. In addition, they measured effects of potential confounding variables (e.g., stream size, elevation, discharge) on these responses. Field studies were conducted at six metal-impacted streams in central Colorado. Although all community end points were significantly affected at stations with the highest metal levels, results of multiple regression analysis showed that most variables were also affected by elevation. To validate benthic community end points and to measure sensitivity of these end points to metals, exposed periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrate communities to Cd, Cu, and Zn in stream microcosms. Results support findings of field studies and show that abundance of sensitive macroinvertebrates and tolerant diatoms were most useful for distinguishing among reference, impacted, and recovery sites. Because stream elevation confounds benthic community responses to metals, the authors suggest that experimental studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of community end points.

  12. Patient-reported outcomes as primary end points in clinical trials of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Williet, Nicolas; Sandborn, William J; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is moving from the Crohn's Disease Activity Index to patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and objective measures of disease, such as findings from endoscopy. PROs will become an important aspect of assessing activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and for labeling specific drugs for this disease. PROs always have been considered in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis, and have included measurements of quality of life, disability, or fatigue. Several disease-specific scales have been developed to assess these PROs and commonly are used in clinical trials. Outcomes reported by patients in clinical trials of IBD initially focused on quality of life, measured by the Short-Form 36 questionnaire or disease-specific scales such as the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire or its shorter version. Recently considered factors include fatigue, depression and anxiety, and work productivity, as measured by the Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, the Hospital Anxiety Depression, and the Work Productivity Activity Impairment Questionnaire, respectively. However, few data are available on how treatment affects these factors in patients with IBD. Although disability generally is recognized in patients with IBD, it is not measured. The international IBD disability index currently is being validated. None of the PROs currently used in IBD were developed according to FDA guidance for PRO development. PROs will be a major primary end point of future trials. FDA guidance is needed to develop additional PROs for IBD that can be incorporated into trials, to better compare patients' experience with different therapies. PMID:24534550

  13. End-point disease investigation for virus strains of intermediate virulence as illustrated by flavivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Suen, Willy W; Prow, Natalie A; Setoh, Yin X; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2016-02-01

    Viruses of intermediate virulence are defined as isolates causing an intermediate morbidity/mortality rate in a specific animal model system, involving specific host and inoculation parameters (e.g. dose and route). Therefore, variable disease phenotype may exist between animals that develop severe disease or die and those that are asymptomatic or survive after infection with these isolates. There may also be variability amongst animals within each of these subsets. Such potential variability may confound the use of time-point sacrifice experiments to investigate pathogenesis of this subset of virus strains, as uniformity in disease outcome is a fundamental assumption for time-course sacrifice experiments. In the current study, we examined the disease phenotype, neuropathology, neural infection and glial cell activity in moribund/dead and surviving Swiss white (CD-1) mice after intraperitoneal infection with various Australian flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV) strains of intermediate virulence (WNVNSW2011 and WNVNSW2012), and highly virulent Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) isolates. We identified notable intragroup variation in the end-point disease in mice infected with either WNVNSW strain, but to a lesser extent in mice infected with MVEV strains. The variable outcomes associated with WNVNSW infection suggest that pathogenesis investigations using time-point sacrifice of WNVNSW-infected mice may not be the best approach, as the assumption of uniformity in outcomes is violated. Our study has therefore highlighted a previously unacknowledged challenge to investigating pathogenesis of virus isolates of intermediate virulence. We have also set a precedent for routine examination of the disease phenotype in moribund/dead and surviving mice during survival challenge experiments. PMID:26614392

  14. Extended Gaussian quadratures for functions with an end-point singularity of logarithmic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, K.; Puchalski, M.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The extended Gaussian quadrature rules are shown to be an efficient tool for numerical integration of wide class of functions with singularities of logarithmic type. The quadratures are exact for the functions pol1n-1(x)+lnx pol2n-1(x), where pol1n-1(x) and pol2n-1(x) are two arbitrary polynomials of degree n-1 and n is the order of the quadrature formula. We present an implementation of numerical algorithm that calculates the nodes and the weights of the quadrature formulas, provide a Fortran code for numerical integration, and test the performance of different kinds of Gaussian quadratures for functions with logarithmic singularities. Catalogue identifier: AETP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39 963 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, Fortran. Computer: PCs or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux, Windows, MacOS. RAM: Kilobytes. Classification: 4.11. Nature of problem: Quadrature formulas for numerical integration, effective for a wide class of functions with end-point singularities of logarithmic type. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the algorithm developed in Ref. [1] with some modifications. Running time: Milliseconds to minutes. J. Ma, V. Rokhlin, S. Wandzura, Generalized Gaussian quadrature rules for systems of arbitrary functions, Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. J. Numer. Anal. 33 (3) (1996) 971-996.

  15. Arsenic Relative Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils: Comparison of Animal Models, Dosing Schemes, and Biological End Points.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Chao; Sun, Hong-Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Luo, Jun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-01-01

    Different animals and biomarkers have been used to measure the relative bioavailability of arsenic (As-RBA) in contaminated soils. However, there is a lack of As-RBA comparison based on different animals (i.e., swine and mouse) and biomarkers [area under blood As concentration curve (AUC) after a single gavaged dose vs steady-state As urinary excretion (SSUE) and As accumulation in liver or kidney after multiple doses via diet]. In this study, As-RBA in 12 As-contaminated soils with known As-RBA via swine blood AUC model were measured by mouse blood AUC, SSUE, and liver and kidney analyses. As-RBA ranges for the four mouse assays were 2.8-61%, 3.6-64%, 3.9-74%, and 3.4-61%. Compared to swine blood AUC assay (7.0-81%), though well correlated (R(2) = 0.83), the mouse blood AUC assay yielded lower values (2.8-61%). Similarly, strong correlations of As-RBA were observed between mouse blood AUC and mouse SSUE (R(2) = 0.86) and between urine, liver, and kidney (R(2) = 0.75-0.89), suggesting As-RBA was congruent among different animals and end points. Different animals and biomarkers had little impact on the outcome of in vivo assays to validate in vitro assays. On the basis of its simplicity, mouse liver or kidney assay following repeated doses of soil-amended diet is recommended for future As-RBA studies. PMID:26595746

  16. Initial experiments on the end-point control of a 2-DOF long-reach elastic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Eric; Ramey, Madison

    1992-03-01

    To support the study of dynamics and control for long-reach, space-based manipulators, an experimental planar manipulator has been developed. The arm has a 15 ft reach with flexible links at the shoulder and elbow joints. The arm's equations of motion are derived with the aid of TREETOPS, a multibody dynamics analysis program. The resulting model is validated against experimental data. To serve as a base line for future work, two classically designed controllers have been implemented. One relies on sensors collocated with the joint actuators, while the other uses an end-point sensor measuring Cartesian displacements. Comparison of the controllers' experimental closed-loop responses demonstrate the performance improvements achievable using end-point position feedback; most notable is the more than two fold increase in control bandwidth. Experimental and simulation results also demonstrate the end-point controller's improved `Cartesian impedance.'

  17. Resampling the N9741 Trial to Compare Tumor Dynamic Versus Conventional End Points in Randomized Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manish R.; Gray, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Richard M.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Karrison, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The optimal end point for randomized phase II trials of anticancer therapies remains controversial. We simulated phase II trials by resampling patients from N9741, a randomized phase III trial of chemotherapy regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer, and compared the power of various end points to detect the superior therapy (FOLFOX [infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin] had longer overall survival than both IROX [irinotecan plus oxaliplatin] and IFL [irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil plus leucovorin]). Methods Tumor measurements and progression-free survival (PFS) data were obtained for 1,471 patients; 1,002 had consistently measured tumors and were resampled (5,000 replicates) to simulate two-arm, randomized phase II trials with α = 0.10 (one sided) and 20 to 80 patients per arm. End points included log ratio of tumor size at 6, 12, and 18 weeks relative to baseline; time to tumor growth (TTG), estimated using a nonlinear mixed-effects model; and PFS. Arms were compared using rank sum tests for log ratio and TTG and a log-rank test for PFS. Results For FOLFOX versus IFL, TTG and PFS had similar power, with both exceeding the power of log ratio at 18 weeks; for FOLFOX versus IROX, TTG and log ratio at 18 weeks had similar power, with both exceeding the power of PFS. The best end points exhibited > 80% power with 60 to 80 patients per arm. Conclusion TTG is a powerful end point for randomized phase II trials of cytotoxic therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer; it was either comparable or superior to PFS and log ratio at 18 weeks. Additional studies will be needed to clarify the potential of TTG as a phase II end point. PMID:25349295

