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  1. Avoidance of Cigarette Pack Health Warnings among Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Olivia M.; Attwood, Angela; O’Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: 1) are familiar with the health warnings, 2) preferentially attend to branding, or 3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. Method A convenience sample of 30 adult dependant smokers were recruited to participate in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Results Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding location rather than the health warning location on all three pack types (p < 0.002). This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10 seconds of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8 seconds of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Conclusion Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have policy implications for the design of health warning on cigarette packs. PMID:24485554

  2. Serum estradiol levels in male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Dalen, J E

    1984-11-01

    Serum estradiol levels were compared in smoking and nonsmoking men in two separate samples. Sample I consisted of 41 young adult male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 24 years. Twenty-three men smoked an average of 24.5 +/- 6.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 5.2 +/- 2.2 years. Sample II consisted of 35 husbands who had been evaluated for infertility; they ranged in age from 19 to 49 years. Eighteen men smoked an average of 21.6 +/- 7.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 11.5 +/- 4.5 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers within either group. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in smokers compared with nonsmokers in both groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.0001 in Samples I and II, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum estradiol levels and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, or with the duration of smoking in either sample. The differences in serum estradiol levels between smokers and nonsmokers could not be attributed to the differences in marijuana and alcohol use that existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in each sample. The recent reports of elevated serum estradiol levels as a possible risk factor in coronary heart disease are discussed in view of the known relationship of cigarette smoking to coronary heart disease. PMID:6496540

  3. Neural correlates of cigarette health warning avoidance among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stothart, George; Maynard, Olivia; Lavis, Rosie; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye-tracking technology has indicated that daily smokers actively avoid pictorial cigarette package health warnings. Avoidance may be due to a pre-cognitive perceptual bias or a higher order cognitive bias, such as reduced emotional processing. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study aimed to identify the temporal point at which smokers’ responses to health warnings begin to differ. Method Non-smokers (n = 20) and daily smokers (n = 20) viewed pictorial cigarette package health warnings and neutral control stimuli. These elicited Event Related Potentials reflecting early perceptual processing (visual P1), pre-attentive change detection (visual Mismatch Negativity), selective attentional orientation (P3) and a measure of emotional processing, the Late Positive Potential (LPP). Results There was no evidence for a difference in P1 responses between smokers and non-smokers. There was no difference in vMMN and P3 amplitude but some evidence for a delay in vMMN latency amongst smokers. There was strong evidence for delayed and reduced LPP to health warning stimuli amongst smokers compared to non-smokers. Conclusion We find no evidence for an early perceptual bias in smokers’ visual perception of health warnings but strong evidence that smokers are less sensitive to the emotional content of cigarette health warnings. Future health warning development should focus on increasing the emotional salience of pictorial health warning content amongst smokers. PMID:26874916

  4. List cigarette chemicals on packets, say smokers.

    PubMed

    2016-07-27

    With the exception of nicotine, most smokers do not know what chemicals are in cigarettes, but would welcome this information being on packs, say researchers from the University of North Carolina in the US. PMID:27461302

  5. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  6. How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2005-08-01

    When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

  7. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed. PMID:14759931

  8. A comparative study of systemic carcinogen exposure in waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Ibrahim, Iman; Bazzi, Asma; Fayad, Sanaa; Shihadeh, Alan L; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past decade, waterpipe smoking—also known as hookah, shisha, narghileh—has increased among youth. The scarcity of rigorous studies linking waterpipe smoking to smoking-related diseases has hindered policy and regulatory efforts to confront the waterpipe epidemic. This study compares systemic carcinogen exposure between independent groups of exclusive waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Methods This study was conducted at the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) in Aleppo, Syria, between 2010 and 2011. First morning urinary samples were collected from three groups of subjects; exclusive daily waterpipe smokers (n=24), exclusive daily cigarette smokers (n=23), and non-smokers (n=28). These samples were analysed for carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) using liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results Our results show that waterpipe smokers are exposed to about 5–10 times greater NNAL than nonsmokers. Mean (95% CI) free and total NNAL was 0.7 (0.3 to 1. 4) and 3.9 (1.6 to 9.5) pg/mL urine for nonsmokers, 8.4 (4.8 to 14.8) and 33.0 (21.6 to 50.6) pg/mL urine for waterpipe smokers, and 10.7 (5.0 to 22.6) and 46.8 (27.6 to 79.3) pg/mL urine for cigarette smokers (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Daily waterpipe smokers were less exposed to NNAL than daily cigarette smokers, although the difference did not reach statistical significance for all measurements. Conclusions These results provide the clearest indication to date about systemic exposure to harmful carcinogens associated with long-term waterpipe smoking. Such evidence can support policy and regulatory efforts designed to confront the emerging global waterpipe epidemic, as well as drive interventions aimed at increasing the public awareness about the cancer risk associated with waterpipe smoking. PMID:23988862

  9. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to “common sense” (76.4%), the news (39.2%), and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, although almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Conclusions Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts. PMID:26576338

  10. Cigarette smoking and lung destruction. Accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, G W; Crystal, R G

    1983-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that lung destruction in persons with emphysema associated with cigarette smoking is mediated by elastase released by neutrophils that have migrated to the alveolar structures in response to cigarette smoke. To directly evaluate this hypothesis, cell suspensions, isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers with normal lung parenchyma and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers who have sarcoidosis were evaluated for the presence of neutrophils. A significantly increased number of neutrophils was present in the cell suspensions isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of both normal and sarcoid cigarette smokers compared with that in the nonsmokers (p less than 0.01, each comparison). Evaluation of the alveolar macrophages present in lavage fluid suggested a mechanism by which neutrophils may be attracted to the lungs of cigarette smokers: alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers release a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, whereas alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers do not. In addition, alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers, after exposure to cigarette smoke, in vitro, are stimulated to release this chemotactic factor. These studies demonstrate that an increased number of neutrophils are present in the lungs of cigarette smokers compared with that in nonsmokers and suggest that cigarette smoke may attract neutrophils to the lung by stimulating alveolar macrophages to release a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils. PMID:6556892

  11. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  12. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers.

    PubMed

    Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers' social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers' understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  13. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  14. Are Filter-Tipped Cigarettes Still Less Harmful than Non-Filter Cigarettes?—A Laser Spectrometric Particulate Matter Analysis from the Non-Smokers Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Maria; Gerber, Alexander; Groneberg, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with human morbidity and mortality, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. Although direct DNA-damage is a leading pathomechanism in active smokers, passive smoking is enough to induce bronchial asthma, especially in children. Particulate matter (PM) demonstrably plays an important role in this ETS-associated human morbidity, constituting a surrogate parameter for ETS exposure. Methods: Using an Automatic Environmental Tobacco Smoke Emitter (AETSE) and an in-house developed, non-standard smoking regime, we tried to imitate the smoking process of human smokers to demonstrate the significance of passive smoking. Mean concentration (Cmean) and area under the curve (AUC) of particulate matter (PM2.5) emitted by 3R4F reference cigarettes and the popular filter-tipped and non-filter brand cigarettes “Roth-Händle” were measured and compared. The cigarettes were not conditioned prior to smoking. The measurements were tested for Gaussian distribution and significant differences. Results: Cmean PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 3911 µg/m3; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 3831 µg/m3; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 2053 µg/m3. AUC PM2.5 of the 3R4F reference cigarette: 1,647,006 µg/m3·s; of the filter-tipped Roth-Händle: 1,608,000 µg/m3·s; and of the non-filter Roth-Händle: 858,891 µg/m3·s. Conclusion: The filter-tipped cigarettes (the 3R4F reference cigarette and filter-tipped Roth-Händle) emitted significantly more PM2.5 than the non-filter Roth-Händle. Considering the harmful potential of PM, our findings note that the filter-tipped cigarettes are not a less harmful alternative for passive smokers. Tobacco taxation should be reconsidered and non-smoking legislation enforced. PMID:27092519

  15. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  16. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of ‘light’ cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as ‘light’, ‘ultra-light’ and ‘low tar’ with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of ‘light’, ‘mild’ and ‘low’ on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called ‘low tar’ cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers’ attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  17. Cigarette Price-Minimization Strategies by U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Pesko, Michael F.; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smokers may react to cigarette excise tax increases by engaging in price-minimization strategies (i.e., finding ways to reduce the cost of cigarette smoking) rather than by quitting or reducing their cigarette use, thereby reducing the public health benefits of such tax increases. Purpose To evaluate the state and national prevalence of five common cigarette price-minimization strategies and the size of price reductions obtained from these strategies. Methods Using data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, the prevalence of five common price-minimization strategies by type of strategy and by smoker’s cigarette consumption level were estimated. The price reductions associated with these price-minimization strategies also were evaluated. Analyses took place in November 2012. Results Approximately 55.4% of U.S. adult smokers used at least one of five price-minimization strategies in the previous year, with an average reduction of $1.27 per pack (22.0%). Results varied widely by state. Conclusions Cigarette price-minimization strategies are practiced widely among current smokers, and resulting price reductions are relatively large. Policies that decrease opportunities to effectively apply cigarette price-minimization strategies would increase the public health gains of cigarette excise tax increases. PMID:23597810

  18. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  19. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  20. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  1. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  2. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  3. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  4. HOW DO SMOKERS RESPOND TO CIGARETTE TAXES? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Sun, Qi; Wu, Fang

    2014-07-18

    This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of rational addiction theory into the model. Results show that the average own-price elasticity of demand for cigarettes at the brand level is -0.807, and the overall price elasticity of cigarettes at the market level is -0.488 in China. We find tax-induced substitution toward low-price cigarettes as well as high-tar cigarettes and that tax hikes encourage within-class substitution more than across-class substitution. These results have important policy implications for the potential effects of cigarette taxation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044632

  5. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers’ social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers’ understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects. PMID:27527199

  6. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  7. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  8. Social Inequality in Cigarette Consumption, Cigarette Dependence, and Intention to Quit among Norwegian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10–20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended. PMID:26273648

  9. Eicosanoid production and lymphatic responsiveness in human cigarette smokers compared with non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sinzinger, H; Kaliman, J; Oguogho, A

    2000-03-01

    Leg lymphatic segments were isolated from 10 patients (4 cigarette smokers and 6 non-smokers) undergoing conventional lymphography. Prostaglandin (PG) levels and PG synthesis in the lymphatics and in a variety of body fluids and the effects of eicosanoids on lymphatic contractility were determined. Leg lymphatics from 4 smokers generated less PGI2 and contained more 8-epi-PGF2 alpha when compared with leg lymphatics in 6 non-smokers. Similarly, levels of 8-epi-PGF2 alpha in smokers compared with non-smokers were higher in plasma (28.6 cf 19.7 pg/ml), leg lymph (146.7 cf 65.3 pg/ml), serum (299.0 cf 204.1 pg/ml), and urine (473.4 cf 241.0 pg/mg creatinine). Lymphatics from smokers also showed a higher contractile response, less 14C-arachidonic acid conversion to PGI2 and less PGI2-formation with various stimuli compared with non-smokers. Together these findings suggest that smoking induces oxidation injury, promotes altered (iso-)eicosanoid production and impacts on the function and dysfunction of peripheral lymphatics under normal circumstances and in a variety of clinical disorders. PMID:10769813

  10. Neural Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Bloom, Erika; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. Methods We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. Results and Conclusions The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. PMID:25292454

  11. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

  12. An Ecological View of Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Evidence indicates many smokers use cigarettes as an important aid to coping and as an ego-enhancer. Paper read at the American Cancer Society Conference on Smoking in Tucson, Arizona, on March 30 and 31, 1972. (DS)

  13. PB-210 concentrations in cigarettes tobaccos and radiation doses to the smokers.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S N A; Alaamer, A S

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a source of radiation exposure due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the tobacco leaves. From the health point of view, measurement of (210)Pb and (210)Po contents in cigarette tobacco is important to assess the radiological effects associated with the tobacco smoking for the smokers. In the present study, activity concentrations of (210)Pb, which is a (210)Po precursor in the (238)U-decay series, were measured in cigarette tobaccos. Samples of nine different commonly sold brands of cigarette tobaccos were analysed by employing a planar high purity germanium (HPGe) low background detector. Activity concentrations of (210)Pb were measured from its gamma peak at 47 keV. Mean activity concentration of (210)Pb was measured to be 13 +/- 4 Bq kg(-1) from all samples analysed. The annual committed effective dose for a smoker and the collective committed effective dose corresponding to annual cigarettes production were estimated to be 64 +/- 20 microSv and 0.6 x 10(2) man-Sv, respectively. PMID:18359803

  14. Withdrawal Symptoms and Nicotine Dependence Severity Predict Virtual Reality Craving in Cigarette-Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Kim N.; Mahoney, James J.; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Salas, Ramiro; Kosten, Thomas R.; Dani, John A.; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to be effective in eliciting responses to nicotine cues in cigarette smokers. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether cigarette-deprived smokers would exhibit increased craving and changes in heart rate when viewing cigarette related cues as compared to non-smoking cues in a VR environment, and the secondary aim was to assess the extent to which self-assessed measures of withdrawal and dependence correlated with VR craving. Methods: Nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers were recruited for a 2 day study. On Day 1, participants smoked as usual and on Day 2 were deprived from smoking overnight. On both days, participants completed self-assessment questionnaires on withdrawal, craving, and nicotine-dependence. Participants completed a VR session during the cigarette deprivation condition only (Day 2). During this session, they were exposed to active smoking and placebo (non-smoking) cues. Results: The data show that self-reported levels of “craving” (p < .01) and “thinking about cigarettes” (p < .0001) were significantly greater after exposure to the active cues versus non-smoking cues. Significant increases in heart rate were found for 3 of 4 active cues when compared to non-smoking cues (p < .05). Finally, significant positive correlations were found between self-reported craving prior to the VR session and craving induced by active VR cues (p < .01). Conclusions: In this report, active VR cues elicited craving during cigarette deprivation. This is the first study to demonstrate that self-reported craving, withdrawal symptoms, and nicotine dependence severity predict cue-induced craving in the VR setting. PMID:25475087

  15. Time to First Cigarette Predicts Cessation Outcomes in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Steven A.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Horn, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the relationship between the time to the first cigarette (TTFC) of the morning with quit status among adolescent smokers at the completion of a school-based smoking cessation program. Among those who did not quit, the relationship of TTFC with changes in cigarettes/day (CPD) was also examined. Methods: A total of 1,167 adolescent smokers (1,024 nonquitters and 143 quitters) from 4 states participating in efficacy and effectiveness studies of the Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) cessation program were assessed prior to entry into the program and again 3 months later at the end of treatment. Linear and logistic regression analyses determined the influence of treatment condition, age, gender, motivation to quit, confidence in quitting ability, baseline CPD, and TTFC on quit status and end-of-treatment CPD. Results: Adolescents with a TTFC of >30min of waking were twice as likely to quit at end of treatment. Additionally, among those who did not quit at end of treatment (n = 700 for TTFC ≤30min and n = 324 for TTFC for >30min), those with a TTFC within 30min of waking smoked a greater number of CPD. The relationships of TTFC with both of these outcomes remained when controlling for all other predictor variables. Conclusions: Identifying adolescent smokers who smoke their first cigarette of the day within the first 30min of waking prior to a quit attempt may help to classify those individuals as having a greater risk for cessation failure. Thus, TTFC may be a behavioral indicator of nicotine dependence in adolescents. PMID:23811009

  16. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O’Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P < 0.05). Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7–10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07–1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30–83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30–0.83, P < 0.05). Conclusions Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  17. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment. PMID:25777840

  18. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) or heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). An MPA5 was used to measure SC hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  19. Heavy Cigarette Smokers in a Chinese Population Display a Compromised Permeability Barrier.