  18. Hereditary angioedema: Validation of the end point time to onset of relief by correlation with symptom intensity.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Ritchie, Bruce; Levy, Robyn J; Wasserman, Richard L; Bewtra, Againdra K; Hurewitz, David S; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Reshef, Avner; Moldovan, Dumitru; Shirov, Todor; Grivcheva-Panovska, Vesna; Kiessling, Peter C; Keinecke, Heinz-Otto; Craig, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Time to onset of symptom relief in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a common primary end point in clinical studies but it has never been validated by correlation with the course of HAE symptoms. This study was designed as a retrospective validation of the primary end point for a placebo-controlled phase II/III study in patients with HAE. Ninety-eight abdominal attacks were treated with 10 or 20 U/kg of a highly purified C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate or placebo. The primary end point was the time to onset of symptom relief, as determined by the patients. Patients assessed the intensity of the symptoms of pain, nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea over time. By Spearman rank correlation, the primary end point was compared with the time to first reduction of (1) any symptom intensity, (2) the sum of symptom intensity scores, and (3) the intensity of the last symptom present at baseline. The C1-INH, 20 U/kg, and placebo groups were compared by one-sided two-sample Wilcoxon tests. The time to first reduction in intensity of the last symptom present at baseline had the highest correlation with the primary end point (r = 0.77). The time to onset of symptom relief and the time to the first reduction in intensity of the last symptom were significantly shorter for the C1-INH, 20 U/kg, group compared with placebo (p = 0.009 and p = 0.0036, respectively). The association with the intensity of single symptoms confirmed that the time to onset of symptom relief is an appropriate end point for assessing the efficacy of C1-INH therapy. PMID:21262096

  19. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed. PMID:21104505

  20. A vision-based end-point control for a two-link flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obergfell, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The measurement and control of the end-effector position of a large two-link flexible manipulator are investigated. The system implementation is described and an initial algorithm for static end-point positioning is discussed. Most existing robots are controlled through independent joint controllers, while the end-effector position is estimated from the joint positions using a kinematic relation. End-point position feedback can be used to compensate for uncertainty and structural deflections. Such feedback is especially important for flexible robots. Computer vision is utilized to obtain end-point position measurements. A look-and-move control structure alleviates the disadvantages of the slow and variable computer vision sampling frequency. This control structure consists of an inner joint-based loop and an outer vision-based loop. A static positioning algorithm was implemented and experimentally verified. This algorithm utilizes the manipulator Jacobian to transform a tip position error to a joint error. The joint error is then used to give a new reference input to the joint controller. The convergence of the algorithm is demonstrated experimentally under payload variation. A Landmark Tracking System (Dickerson, et al 1990) is used for vision-based end-point measurements. This system was modified and tested. A real-time control system was implemented on a PC and interfaced with the vision system and the robot.

  1. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  2. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  3. Cigarette Cravings, Impulsivity, and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Dinh-Williams, Laurence Lê-Anh; Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g., someone smoking) trigger significant cravings in smokers impede their self-control capacities and promote drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, planning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies, and self-regulation) and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit, and genetic factors). Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingulate mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco-smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation. PMID:26441686

  4. Cigarette Cravings, Impulsivity, and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Dinh-Williams, Laurence Lê-Anh; Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g., someone smoking) trigger significant cravings in smokers impede their self-control capacities and promote drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers' craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, planning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies, and self-regulation) and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit, and genetic factors). Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingulate mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco-smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation. PMID:26441686

  5. Analysis of the prognostic risk factors of idiopathic membranous nephropathy using a new surrogate end-point

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; CHENG, MING; YANG, MING; HAN, SHUAI; ZHANG, YING-HUI; SHI, HONG-GUANG; ZHU, LIANG; ZHAO, XUE-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults. The latest study of the chronic kidney disease-prognosis consortium showed that a 30% decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 2 years could cover more patients and showed a better correlation with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as compared with serum creatinine (SCr). The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors of ESRD using a 30% decrease in eGFR within 2 years as the end-point. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed as having IMN by clinical pathology between February 2011 and August 2012 and had been followed up for ≥24 months were analyzed retrospectively. A 30% decrease in eGFR or the occurrence of ESRD were the end-points. Factors affecting the prognosis were analyzed by the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and the cumulative risk of risk factors was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve. A total of 73 patients with IMN were confirmed by clinical pathology. Blood pressure, tubulointerstitial injury area (TIA), glomerular sclerosis ratio, SCr, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C, serum albumin and 24-h urine protein. In total, 28 patients (38.4%) reached the observation end-point. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only age ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% were independent risk factors for predicting the occurrence of end-point events in the two groups (P<0.05), which increased the risk of the occurrence of end-point events in IMN patients by 3.471-, 3.195- and 6.724-fold, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the occurrence of end-point events within 2 years was significantly higher in IMN patients whose age was ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% (log-rank P=0.004, P=0.024 and P=0.001). The results of the present study revealed that age ≥60 years, low serum albumin concentrations and severe tubulointerstitial injury are

  6. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  7. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for ion beam etch monitoring and end-point detection of multilayer structures.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Yalin, A P; Yamamoto, N

    2008-11-01

    This contribution reports on the development of in situ sputter monitoring and end-point detection for ion beam etch systems using continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). The demonstrated system is based on the detection of sputtered manganese atoms using a tunable external cavity diode laser in the vicinity of 403.07 nm. The cw-CRDS system is described and measurements from a manganese-iron target are presented. End-point detection is demonstrated by monitoring the time dependence of manganese concentration for a multilayer target comprised of alternating layers of manganese/iron and titanium. Detection limits are shown to be adequate for today's commercial ion beam sputter systems. PMID:19045913

  8. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group. PMID:26455964

  9. You've Come a Long Way, Baby--Or Have You? Women's Magazines, Cigarette Advertisements, Health Articles and Editorial Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesterman, Vicki

    A study examined how three major women's magazines handled cigarette advertisements and editorial copy about smoking-related health problems. Examined were issues of "Ms.,""Good Housekeeping," and "Seventeen" magazines from 1972, one year after the ban on television advertisements and the year "Ms." began publication, through 1979, when cigarette…

  10. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieun; Jeong, Dawoon; Na, Chong-Sam; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1(++) (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1(++). WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  11. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1++ (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1++. WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  12. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    PubMed

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. PMID:27524687

  13. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults. PMID:26562061

  14. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  15. Biological activity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke-related chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Kouri, R E; Rude, T H; Curren, R D; Brandt, K R; Sosnowski, R G; Schechtman, L M; Benedict, W F; Henry, C J

    1979-01-01

    Exposure to whole cigarette smoke from reference cigarettes results in the prompt (peak activity is 6 hrs), but fairly weak (similar to 2 fold), induction of murine pulmonary microsomal monooxygenase activity. This activity can be detected by using as substrates either benzo(a)pyrene or ethoxyresorufin, and can be inhibited by treatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Unlike the induction of pulmonary monooxygenases following intratracheal administration of 3-methylcholanthrene, these cigarette smoke-induced increases were not unequivocally linked to the Ah locus. Whole smoke condensate and fractions derived from these condensates can; a) induce pulmonary monooxygenase activity, b) inhibit benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in vitro, c) be metabolized to forms mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA153, or TA98, d) transform C3H 10T1/2 cells in vitro, and e) enhance the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene in murine pulmonary tissue. A potentially important observation is that whereas hepatic tissue is capable of activating whole cigarette smoke condensate to mutagenic forms in vitro, murine pulmonary tissue does not seem capable of such activation. Although these pulmonary-derived tissue homogenates have significant AHH activity and can metabolize Aflatoxin B1, 2-aminofluorene and 7, 8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene to mutagenic forms, these homogenates fail to activate both cigarette smoke condensate and the pro-mutagen, 6-aminochrysene. These results are discussed with reference to the concept that whole cigarette smoke may be both a potential "initiator" and "promotor" of lung cancer in mice, and that this latter property may be the most important in determining cancer risk. PMID:510243

  16. The impact of smoking-related illness in the ED: an attributable risk model.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the clinical and economic impact of smoking among adult emergency department (ED) patients. An attributable risk analysis of patients seen in 2 urban EDs in 1998 was performed. Data were obtained from hospital databases, national sources describing the prevalence of smoking in the state, and risk ratios for smoking-related illnesses. Of 78,617 patient visits, 12,573 (16.0%) had any smoking-related International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code. The smoking-attributable risk fraction (SARF) for all patients was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7%-5.0%). Of 13,245 admissions, 6.8% (95% CI 6.4%-7.2%) were smoking attributable. Of $296,962,685 in hospital charges, 10.0% (95% CI 9.9%-10.1%) were smoking attributable. The SARFs for ED visits, admissions, and charges for men were higher than for women (all P <.0001). Smoking-attributable illness accounts for 4.9% of ED adult visits, 6.8% of ED adult admissions, and 10.0% of hospital charges. The use of ED-based smoking intervention remains to be determined. PMID:11992333

  17. Magnetism of cigarette ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Henry, Bernard; Le Goff, Maxime; Dimov, Dimo; Tsacheva, Tsenka

    2006-06-01

    Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively high amount of magnetic iron minerals, similar to that in wood ash from our study and other literature data. Magnetization data suggest that cigarette ashes contain some 0.1 wt% or lower quantity of magnetite, depending on the brand. Analyses of magnetic mineralogy imply that the main magnetic minerals in ashes from higher quality cigarette brands are magnetite and iron carbide cementite, while in ashes from lower quality brands without additives magnetic minerals are pure and substituted with foreign ions magnetite. Magnetic grain-size analysis shows that cigarette ashes contain significant amount of very fine, nano-meter sized magnetic particles, as well as coarser (up to several microns), magnetically stable grains. Thus, the magnetic study of cigarette ashes proved that these plant ashes possess non-negligible magnetic properties. The results could serve for better elucidation of mineralogy of cigarette ashes as a whole, as well as for future investigation on the presence of magnetic ultra fine particles in cigarette smoke, which may be inhaled in lungs during smoking.

  18. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  19. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  20. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  1. A new numerical method of finding potentiometric titration end-points by use of rational spline functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Ren-Kurc, A

    1986-08-01

    A new numerical method of determining the position of the inflection point of a potentiometric titration curve is presented. It consists of describing the experimental data (emf, volume data-points) by means of a rational spline function. The co-ordinates of the titration end-point are determined by analysis of the first and second derivatives of the spline function formed. The method also allows analysis of distorted titration curves which cannot be interpreted by Gran's or other computational methods. PMID:18964159

  2. Method to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification using an ionically labeled probe and measuring impedance change

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Fuller, Christopher D.

    2007-01-02

    Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel and an AC or DC voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance been the two electrodes.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapeutics for total diabetes management: assessment of composite end-points.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Usui, Ryota; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the benefits of anti-diabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes requires analysis of composite end-points, taking HbA1c, bodyweight, hypoglycemia and other metabolic parameters into consideration; continuous, optimal glycemic control as well as bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels are critical to prevent micro- and macro-vascular complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are now established as an important total treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes, exerting glucose-lowering effects with little hypoglycemia risk and also ameliorating bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels, which are therapeutic targets for prevention of complications of the disease. The available data strongly suggest only beneficial effects of GLP-1RAs; however, long-term evaluation of the relevant composite end-points including health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness remain to be investigated in adequately powered, prospective, controlled clinical trials. In the meantime, healthcare professionals need to be scrupulously attentive for potential, rare adverse events in patients using GLP-1RAs. PMID:25916903

  4. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  5. Six-month freedom from treatment failure is an important end point for acute GVHD clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sengsayadeth, S; Savani, B N; Jagasia, M; Goodman, S; Greer, J P; Chen, H; Chinratanalab, W; Kassim, A A; Engelhardt, B G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) 6-month (m) freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) as a predictor of survival for patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) requiring treatment. Adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from February 2007 to March 2009 who were enrolled in a prospective biomarker clinical trial and developed aGVHD requiring systemic corticosteroids by day +100 were included (N=44). Six-month FFTF was defined as per the ASBMT guidelines (absence of death, malignancy relapse/progression or systemic immunosuppression change within 6 months of starting steroids and before chronic GVHD development). aGVHD was treated with systemic corticosteroids in 44 patients. Day 28 response after steroid initiation (complete response+very good partial response+partial response) occurred in 38 (87%) patients, but only 28 (64%) HCT recipients met the 6-m FFTF end point. Day 28 response predicted 6-m FFTF. Achieving 6-m FFTF was associated with improved 2-year (y) OS (81% vs 48%; P=0.03) and decreased 2-y non-relapse mortality (8% vs 49%; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, 6-m FFTF continued to predict improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.27; P=0.03). The 6-m FFTF end point measures fixed outcomes, predicts long-term therapeutic success and could be less prone to measurement error than aGVHD clinical response at day 28. PMID:24096824

  6. Influence of environmental stability on the regulation of end-point impedance during the maintenance of arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Krutky, Matthew A.; Trumbower, Randy D.

    2013-01-01

    Many common tasks compromise arm stability along specific directions. Such tasks can be completed only if the impedance of the arm is sufficient to compensate for the destabilizing effects of the task. During movement, it has been demonstrated that the direction of maximal arm stiffness, the static component of impedance, can be preferentially increased to compensate for directionally unstable environments. In contrast, numerous studies have shown that such control is not possible during postural tasks. It remains unknown if these findings represent a fundamental difference in the control of arm mechanics during posture and movement or an involuntary response to the destabilizing environments used in the movement studies but not yet tested during posture maintenance. Our goal was to quantify how arm impedance is adapted during postural tasks that compromise stability along specific directions. Our results demonstrate that impedance can be modulated to compensate for these instabilities during postural tasks but that the changes are modest relative to those previously reported during reaching. Our observed changes were primarily in the magnitude of end-point stiffness, but these were not sufficient to alter the direction of maximal stiffness. Furthermore, there were no substantial changes in the magnitude of end-point viscosity or inertia, suggesting that the primary change to arm impedance was a selective increase in stiffness to compensate for the destabilizing stiffness properties of the environment. We suggest that these modest changes provide an initial involuntary response to destabilizing environments prior to the larger changes that can be affected through voluntary interventions. PMID:23221409

  7. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  8. End point determination of blending process for trimebutine tablets using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Soohwa; Do, Sung-Ho; Woo, Young-Ah

    2012-09-01

    This study showed near Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration approach were very effective to determine blend uniformity end-point. A set of 36 trimebutine samples containing magnesium stearate, stearic acid, colloidal silicon oxide, talc as excipients (0.9%∼1.8%) was acquired from six positions during blending processing with U-type blender from 0 to 30 min. Principle component analysis (PCA) with NIR and Raman spectral data was used to confirm the end-point of blending. After 30 min, the scores of principle component (PC) 1 and principle component (PC) 2 for samples moved into one point, which clearly indicated the mixture of sample became homogenous. In addition, NIR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the quantitative analysis of 20 trimebutine samples containing 2∼40% in mixture granules, which divided into a calibration set of 15 samples and a prediction set of 5 samples for NIR spectral data. The standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively using NIR while SEC and SEP of 0.95% and 0.91% are obtained using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the NIR and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration such as PCA and PLS provide the possibility of real time monitoring of homogeneity and content uniformity during blending process. PMID:23054717

  9. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. PMID:21328577

  10. Combined Transcriptomics Analysis for Classification of Adverse Effects As a Potential End Point in Effect Based Screening.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Janssens, Thierry K S; Legler, Juliette; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-12-15

    Environmental risk assessment relies on the use of bioassays to assess the environmental impact of chemicals. Gene expression is gaining acceptance as a valuable mechanistic end point in bioassays and effect-based screening. Data analysis and its results, however, are complex and often not directly applicable in risk assessment. Classifier analysis is a promising method to turn complex gene expression analysis results into answers suitable for risk assessment. We have assembled a large gene expression data set assembled from multiple studies and experiments in the springtail Folsomia candida, with the aim of selecting a set of genes that can be trained to classify general toxic stress. By performing differential expression analysis prior to classifier training, we were able to select a set of 135 genes which was enriched in stress related processes. Classifier models from this set were used to classify two test sets comprised of chemical spiked, polluted, and clean soils and compared to another, more traditional classifier feature selection. The gene set presented here outperformed the more traditionally selected gene set. This gene set has the potential to be used as a biomarker to test for adverse effects caused by chemicals in springtails to provide end points in environmental risk assessment. PMID:26523736

  11. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government. PMID:6582366

  12. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  13. Detection of the end point temperature of thermal denatured protein in fish and chicken meat through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Mao, Mao; Liang, Chengzhu; Lin, Chao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied in the detection of the end point temperature (EPT) of thermal denatured protein in fish and meat in this study. It was also used in studying the thermal denatured temperature range of proteins in salmon and chicken meat. The results show that the temperature ranges of denatured proteins were from 65°C to 75°C, and these temperature ranges were influenced by the processing methods. Through SDS-PAGE, the features of repeated heating thermal denatured proteins under the same temperature and processing time were studied. The electrophoresis patterns of thermal denatured proteins determined through repeated heating at the same temperature did not exhibit any change. For the detection of cooked fish and meat samples, they were subjected to applying the SDS-PAGE method, which revealed an EPT ranging from 60°C to 80°C.