    PubMed

    Xin, Shujun; Ye, Li; Man, George; Lv, Chengzhi; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with various cutaneous disorders with defective permeability. Yet, whether cigarette smoking influences epidermal permeability barrier function is largely unknown. Here, we measured skin biophysical properties, including permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum (SC) integrity, SC hydration, skin surface pH, and skin melanin/erythema index, in cigarette smokers. A total of 99 male volunteers were enrolled in this study. Smokers were categorized as light-to-moderate (<20 cigarettes/day) or heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). An MPA5 was used to measure SC hydration and skin melanin/erythema index on the dorsal hand, forehead, and cheek. Basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and barrier recovery rates were assessed on the forearm. A Skin-pH-Meter pH900 was used to measure skin surface pH. Our results showed that heavy cigarette smokers exhibited delayed barrier recovery after acute abrogation (1.02% ± 13.06 versus 16.48% ± 6.07), and barrier recovery rates correlated negatively with the number of daily cigarettes consumption (p = 0.0087). Changes in biophysical parameters in cigarette smokers varied with body sites. In conclusion, heavy cigarette smokers display compromised permeability barrier homeostasis, which could contribute, in part, to the increased prevalence of certain cutaneous disorders characterized by defective permeability. Thus, improving epidermal permeability barrier should be considered for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:27437403

  20. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers. PMID:26886210

  1. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  2. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  3. Smokers' and e-cigarette users' perceptions of modified risk warnings for e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Hammond, David; Villanti, Andrea C; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act opened the possibility for tobacco companies to apply to market their products as having "modified" or reduced risks. However, research on how to communicate comparative tobacco risks and how such messages are interpreted is limited. This study aimed to qualitatively examine perceptions of potential modified risk statements presented as warning labels for e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups between 2014 and 2015 with 27 adult e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers who provided comments on two versions of a modified risk warning for e-cigarettes: 1) "WARNING: No tobacco product is safe, but this product presents substantially lower risks to health than cigarettes" (as proposed by two companies for their smokeless tobacco products) and 2) "WARNING: This product may be harmful to health, but is substantially less harmful than cigarettes" (an alternative developed by our team). Although most personally believed that e-cigarettes are safer than cigarettes and some thought the messages were true and accurate, many were skeptical and uncomfortable with the warnings because they did not "seem like a warning" and because use of the phrase "substantially lower risks" could be misleading and difficult to understand. Several thought the second warning was stronger (e.g., more active, more specific). Modified risk messages about e-cigarettes may impact perceptions and use of the product. More research is needed to identify the framing, wording and placement (e.g. within or in addition to a warning) that could potentially increase population-level benefits and minimize harms. PMID:27486560

  4. Evaluating smokers' reactions to advertising for new lower nicotine quest cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph; Strasser, Andrew A; Pinto, Angela; Hornik, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Quest cigarettes are a relatively new (2003) product that has been marketed as a way for smokers to gradually reduce the nicotine they receive from cigarettes in order to, according to marketing materials, become nicotine free. However, despite lower levels of nicotine, Quest cigarettes do not have reduced tar levels and, thus, still pose health hazards. This study evaluated beliefs about Quest cigarettes following exposure to a single print advertisement among 200 regular smokers who had never heard of the brand itself. Descriptively, smokers made several specific false inferences about Quest cigarettes after exposure (i.e., lower in tar, healthier, less likely to cause cancer). Two individual-differences variables, need for cognition and perceived vulnerability, moderated smokers' health beliefs about Quest cigarettes. PMID:16536669

  5. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible

  6. Increasing Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Smokers Hospitalized in 5 US Cities, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kathleen F.; Richter, Kimber; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Sherman, Scott E.; Grossman, Ellie; Chang, Yuchiao; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ylioja, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the pattern of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use over time or among smokers with medical comorbidity. Methods: We assessed current cigarette smokers’ use of e-cigarettes during the 30 days before admission to 9 hospitals in 5 geographically dispersed US cities: Birmingham, AL; Boston, MA; Kansas City, KS; New York, NY; and Portland, OR. Each hospital was conducting a randomized controlled trial as part of the NIH-sponsored Consortium of Hospitals Advancing Research on Tobacco (CHART). We conducted a pooled analysis using multiple logistic regression to examine changes in e-cigarette use over time and to identify correlates of e-cigarette use. Results: Among 4,660 smokers hospitalized between July 2010 and December 2013 (mean age 57 years, 57% male, 71% white, 56% some college, average 14 cigarettes/day), 14% reported using an e-cigarette during the 30 days before admission. The prevalence of e-cigarette use increased from 1.1% in 2010 to 10.3% in 2011, 10.2% in 2012, and 18.4% in 2013; the increase was statistically significant (p < .0001) after adjustment for age, sex, education, and CHART study. Younger, better educated, and heavier smokers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Smokers who were Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and who had Medicaid or no insurance were less likely to use e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use also varied by CHART project and by geographic region. Conclusions: E-cigarette use increased substantially from 2010 to 2013 among a large sample of hospitalized adult cigarette smokers. E-cigarette use was more common among heavier smokers and among those who were younger, white, and who had higher socioeconomic status. PMID:25168031

  7. Effect of Bupropion Treatment on Brain Activation Induced by Cigarette-Related Cues in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Culbertson, Christopher S.; Bramen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mark S.; London, Edythe D.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Gan, Joanna J.; Costello, Matthew R.; Shulenberger, Stephanie; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Brody, Arthur L.

    2011-01-01

    Context Nicotine-dependent smokers exhibit craving and brain activation in the prefrontal and limbic regions when presented with cigarette-related cues. Bupropion hydrochloride treatment reduces cue-induced craving in cigarette smokers; however, the mechanism by which bupropion exerts this effect has not yet been described. Objective To assess changes in regional brain activation in response to cigarette-related cues from before to after treatment with bupropion (vs placebo). Design Randomized, double-blind, before-after controlled trial. Setting Academic brain imaging center. Participants Thirty nicotine-dependent smokers (paid volunteers). Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of treatment with either bupropion or a matching placebo pill (double-blind). Main Outcome Measures Subjective cigarette craving ratings and regional brain activations (blood oxygen level-dependent response) in response to viewing cue videos. Results Bupropion-treated participants reported less craving and exhibited reduced activation in the left ventral striatum, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex from before to after treatment when actively resisting craving compared with placebo-treated participants. When resisting craving, reduction in self-reported craving correlated with reduced regional brain activation in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal and left anterior cingulate cortices in all participants. Conclusions Treatment with bupropion is associated with improved ability to resist cue-induced craving and a reduction in cue-induced activation of limbic and prefrontal brain regions, while a reduction in craving, regardless of treatment type, is associated with reduced activation in prefrontal brain regions. PMID:21199957

  8. A Qualitative Study of How Young Scottish Smokers Living in Disadvantaged Communities Get Their Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Reducing access to cigarettes is an important element of youth smoking prevention strategies. This is particularly so in disadvantaged communities that have high rates of youth smoking. In 2010, Scotland banned proxy sales of tobacco products to under 18-year-olds who were getting older people to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. Methods: A qualitative study using 24 small single-sex friendship groups. Eighty young people, mostly aged 14–16, of whom 57 were smokers, were recruited in 2012 from community youth groups in 3 socially disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Results: Participants’ main sources of cigarettes were proxy sales, family, and peers and friends. Younger smokers were more likely to purchase single cigarettes from older smokers at school and to steal cigarettes from family members. Older and regular smokers were more likely to obtain cigarettes through proxy purchases. Proxy purchases were often facilitated by problem drug users who were willing to buy cigarettes for a small monetary reward. Direct purchases in shops were less commonly reported but appeared to involve complicit action by some retailers. Few reported that they bought blackmarket cigarettes, although they were available in these communities. Conclusions: Young people in areas of deprivation are still able to circumvent the age-of-sale legislation on selling cigarettes. Even though proxy sales have been banned, they are an important source of cigarettes for disadvantaged young smokers. PMID:23911845

  9. E-Cigarette Awareness, Perceptions and Use among Community-Recruited Smokers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Jiang, Nan; Chu, Lai Yan; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong. Methods Daily smokers (N = 1,307) were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial (‘Quit to Win’) in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting. Results Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9%) had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5%) ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1%) and non-users (91.2%) did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45). E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05). Conclusions Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes. PMID:26502284

  10. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  11. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P.; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-01-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50–1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p value < 0.001). Among lower-income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. PMID:24930053

  12. "Cigarettes Are Priority": A Qualitative Study of How Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers Respond to Rising Cigarette Prices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite substantial modelling research assessing the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking rates across income groups, few studies have examined the broader financial effects and unintended consequences on very low-income smokers. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers in a high-income country manage smoking costs on…

  13. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ≥30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  14. Differential Responsiveness to Cigarette Price by Education and Income among Adult Urban Chinese Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that examine the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. Objective The goal of this study is to estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China using individual level longitudinal survey data. We also examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted to estimate the conditional cigarette demand price elasticity using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China. The first three waves of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Findings Our results show that overall conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from −0.12 to −0.14, implying a 10% increase in cigarette price would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption among adult urban Chinese smokers by 1.2% to 1.4%. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high income smokers and medium income smokers. However, cigarette consumption among low income smokers did not seem to decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Conclusion Relative to many other low- and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviors such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. PMID

  15. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  16. A comparative evaluation of self-report and biological measures of cigarette use in nondaily smokers.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Gass, Julie C; Miller, Eleanor I; Wilkins, Diana G; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    A large subset of individuals who smoke cigarettes do not smoke regularly, but the assessments used to collect data on cigarette consumption in nondaily smokers have not been rigorously evaluated. The current study examined several self-report and biomarker approaches to the assessment of cigarette use in a sample of nondaily smokers (n = 176). Participants were randomly assigned to a daily monitoring condition (n = 89), requiring a daily report of the number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours, or a no monitoring condition (n = 87). Number of cigarettes smoked over the first 28 days of the study was assessed using 2 quantity frequency measures, a graduated frequency measure, and a timeline follow back (TLFB) interview at the Session 5 study visit. Hair nicotine (NIC), hair cotinine (COT), and expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) were collected from each participant. Total cigarettes reported via daily report were strongly correlated with all Session 5 measures of total cigarettes, but were most strongly associated with TLFB total cigarettes. Collapsed CO across 5 sessions was the biomarker most strongly correlated with daily report total cigarettes. The results support the use of daily report and TLFB methods of assessing cigarette use in nondaily smokers. Results also support the use of CO as appropriate biological markers of exposure in nondaily smokers, and point to some limitations in the use of hair biomarkers in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479132

  17. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  18. COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

  19. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  20. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Meβgreräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and χ2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  1. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Background Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Methods Young adult daily smokers (age 18–35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers’ ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). Conclusions The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. PMID:24848637

  2. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase.

    PubMed

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G; St Claire, Ann W

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers' decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers' efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. PMID:27322301

  3. Similar uptake of lung carcinogens by smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Murphy, Sharon E; Carmella, Steven G; Li, Shelby; Jensen, Joni; Le, Chap; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2005-03-01

    Cigarette design has changed markedly over the past 60 years and sales-weighed levels of tar and nicotine have decreased. Currently, cigarettes are classified as regular (>14.5 mg tar), light (>6.5-14.5 mg tar), and ultralight (< or =6.5 mg tar), based on a Federal Trade Commission-specified machine-smoking protocol. Epidemiologic studies suggest that there is no difference in lung cancer risk among people who smoke light or ultralight cigarettes compared with regular cigarettes, but the uptake of lung carcinogens in smokers of these types of cigarettes has never been reported. We recruited 175 smokers, who filled out a tobacco use questionnaire in which their current brand was identified as regular, light, or ultralight. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL plus its glucuronides) and total cotinine (cotinine plus its glucuronides). 1-HOP and total NNAL are biomarkers of uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Total cotinine is a biomarker of nicotine uptake. There were no statistically significant differences in urinary levels of 1-HOP, total NNAL, and total cotinine in smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes, whether the results were expressed per mg urinary creatinine, per mL of urine, or per mg creatinine divided by cigarettes per day. Levels of machine measured tar were available for the cigarettes smoked by 149 of the subjects. There was no correlation between levels of tar and any of the biomarkers. These results indicate that lung carcinogen and nicotine uptake, as measured by urinary 1-HOP, total NNAL, and total cotinine is the same in smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes. The results are consistent with epidemiologic studies that show no difference in lung cancer risk in smokers of these cigarettes. PMID:15767351

  4. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  5. Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: Free or Purchased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose: To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free,…

  6. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  7. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  8. Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Tang, Kathy Z.; Romer, Daniel; Jepson, Chris; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legal authority to mandate graphic warning labels on cigarette advertising and packaging. The FDA requires that these graphic warning labels be embedded into cigarette advertising and packaging by September 2012. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine differences in recall and viewing patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels; and, the association between viewing patterns and recall. Methods Participants (current daily smokers; N=200) were randomized to view a cigarette advertisement with either text-only or graphic warning labels. Viewing patterns were measured using eye-tracking, and recall was later assessed. Sessions were conducted between November 2008 and November 2009. Data analysis was conducted between March 2011 and July 2011. Results There was a significant difference in percentage correct recall of the warning label between those in the text-only versus graphic warning label condition, 50% versus 83% (χ2 =23.74, p=0.0001). Time to first view of the graphic warning label text, and dwell time duration (i.e., time spent looking) on the graphic image were significantly associated with correct recall. Warning labels that drew attention more quickly and resulted in longer dwell times were associated with better recall. Conclusions Graphic warning labels improve smokers’ recall of warning and health risks; they do so by drawing and holding attention. PMID:22704744