  14. Mammalian mediator of transcriptional regulation and its possible role as an end-point of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y W; Veschambre, P; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Conaway, J W; Conaway, R C; Kornberg, R D

    1998-07-21

    A multiprotein complex isolated from murine cells is identified as a counterpart of the yeast Mediator of transcriptional regulation on the basis of the following: homologs of two subunits of yeast Mediator, Srb7 and Med7, copurify with the complex; peptide sequencing reveals, in addition, homologs of the yeast Mediator subunits Rgr1 and Med6; as with yeast Mediator, the mouse complex binds to the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) and stimulates phosphorylation of the CTD by TFIIH. Peptide sequencing also identifies a component of mouse Mediator as a relative of Ring-3 protein, a mitogen-activated nuclear protein kinase, raising the possibility of Mediator as an end point of signal transduction pathways. PMID:9671713

  15. Influence of the vector interaction and an external magnetic field on the isentropes near the chiral critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    The location of the critical end point (CEP) and the isentropic trajectories in the QCD phase diagram are investigated. We use the (2 +1 ) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the Polyakov loop coupling for different scenarios, namely by imposing zero strange quark density, which is the case in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, and β equilibrium. The influence of strong magnetic fields and of the vector interaction on the isentropic trajectories around the CEP is discussed. It is shown that the vector interaction and the magnetic field, having opposite effects on the first-order transition, affect the isentropic trajectories differently: as the vector interaction increases, the first-order transition becomes weaker and the isentropes become smoother; when a strong magnetic field is considered, the first-order transition is strengthened and the isentropes are pushed to higher temperatures. No focusing of isentropes in region towards the CEP is seen.

  16. Progression-free survival: an important end point in evaluating therapy for recurrent high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Kathleen R; Yung, W K Alfred; Chang, Susan M; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Fine, Howard A; Fink, Karen L; Junck, Larry; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G; Aldape, Kenneth D; Hibberts, Janelle; Peterson, Pamela M; Prados, Michael D

    2008-04-01

    The North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) uses 6-month progression-free survival (6moPFS) as the efficacy end point of therapy trials for adult patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether progression status at 6 months predicts survival from that time, implying the potential for prolonged survival if progression could be delayed. We also evaluated earlier time points to determine whether the time of progression assessment alters the strength of the prediction. Data were from 596 patient enrollments (159 with grade III gliomas and 437 with grade IV tumors) in NABTC phase II protocols between February 1998 and December 2002. Outcome was assessed statistically using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Median survivals were 39 and 30 weeks for patients with grade III and grade IV tumors, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of patients with grade III and 16% of patients with grade IV tumors had progression-free survival of >26 weeks. Progression status at 9, 18, and 26 weeks predicted survival from those times for patients with grade III or grade IV tumors (p < 0.001 and hazard ratios < 0.5 in all cases). Including KPS, age, number of prior chemotherapies, and response in a multivariate model did not substantively change the results. Progression status at 6 months is a strong predictor of survival, and 6moPFS is a valid end point for trials of therapy for recurrent malignant glioma. Earlier assessments of progression status also predicted survival and may be incorporated in the design of future clinical trials. PMID:18356283

  17. Progression-free survival: An important end point in evaluating therapy for recurrent high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Alfred Yung, W. K.; Chang, Susan M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Robins, H. Ian; Lieberman, Frank S.; Fine, Howard A.; Fink, Karen L.; Junck, Larry; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R.; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Hibberts, Janelle; Peterson, Pamela M.; Prados, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) uses 6-month progression-free survival (6moPFS) as the efficacy end point of therapy trials for adult patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether progression status at 6 months predicts survival from that time, implying the potential for prolonged survival if progression could be delayed. We also evaluated earlier time points to determine whether the time of progression assessment alters the strength of the prediction. Data were from 596 patient enrollments (159 with grade III gliomas and 437 with grade IV tumors) in NABTC phase II protocols between February 1998 and December 2002. Outcome was assessed statistically using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Median survivals were 39 and 30 weeks for patients with grade III and grade IV tumors, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of patients with grade III and 16% of patients with grade IV tumors had progression-free survival of >26 weeks. Progression status at 9, 18, and 26 weeks predicted survival from those times for patients with grade III or grade IV tumors (p < 0.001 and hazard ratios < 0.5 in all cases). Including KPS, age, number of prior chemotherapies, and response in a multivariate model did not substantively change the results. Progression status at 6 months is a strong predictor of survival, and 6moPFS is a valid end point for trials of therapy for recurrent malignant glioma. Earlier assessments of progression status also predicted survival and may be incorporated in the design of future clinical trials. PMID:18356283

  18. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  19. Validity of early MRI structural damage end points and potential impact on clinical trial design in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joshua F; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul; Baker, Daniel G; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the construct validity of the rheumatoid arthritis MRI score (RAMRIS) erosion evaluation as structural damage end point and to assess the potential impact of incorporation in clinical trials. Methods In a randomised trial of early methotrexate-naïve RA (GO-BEFORE), RAMRIS scores were determined from MRIs and van der Heijde-Sharp (vdHS) scores from radiographs, at baseline, week 12, week 24 and week 52. Progression in damage scores was defined as change >0.5. Associations of X-ray and MRI outcomes with clinical features were evaluated for convergent validity. Iterative Wilcoxon rank sum tests and tests of proportion estimated the sample size required to detect differences between combination therapy (methotrexate+golimumab) and methotrexate-monotherapy arms in (A) change in damage score and (B) proportion of patients progressing. Results Patients with early MRI progression had higher DAS28, C reactive protein (CRP) and vdHS at baseline, and higher 2-year HAQ. Associations were similar to those with 1-year vdHS progression. Differences in change in structural damage between treatment arms achieved significance with fewer subjects when 12-week or 24-week MRI erosion score was the outcome (150 patients; 100 among an enriched sample with baseline-synovitis >5) compared with the 52-week vdHS (275 patients). Differences in the proportion progressing could be detected in 234 total subjects with 12-week MRI in an enriched sample whereas 1-year X-ray required between 468 and 1160 subjects. Conclusions Early MRI erosion progression is a valid measure of structural damage that could substantially decrease sample size and study duration if used as structural damage end point in RA clinical trials. PMID:26091907

  20. Tackling reproducibility in microcantilever biosensors: a statistical approach for sensitive and specific end-point detection of immunoreactions.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Priscila M; Tamayo, Javier; Ruz, José J; Puertas, Sara; Polo, Ester; Grazu, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Calleja, Montserrat

    2013-02-21

    In the last decade, microcantilever biosensors have shown enormous potential for highly sensitive label-free detection of nucleic acid and proteins. Despite the enormous advances, the promise of applications of this technology in the biomedical field has been frustrated because of its low reproducibility. Here we tackle the reproducibility issue in microcantilever biosensors and provide the guidelines to minimize the deviations in the biosensor response between different assays. We use as a model system the label-free end-point detection of horseradish peroxidase. We choose the end-point detection mode because of its suitability for implementation in the clinical field that requires simplicity and point-of-care capability. Our study comprises the analysis of 1012 cantilevers with different antibody surface densities, two blocking strategies based on polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and stringent controls. The study reveals that the performance of the assay critically depends on both antibody surface density and blocking strategies. We find that the optimal conditions involve antibody surface densities near but below saturation and blocking with PEG. We find that the surface stress induced by the antibody-antigen binding is significantly correlated with the surface stress generated during the antibody attachment and blocking steps. The statistical correlation is harnessed to identify immobilization failure or success, and thus enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. This procedure enables achieving rates of true positives and true negatives of 90% and 91% respectively. The detection limit is of 10 ng mL(-1) (250 pM) that is similar to the detection limit obtained in our enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that achieved with well-established label-free biosensors such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. PMID:23223515

  1. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  2. Low-Dose Oxygen Enhances Macrophage-Derived Bacterial Clearance following Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bain, William G.; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Mandke, Pooja; Gans, Jonathan H.; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Aggarwal, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, smoking-related lung disease. Patients with COPD frequently suffer disease exacerbations induced by bacterial respiratory infections, suggestive of impaired innate immunity. Low-dose oxygen is a mainstay of therapy during COPD exacerbations; yet we understand little about whether oxygen can modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on lung immunity. Methods. Wild-type mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 weeks, followed by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) and 21% or 35–40% oxygen. After two days, lungs were harvested for PAO1 CFUs, and bronchoalveolar fluid was sampled for inflammatory markers. In culture, macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen (40%) for 24 hours and then incubated with PAO1, followed by quantification of bacterial phagocytosis and inflammatory markers. Results. Mice exposed to 35–40% oxygen after cigarette smoke and PAO1 had improved survival and reduced lung CFUs and inflammation. Macrophages from these mice expressed less TNF-α and more scavenger receptors. In culture, macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen also demonstrated decreased TNF-α secretion and enhanced phagocytosis of PAO1 bacteria. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate a novel, protective role for low-dose oxygen following cigarette smoke and bacteria exposure that may be mediated by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:27403445

  3. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  4. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  5. Middle and High School Students’ Exposure to Alcohol- and Smoking-Related Media: A Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M.; Staplefoote, B. Lynette; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents’ exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a two-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures and an average of per participant during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking) and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students’ real-world exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors. PMID:23772763

  6. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Points to Consider Review: Inclusion of Reproductive and Pathology End Points for Assessment of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pharmaceutical Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Wendy G; Ameri, Mehrdad; Bowman, Christopher J; Elwell, Michael R; Mirsky, Michael L; Oliver, Julian; Regan, Karen S; Remick, Amera K; Sutherland, Vicki L; Thompson, Kary E; Tremblay, Claudine; Yoshida, Midori; Tomlinson, Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Standard components of nonclinical toxicity testing for novel pharmaceuticals include clinical and anatomic pathology, as well as separate evaluation of effects on reproduction and development to inform clinical development and labeling. General study designs in regulatory guidances do not specifically mandate use of pathology or reproductive end points across all study types; thus, inclusion and use of these end points are variable. The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) formed a Working Group to assess the current guidelines and practices on the use of reproductive, anatomic pathology, and clinical pathology end points in general, reproductive, and developmental toxicology studies. The Working Group constructed a survey sent to pathologists and reproductive toxicologists, and responses from participating organizations were collected through the STP for evaluation by the Working Group. The regulatory context, relevant survey results, and collective experience of the Working Group are discussed and provide the basis of each assessment by study type. Overall, the current practice of including specific end points on a case-by-case basis is considered appropriate. Points to consider are summarized for inclusion of reproductive end points in general toxicity studies and for the informed use of pathology end points in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies. PMID:27235322

  7. Emotional disorders and smoking: relations to quit attempts and cessation strategies among treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Ditre, Joseph W; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    The cross-sectional associations between lifetime emotional disorder status (anxiety/depressive disorders) among smokers in relation to historical quit processes were examined. Adult treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=472) received structured psychiatric interviews and completed a survey that included in-depth questions on cessation history. Having a lifetime emotional disorder was significantly associated with a greater number of prior quit attempts and cessation strategies used, including increased use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological quit methods. These smokers may still require complimentary specialty care to address their specific affective vulnerabilities given that their use of commonly-applied strategies did not result in lifetime abstinence. PMID:25260199

  8. Emotional Disorders and Smoking: Relations to Quit Attempts and Cessation Strategies among Treatment-seeking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Ditre, Joseph W.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sectional associations between lifetime emotional disorder status (anxiety/depressive disorders) among smokers in relation to historical quit processes were examined. Adult treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=472) received structured psychiatric interviews and completed a survey that included in-depth questions on cessation history. Having a lifetime emotional disorder was significantly associated with greater number of quit prior attempts and cessation strategies used, including increased use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological quit methods. These smokers may still require complimentary specialty care to address their specific affective vulnerabilities given that their use of commonly-applied strategies did not result in lifetime abstinence. PMID:25260199

  9. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  10. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... be used. 3 In the past, the tobacco industry categorized low-yield cigarettes using measurements of tar ...

  11. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  12. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms, nicotine addiction, and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A

    2012-07-01

    Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation. PMID:21607614

  13. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel N; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B

    2011-12-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities. PMID:21903934

  14. Does Thermosensitive Liposomal Vinorelbine Improve End-Point Survival after Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in a Mouse Model?

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Mei, Xing-Guo; Goldberg, S Nahum; Ahmed, Muneeb; Lee, Jung-Chieh; Gong, Wei; Han, Hai-Bo; Yan, Kun; Yang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of thermosensitive liposome-encapsulated vinorelbine (Thermo-Vin) in combined radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumors. Materials and Methods Approval from the institutional animal care and use committee was obtained before this study. First, the anticancer efficacy of Thermo-Vin was assessed in vitro (H22 cells) for 72 hours at 37°C or 42°C. Next, 203 H22 liver adenocarcinomas were implanted in 191 mice for in vivo study. Tumors were randomized into seven groups: (a) no treatment, (b) treatment with RF ablation alone, (c) treatment with RF ablation followed by free vinorelbine (Free-Vin) at 30 minutes, (d) treatment with RF ablation followed by empty liposomes (Empty-Lip+RF), (e) treatment with RF ablation followed by Thermo-Vin (5 mg/kg), (f) treatment with RF ablation followed by Thermo-Vin (10 mg/kg), and (g) treatment with RF ablation followed by Thermo-Vin (20 mg/kg). Tumor destruction areas and pathologic changes were compared for different groups at 24 and 72 hours after treatment. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare end-point survival (tumor < 30 mm in diameter). Additionally, the effect of initial tumor size on long-term outcome was analyzed. Results In vitro, both Free-Vin and Thermo-Vin dramatically inhibited H22 cell viability at 24 hours. Likewise, in vivo, 10 mg/kg Thermo-Vin+RF ablation increased tumor destruction compared with RF ablation (P = .001). Intratumoral vinorelbine accumulation with Thermo-Vin+RF increased 15-fold compared with Free-Vin alone. Thermo-Vin substantially increased apoptosis at the coagulation margin and suppressed cellular proliferation in the residual tumor (P < .001). The Thermo-Vin+RF study arm also had better survival than the arm treated with RF ablation alone (mean, 37.6 days ± 20.1 vs 23.4 days ± 5.0; P = .001), the arm treated with Free-Vin+RF (23.3 days ± 1.2, P = .002), or the arm treated with Empty-Lip+RF (20.8 days ± 0.4, P < .001) in animals with medium-sized (10

  15. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  16. Associations between dieting and smoking-related behaviors in young women.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2007-05-11

    Many young women report smoking due to weight concerns, but little is known about the relationship between weight concerns and current smoking behavior. The present study examined smoking topography and the acute sensory and physiological responses to smoking in dieting and non-dieting young women. In addition, the effect of presentation of food cues on these responses was examined. Self-reported female current dieters (n=15) and non-dieters (n=15) attended two laboratory sessions (food cues present/food cues absent). Physiological and subjective responses were recorded pre- and post-cigarette at each session. Smoking topography was assessed by video analysis. Dieters scored higher than non-dieters on measures of weight control smoking, dietary restraint, and disinhibition. At both sessions, they smoked less of the cigarette, had shorter inhalation durations, longer inter-puff intervals, experienced smaller physiological effects and gave lower ratings of the sensory aspects of smoking than non-dieters. The presence of food cues did not alter smoking topography or sensory/physiological responses but the dieters reported a greater desire to smoke in the presence of food cues. These data suggest that sensory factors may be less important influences on smoking for weight control smokers than non-weight control smokers and that further investigation of the role of food cues in maintaining smoking behavior in weight control smokers is warranted. PMID:17178198

  17. Influence of the inverse magnetic catalysis and the vector interaction in the location of the critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Pedro; Ferreira, Márcio; Menezes, Débora P.; Moreira, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-08-01

    The effect of a strong magnetic field on the location of the critical end point (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram is discussed under different scenarios. In particular, we consider the contribution of the vector interaction and take into account the inverse magnetic catalysis obtained in lattice QCD calculations at zero chemical potential. The discussion is realized within the (2 +1 ) Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is shown that the vector interaction and the magnetic field have opposite competing effects, and that the winning effect depends strongly on the intensity of the magnetic field. The inverse magnetic catalysis at zero chemical potential has two distinct effects for magnetic fields above ≳0.3 GeV2: it shifts the CEP to lower chemical potentials, hinders the increase of the CEP temperature and prevents a too large increase of the baryonic density at the CEP. For fields e B <0.1 GeV2 the competing effects between the vector contribution and the magnetic field can move the CEP to regions of temperature and density in the phase diagram that could be more easily accessible to experiments.