  9. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  10. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  11. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  12. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  13. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  14. Price-Minimizing Behaviors in a Cohort of Smokers before and after a Cigarette Tax Increase

    PubMed Central

    Betzner, Anne; Boyle, Raymond G.; St. Claire, Ann W.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette tax increases result in a reduced demand for cigarettes and increased efforts by smokers to reduce their cost of smoking. Less is known about how smokers think about their expenditures for cigarettes and the possible mechanisms that underlie price-minimizing behaviors. In-depth longitudinal interviews were conducted with Minnesota smokers to explore the factors that influence smokers’ decisions one month prior to a $1.75 cigarette tax increase and again one and three months after the increase. A total of 42 were sampled with 35 completed interviews at all three time points, resulting in 106 interviews across all participants at all time points. A qualitative descriptive approach examined smoking and buying habits, as well as reasons behind these decisions. A hierarchy of ways to save money on cigarettes included saving the most money by changing to roll your own pipe tobacco, changing to a cheaper brand, cutting down or quitting, changing to cigarillos, and buying online. Using coupons, shopping around, buying by the carton, changing the style of cigarette, and stocking up prior to the tax increase were described as less effective. Five factors emerged as impacting smokers’ efforts to save money on cigarettes after the tax: brand loyalty, frugality, addiction, stress, and acclimation. PMID:27322301

  15. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  16. Overexpression of apoptotic cell removal receptor MERTK in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Kazeros, Angeliki; Harvey, Ben-Gary; Carolan, Brendan J; Vanni, Holly; Krause, Anja; Crystal, Ronald G

    2008-12-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes play an important role in the removal of apoptotic cells by expressing cell surface receptors that recognize and remove apoptotic cells. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with increased lung cell turnover, we hypothesized that alveolar macrophages (AMs) of normal cigarette smokers may exhibit enhanced expression of apoptotic cell removal receptor genes. AMs obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of normal nonsmokers (n = 11) and phenotypic normal smokers (n = 13; 36 +/- 6 pack-years) were screened for mRNA expression of all known apoptotic cell removal receptors using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray chips with TaqMan RT-PCR confirmation. Of the 14 known apoptotic receptors expressed, only MER tyrosine kinase (MERTK), a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, was significantly up-regulated in smokers. MERTK expression was then assessed in AMs of smokers versus nonsmokers by TaqMan RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Western analysis, and flow analysis. Smoker AMs had up-regulation of MERTK mRNA levels (smoker vs. nonsmoker: 3.6-fold by microarray, P < 0.003; 9.5-fold by TaqMan RT-PCR, P < 0.02). Immunocytochemistry demonstrated a qualitative increase in MERTK protein expression on AMs of smokers. Increased protein expression of MERTK on AMs of smokers was confirmed by Western and flow analyses (P < 0.007 and P < 0.0002, respectively). MERTK, a cell surface receptor that recognizes apoptotic cells, is expressed on human AMs, and its expression is up-regulated in AMs of cigarette smokers. This up-regulation of MERTK may reflect an increased demand for removal of apoptotic cells in smokers, an observation with implications for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a disorder associated with dysregulated apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells. PMID:18587056

  17. Physical work-induced oxidative stress is exacerbated in young cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Creasy, Andrea K; Smith, Webb A

    2007-02-01

    Both cigarette smoking and strenuous physical work are associated with increased oxidative stress, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. No study to date has measured oxidative stress in response to graded exercise in cigarette smokers. We compared oxidative stress biomarkers before and after strenuous exercise (Bruce treadmill protocol) in 14 cigarette smokers and 15 nonsmokers of similar age (24+/-6 years) and fitness status. Plasma protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured pre- and postexercise. Smoking status (p<.01) and time (p<.01) effects were noted for PC with values higher for smokers than nonsmokers and increasing from pre- to postexercise (52% vs. 25%, respectively). The smoking statusxtime interaction for PC approached statistical significance (p=.07). The change in PC from pre- to postexercise was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=.5782, p=.03). A smoking statusxtime interaction was noted for MDA (p<.01), with values increasing 37% from pre- (0.6140+/-0.0708 micromol/L) to postexercise (0.8440+/-0.0687 micromol/L) for smokers and remaining relatively unchanged for nonsmokers (from 0.7664+/-0.0901 to 0.7419+/-0.0776 micromol/L). 8-OHdG was unaffected by smoking status (p=.43) or exercise (p=.40). These findings indicate that young cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated oxidative stress response to strenuous physical work, compared with nonsmokers of similar age. These results highlight yet another detrimental impact of cigarette smoking on human health. Future investigations should focus on older, more established smokers. PMID:17365751

  18. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  19. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text. PMID:15799598

  20. The Effects of E-Cigarette Visual Appearance on Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms in Abstinent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Lynne; Munafò, Marcus; Christoforou, Gina; Olumegbon, Naomi; Soar, Kirstie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasing popular among smokers and there is a plethora of devices available. Nicotine delivery is clearly important for reducing tobacco craving and withdrawal symptoms, but other sensor-motor aspects of e-cigarettes (such as visual appearance) may contribute to this effect. This study explored whether it is important for an e-cigarette to visually resemble a tobacco cigarette in order to reduce craving and withdrawal symptoms. Methods Sixty-three abstinent smokers (40% female, aged 18-65 years) who were not current e-cigarette users were randomly allocated to take ten 3-second puffs from either a white or a red first generation e-cigarette. Current craving (urge to smoke) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms (using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale; MPSS) were measured before and ten minutes after use. Results Linear regression revealed higher craving and withdrawal symptoms in the red versus the white condition but only among those who were e-cigarette naive (craving: B = .76, p = .009; withdrawal symptoms: B = 2.18, p = 0.009), not among those with e-cigarette experience (craving: B = −.08, p = 0.89; withdrawal symptoms: B = .24, p = .81), and these effects differed between groups (p = 0.04 and 0.01 for craving and withdrawal symptoms respectively). Conclusion Cigarette-like appearance was associated with a greater reduction in craving and withdrawal symptoms but only for those with no prior e-cigarette experience. This effect, putatively mediated via classical conditioning or expectancies, may aid understanding of smokers’ initial preferences for ‘cigalike’ e-cigarette devices. PMID:26415054

  1. Comparison of end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in shisha (water pipe) and cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measuring eCo is rapid, non-invasive and inexpensive tool and correlate correctly with carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the increase in end tidal carbon monoxide (eCO) levels in exhaled breath of passive smokers and healthy smokers after cigarette and shisha smoking. Findings In a cross sectional study eCO levels were measured in 70 subjects (24 cigarette smokers, 20 shisha smoker, 26 passive smokers) by use of portable device. Smokers were asked to smoke shisha for 30 mins in shisha cafe or to smoke 5 cigarettes in 30 mins in a restaurant. eCo levels were measured at baseline (30 mins), 35 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins in all groups after entry to the venue. The baseline mean eCO level among cigarette smokers was 3.5 +/- 0.6 ppm (part per million), passive cigarette smokers 3.7+/-1.0 ppm, shisha smokers 27.7+/-4.9 ppm and passive shisha smokers 18.3+/-8.4 ppm .The mean increase in eCO after 90 min among smokers was 9.4+/-4.6 (p < 0.005), passive cigarette smokers 3.5+/-2.5 (p < 0.05), shisha smokers 57.9+/-27.4 (p <0.005) and passive shisha smokers 13.3+/-4.6 (p = 0.03). Conclusion Exposure to shisha smoke is a cause of elevated eCO in smokers and passive smokers and due to in-door pollution, sitting in shisha bar causes significant increase in eCO levels. PMID:25206319

  2. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  3. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  4. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Prefrontal Cortical Function in Nondeprived Smokers Performing the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Mendrek, Adrianna; Cohen, Mark S; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara; Jarvik, Murray; Olmstead, Richard; Brody, Arthur L; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D

    2010-01-01

    Some reports indicate that cigarette smoking can help smokers focus attention, even when they have not abstained from smoking for a substantial period of time (eg, >1 h). Understanding the mechanisms by which smoking affects attention may help in designing smoking cessation treatments. Thirteen nonsmokers and nine smokers participated in two tests of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During fMRI, the participants performed the Stroop Task. There was a 15-min break between the two tests. During the break, each smoker smoked one cigarette. For smokers, the first test began 45–60 min after the last cigarette of ad libitum smoking. The differences in BOLD signal changes between Stroop conditions (ie, incongruent minus congruent) showed a group × test interaction in the right precentral sulcus, including the putative human frontal eye field (FEF). Smokers, but not nonsmokers, showed greater changes (relative to rest) in BOLD signal in the incongruent than in the congruent condition in the first fMRI test but not in the second. Even after brief abstinence from smoking, therefore, smokers exhibit compromised functional efficiency in the right FEF and adjacent precentral sulcus in a test of selective attention; and smoking ameliorates this condition. PMID:17164821

  5. Gender Differences in Responses to Cues Presented in the Natural Environment of Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; McClure, Erin A.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Tiffany, Stephen T.; Saladin, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although the evidence is mixed, female smokers appear to have more difficulty quitting smoking than male smokers. Craving, stress, and negative affect have been hypothesized as potential factors underlying gender differences in quit rates. Methods: In the current study, the cue-reactivity paradigm was used to assess craving, stress, and negative affect in response to cues presented in the natural environment of cigarette smokers using ecological momentary assessment. Seventy-six daily smokers (42% female) responded to photographs (smoking, stress, and neutral) presented 4 times per day on an iPhone over the course of 2 weeks. Results: Both smoking and stress cues elicited stronger cigarette craving and stress responses compared to neutral cues. Compared with males, females reported higher levels of post-stress cue craving, stress, and negative affect, but response to smoking cues did not differ by gender. Discussion: Findings from this project were largely consistent with results from laboratory-based research and extend previous work by measuring response to cues in the natural environment of cigarette smokers. This study extends previous cue reactivity ecological momentary assessment research by using a new platform and by measuring response to stress cues outside of the laboratory. Findings from this project highlight the importance of addressing coping in response to stress cues in clinical settings, especially when working with female smokers. PMID:25762753

  6. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. Methods We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1,303±2,676 μg/m2; p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the amount of nicotine in homes of e-cigarette users and non-users (p>0.05). Conclusions Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25869751

  7. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  8. Bilateral Fronto-Parietal Integrity in Young Chronic Cigarette Smokers: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Jinsong; Deng, Qijian; Deng, Yongwen; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xuyi; Chen, Hongxian; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Xiaogang; Brody, Arthur L.; Hao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in China and other countries. Previous studies have demonstrated gray matter loss in chronic smokers. However, only a few studies assessed the changes of white matter integrity in this group. Based on those previous reports of alterations in white matter integrity in smokers, the aim of this study was to examine the alteration of white matter integrity in a large, well-matched sample of chronic smokers and non-smokers. Methodology/Principal Findings Using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure the differences of whole-brain white matter integrity between 44 chronic smoking subjects (mean age, 28.0±5.6 years) and 44 healthy age- and sex-matched comparison non-smoking volunteers (mean age, 26.3±5.8 years). DTI was performed on a 3-Tesla Siemens scanner (Allegra; Siemens Medical System). The data revealed that smokers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) than healthy non-smokers in almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal tracts consisting of a major white matter pathway, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Conclusion/Significance We found the almost symmetrically bilateral fronto-parietal whiter matter changes in a relatively large sample of chronic smokers. These findings support the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking involves alterations of bilateral fronto-parietal connectivity. PMID:22069452

  9. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X.; Yi, Zan X.; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  10. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, M C; Nimsch, C T; Hyland, A; Cummings, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the demand for tar and nicotine in cigarettes as a function of cigarette prices in a cohort of cigarette 11,966 smokers followed for 5 years. Data for the analysis come from a longitudinal telephone survey of 11,966 smokers who were interviewed in 1988 and 1993 as part of the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Separate models are estimated for three age groups to account for differences in levels of addiction and brand loyalty across age. We found that smokers respond to higher cigarette prices by reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day but also by switching to cigarettes that are higher in tar and nicotine per cigarette. PMID:14724893

  11. Quantification of Nicotine in Commercial Brand Cigarettes: How Much Is Inhaled by the Smoker?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Carlos A.; de Paiva, Sabina A. A.; Funai, Milena N. S.; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Giglio, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment is to determine the amount of nicotine in commercial brand cigarettes by means of a nonaqueous acid-base titration. A simple glass device simulating a smoker is proposed, which allows the determination of the volatilized, filter retained, and inhaled portions. Students will readily see that the amount of…

  12. The impact of social context on cigarette self-administration in nondependent smokers.

    PubMed

    Reymarova, Ekaterina; Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    Tobacco use in nondependent smokers (i.e. chippers) is believed to be largely determined by situational factors including social context. However, little empirical research has examined how different social contexts impact chippers' smoking behaviour. Twenty-eight (16 men) chippers completed two laboratory sessions where they were offered an opportunity to self-administer puffs of their preferred tobacco brand using a progressive ratio task. During an individual session, participants self-administered cigarettes alone and during a paired session, they self-administered cigarettes with a coparticipant who was also smoking. The strongest predictors for number of self-administered puffs and breakpoint during the paired session were coparticipants' number of puffs and breakpoint, respectively (P<0.001), followed by puffs taken and breakpoint during the individual session (P<0.01). Current smoking frequency (cigarettes/week) did not significantly predict puffs taken or breakpoint during the paired session. Latency to cigarette self-administration during the paired session was correlated positively with coparticipants' latency (P<0.05), but not with latency during the individual session or cigarettes per week. The findings suggest that the presence of another smoker exerts an important influence on the quantity of chippers' smoking behaviour, such that chippers match their smoking behaviour to that of other smokers in their proximate environment. PMID:26086725

  13. Comparison of Puff Volume With Cigarettes per Day in Predicting Nicotine Uptake Among Daily Smokers.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nicolle M; Chen, Allshine; Zhu, Junjia; Sun, Dongxiao; Liao, Jason; Stennett, Andrea L; Muscat, Joshua E

    2016-07-01

    The role of inhalation behaviors as predictors of nicotine uptake was examined in the Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study (2012-2014), a study of 332 adults whose cigarette smoking was measured in a naturalistic environment (e.g., at home) with portable handheld topography devices. Piecewise regression analyses showed that levels of salivary cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and total salivary nicotine metabolites (cotinine + trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) increased linearly up to a level of about 1 pack per day (20 cigarettes per day (CPD)) (P < 0.01). Total daily puff volume (TDPV; in mL) (P < 0.05) and total daily number of puffs (P < 0.05), but not other topographical measures, increased linearly with CPD up to a level of about 1 pack per day. The mean level of cotinine per cigarette did not change above 20 CPD and was 36% lower in heavy smokers (≥20 CPD) than in lighter smokers (<20 CPD) (15.6 ng/mL vs. 24.5 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Mediation models showed that TDPV accounted for 43%-63% of the association between CPD and nicotine metabolites for smokers of <20 CPD. TDPV was the best predictor of nicotine metabolite levels in light-to-moderate smokers (1-19 CPD). In contrast, neither CPD, total daily number of puffs, nor TDPV predicted nicotine metabolite levels above 20 CPD (up to 40 CPD). Finally, although light smokers are traditionally considered less dependent on nicotine, these findings suggest that they are exposed to more nicotine per cigarette than are heavy smokers due to more frequent, intensive puffing. PMID:27313218