  18. Less than 3 doses of the HPV vaccine - Review of efficacy against virological and disease end points.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Bhatla, Neerja; Ngoma, Twalib; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2016-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommended 2 doses of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls below 15 y on the basis of the immune-bridging studies demonstrating non-inferior immune response of 2 doses in the adolescent girls compared to 3 doses in the young adult women in whom the efficacy against disease is established. The biological nature of the antigens (virus-like particles) constituting the HPV vaccine is responsible for the vigorous antibody response that may make the third dose redundant. The protection offered by 2 doses has been demonstrated in non-randomized clinical trials to be comparable to that offered by 3 doses against incident and persistent infections of vaccine targeted HPV types. However, results emerging from the ecological and nested case-control studies embedded in the population based screening programs of different countries indicate reduced efficacy of 2 doses against virological and disease end points. Some recent studies observed the protective effect of single dose of the vaccine against incident and persistent infections of the vaccine targeted HPV types to be similar to 3 doses in spite of immunological inferiority. The sample size, duration of follow-ups and number of events were limited in these studies. Longer follow ups of the less than 3 doses cohorts in the ongoing studies as well as appropriately designed and ethically justifiable randomized studies are needed to establish the protection offered by the alternative schedules at least beyond 10 y of vaccination. PMID:26933961

  19. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease. PMID:27453597

  20. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  1. UST-ID robotics: Wireless communication and minimum conductor technology, and end-point tracking technology surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a technology review of the current state-of-the-art in two technologies applicable to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The first review is of wireless and minimal conductor technologies for in-tank communications. The second review is of advanced concepts for independent tool-point tracking. This study addresses the need to provide wireless transmission media or minimum conductor technology for in-tank communications and robot control. At present, signals are conducted via contacting transmission media, i.e., cables. Replacing wires with radio frequencies or invisible light are commonplace in the communication industry. This technology will be evaluated for its applicability to the needs of robotics. Some of these options are radio signals, leaky coax, infrared, microwave, and optical fiber systems. Although optical fiber systems are contacting transmission media, they will be considered because of their ability to reduce the number of conductors. In this report we will identify, evaluate, and recommend the requirements for wireless and minimum conductor technology to replace the present cable system. The second section is a technology survey of concepts for independent end-point tracking (tracking the position of robot end effectors). The position of the end effector in current industrial robots is determined by computing that position from joint information, which is basically a problem of locating a point in three-dimensional space. Several approaches are presently being used in industrial robotics, including: stereo-triangulation with a theodolite network and electrocamera system, photogrammetry, and multiple-length measurement with laser interferometry and wires. The techniques that will be evaluated in this survey are advanced applications of the aforementioned approaches. These include laser tracking (3-D and 5-D), ultrasonic tracking, vision-guided servoing, and adaptive robotic visual tracking.

  2. Beam energy dependence of the expansion dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions: Indications for the critical end point?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy A.

    2014-11-01

    The flow harmonics vn and the emission source radii Rout, Rside and Rlong are studied for a broad range of centrality selections and beam collision energies in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7- 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2.76 TeV) collisions at RHIC and the LHC, respectively. They validate the acoustic scaling patterns expected for hydrodynamic-like expansion over the entire range of beam energies studied. The combined data sets allow estimates for the √{sNN} dependence of the mean expansion speed , emission duration < Δτ > and the viscous coefficients <β″ > that encode the magnitude of the specific shear viscosity < η / s >. The estimates indicate initial-state model independent values of < η / s > which are larger for the plasma produced at 2.76 TeV (LHC) compared to that produced at 200 GeV (RHIC) (< 4 πη / s > LHC = 2.2 ± 0.2 and < 4 πη / s > RHIC = 1.3 ± 0.2). They also show a non-monotonic √{sNN} dependence for <β″ >, and < Δτ >, with minima for <β″ > and , and a complimentary maximum for < Δτ >. These dependencies signal a significant change in reaction dynamics in a narrow span of √{sNN}, which may be linked to reaction trajectories close to the critical end point (CEP) in the phase diagram for nuclear matter.

  3. Impact of environmental chemicals on key transcription regulators and correlation to toxicity end points within EPA's ToxCast program.

    PubMed

    Martin, Matthew T; Dix, David J; Judson, Richard S; Kavlock, Robert J; Reif, David M; Richard, Ann M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Romanov, Sergei; Medvedev, Alexander; Poltoratskaya, Natalia; Gambarian, Maria; Moeser, Matt; Makarov, Sergei S; Houck, Keith A

    2010-03-15

    Exposure to environmental chemicals adds to the burden of disease in humans and wildlife to a degree that is difficult to estimate and, thus, mitigate. The ability to assess the impact of existing chemicals for which little to no toxicity data are available or to foresee such effects during early stages of chemical development and use, and before potential exposure occurs, is a pressing need. However, the capacity of the current toxicity evaluation approaches to meet this demand is limited by low throughput and high costs. In the context of EPA's ToxCast project, we have evaluated a novel cellular biosensor system (Factorial (1) ) that enables rapid, high-content assessment of a compound's impact on gene regulatory networks. The Factorial biosensors combined libraries of cis- and trans-regulated transcription factor reporter constructs with a highly homogeneous method of detection enabling simultaneous evaluation of multiplexed transcription factor activities. Here, we demonstrate the application of the technology toward determining bioactivity profiles by quantitatively evaluating the effects of 309 environmental chemicals on 25 nuclear receptors and 48 transcription factor response elements. We demonstrate coherent transcription factor activity across nuclear receptors and their response elements and that Nrf2 activity, a marker of oxidative stress, is highly correlated to the overall promiscuity of a chemical. Additionally, as part of the ToxCast program, we identify molecular targets that associate with in vivo end points and represent modes of action that can serve as potential toxicity pathway biomarkers and inputs for predictive modeling of in vivo toxicity. PMID:20143881

  4. Application of a computer model to predict optimum slaughter end points for different biological types of feeder cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1995-10-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to predict slaughter end points of different genotypes of feeder cattle, where profit/rotation and profit/day were maximized. Growth, feed intake, and carcass weight and composition were simulated for 17 biological types of steers. Distribution of carcass weight and proportion in four USDA quality and five USDA yield grades were obtained from predicted carcass weights and composition. Average carcass value for each genotype was calculated from these distributions under four carcass pricing systems that varied from value determined on quality grade alone to value determined on yield grade alone. Under profitable market conditions, rotation length was shorter and carcass weights lighter when the producer's goal was maximum profit/day, compared with maximum profit/rotation. A carcass value system based on yield grade alone resulted in greater profit/rotation and in lighter and leaner carcasses than a system based on quality grade alone. High correlations ( > .97) were obtained between breed profits obtained with different sets of input/output prices and carcass price discount weight ranges. This suggests that breed rankings on the basis of breed profits may not be sensitive to changes in input/output market prices. Steers that were on a grower-stocker system had leaner carcasses, heavier optimum carcass weight, greater profits, and less variation in optimum carcass weights between genotypes than steers that were started on a high-energy finishing diet at weaning. Overall results suggest that breed choices may change with different carcass grading and value systems and postweaning production systems. This model has potential to provide decision support in marketing fed cattle. PMID:8617660