  14. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Rashan, Mohammed Abd Ahmed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%), impotence in male smokers (52.6%), premature ageing (64%), and stroke (66.3%). In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking. PMID:27134468

  15. Primary measures of dependence among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-08-01

    Previously published studies provide somewhat inconsistent evidence on whether menthol in cigarettes is associated with increased dependence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey, and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey collect data on current cigarette type preference and primary measures of dependence, and thus allow examination of whether menthol smokers are more dependent than non-menthol smokers. Analyses based on combined data from multiple administrations of each of these four nationally representative surveys, using three definitions for current smokers (i.e., smoked ⩾1day, ⩾10days and daily during the past month), consistently demonstrate that menthol smokers do not report smoking more cigarettes per day than non-menthol smokers. Moreover, two of the three surveys that provide data on time to first cigarette after waking indicate no difference in urgency to smoke among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while the third suggests menthol smokers may experience a greater urgency to smoke; estimates from all three surveys indicate that menthol versus non-menthol smokers do not report a higher Heaviness of Smoking Index. Collectively, these findings indicate no difference in dependence among U.S. smokers who use menthol compared to non-menthol cigarettes. PMID:24852490

  16. Self-rated everyday and prospective memory abilities of cigarette smokers and non-smokers: a web-based study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, T M; Ling, J; Parrott, A C; Buchanan, T; Scholey, A B; Rodgers, J

    2005-06-01

    The present study examined self-ratings of two aspects of everyday memory performance: long-term prospective memory-measured by the prospective memory questionnaire (PMQ), and everyday memory-measured by the everyday memory questionnaire (EMQ). Use of other substances was also measured and used as covariates in the study. To ensure confidentiality and to expand the numbers used in previous studies, an Internet study was carried out and data from 763 participants was gathered. After controlling for other drug use and strategy use, the data from the PMQ revealed that smokers reported a greater number of long-term prospective memory errors than non-smokers. There were also differences between light and heavier smokers in long-term prospective memory, suggesting that nicotine may have a dose-dependent impact upon long-term prospective memory performance. There was also a significant ANOVA group effect on the EMQ, although the trend for more memory errors amongst the heavier smokers was statistically only borderline (p=.057). These findings suggest there are selective memory deficits associated with smoking and that long-term prospective memory deficits should be added to the growing list of problems associated with cigarette use. PMID:15893154

  17. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  18. What Do Cigarette Pack Colors Communicate to Smokers in the U.S.?

    PubMed Central

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O’Connor, Richard; Fix, Brian V.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background New legislation in the U.S. prohibits tobacco companies from labelling cigarette packs with terms such as ‘light,’ ‘mild,’ or ‘low’ after June 2010. However, experience from countries that have removed these descriptors suggests different terms, colors, or numbers communicating the same messages may replace them. Purpose The main purpose of this study was to examine how cigarette pack colors are perceived by smokers to correspond to different descriptive terms. Methods Newspaper advertisements and craigslist.org postings directed interested current smokers to a survey website. Eligible participants were shown an array of six cigarette packages (altered to remove all descriptive terms) and asked to link package images with their corresponding descriptive terms. Participants were then asked to identify which pack in the array they would choose if they were concerned with health, tar, nicotine, image, and taste. Results A total of 193 participants completed the survey from February to March 2008 (data were analyzed from May 2008 through November 2010). Participants were more accurate in matching descriptors to pack images for Marlboro brand cigarettes than for unfamiliar Peter Jackson brand (sold in Australia). Smokers overwhelmingly chose the ‘whitest’ pack if they were concerned about health, tar, and nicotine. Conclusions Smokers in the U.S. associate brand descriptors with colors. Further, white packaging appears to most influence perceptions of safety. Removal of descriptor terms but not the associated colors will be insufficient in eliminating misperceptions about the risks from smoking communicated to smokers through packaging. PMID:21565662

  19. Does the hand that controls the cigarette packet rule the smoker? Findings from ethnographic interviews with smokers in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; Dennis, Simone; Robinson, Jude; Moore, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, packaging was a carefully cultivated element of the appeal of the cigarette. However, the tobacco industry's control over cigarette packaging has been steadily eroded through legislation that aims to rebrand the packet from a desirable to a dangerous commodity-epitomized in Australia's introduction of plain packaging in 2012. Evident in both the enactment of cigarette packaging legislation and industry efforts to overturn it is the assumption that packets do things-i.e. that they have a critical role to play in either promoting or discouraging the habit. Drawing on 175 ethnographic interviews conducted with people smoking in public spaces in Vancouver, Canada; Canberra, Australia; Liverpool, England; and San Francisco, USA, we produce a 'thick description' of smokers' engagements with cigarette packets. We illustrate that despite the very different types of cigarette packaging legislation in place in the four countries, there are marked similarities in the ways smokers engage with their packets. In particular, they are not treated as a purely visual sign; instead, a primary means through which one's own cigarette packet is apprehended is by touch rather than by sight. Smokers perceive cigarette packets largely through the operations of their hands-through their 'handiness'. Thus, our study findings problematize the assumption that how smokers engage with packets when asked to do so on a purely intellectual or aesthetic level reflects how they engage with packets as they are enfolded into their everyday lives. PMID:26301486

  20. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Ross, Louise; McEwen, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883) and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801). SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as “a good thing”. Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries) were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency. PMID:26703638

  1. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Ross, Louise; McEwen, Andy

    2015-12-01

    The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883) and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801). SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as "a good thing". Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries) were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency. PMID:26703638

  2. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  3. Smoker interest in lower harm alternatives to cigarettes: National survey data

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron; Weerasekera, Deepa; Edwards, Richard; Russell, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine knowledge and attitudes to lower harm alternatives to cigarettes among New Zealand (NZ) smokers. Methods: The NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) utilizes the NZ Health Survey (a national sample). From this sample, we surveyed adult smokers (N = 1,376). Results: Knowledge about smokeless tobacco was poor, with only 16% regarding such products as less harmful than ordinary cigarettes. Only 7% considered such products to be “a lot less” harmful. When participants were asked to assume that these products were much less harmful than cigarettes, 34% of smokers stated that they would be interested in trying smokeless tobacco products, with another 11% saying “maybe” or “don't know.” In the multivariate analysis, Māori smokers were significantly more interested in trying smokeless products than Europeans in all 3 models considered (e.g., Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23–2.37). There was also significantly increased interest for those concerned about the impact of smoking on health and quality of life in the future (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17–1.78). But interest did not vary significantly by 2 measures of socioeconomic status and varied inconsistently by 2 measures of financial stress. Discussion: The finding that one third of smokers said that they would be interested in trying smokeless products suggests that these products could have a role as part of a tobacco epidemic endgame that phases out smoked tobacco. Differences in interest level by ethnic group may be relevant to stimulating further work in this area (e.g., among those health workers concerned for smokers with the highest need to quit). PMID:19828433

  4. Effects of 7.5% Carbon Dioxide Inhalation on Anxiety and Mood in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Ataya, Alia F.; Bailey, Jayne E.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with elevated risk of anxiety and mood disorder. Using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of anxiety induction, we examined the effects of smoking status and abstinence from smoking on anxiety responses. Physiological and subjective responses to CO2 and medical air were compared in smokers and non-smokers (Experiment One) and in overnight abstinent and non-abstinent smokers (Experiment Two). CO2 induced greater increases in blood pressure in non-smokers compared with smokers (ps < 0.043), and greater increases in anxiety (p = 0.005) and negative affect (p = 0.054) in non-abstinent compared with abstinent smokers. CO2 increased physiological and subjective indices of anxiety. There were differences across smoking groups indicating that the CO2 inhalation model is a useful tool for examining the relationship between smoking and anxiety. The findings suggested that both acute smoking and acute abstinence may protect against anxious responding. Further investigation is needed in long-term heavy smokers. PMID:24763184

  5. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  6. Stability of Cigarette Consumption Over Time Among Continuing Smokers: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James F.; Thompson, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examined the stability over time of daily cigarette consumption of continuing smokers and explored factors that might account for the patterns of change in consumption using a latent growth curve (LGC) analytic approach. Methods: Data come from the first 5 waves of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, conducted in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia where a cohort of over 2,000 smokers from each country were recruited and followed up annually with replenishment. Results: Raw data revealed that continuing smokers showed a marked steep decline in cigarettes per day during the first 2 waves followed by a gentler linear decline in consumption over the remaining waves of the study period. This pattern of change in cigarette consumption was best modelled using a piecewise linear LGC model. Baseline consumption level was highest in Australia and lowest in the United Kingdom, although the rate of decline was similar across the 4 countries. Being older than 55 years and having made at least 1 quit attempt were related to greater rate of decline in consumption. Conclusions: Continuing smokers who are unwilling or unable to quit smoking can and do attempt to reduce their daily cigarette consumption over time. Factors such as making a quit attempt even if unsuccessful and experiencing smoking bans at work and at homes can contribute to reduced smoking among this group, which suggests that interventions focusing in on these factors, along with providing cessation help, may greatly improve their chances of quitting smoking altogether. PMID:22311963

  7. Sex differences in resting state brain function of cigarette smokers and links to nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Adriene M; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Wilson, Stephen J

    2015-08-01

    Sex--a marker of biological and social individual differences--matters for drug use, particularly for cigarette smoking, which is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. More men than women smoke, but women are less likely than men to quit. Resting state brain function, or intrinsic brain activity that occurs in the absence of a goal-directed task, is important for understanding cigarette smoking, as it has been shown to differentiate between smokers and nonsmokers. But, it is unclear whether and how sex influences the link between resting state brain function and smoking behavior. In this study, the authors demonstrate that sex is indeed associated with resting state connectivity in cigarette smokers, and that sex moderates the link between resting state connectivity and self-reported nicotine dependence. Using functional MRI and behavioral data from 50 adult daily smokers (23 women), the authors found that women had greater connectivity than men within the default mode network, and that increased connectivity within the reward network was related to increased nicotine tolerance in women but to decreased nicotine tolerance in men. Findings highlight the importance of sex-related individual differences reflected in resting state connectivity for understanding the etiology and treatment of substance use problems. PMID:26237322

  8. Lung function profiles and aerobic capacity of adult cigarette and hookah smokers after 12 weeks intermittent training

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zeghal, Khaled N.; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary function is compromised in most smokers. Yet it is unknown whether exercise training improves pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers and whether these smokers respond in a similar way as do non-smokers. Aim To evaluate the effects of an interval exercise training program on pulmonary function and aerobic capacity in cigarette and hookah smokers. Methods Twelve cigarette smokers, 10 hookah smokers, and 11 non-smokers participated in our exercise program. All subjects performed 30 min of interval exercise (2 min of work followed by 1 min of rest) three times a week for 12 weeks at an intensity estimated at 70% of the subject's maximum aerobic capacity (V.O2max). Pulmonary function was measured using spirometry, and maximum aerobic capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a treadmill before the beginning and at the end of the exercise training program. Results As expected, prior to the exercise intervention, the cigarette and hookah smokers had significantly lower pulmonary function than the non-smokers. The 12-week exercise training program did not significantly affect lung function as assessed by spirometry in the non-smoker group. However, it significantly increased both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and peak expiratory flow (PEF) in the cigarette smoker group, and PEF in the hookah smoker group. Our training program had its most notable impact on the cardiopulmonary system of smokers. In the non-smoker and cigarette smoker groups, the training program significantly improved V.O2max (4.4 and 4.7%, respectively), v V.O2max (6.7 and 5.6%, respectively), and the recovery index (7.9 and 10.5%, respectively). Conclusions After 12 weeks of interval training program, the increase of V.O2max and the decrease of recovery index and resting heart rate in the smoking subjects indicated better exercise tolerance. Although the intermittent training program altered pulmonary function only partially, both

  9. Latent factor structure of a behavioral economic cigarette demand curve in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G; Tidey, Jennifer W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2012-11-01

    Behavioral economic demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption across a range of prices, have been used to assess motivation for a variety of drugs. Such curves generate multiple measures of drug demand that are associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. However, little is known about the relationships among these facets of demand. The aim of the study was to quantify these relationships in adolescent smokers by using exploratory factor analysis to examine the underlying structure of the facets of nicotine incentive value generated from a demand curve measure. Participants were 138 adolescent smokers who completed a hypothetical cigarette purchase task, which assessed estimated cigarette consumption at escalating levels of price/cigarette. Demand curves and five facets of demand were generated from the measure: Elasticity (i.e., 1/α or proportionate price sensitivity); Intensity (i.e., consumption at zero price); O(max) (i.e., maximum financial expenditure on cigarettes); P(max) (i.e., price at which expenditure is maximized); and Breakpoint (i.e., the price that suppresses consumption to zero). Principal components analysis was used to examine the latent structure among the variables. The results revealed a two-factor solution, which were interpreted as "Persistence," reflecting insensitivity to escalating price, and "Amplitude," reflecting the absolute levels of consumption and price. These findings suggest a two factor structure of nicotine incentive value as measured via a demand curve. If supported, these findings have implications for understanding the relationships among individual demand indices in future behavioral economic studies and may further contribute to understanding of the nature of cigarette reinforcement. PMID:22727784

  10. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  11. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Elle; Neale, Joanne; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2) relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B): capability (C), opportunity (O), and motivation (M)); and (3) to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour) was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking); opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in "smoke-free" environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family); and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits). The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support. PMID:27376312

  12. Decision aid for cigarette smokers scheduled for elective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David O.; LeBlanc, Annie; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Montori, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Decision aids can increase patient involvement in decision-making about health care. The study goal was to develop and test a decision aid for use by clinicians in discussion options for changing smoking behavior before and after elective surgery. Methods In formative work, a decision aid was designed to facilitate patient-clinician discussion regarding three options: continue smoking, attempt a period of temporary abstinence, and attempt to quit smoking for good. A randomized, two-group pilot study was then conducted in smokers evaluated in preparation for elective surgery in a preoperative clinic to test the hypothesis that the decision aid would improve measures of decisional quality compared with usual care. Results The final decision aid consisted of three laminated cards. The front of each card included a colorful graphic describing each choice; the reverse including 2–3 pros and cons for each decision, a simple graphic illustrating the effects of smoking on the body, and a motivational phrase. In the randomized trial of 130 patients, the decision aid significantly (p<0.05) improved measures of decisional quality and patient involvement in decision making (Cohen’s d effect sizes of 0.76 and 1.20 for the Decisional Conflict and OPTION scales, respectively). However, the decision aid did not affect any aspect of perioperative smoking behavior, including the distribution of or adherence to choices. Conclusions Although use of a decision aid to facilitate clinician-patient discussions regarding tobacco use around the time of surgery substantially improved measures of decisional quality, it alone did not change perioperative tobacco use behavior. PMID:25978327

  13. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey provide estimates of the proportions of U.S. smokers who currently use menthol cigarettes, overall and within demographic strata. Among adult past-month, regular and daily smokers, menthol cigarette use ranges from 26% to 30%, with statistically higher proportions of female versus male smokers (8-11 percentage points higher) currently using menthol cigarettes. Compared to adult smokers overall, statistically higher proportions of non-Hispanic Black smokers (72-79%) and statistically lower proportions of non-Hispanic White smokers (19-22%) currently use menthol cigarettes, with no differences among smokers of other race/ethnicity groups (18-20% to 28-30%, depending on the survey). Higher proportions of younger adult past-month, regular and daily smokers (aged 18-25years) currently use menthol cigarettes compared to older adult smokers (aged 26-29years and/or ⩾30years); however, differences are small in magnitude, with the vast majority of adult smokers (70-75%) who currently use menthol cigarettes being aged ⩾30years. Comparisons between youth and adult smokers are provided, although data for youth smokers are less available and provide less consistent patterns of menthol cigarette use. PMID:24997230

  14. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Iqbal, Zaheen A.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18–55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20–45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  15. Exercise intervention as a protective modulator against metabolic disorders in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] assess the impact of exercise intensity on desire to smoke, serum cotinine, stress hormones, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative free radicals as potential markers of cardiopulmonary metabolic disorders were measured.in cigarette smokers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants (150 randomly selected healthy men, aged 18-55 years) were classified into 4 smoking groups: control (non-smokers; N= 30); mild (N = 33); moderate (N = 42), and heavy (N = 45). The participants were assigned to either moderate (8 weeks) or short-term (20-45 min) exercise training. The desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores, cotinine, stress hormones (cortisol and testosterone), free radicals (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide), and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. [Results] Significant increases in serum cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels and a reduction in total antioxidant capacity activity were observed in all smoker groups; heavy smokers showed a higher change in metabolites. In all smoker groups, both short and moderate- intensity exercises significantly reduce cotinine, cortisol, testosterone, and malondialdehyde and increased nitric oxide levels and total antioxidant capacity activity; further, the desire to smoke, Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale, and Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale scores were reduced. This supports the ability of exercise to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, enhance of blood vessels function and ultimately decrease the incidence of cardiopulmonary disorders. [Conclusion] Exercise interventions with varying intensities may be used as nicotine replacement therapy or protective aids against smoking-related cardiopulmonary disorders. PMID:27134398

  16. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766 571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

  17. Evaluating the association between menthol cigarette use and the likelihood of being a former versus current smoker.

    PubMed

    Sulsky, Sandra I; Fuller, William G; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E; Curtin, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source. PMID:25017361

  18. Perturbation of cellular immune functions in cigarette smokers and protection by palm oil vitamin E supplementation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and an have adverse effect to the immune system. Supplementation of palm oil vitamin E (palmvitee), is known has antioxidant properties is thought to be beneficial for system immune protection against free radicals activity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of palmvitee supplementation on immune response in smokers. Methods This study involved a group of smokers and nonsmokers who received 200 mg/day palmvitee and placebo for the control group. Blood samples were taken at 0, 12 and 24 weeks of supplementation. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were determined by HPLC, lymphocyte proliferation by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) and enumeration of lymphocytes T and B cells by flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann–Whitney U-test for non-parametric data distribution and correlation among the variables was examined by Spearman. Results Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol were increased in vitamin E supplemented group as compared to placebo group. Urine cotinine levels and serum α1-antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by PHA showed an increasing trend with palmvitee supplementation in both smokers and nonsmokers. Natural killer cells were decreased; CD4+ cells and B cells were increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers but were unaffected with vitamin E supplementation except in the percentage of B cells which were increased in nonsmokers supplemented palmvitee compared to placebo. CD4+/CD8+ ratio was increased in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The high TWBC count observed in smokers correlated with the increased CD4+ and B cells. Conclusions Smoking caused alterations in certain immune parameters and palmvitee supplementation tended to cause an increase in lymphocytes transformation test but had no effect on CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and B cells except B cells percentage in nonsmokers. PMID

  19. Effects of dieting status and cigarette deprivation on progressive ratio responding for cigarette puffs by young women smokers.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is evidence from self-report measures which suggests that young women dieters find cigarette smoking less rewarding than non-dieters. We aimed to further elucidate differences between dieters and non-dieters in their evaluation of smoking using a behavioural measure of drug reward. Thirty female undergraduates attended two sessions (cigarette deprived and non-deprived). A computer-based progressive ratio operant procedure was employed to assess the amount of effort that participants were willing to expend to gain a puff on a cigarette. The point at which responding ceased was taken as a measure of drug reward (breakpoint). Self-report measures of sensory/hedonic aspects of smoking were also completed. The breakpoints of both dieters and non-dieters were greater under deprived than non-deprived conditions but the breakpoints of dieters were significantly lower than those of the non-dieting smokers under both conditions. Self-reported enjoyment of smoking was lower for dieters than non-dieters and reports for non-dieters but not dieters were affected by deprivation level. Both behavioural and self-report measures of rewarding aspects of smoking suggest that young women dieters find smoking less rewarding than non-dieters, but self-report measures are more resistant to deprivation effects for dieters. This is consistent with the suggestion that subjective and behavioural measures assess different dimensions of the rewarding effects of smoking. PMID:21169394

  20. Smoking motivators are different among cigarette and waterpipe smokers: The results of ITUPP.

    PubMed

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Heidari, Kamal; Alinia, Tahereh; Omidi, Razieh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Andalib, Elham; Ajami, Ali; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2015-09-01

    The present study explores different drivers of cigarette and water pipe smoking among middle and high school students in Isfahan province. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Trained staff collected questionnaires and saliva samples for response accuracy evaluation. Prevalence by demographic, parental and educational factors was calculated. Logistic regression was applied to compare behavior drivers of those who purely smoked cigarettes or a waterpipe. Waterpipe smokers were considered as the reference category. This study reported ORs along 95% confidence intervals; 5408 questionnaires were returned. The sample age was 15.37±01.70 on average. The self-reported prevalence of cigarette and waterpipe experimentation was 11.60% (n=624) and 20.70% (n=1,109), respectively; and 5.08% (n=311), 11.06% (n=619) for smokers, and 13.30% (n=711) for the whole sample. Psychological factors were the most important driver for cigarette smoking; bad event happening with odds of 2.38 (95% CI: 1.29-4.39); angriness 2.58 times (95% CI: 1.51-4.43); and distress by 2.49 times (95% CI: 1.42-4.40). Habitual situations were strong predictors of cigarette smoking, but not a predictor of waterpipe smoking, such as smoking after a meal (OR=3.11, 95% CI: 1.67-5.77); and smoking after waking up (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.42-4.40). Comprehensive and multifaceted preventive programs must tailor identified factors and increase family's awareness. PMID:26231400

  1. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  2. Characteristics associated with self-identification as a regular smoker and desire to quit among college students who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Schwartz, Stephen M; Thompson, Beti

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use among college students increased substantially during the 1990s. Better understanding of college smokers is warranted to develop interventions specific to the needs of this population. We examined sociodemographic and tobacco-use characteristics associated with self-identification as a regular smoker and intentions to quit smoking among college students who smoke cigarettes. We conducted logistic regression analysis on baseline survey data from the Campus Health Action on Tobacco study, a 4-year group-randomized trial at 30 four-year colleges in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Students who self-identified as a regular smoker smoked more cigarettes before starting college, smoked a greater number of cigarettes the prior 30 days, smoked more cigarettes per day, and were more likely to smoke within 30 min of waking up, compared with students who were current smokers but did not consider themselves regular smokers. Females, older students, and those who had decreased the amount they smoked since coming to college were more likely to want to quit "very much." Females and students in early college years were more likely to be planning to quit before graduation, as were students who had decreased the amount they smoked since coming to college. Interventions should target students who are in their early college years, given that habits prior to college, changes in smoking habits while in college, and year in college are associated with students' self-identification as a regular smoker, desire to quit smoking, or plan to quit smoking while in college. PMID:18188747

  3. Cardiovascular Effects of a Novel SIRT1 Activator, SRT2104, in Otherwise Healthy Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Noh, Radzi Mohd; Daga, Shruti; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Joshi, Nikhil V.; Mills, Nicholas L.; Hoffmann, Ethan; Jacobson, Eric W.; Vlasuk, George P.; Waterhouse, Brian R.; Lang, Ninian N.; Newby, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of the oral SIRT1 activator SRT2104 on cardiovascular function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. Methods and Results Twenty‐four otherwise healthy cigarette smokers participated in a randomized double‐blind, placebo‐controlled crossover trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or matched placebo. Plasma SRT2104 concentrations, serum lipid profile, plasma fibrinolytic factors, and markers of platelet and monocyte activation were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period together with an assessment of forearm blood flow during intra‐arterial bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside infusions. Three hours postdose, mean plasma SRT2104 concentration was 1328±748 ng/mL after 28 days of active treatment. Compared with placebo, serum lipid profile improved during SRT2104 administration, with reductions in serum total cholesterol (−11.6±20 versus 6±21 mg/dL), low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (−10±17 versus 3±21 mg/dL), and triglyceride (−39.8±77 versus 13.3±57 mg/dL) concentrations (P<0.05 for all). All vasodilators produced a dose‐dependent increase in blood flow (P<0.0001) that was similar during each treatment period (P>0.05 for all). No significant differences in fibrinolytic or blood flow parameters were observed between placebo and SRT2014. Conclusions SRT2104 appears to be safe and well tolerated and associated with an improved lipid profile without demonstrable differences in vascular or platelet function in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01031108. PMID:23770971

  4. Re-training Automatic Action Tendencies to Approach Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Larsen, Helle; Cavallo, Dana; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Salemink, Elske; D'Escury-Koenigs, Annemat L. Collot; Morean, Meghan; Wiers, Reinout; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Background This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli, (1) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (2) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Methods Sixty adolescent smokers received four weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, with CBM (90% avoidance/10% approach for smoking stimuli and 10% avoidance/90% approach for neutral stimuli) or sham (50% avoidance/50% approach for smoking and neutral stimuli) training in the Netherlands (n = 42) and the United States (n = 18). Results While we did not observe changes in action tendencies related to CBM, adolescents with higher smoking approach biases at baseline had greater decreases in approach biases at follow up, compared to adolescents with smoking avoidance biases, regardless of treatment condition (p = 0.01). Intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed that CBM, when compared with sham trended toward higher end-of-treatment, biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point prevalence abstinence, (17.2% vs. 3.2%, p = 0.071). ITT analysis also showed that regardless of treatment condition, cotinine level (p = 0.045) and average number of cigarette smoked (p ≤ 0.001) significantly decreased over the course of treatment. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggests that re-training approach biases toward cigarettes shows promise for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. Future research should utilize larger samples and increased distinction between CBM and sham conditions, and examine mechanisms underlying the CBM approach. PMID:26186485

  5. Distress Tolerance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Among Daily Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Leyro, Teresa M; Bernstein, Amit; Vujanovic, Anka A; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The present investigation evaluated the factor structure of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS; Simons and Gaher 2005) among a sample of 173 (54.9% males) daily cigarette smokers (M=16.64 cigarettes per day, SD=7.83). Comparison of a single higher-order model and a hierarchical multidimensional model was conducted using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). In addition, evaluation of the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the better-fitting model was completed. CFA of the DTS indicated a single second-order factor of distress tolerance, and four lower-order factors including Tolerance, Appraisal, Absorption, and Regulation; each factor demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency. In addition, the DTS displayed good convergent and discriminant validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affect variables. Results are discussed in terms of explicating the latent structure of distress tolerance, as measured by the DTS, within the context of smoking research. PMID:23935238

  6. DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI polymorphism and smoking behavior of Egyptian male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ghada N; El-Setouhy, Maged; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Hamid, Mohamed Abdel; Azem, Salwa Abdel; Kamel, Omima; Israel, Ebenezer; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the genetic contribution to cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction in Egypt. The dopamine D2 receptor gene contains a TaqI repeat fragment length polymorphism creating two alleles with functional significance, DRD2*A1 and DRD2*A2. We investigated the relationship between these alleles and tobacco use in a study of 389 Egyptian male current smokers (mean age = 40 years; SD = 12). Participants were interviewed in 2004 on their smoking behaviors and quit attempts, and were given the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Blood samples were obtained and genotyped for DRD2 A1and A2 alleles. The frequencies of A1/A2, A1/A2, and A2/A2 genotypes were 6%, 29%, and 65%, respectively. We found no statistically significant association between genotype and age at onset of smoking, years of smoking, FTND score, or average number of cigarettes smoked per day. DRD2 genotype was associated with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past 48 hr (42.2 in A1 carriers vs. 37.6 in A2, p = .03), the previous quit duration (28% in A1 vs. 40% in A2 quit for more than 1 month, p = .05), and the depth of inhalation (82% in A1 vs. 72% in A2 inhaled the smoke deeply, p = .03). Logistic regression analysis including DRD2 genotype, FTND score, age at smoking initiation, marital status, and education as predictors showed that maximum duration of quit time was associated with FTND score (p = .003), DRD2 genotype (p = .01), marital status (p = .03), and age at smoking initiation (p = .04). These findings suggest a modest association between DRD2 genotype and quitting behavior in male cigarette smokers in Egypt. PMID:18058350

  7. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W; D'Ruiz, Carl D

    2016-07-01

    Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  8. Anhedonia and the relative reward value of drug and nondrug reinforcers in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Trujillo, Michael; Ameringer, Katherine J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Sussman, Steve; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-05-01