  5. Assay of lapatinib in murine models of cigarette smoke carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Balansky, Roumen; Izzotti, Alberto; D’Agostini, Francesco; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Micale, Rosanna T.; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Camoirano, Anna; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), is prescribed for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER-2. Involvement of this drug in pulmonary carcinogenesis has been poorly investigated. We used murine models suitable to evaluate cigarette smoke-related molecular and histopathological alterations. A total of 481 Swiss H mice were used. The mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) during the first four months of life. After 10 weeks, MCS caused an elevation of bulky DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage and an extensive downregulation of microRNAs in lung. After four months, an increase in micronucleus frequency was observed in peripheral blood erythrocytes. After 7.5 months, histopathological alterations were detected in the lung, also including benign tumors and malignant tumors, and in the urinary tract. A subchronic toxicity study assessed the non-toxic doses of lapatinib, administered daily with the diet after weaning. After 10 weeks, lapatinib significantly attenuated the MCS-related nucleotide changes and upregulated several low-intensity microRNAs in lung. The drug poorly affected the MCS systemic genotoxicity and had modest protective effects on MCS-induced preneoplastic lesions in lung and kidney, when administered under conditions that temporarily mimicked interventions either in current smokers or ex-smokers. On the other hand, it caused some toxicity to the liver. Thus, on the whole, lapatinib appears to have a low impact in the smoke-related lung carcinogenesis models used, especially in terms of tumorigenic response. PMID:25053627

  6. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  7. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  8. The Predicted Impact of Reducing the Nicotine Content in Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Donny, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Product standards reducing the level of nicotine in cigarettes could significantly improve public health by reducing smoking behavior and toxicant exposure. However, relatively little is known about how the regulatory strategy could impact alcohol use, a closely related health behavior that is also a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of this paper is to predict the effect of nicotine reduction on alcohol use, identify priorities for future research, and highlight areas for mitigating any adverse outcomes. Methods: We critically reviewed and integrated literatures examining the effects of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on smoking-related outcomes (nicotine exposure, nicotine withdrawal, and smoking as a cue to drink) and, in turn, the effects of those outcomes on alcohol use. Results: Current evidence suggests reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may benefit public health by reducing alcohol use and problematic drinking over time as a consequence of reduced exposure to nicotine and the smoking cues associated with drinking. Nicotine withdrawal could increase risk of drinking, although these effects should be short-lived and could be mitigated by other sources of nicotine. Gender, hazardous drinking, and psychiatric comorbidities are likely to be important moderators of the effects of VLNC cigarettes. Conclusions: It is imperative to broadly assess the public health impact of potential tobacco product regulations by including measures of closely related health behaviors that could be impacted by these interventions. Nicotine reduction in cigarettes may contribute to improved public health through reductions in alcohol use.

  9. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  10. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  11. GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Greene, Tom; Willis, Kerry; Lewis, Edmund; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cheung, Alfred K; Coresh, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials. PMID:25441437

  12. Awareness, Trial, and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in 10 Countries: Findings from the ITC Project

    PubMed Central

    Gravely, Shannon; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hitchman, Sara C.; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Seo, Hong Gwan; Jiang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Tania; Perez, Cristina; Omar, Maizurah; Hummel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have generated considerable interest and debate on the implications for tobacco control and public health. Although the rapid growth of e-cigarettes is global, at present, little is known about awareness and use. This paper presents self-reported awareness, trial and current use of e-cigarettes in 10 countries surveyed between 2009 and 2013; for six of these countries, we present the first data on e-cigarettes from probability samples of adult smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of probability samples of adult (≥ 18 years) current and former smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys from 10 countries. Surveys were administered either via phone, face-to-face interviews, or the web. Survey questions included sociodemographic and smoking-related variables, and questions about e-cigarette awareness, trial and current use. Results: There was considerable cross-country variation by year of data collection and for awareness of e-cigarettes (Netherlands (2013: 88%), Republic of Korea (2010: 79%), United States (2010: 73%), Australia (2013: 66%), Malaysia (2011: 62%), United Kingdom (2010: 54%), Canada (2010: 40%), Brazil (2013: 35%), Mexico (2012: 34%), and China (2009: 31%)), in self-reports of ever having tried e-cigarettes (Australia, (20%), Malaysia (19%), Netherlands (18%), United States (15%), Republic of Korea (11%), United Kingdom (10%), Mexico (4%), Canada (4%), Brazil (3%), and China (2%)), and in current use (Malaysia (14%), Republic of Korea (7%), Australia (7%), United States (6%), United Kingdom (4%), Netherlands (3%), Canada (1%), and China (0.05%)). Conclusions: The cross-country variability in awareness, trial, and current use of e-cigarettes is likely due to a confluence of country-specific market factors, tobacco control policies and regulations (e.g., the legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine), and the survey timing along the trajectory of e-cigarette

  13. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  14. Socioeconomic Differences in the Effectiveness of the Removal of the “Light” Descriptor on Cigarette Packs: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Yong, Hua-Hie; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2011-01-01

    Many smokers incorrectly believe that “light” cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. To address this problem, many countries have banned “light” or “mild” brand descriptors on cigarette packs. Our objective was to assess whether beliefs about “light” cigarettes changed following the 2007 removal of these brand descriptors in Thailand and, if a change occurred, the extent to which it differed by socioeconomic status. Data were from waves 2 (2006), 3 (2008), and 4 (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey of adult smokers in Thailand. The results showed that, following the introduction of the ban, there was an overall decline in the two beliefs that “light” cigarettes are less harmful and smoother than regular cigarettes. The decline in the “less harmful” belief was considerably steeper in lower income and education groups. However, there was no evidence that the rate of decline in the “smoother” belief varied by income or education. Removing the “light” brand descriptor from cigarette packs should thus be viewed not only as a means to address the problem of smokers’ incorrect beliefs about “light” cigarettes, but also as a factor that can potentially reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking-related misconceptions. PMID:21776224

  15. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  16. [Electronic cigarette: Reliable and efficient?].

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Dautzenberg, Marie-Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Before 2010, the e-cigarette remains inefficient then, its dissemination explodes in 2013 where more than 10 million people have tried it in France. The best made e-cigarette will always be potentially toxic and an addictive product. The e-cigarette is not a suitable product for non-smokers and could participate to normalize tobacco in society. To end tobacco, e-cigarette must provide a pleasant throat hit to the smoker in the first 6 seconds then deliver an adequate dose of nicotine. The majority of smokers who have tried the e-cigarette do not adopt the product because they did not like it. Health professional must help those who smoke and use e-cigarettes to remove the last cigarettes. PMID:24890639

  17. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed. PMID:22167909

  18. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays

    PubMed Central

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical. PMID:25610516

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  20. Cigarette smoking and thinning of the brain's cortex.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Ducharme, S; Corley, J; Chouinard-Decorte, F; Starr, J M; Wardlaw, J M; Bastin, M E; Deary, I J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but the extent of the association between smoking and structural brain changes remains unclear. Importantly, it is unknown whether smoking-related brain changes are reversible after smoking cessation. We analyzed data on 504 subjects with recall of lifetime smoking data and a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years from which measures of cortical thickness were extracted. Multiple regression analyses were performed controlling for gender and exact age at scanning. To determine dose-response relationships, the association between smoking pack-years and cortical thickness was tested and then repeated, while controlling for a comprehensive list of covariates including, among others, cognitive ability before starting smoking. Further, we tested associations between cortical thickness and number of years since last cigarette, while controlling for lifetime smoking. There was a diffuse dose-dependent negative association between smoking and cortical thickness. Some negative dose-dependent cortical associations persisted after controlling for all covariates. Accounting for total amount of lifetime smoking, the cortex of subjects who stopped smoking seems to have partially recovered for each year without smoking. However, it took ~25 years for complete cortical recovery in affected areas for those at the mean pack-years value in this sample. As the cortex thins with normal aging, our data suggest that smoking is associated with diffuse accelerated cortical thinning, a biomarker of cognitive decline in adults. Although partial recovery appears possible, it can be a long process. PMID:25666755