    Anhedonia-a psychopathologic trait indicative of diminished interest, pleasure, and enjoyment-has been linked to use of and addiction to several substances, including tobacco. We hypothesized that anhedonic drug users develop an imbalance in the relative reward value of drug versus nondrug reinforcers, which could maintain drug use behavior. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether anhedonia predicted the tendency to choose an immediate drug reward (i.e., smoking) over a less immediate nondrug reward (i.e., money) in a laboratory study of non-treatment-seeking adult cigarette smokers. Participants (N = 275, ≥10 cigarettes/day) attended a baseline visit that involved anhedonia assessment followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental visits: (a) after 16-hr smoking abstinence and (b) nonabstinent. At both experimental visits, participants completed self-report measures of mood state followed by a behavioral smoking task, which measured 2 aspects of the relative reward value of smoking versus money: (1) latency to initiate smoking when delaying smoking was monetarily rewarded and (2) willingness to purchase individual cigarettes. Results indicated that higher anhedonia predicted quicker smoking initiation and more cigarettes purchased. These relations were partially mediated by low positive and high negative mood states assessed immediately prior to the smoking task. Abstinence amplified the extent to which anhedonia predicted cigarette consumption among those who responded to the abstinence manipulation, but not the entire sample. Anhedonia may bias motivation toward smoking over alternative reinforcers, perhaps by giving rise to poor acute mood states. An imbalance in the reward value assigned to drug versus nondrug reinforcers may link anhedonia-related psychopathology to drug use. PMID:24886011

  9. Do brain responses to emotional images and cigarette cues differ? An fMRI study in smokers.

    PubMed

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Edward F; Costa, Vincent D; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Brown, Victoria L; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Chronic smoking is thought to cause changes in brain reward systems that result in overvaluation of cigarette-related stimuli and undervaluation of natural rewards. We tested the hypotheses that, in smokers, brain circuits involved in emotional processing: (i) would be more active during exposure to cigarette-related than neutral pictures; and (ii) would be less active to pleasant compared with cigarette-related pictures, suggesting a devaluation of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. We obtained whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 35 smokers during the presentation of pleasant (erotica and romance), unpleasant (mutilations and sad), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Whole-brain analyses showed significantly larger BOLD responses during presentation of cigarette-related pictures relative to neutral ones within the secondary visual areas, the cingulate gyrus, the frontal gyrus, the dorsal striatum, and the left insula. BOLD responses to erotic pictures exceeded responses to cigarette-related pictures in all clusters except the insula. Within the left insula we observed larger BOLD responses to cigarette-related pictures than to all other picture categories. By including intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant pictures in addition to neutral ones, we were able to conclude that the presentation of cigarette-related pictures activates brain areas supporting emotional processes, but we did not find evidence of overall reduced activation of the brain reward systems in the presence of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. PMID:22097928

  10. Do brain responses to emotional images and cigarette cues differ? An fMRI study in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Jackson, Edward F.; Costa, Vincent D.; Robinson, Jason D.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Brown, Victoria L.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic smoking is thought to cause changes in brain reward systems that result in overvaluation of cigarette-related stimuli and undervaluation of natural rewards. We tested the hypotheses that, in smokers, brain circuits involved in emotional processing 1) would be more active during exposure to cigarette-related than neutral pictures, and 2) would be less active to pleasant compared to cigarette-related pictures, suggesting a devaluation of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. We obtained whole brain blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data from 35 smokers during the presentation of pleasant (erotica and romance), unpleasant (mutilations and sad), neutral, and cigarette-related pictures. Whole brain analyses showed significantly larger BOLD responses during presentation of cigarette-related pictures relative to neutral ones within the secondary visual areas, the cingulate gyrus, the frontal gyrus, the dorsal striatum, and the left insula. BOLD responses to erotic pictures exceeded responses to cigarette-related pictures in all clusters except the insula. Within the left insula we observed larger BOLD responses to cigarette-related pictures than to all other picture categories. By including intrinsically pleasant and unpleasant pictures in addition to neutral ones, we were able to conclude that the presentation of cigarette-related pictures activates brain areas supporting emotional processes, but we did not find evidence of overall reduced activation of the brain reward systems in the presence of intrinsically pleasant stimuli. PMID:22097928

  11. Intense passionate love attenuates cigarette cue-reactivity in nicotine-deprived smokers: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jin; Aron, Arthur; Lei, Wei; Westmaas, J Lee; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-01-01

    Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity. PMID:22860092

  12. E-cigarette use and intentions to smoke among 10-11-year-old never-smokers in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Laurence; Ahmed, Nilufar; Holliday, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are seen by some as offering harm reduction potential, where used effectively as smoking cessation devices. However, there is emerging international evidence of growing use among young people, amid concerns that this may increase tobacco uptake. Few UK studies examine the prevalence of e-cigarette use in non-smoking children or associations with intentions to smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey of year 6 (10–11-year-old) children in Wales. Approximately 1500 children completed questions on e-cigarette use, parental and peer smoking, and intentions to smoke. Logistic regression analyses among never smoking children, adjusted for school-level clustering, examined associations of smoking norms with e-cigarette use, and of e-cigarette use with intentions to smoke tobacco within the next 2 years. Results Approximately 6% of year 6 children, including 5% of never smokers, reported having used an e-cigarette. By comparison to children whose parents neither smoked nor used e-cigarettes, children were most likely to have used an e-cigarette if parents used both tobacco and e-cigarettes (OR=3.40; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.69). Having used an e-cigarette was associated with intentions to smoke (OR=3.21; 95% CI 1.66 to 6.23). While few children reported that they would smoke in 2 years’ time, children who had used an e-cigarette were less likely to report that they definitely would not smoke tobacco in 2 years’ time and were more likely to say that they might. Conclusions E-cigarettes represent a new form of childhood experimentation with nicotine. Findings are consistent with a hypothesis that children use e-cigarettes to imitate parental and peer smoking behaviours, and that e-cigarette use is associated with weaker antismoking intentions. PMID:25535293

  13. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

  14. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to varying types of emotional and cigarette stimuli in smokers: a content comparison.

    PubMed

    Minnix, Jennifer A; Versace, Francesco; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Cui, Yong; Brown, Victoria L; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Identifying neural mechanisms associated with addiction has substantially improved the overall understanding of addictive processes. Indeed, research suggests that drug-associated cues may take advantage of neural mechanisms originally intended for emotional processing of stimuli relevant to survival. In this study, we investigated cortical responses to several categories of emotional cues (erotic, romance, pleasant objects, mutilation, sadness, and unpleasant objects) as well as two types of smoking-related cues (people smoking and cigarette-related objects). We recorded ERPs from 180 smokers prior to their participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial and assessed emotional salience by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP; 400 to 600 ms after picture onset). As expected, emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted a significantly larger LPP than neutral pictures. The amplitude of the LPP increased as a function of picture arousal level, with high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures showing the largest response in contrast to low-arousing pleasant and unpleasant objects, which showed the smallest response (other than neutral). Compared to females, male participants showed larger LPPs for high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures. However, unlike emotional pictures, no difference was noted for the LPP between cigarette stimuli containing people versus those containing only objects, suggesting that in contrast to emotional objects, cigarette-related objects are highly relevant for smokers. We also compared the smokers to a small (N=40), convenience sample of never-smokers. We found that never-smokers had significantly smaller LPPs in response to erotic and cigarette stimuli containing only objects compared to smokers. PMID:23643564

  15. Predictors and Sequelae of Smoking Topography Over the Course of a Single Cigarette in Adolescent Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Kassel, Jon D.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Braun, Ashley; Wardle, Margaret C.; Greenstein, Justin; Evatt, Daniel P.; Conrad, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to determine whether adolescent smokers, who varied in their smoking histories and symptoms of nicotine dependence, exhibit any decrease in puff volume and duration similar to that typically seen in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. Moreover, we examined whether puffing trajectories were moderated by individual difference factors, as well as whether puffing topography over the course of smoking a single cigarette was predictive of an escalation in dependence symptoms. Methods We assessed smoking topography (puff number, duration, volume, maximum flow rate [velocity], and inter-puff interval) over the course of smoking a single cigarette in a sample of 78 adolescent light smokers, using hierarchical linear modeling. We examined moderators (anxiety, depression, nicotine dependence) of the topographic trajectories, as well as whether smoking topography predicted any change in dependence over a 2-year period. Results Puff volume and puff duration decreased over the course of smoking the cigarette, whereas puff velocity and inter-puff interval increased. Slopes for puff volume and duration were moderated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, individuals with a less “typical” topography pattern (exhibited stable or increasing volume and duration over the course of smoking the cigarette) demonstrated a heightened dependence escalation in the subsequent 2 years. Conclusion Our findings suggest that adolescent light smokers self-regulate nicotine during the course of smoking a single cigarette, similar to that reported in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. However, single cigarette self-regulation was influenced by certain affective factors. Implications of these findings and future directions for adolescent smoking research are discussed. PMID:21257117

  16. Impact of Differing Levels of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke on the Levels of Biomarkers in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, David L.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Bernert, John T.; Watson, Clifford H.; Polzin, Gregory M.; Jain, Ram B.; Hammond, David; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Giovino, Gary A.; Cummings, K. Michael; McNeill, Ann; Shahab, Lion; King, Bill; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Zhang, Liqin; Xia, Yang; Yan, Xizheng; McCraw, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smokers are exposed to significant doses of carcinogens, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Previous studies have shown significant global differences in the levels of TSNAs in cigarette smoke because of the variation in tobacco blending and curing practices around the world. METHODS Mouth-level exposure to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) measured in cigarette butts and urinary concentrations of its major metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) were examined among 126 daily smokers in four countries over a 24-hour study period. RESULTS As mouth-level exposure of NNK increased, the urinary NNAL increased, even after adjustment for other covariates (β=0.46, p=0.004). The relationship between mouth-level exposure to nicotine and its salivary metabolite, cotinine, was not statistically significant (β=0.29, p=0.057), likely because of the very limited range of differences in mouth-level nicotine exposure in this population. CONCLUSIONS We have demonstrated a direct association between the 24-hour mouth level exposure of NNK resulting from cigarette smoking and the concentration of its primary metabolite, NNAL, in the urine of smokers. Internal dose concentrations of urinary NNAL are significantly lower in smokers in countries which have lower TSNA levels in cigarettes such as Canada and Australia in contrast to countries which have high levels of these carcinogens in cigarettes, such as the United States. IMPACT Lowering the levels of NNK in the mainstream smoke of cigarettes through the use of specific tobacco types and known curing practices can significantly impact the exposure of smokers to this known carcinogen. PMID:20501750

  17. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  18. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  19. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking. PMID:25111576

  20. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  1. Trends in Use of Little Cigars or Cigarillos and Cigarettes among U.S. Smokers, 2002–2011

    PubMed Central

    White, Martha M.; Strong, David R.; Wang, Baoguang; Shi, Yuyan; Conway, Kevin P.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Little cigars and cigarillos may resemble cigarettes, but may be less expensive and can be purchased singly and in flavored varieties. We used two major U.S. surveys to investigate use of cigarillos and cigarettes. Methods: The 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey ascertained cigar use by brand and type (little cigars/cigarillos or large/regular). The annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assessed cigar use by brand, 2002–2011. We used the available data to classify cigars by type among males in the NSDUH. Results: Estimated prevalence of little cigar use among male cigar smokers was similar using the two surveys. From 2002 to 2011, past-30-day cigarette smoking declined for all age groups and genders, but among young adult men (aged 18–25) little cigar smoking remained steady at nearly 9%. “Cigarette and/or cigar” smoking was 44% among young adult men in 2011, and was consistently 6 percentage points higher than cigarette-only smoking, from 2002 to 2011. Over 60% of male and 70% of female adolescent/young adult cigar smokers also smoked cigarettes in 2011. Most male adolescents preferred little cigars to traditional cigars. Among males, most lower income or less educated cigar smokers preferred little cigars, compared to only 16% of those with higher education. Conclusions: These patterns indicate that little cigar/cigarillo use may promote initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking, particularly among younger and less advantaged populations. Population-level data are urgently needed to better assess type of cigar smoked and reasons for use. PMID:25239955

  2. Do more graphic and aversive cigarette health warning labels affect Brazilian smokers' likelihood of quitting?

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Volchan, Eliane; Thrasher, James F; Perez, Cristina; Szklo, Moysés; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence, with an innovative round of aversive pictorial health warnings implemented on cigarette packs and at points of sale in 2009. The objective of this study was to examine changes over time in the distribution of quitting attempts and self-reported thoughts about quitting due to health warnings among current smokers. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate data from two nationally-representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013. Responses to questions on smokers' quitting attempts in the last year (yes vs. no) and whether health warnings led them to think about quitting in the last month (yes vs. no) were combined into four categories, for which the distribution of the Brazilian smoking population by year was estimated. A multinomial model was used to obtain proportions for each category, adjusted by socio-demographic variables and nicotine dependence. The proportion of smokers who reported making a quitting attempt in the last year and stated that health warnings led them think about quitting smoking statistically increased over time (from 30.0% to 33.1%; p-value=0.010). The percentage of those who answered "no" to these two questions also increased over time (from 23.5% to 32.9%; p-value≤0.001). These findings suggest that innovative warnings introduced in Brazil likely served as a "reminder" for continuing to think about cessation among those who attempted to quit in the last year. These warnings may have also triggered more avoidance of thinking about their contents than the previous warnings, which some studies have found to promote subsequent quitting activity. PMID:27161535

  3. Changes in Vietnamese Male Smokers' Reactions Towards New Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings Over Time.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tran Thu; Anh, Le Vu; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Printing of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages became obligatory by the Vietnam Law on Prevention and Control of Tobacco Harm in May 2013. Literature from high-income countries suggests that PHWs motivate smokers to quit smoking although their long-term effects have been questioned due to reduction of impact over time. This study aimed to assess the salience of PHWs and smokers' reactions towards PHWs over time. In May 2014 and May 2015, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based household survey was administered to respectively 1,462 and 1,509 Vietnamese male smokers aged 18 to 35. The result showed that salience of the PHWs 2 years after the implementation was higher than at the point of 1 year after the implementation. The proportion of respondents who tried to avoid noting the PHWs was reduced from 35% in wave 1 to 23% in wave 2. However, "Tried to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs" increased 1.5 times the odds of presenting quit intention compared to those respondents who did not try to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.2-2.0). In conclusion, avoidance regarding PHWs may not work as a barrier when aiming at a higher level of quit intention. Salience of the PHWs may increase in the period shortly after their introduction onto packs but can be expected to decrease with time. In other words, it might be advisable to change or renew PHWs after a period of implementation to maintain their beneficial effects. PMID:27087186

  4. Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between experienced consumers (vapers) and naïve users (smokers)

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Spyrou, Alketa; Stefopoulos, Christos; Tsimopoulou, Kalliroi; Kourkoveli, Panagiota; Tsiapras, Dimitris; Kyrzopoulos, Stamatis; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9 W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers) with naïve users (smokers). Twenty-four vapers and 23 smokers participated to the study. They were asked to obtain 10 puffs in 5 minutes and then use the EC ad lib for 60 more minutes (total duration of use: 65 minutes). An 18 mg/mL nicotine-containing liquid was used. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 5-minutes and every 15 minutes thereafter, while number of puffs and average puff duration were recorded. Although at baseline both groups had similar plasma nicotine levels, smokers consistently exhibited lower levels at all time-periods; at 5-minutes the levels were lower by 46%, while during the subsequent period they were lower by 43% (at 65-minutes) to 54% (at 20-minutes). Both groups took similar number of puffs, but smokers had average puff duration of 2.3 s compared to 3.5 s in vapers. Even in vapers, plasma nicotine levels at 5 minutes were lower than those observed after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette. PMID:26082330

  5. Cigarette brands with flavour capsules in the filter: trends in use and brand perceptions among smokers in the USA, Mexico and Australia, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Moodie, Crawford; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Cummings, K Michael; Yong, Hua-Hie; Salloum, Ramzi G; Czoli, Christine; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends, correlates of use and consumer perceptions related to the product design innovation of flavour capsules in cigarette filters. Methods Quarterly surveys from 2012 to 2014 were analysed from an online consumer panel of adult smokers aged 18–64, living in the USA (n=6865 observations; 4154 individuals); Mexico (n=5723 observations; 3366 individuals); and Australia (n=5864 observations; 2710 individuals). Preferred brand varieties were classified by price (ie, premium; discount) and flavour (ie, regular; flavoured without capsule; flavoured with capsule). Participants reported their preferred brand variety's appeal (ie, satisfaction; stylishness), taste (ie, smoothness, intensity), and harm relative to other brands and varieties. GEE models were used to determine time trends and correlates of flavour capsule use, as well as associations between preferred brand characteristics (ie, price stratum, flavour) and perceptions of relative appeal, taste and harm. Results Preference for flavour capsules increased significantly in Mexico (6% to 14%) and Australia (1% to 3%), but not in the USA (4% to 5%). 18–24 year olds were most likely to prefer capsules in the USA (10%) and Australia (4%), but not Mexico. When compared to smokers who preferred regular brands, smokers who preferred brands with capsules viewed their variety of cigarettes as having more positive appeal (all countries), better taste (all countries), and lesser risk (Mexico, USA) than other brand varieties. Conclusions Results indicate that use of cigarettes with flavour capsules is growing, is associated with misperceptions of relative harm, and differentiates brands in ways that justify regulatory action. PMID:25918129

  6. Selective increase of antioxidant enzyme activity in the alveolar macrophages from cigarette smokers and smoke-exposed hamsters.

    PubMed

    McCusker, K; Hoidal, J

    1990-03-01

    Oxidants from cigarette smoke or those produced by phagocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of emphysema. We reasoned that augmentation of antioxidant enzymes in cigarette smokers may be important in restricting direct and indirect oxidant damage to alveolar structures. Accordingly, we studied the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), in alveolar macrophages (AM) from cigarette smokers and from smoke-exposed hamsters. The activities of these antioxidant enzymes were compared with the activities found in AM from nonsmoking control subjects. The activities of SOD and CAT from AM of smokers and smoke-exposed hamsters were twice that found in control subjects (p less than 0.01), but there was no change in the activity of GSHPx. Using the hamster model, we found that filtration of smoke attenuated the increase in antioxidant activities, and that after smoking cessation, the increased activities had returned to those found with control subjects. An adaptive response was further suggested by prolonged survival of smoke-exposed hamsters in normobaric hyperoxia (O2 greater than 95%). Chronic smoke exposure in humans or hamsters causes increased SOD and CAT activities in AM. This augmented activity may serve as a mechanism to limit oxidant-mediated damage to alveolar structures. PMID:2310098

  7. What price quitting? The price of cigarettes at which smokers say they would seriously consider trying to quit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deciding on an appropriate level for taxes on tobacco products is a critical issue in tobacco control. The aim of the present study was to describe the critical price points for packs for smokers of each pack size, to calculate what this would equate to in terms of price per stick, and to ascertain whether price points varied by age, socio-economic status and heaviness of smoking. Methods In November 2011, 586 Victorian smokers of factory-made cigarettes were asked during a telephone survey about their usual brand, including the size and cost of their usual pack. They were also asked about use of illicit tobacco. Smokers estimated what price their preferred pack would need to reach before they would seriously consider quitting. Results Three-quarters of regular smokers of manufactured cigarettes could envisage their usual brand reaching a price at which they would seriously consider quitting. Analyses revealed that answers clustered around whole numbers, (AUD$15, $20, $25 and $30), with a median nominated price point of AUD$20 per pack. The median price point at which regular smokers would consider quitting was calculated to be 80 cents per stick, compared to the current median reported stick price of 60 cents. Of the smokers who nominated a price point, 60.1% indicated they would seriously consider quitting if the cost of their usual brand equated to 80 cents per stick or less; 87.5% would seriously consider quitting if sticks reached one dollar each. Conclusions These results do suggest a potentially useful approach to setting taxes in Australia. If taxes can be set high enough to ensure that the cost of the smokers’ preferred packs exceeds critical price points, then it seems likely that more people would seriously attempt to quit than if the price increased to a level even slightly below the price points. Our study suggests that a tax increase large enough to ensure that a typical pack of 25 cigarettes in Australia cost at least AUD$20 would prompt

  8. Brain Activity in Cigarette Smokers Performing a Working Memory Task: Effect of Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Mendrek, Adrianna; Cohen, Mark S.; Monterosso, John; Rodriguez, Paul; Simon, Sara L.; Brody, Arthur; Jarvik, Murray; Domier, Catherine P.; Olmstead, Richard; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Background When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent subjects after they initiate abstinence from smoking. Methods We used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study eight smokers while they performed a letter version of the N-Back working memory task under satiety (≤1.5 hours abstinence) and abstinence (≥14 hours abstinence) conditions. Results Task-related activity in the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed a significant interaction between test session (satiety, abstinence) and task load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back). This interaction reflected the fact that task-related activity in the satiety condition was relatively low during performance of the 1-back task but greater at the more difficult task levels, whereas task-related activity in the abstinence condition was relatively high at the 1-back level and did not increase at the more difficult task levels. Conclusions We conclude that neural processing related to working memory in the left DLPFC is less efficient during acute abstinence from smoking than at smoking satiety. PMID:16038685

  9. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  10. Estimation and correlation of cigarette smoke exposure in Canadian smokers as determined by filter analysis and biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Morin, André; Shepperd, Christopher J; Eldridge, Alison C; Poirier, Nicole; Voisine, Richard

    2011-12-01

    A clinical study conducted in Canada compared two methods of estimating exposure to cigarette smoke in 192 volunteer subjects: 43 smokers of 4-6 mg, 49 of 8-12 mg and 50 of 14-15 mg ISO tar yield cigarettes and 50 non-smokers. Estimates of mouth level exposure (MLE) to nicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), pyrene and acrolein were obtained by chemical analysis of spent cigarette filters. Estimates of smoke constituent uptake were achieved by analysis of urinary biomarkers for total nicotine equivalents (nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine plus their glucuronide conjugates), NNK (total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) plus glucuronide), pyrene (1-hydroxy pyrene plus glucuronide) and acrolein (3-hydroxylpropyl-mercapturic acid) plus the nicotine metabolite cotinine in plasma and saliva. The objective of our study was to confirm the correlations between measures of human exposure obtained by filter analysis and biomarkers. Significant correlations (p<0.001) were found between MLE and the relevant biomarker for each smoke constituent. The adjusted values of the Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were 0.80 (nicotine), 0.77 (acrolein) and 0.44 (pyrene). NNK correlations could not be obtained because of the low NNK yield of Canadian cigarettes. Unexpectedly high levels of acrolein biomarker found in non-smokers urine on one of the two days sampled emphasised the need for more than one sampling occasion per period and an awareness of non-tobacco sources of smoke constituents under investigation. No consistent dose response, in line with ISO tar yield smoked, of MLE estimates was found for nicotine, pyrene and acrolein and respective biomarkers. The influence of demographics on our results has also been examined. PMID:20937342

  11. Multimolecular salivary mucin complex is altered in saliva of cigarette smokers: detection of disulfide bridges by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Motoe; Iizuka, Junko; Murata, Yukari; Ito, Yumi; Iwamiya, Mariko; Mori, Hiroshi; Hirata, Yukio; Mukai, Yoshiharu; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Saliva contains mucins, which protect epithelial cells. We showed a smaller amount of salivary mucin, both MG1 and MG2, in the premenopausal female smokers than in their nonsmoking counterparts. Smokers' MG1, which contains almost 2% cysteine/half cystine in its amino acid residues, turned out to be chemically altered in the nonsmoker's saliva. The smaller acidic glycoprotein bands were detectable only in smoker's saliva in the range of 20-25 kDa and at 45 kDa, suggesting that degradation, at least in part, caused the reduction of MG1 mucin. This is in agreement with the previous finding that free radicals in cigarette smoke modify mucins in both sugar and protein moieties. Moreover, proteins such as amylase and albumin are bound to other proteins through disulfide bonds and are identifiable only after reduction with DTT. Confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy identified a disulfide stretch band of significantly stronger intensity per protein in the stimulated saliva of smokers alone. We conclude that the saliva of smokers, especially stimulated saliva, contains significantly more oxidized form of proteins with increased disulfide bridges, that reduces protection for oral epithelium. Raman microspectroscopy can be used for an easy detection of the damaged salivary proteins. PMID:23509686

  12. Trends in Cigarette Pricing and Purchasing Patterns in a Sample of US Smokers: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper examines trends in cigarette prices and corresponding purchasing patterns over a 9 year period and explores characteristics associated with the quantity and location of cigarettes purchased by adult smokers in the United States. Methods The data for this paper come from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 6,669 adult smokers (18 years and older) who were recruited and surveyed between 2002 and 2011. Telephone interviews were conducted annually, and smokers were asked a series of questions about the location, quantity (i.e., single vs. multiple packs or cartons), and price paid for their most recent cigarette purchase. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess trends and model characteristics associated with cigarette purchasing behaviors. Results Between 2002 and 2011, the reported purchase of cigarette cartons and the use of coupons declined while multi-pack purchases increased. Compared with those purchasing by single packs, those who purchased by multi-packs and cartons saved an average of $0.53 and $1.63, respectively. Purchases in grocery and discount stores declined, while purchases in tobacco only outlets increased slightly. Female, older, white smokers were more likely to purchase cigarettes by the carton or in multi-packs and in locations commonly associated with tax avoidance (i.e., duty free shops, Indian reservations). Conclusions As cigarette prices have risen, smokers have begun purchasing via multi-packs instead of cartons. As carton sales have declined, purchases from grocery and discount stores have also declined, while an increasing number of smokers report low tax sources as their usual purchase location for cigarettes. PMID:24917617

  13. A pilot study of research methods for determining the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels among smokers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Science to determine the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels can inform decisions about warning label implementation and adjustments to their contents to maximize impact. This pilot study builds from earlier research on plain cigarette packaging to examine the feasibility of a method for determining the impact of pictorial warnings among smokers. Findings The study was a prospective, within-subjects pilot trial where smokers ages 18–30 (n = 10) were exposed to pictorial warnings on their cigarette packs. On day one, participants completed a baseline interview with an expired carbon monoxide reading and affixed pictorial warning labels to their cigarette pack(s) they would use the next day. On day two, participants completed mobile phone text message assessments of smoking behaviors and protocol adherence. On day three, participants completed a follow-up interview similar to baseline. We achieved 100% sample retention and adherence with procedures. Compared with baseline assessments of perceptions and behaviors related to existing text-only warnings, at follow-up participants were more likely to report that pictorial warnings used during the study were noticeable (M 4.1, SD 1.3 vs. M 2.7, SD 1.2, p = .013), stopped them from smoking (M 1.6, SD 0.8 vs. M 1.1, SD 0.3, p = .052), and conveyed health risks of smoking (M 3.5 SD 1.3 vs. M 2.2, SD 1.1, p = .006). At follow-up, participants also reported the protocol was acceptable. Conclusions These findings suggest this is a feasible method that with further validation could provide evidence that can inform decisions regarding implementation of pictorial cigarette warnings. PMID:25276116

  14. How smokers may react to cigarette taxes and price increases in Brazil: data from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite being the third largest tobacco producer in the world, Brazil has developed a comprehensive tobacco control policy that includes a broad restriction on both advertising and smoking in indoor public places, compulsory pictorial warning labels, and a menthol cigarette ban. However, tax and pricing policies have been developed slowly and only very recently were stronger measures implemented. This study investigated the expected responses of smokers to hypothetical price increases in Brazil. Methods We analyzed smokers’ responses to hypothetical future price increases according to sociodemographic characteristics and smoking conditions in a multistage sample of Brazilian current cigarette smokers aged ≥14 years (n = 500). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between possible responses and different predictors. Results In most subgroups investigated, smokers most frequently said they would react to a hypothetical price increase by taking up alternatives that might have a positive impact on health, i.e., they would “try to stop smoking” (52.3%) or “smoke fewer cigarettes” (46.8%). However, a considerable percentage responded that they would use alternatives that would reduce the effect of price increases, such as the same brand with lower cost (48.1%). After controlling for sex age group (14–19, 20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), schooling level (≥9 versus ≤9 years), number of cigarettes per day (>20 versus ≤20), and stage of change for smoking cessation (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation), lower levels of dependence were positively associated with the response “I would try to stop smoking” (odds ratio [OR], 2.19). Young age was associated with “I would decrease the number of cigarettes” (OR, 3.44). A low schooling level was strongly associated with all responses. Conclusions Taxes and prices increases have great potential to stimulate cessation or reduction of cigarette

  15. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes’ power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers’ baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals’ lung cancer risks. Objective This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized

  16. Development of an integrative cessation program for co-smokers of cigarettes and cannabis: demand analysis, program description, and acceptability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco and cannabis use are strongly interrelated, but current national and international cessation programs typically focus on one substance, and address the other substance either only marginally or not at all. This study aimed to identify the demand for, and describe the development and content of, the first integrative group cessation program for co-smokers of cigarettes and cannabis. Methods First, a preliminary study using expert interviews, user focus groups with (ex-)smokers, and an online survey was conducted to investigate the demand for, and potential content of, an integrative smoking cessation program (ISCP) for tobacco and cannabis co-smokers. This study revealed that both experts and co-smokers considered an ISCP to be useful but expected only modest levels of readiness for participation. Based on the findings of the preliminary study, an interdisciplinary expert team developed a course concept and a recruitment strategy. The developed group cessation program is based on current treatment techniques (such as motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy, and self-control training) and structured into six course sessions. The program was evaluated regarding its acceptability among participants and course instructors. Results Both the participants and course instructors evaluated the course positively. Participants and instructors especially appreciated the group discussions and the modules that were aimed at developing personal strategies that could be applied during simultaneous cessation of tobacco and cannabis, such as dealing with craving, withdrawal, and high-risk situations. Conclusions There is a clear demand for a double cessation program for co-users of cigarettes and cannabis, and the first group cessation program tailored for these users has been developed and evaluated for acceptability. In the near future, the feasibility of the program will be evaluated. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15248397

  17. The effects of smoking and cigarette nicotine content on smokers' preparation and performance of a psychosocially stressful task.