  1. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  2. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  3. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  4. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  7. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  8. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  9. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  10. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  11. Carbonyl Compounds in the Gas Phase of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke and Their Pharmacological Properties.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke is composed of gas and tar phases and contains >4000 chemical constituents, including nicotine and tar. The substances in the gas phase but not in the tar phase can pass through the airway epithelial barrier, enter the systemic circulation via the pulmonary circulation, and increase systemic oxidative damage, leading to the development of cigarette smoking-related diseases such as atherosclerosis. Recently, we identified some stable carbonyl compounds, including acrolein (ACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), as major cytotoxic factors in nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) of the gas phase. CSE, ACR, and MVK induce protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NOX, causing plasma membrane damage and cell apoptosis. CSE, ACR, and MVK also trigger carbonylation of PKC, which is an irreversible oxidative modification. Cell damage and PKC carbonylation in response to treatment with CSE, ACR, or MVK are abolished by thiol-containing antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione. Thus pharmacological modulation of PKC and NOX activities and the trapping of ROS are potential strategies for the prevention of diseases related to cigarette smoking. PMID:27251492

  12. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. PMID:17630221

  13. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  14. Use of the Zebrafish Larvae as a Model to Study Cigarette Smoke Condensate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Soo, Evelyn C.; Achenbach, John C.; Morash, Michael G.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  15. A quantitative epigenetic approach for the assessment of cigarette consumption

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking, and smoking related disorders. PMID:26082730

  16. The Relationship Between Young Adult Smokers' Beliefs About Nicotine Addiction and Smoking-Related Affect and Cognitions.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R; Peterson, Laurel M; Muscanell, Nicole L; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Stock, Michelle L

    2016-06-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (n = 333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  17. The relationship between young adult smokers' beliefs about nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erika A.; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R.; Peterson, Laurel M.; Muscanell, Nicole L.; Guadagno, Rosanna E.; Stock, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (N=333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  18. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: effects of in ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, K; Berg, C; Brandt, I; Brunström, B

    1999-01-01

    Chemicals having a capacity to disturb the endocrine system have attracted considerable interest during recent years. There is a shortage of well-characterized in vivo tests with which to study such disturbances in different classes of vertebrates. In the present study, test end points related to reproduction in the Japanese quail were used to examine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. The synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), used as model compounds, were injected into the yolk of embryonated eggs. After the birds had been raised to sexual maturity, we examined sexual behavior, plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis morphology in adult males. The lowest doses resulting in a significantly depressed male sexual behavior were 6 ng/g egg for EE(2) and 19 ng/g egg for DES. Testis weight asymmetry was increased at 6 ng EE(2)/g egg, but DES had no effect at any treatment level. The area of the androgen-dependent cloacal gland was significantly reduced at 57 ng DES/g egg. No effects on plasma testosterone concentration or body weight following exposure to EE(2) or DES were observed at any dose level. Depressed male sexual behavior was the most sensitive of the end points studied, and we suggest that this ecologically relevant end point be included in avian in vivo testing for neuroendocrine disruptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10544152

  19. Application of a develop end point detector as a timely and cost-effective alternative to using an SEM for CD measurement in production photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikov, Dimitri L.; Goldman, Mark; Hester, Dee; Kukas, Alan W.; Takemoto, Clifford H.; Goetz, Ken; Zhang, Hua; Karklin, Linard

    1996-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point (EP) to reduce CD measurement via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in the production environment. Commonly, a few wafers are selected from a lot and examined to ensure conformance with desired CDs. Typically, the wafer's image linewidth is measured. If required, a corresponding adjustment is made to the stepper's exposure energy in order to obtain the targeted CD. While this methodology works, it does have its shortcomings such as: incomplete determination of wafer-to-wafer variations, the impossibility of detecting random 'problem' wafers, and the additional backlog CD measurement adds to the SEM station -- which generally results in production bottlenecks. The use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point detector facilitates rapid and accurate measurement of photoresist characteristics. Due to the direct correlation between develop end point time and CDs, a detector can be used to signal out-of- spec conditions. The nature of the data collected and analyzed by the detector allows exposure and other process variations to be revealed. In addition to providing this 'watchdog' function, some detectors can be programmed to automatically correct out-of-spec CDs by varying the development cycle time. Use of an in-situ detector, as described, will have a direct bearing on reducing the use of high-cost SEMs in the production environment as well as minimizing the number of scrapped wafers.

  20. 89Y(γ,xn) reaction cross-section measurements with bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Shahid, Muhammad; Naik, Haladhara; Yang, Sungchul; Shin, Sung-Gyun; Cho, Moo-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    The cross-sections for 89Y(γ, n)88Y, 89Y(γ, 2n)87Y, 89Y(γ, 3n)86Y, and 89Y(γ, 4n)85Y reactions for the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 50 and 65 MeV were determined by using an activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques with the electron linear accelerator at the Pohang Accelerator laboratory (PAL), Korea. The photon-induced reaction cross-sections of 89Y as functions of the photon energy were taken from the TENDL-2013 nuclear data library based on the TALYS 1.6 program. For comparison with our experimental results, the flux-weighted average cross-sections for the existing experimental data with mono-energetic photons and the theoretical values from TENDL-2013 were obtained. The reaction cross-section values measured at different end-point bremsstrahlung energies from the present work and from literature are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. The 89Y(γ, xn, x = 1 - 4) reaction cross-sections were observed to increase sharply from their threshold values to certain energies, until the next reaction channel opens, after which it remained constant for a while until the next reaction channel opened. Then, it decrease slowly with increasing of end-point bremsstrahlung energy due to the opening of different reaction channels.

  1. Inflammatory Transcriptome Profiling of Human Monocytes Exposed Acutely to Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Wright, William R.; Parzych, Katarzyna; Crawford, Damian; Mein, Charles; Mitchell, Jane A.; Paul-Clark, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is responsible for 5 million deaths worldwide each year, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Cigarette smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals containing 1015 free radicals. Studies show smoke is perceived by cells as an inflammatory and xenobiotic stimulus, which activates an immune response. The specific cellular mechanisms driving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and disease are not fully understood, although the innate immune system is involved in the pathology of smoking related diseases. Methodology/Principle findings To address the impact of smoke as an inflammagen on the innate immune system, THP-1 cells and Human PBMCs were stimulated with 3 and 10% (v/v) cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 8 and 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted and the transcriptome analysed using Illumina BeadChip arrays. In THP-1 cells, 10% CSE resulted in 80 genes being upregulated and 37 downregulated by ≥1.5 fold after 8 hours. In PBMCs stimulated with 10% CSE for 8 hours, 199 genes were upregulated and 206 genes downregulated by ≥1.5 fold. After 24 hours, the number of genes activated and repressed by ≥1.5 fold had risen to 311 and 306 respectively. The major pathways that were altered are associated with cell survival, such as inducible antioxidants, protein chaperone and folding proteins, and the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway. Conclusions Our results suggest that cigarette smoke causes inflammation and has detrimental effects on the metabolism and function of innate immune cells. In addition, THP-1 cells provide a genetically stable alternative to primary cells for the study of the effects of cigarette smoke on human monocytes. PMID:22363418

  2. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  3. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    PubMed

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  4. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a “healthier alternative” to traditional cigarettes and their use as a “smoking cessation aid” are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  5. Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. PMID:25830075

  6. Macrophage Elastase Suppresses White Adipose Tissue Expansion with Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J.; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S.; McGarry Houghton, A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. PMID:24914890

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  8. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  9. Communication about smoking in Dutch families: associations between anti-smoking socialization and adolescent smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-06-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents and an adolescent on eight indicators of anti-smoking socialization. In addition, we aimed to examine how these indicators of anti-smoking socialization are related to adolescent smoking-related cognitions (e.g. attitudes, self-efficacy, intentions to smoke). Data were collected from 116 Dutch families with fathers, mothers and adolescents (10-19 years old) included. Self-reports of these family members were used by means of questionnaires that were sent through the Internet. The findings showed that parents and adolescents differ in their reports on anti-smoking socialization. In general, mothers are more positive about anti-smoking socialization than adolescents and fathers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that aspects of anti-smoking socialization, such as parental monitoring, norms on adolescents smoking and reactions on adolescent smoking, are related to smoking-related cognitions, such as negative attitudes to smoking, lower intentions to start smoking and higher self-efficacy. These findings are a first step in research on smoking-specific socialization that is considered to be of importance for the development of effective smoking prevention programmes focusing on parents. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies on large samples of families are needed to replicate the findings in this study. PMID:15140843

  10. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  11. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  12. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes,...

  13. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and...

  14. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  15. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  16. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  17. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  18. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  19. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  20. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  1. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  2. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  3. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  4. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  5. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  6. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  7. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  8. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  9. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  10. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...