    PubMed

    Hatch, J P; Bierner, S M; Fisher, J G

    1983-06-01

    This study examined the effects of tobacco smoking and cigarette nicotine content on four dimensions of emotional behavior (peripheral autonomic, electrocortical, cognitive, and overt motor) during both the preparation for and the performance of a psychosocially stressful task (extemporaneous speaking). Three groups of experienced smokers either did not smoke, smoked a low-nicotine cigarette, or smoked a high-nicotine cigarette while they were preparing to perform the speaking task. All subjects reported prior to the experiment that they did experience smoking as relaxing and that they did experience a stronger desire to smoke under a variety of negative affective states compared to a variety of positive affective states. In spite of these verbal reports, however, neither the smoking ritual nor the nicotine content of the cigarette smoked had a significant effect on any of the four dimensions of the emotional behavior studied during either the preparation for or the performance of the task. These results were discussed in terms of previous psychophysiological studies utilizing different types of stressors and behavioral indices of emotion. PMID:6620373

  18. Tobacco flakes on cigarette filters grow bacteria: a potential health risk to the smoker?

    PubMed

    Pauly, J L; Waight, J D; Paszkiewicz, G M

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial growth from a single flake of tobacco was documented for cigarettes that had been purchased recently from local vendors and from cigarettes that had been stored for more than six years in a warehouse. In a novel tobacco flake assay, a pack of cigarettes was opened within the sterile environment of a laminar flow hood. A single flake of tobacco was collected randomly and aseptically from the middle of the cigarette column and placed onto the surface of a blood agar plate. The test cigarettes included eight different popular US brands, and these were from three different tobacco companies. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, the plates showed bacterial growth for tobacco from all brands of cigarettes. Further, more than 90% of the individual tobacco flakes of a given brand grew bacteria. Likewise, bacteria grew from microparticulate tobacco that had been sieved from cigarettes. Tobacco flakes were observed lying loosely on the cut surface of the filter of cigarettes in newly opened packs, and bacteria grew from cigarette filters that had been touched to the surface of a blood agar plate. In conclusion, the results of these studies predict that diverse microbes and microbial toxins are carried by tobacco microparticulates that are released from the cigarette during smoking, and carried into mainstream smoke that is sucked deep into the lung. PMID:18768459

  19. Does Reactance against Cigarette Warning Labels Matter? Warning Label Responses and Downstream Smoking Cessation amongst Adult Smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Yong, Hua-Hie; McKeever, Robert; Hammond, David; Anshari, Dien; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some researchers have raised concerns that pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages may lead to message rejection and reduced effectiveness of HWL messages. This study aimed to determine how state reactance (i.e., negative affect due to perceived manipulation) in response to both pictorial and text-only HWLs is associated with other types of HWL responses and with subsequent cessation attempts. Methods Survey data were collected every 4 months between September 2013 and 2014 from online panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US were analyzed. Participants with at least one wave of follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 4,072 smokers; 7,459 observations). Surveys assessed psychological and behavioral responses to HWLs (i.e., attention to HWLs, cognitive elaboration of risks due to HWLs, avoiding HWLs, and forgoing cigarettes because of HWLs) and cessation attempts. Participants then viewed specific HWLs from their countries and were queried about affective state reactance. Logistic and linear Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models regressed each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses on reactance, while controlling for socio-demographic and smoking-related variables. Logistic GEE models also regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent survey on reactance, each of the psychological and behavioral HWL responses (analyzed separately), adjustment variables. Data from all countries were initially pooled, with interactions between country and reactance assessed; when interactions were statistically significant, country-stratified models were estimated. Results Interactions between country and reactance were found in all models that regressed psychological and behavioral HWL responses on study variables. In the US, stronger reactance was associated with more frequent reading of HWLs and thinking about health risks. Smokers from all four countries with stronger reactance reported greater

  20. Gender and racial Differences in Smoking of Long/Ultra-long and King size Cigarettes among U.S. adult Smokers, NHANES 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ≥20 years during 1999 through 2012. Methods Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using χ2 statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes. Results Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%C.I:2.09–4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%C.I:1.30–3.28), or aged 45–64, or ≥65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27 respectively), compared to 18–24 year olds. Conclusions Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. PMID:24417962

  1. Can you refuse these discounts? An evaluation of the use and price discount impact of price-related promotions among US adult smokers by cigarette manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo, Ralph S; Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The raising unit price of cigarette has been shown to be one of the most effective ways of reducing cigarette consumption and increasing rates of successful quitting. However, researchers have shown that price-sensitive smokers have used a variety of strategies to mitigate the effect of the rising price of cigarettes on their smoking habits. In particular, 23–34% of adult smokers in the US use cheaper brands, and 18–55% use coupons or promotions. Little is known about the discount use by type of brands. As such, the main purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the uses and price discount effects of these price-related discounts by manufacturers and major brands. Setting An analysis based on the cross-sectional 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). Participants 11 766 current smokers aged 18 or above in the USA. Primary outcome measures Price-related discount was defined as smokers who used coupons, rebates, buy-one-get-one-free, two-for-one or any other special promotions for their last cigarettes purchase. Results The use of price-related discounts and associated price impact vary widely by cigarette manufacturer and brand. Approximately one of three Camel, one of four Marlboro and one of eight Newport smokers used price-related discounts on their latest cigarette purchases. The average price reductions of discounts offered by Philip Morris (PM) or R.J. Reynolds (RJR) were around 29 cents per pack while that of Lorillard (Newport only) was 24 cents per pack. Cigarette brands that provided significant per pack price reductions include: PM Marlboro (28 cents), RJR brand Camel (41 cents), Doral (50 cents), Kool (73 cents) and Salem (80 cents), and Lorillard Newport (24 cents). Conclusions Policies that decrease price-minimisation strategies will benefit public health. PMID:24898086

  2. IMPACT OF THE “GIVING CIGARETTES IS GIVING HARM” CAMPAIGN ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF CHINESE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F.; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chang, Yvette; Walsemann, Katrina M.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To date there is limited published evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control mass media campaigns in China. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign “Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm” (GCGH) on Chinese smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related harms and attitudes toward cigarette gifts. Methods Population-based, representative data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort of 3,709 adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in six Chinese cities before and after the campaign. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between campaign exposure and attitudes about cigarettes as gifts measured post-campaign. Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the effects of campaign exposure on post-campaign knowledge, adjusting for pre-campaign knowledge. Findings Fourteen percent (n=335) of participants recalled the campaign within the cities where the GCGH campaign was implemented. Participants in the intervention cities who recalled the campaign were more likely to disagree that cigarettes are good gifts (71% vs. 58%, p<0.01) and had greater levels of campaign-targeted knowledge than those who did not recall the campaign (Mean=1.97 vs. 1.62, p<0.01). Disagreeing that cigarettes are good gifts was higher in intervention cities than in control cities. Changes in campaign-targeted knowledge were similar in both cities, perhaps due to a secular trend, low campaign recall, or contamination issues. Conclusions These findings suggest that the GCGH campaign increased knowledge of smoking harms, which could promote downstream cessation. Findings provide evidence to support future campaign development to effectively fight the tobacco epidemic in China. PMID:24813427

  3. CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype as an effect modifier of the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension in Chinese male smokers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shan-Yu; Niu, Zhong-Zheng; Liu, Tao; Xie, Chuan-Bo; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for hypertension. However, the effects on hypertension of the interaction between smoking and the genotype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene are unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype affects the association between daily cigarette consumption and hypertension. We recruited 947 male smokers in southern China and used a questionnaire administered in face to face interviews to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behavior. Blood samples were collected to test for CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype variations. Three blood-pressure measurements were taken for each participant, and the average values recorded. We found that, compared with light smoking (<15 cigarettes per day), heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes per day) yielded a greater risk of hypertension. We also observed that the interaction between daily cigarette consumption and the CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype may affect hypertension. Heavy smokers with the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype exhibited a significantly greater risk of hypertension than light smokers with wild-type CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotypes. The positive interaction between heavy smoking and the homozygous mutant CHRNA3 rs6495308 genotype was found to affect the likelihood of hypertension in Chinese male smokers. PMID:25874685

  4. Cue-reactivity in the natural environment of cigarette smokers: the impact of photographic and in vivo smoking stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jennifer M; Godleski, Stephanie A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2011-12-01

    The cue-reactivity paradigm has been used extensively in laboratory settings to study cue-specific craving responses to drug-related cues. However, this procedure has been used in only one study to assess craving in the drug user's natural environment (Warthen & Tiffany, 2009). The present study combined cue-reactivity with ecological momentary assessment (CREMA) to evaluate smokers' cue reactions in natural environments as a further validation and extension of this procedure. A total of 66 daily cigarette smokers carried a personal digital assistant (PDA) and had the opportunity to respond to 32 cue-reactivity sessions across 8 days. Cues were presented through in vivo and photographic modes. During in vivo sessions, participants handled and looked at a cigarette or neutral object, while during photographic sessions, participants looked at a smoking-related or neutral photograph on the PDA. Craving and mood were assessed before and after cue presentations. Cues were also presented in the laboratory both before (Lab I) and after (Lab II) the 8-day CREMA procedure. Participants completed over 90% of cue-reactivity sessions delivered with the CREMA procedure. Analyses revealed robust cue-reactivity in the natural environment and laboratory across both modes of presentation. Photographic cues elicited significantly stronger cue-reactivity effects than in vivo cues across all sessions. The CREMA procedure has been shown to elicit robust cue-reactivity effects across multiple modes of cue presentation. Results support the use of the CREMA procedure for examining cue-specific craving in the natural environment of smokers. PMID:21553947

  5. The influence of cannabis motives on alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco use among treatment-seeking cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Allan, Nicholas P.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study evaluated the effects of cannabis motives on multi-substance use in an effort to examine the incremental validity of cannabis motives with respect to substance use outcomes. Methods Participants were 167 treatment-seeking smokers (41.92% female; Mage = 28.74; SD = 11.88) who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. Results Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between cannabis motives and two dependent variables each for alcohol (drinking frequency and alcohol problems), cannabis (cannabis use frequency and cannabis problems), and tobacco (average cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence). Findings indicated that conformity motives were linked with increases in alcohol problems and cannabis problems. Enhancement motives were associated with increased cannabis use and cannabis problems. Coping motives were linked with increased cannabis use and cannabis problems. Contrary to expectations, expansion motives were associated with reductions in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Also, results supported expectations that the observed effects due to cannabis motives were unique from shared variance with theoretically relevant covariates. Conclusions The present findings supported predictions that cannabis motives would evince effects on the use of multiple substances over and above theoretically relevant variables. However, results indicate that the relationship between cannabis motives and multi-substance use is complex, and therefore, additional research is warranted to better understand substance use intervention. PMID:25481854

  6. Level of Cigarette Consumption and Quit Behavior in a Population of Low-Intensity Smokers – Longitudinal Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Cupertio, Ana-Paula; Berg, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mexican smokers are more likely to be non-daily smokers and to consume fewer cigarettes per day than smokers in other countries. Little is known about their quit behaviors. Aim The aim of this study is to determine factors associated with having made a quit attempt and being successfully quit at 14-month follow-up in a population-based cohort of adult Mexicans who smoke at different levels of intensity. Design A longitudinal analysis of wave-III and wave-IV (2010) Mexican administration of International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project was conducted. Setting This study was conducted in six large urban centers in Mexico Participants The participants of this study comprised 1206 adults who were current smokers at wave-III and 41 who were followed to wave-IV. Measurements We compared three groups of smokers: non-daily smokers—who did not smoke every day in the past 30 days (n=398), daily light smokers who smoked every day at a rate of ≤5 cigarettes per day. Data on smoking behavior, psychosocial characteristics and socio-demographics were collected at baseline and after 14 months. Findings In multivariate logistic regression predicting having made a quit attempt at follow-up, significant factors included being a non-daily smoker versus a heavy daily smoker (ORadj = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.19–2.83), less perceived addiction ((ORadj = 1.86, 95%CI: 1.20 – 2.87), greater worry that cigarettes will damage health (ORadj = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.16 – 3.61) and having made a quit attempt in the past year at baseline (ORadj = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.23 – 2.36). In multivariate logistic regression predicting being successfully quit at one-year follow-up, significant factors included being a non-daily smoker versus a heavy daily smoker (ORadj = 2.54, 95%CI: 1.37–4.70) and less perceived addiction (not addicted: ORadj = 3.26, 95%CI: 1.73 – 6.14; not much: ORadj = 1.95, 95%CI: 1.05 – 3.62 versus very much). Conclusions Mexican adult smokers who are non-daily smokers

  7. Higher stimulus control is associated with less cigarette intake in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael; Schüz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    It is well established that environmental stimuli influence smoking in light, and to a lesser degree, heavy smokers. A 2-factor model of dependence suggests that the influence of stimulus control is masked among heavier smokers who primarily smoke for nicotine maintenance. The current study aimed to assess the influence of stimulus control across a range of moderate to heavy daily smokers. Furthermore, as local tobacco control policies may change the role of stimulus control, the study aimed to replicate previous U.S. findings on stimulus control in an Australian setting marked by strong tobacco control policies. In 2 Ecological Momentary Assessment studies, 420 participants monitored antecedents of smoking and nonsmoking situations. In a set of idiographic logistic regression analyses, situational antecedents were used to predict smoking occasions within each individual's data. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the association between stimulus control and smoking rate, and to test for differences between the 2 samples. Daily smokers' smoking was under considerable stimulus control, which was weaker at higher smoking rates. Overall, there was greater stimulus control in the Australian sample. Daily smokers also experience a degree of stimulus control, which is less influential in heavier smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26766542

  8. Greater externalizing personality traits predict less error-related insula and anterior cingulate cortex activity in acutely abstinent cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Allison J.; Sutherland, Matthew T.; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Ross, Thomas J.; Stein, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated activity in performance-monitoring brain regions following erroneous actions may contribute to the repetition of maladaptive behaviors such as continued drug use. Externalizing is a broad personality construct characterized by deficient impulse control, vulnerability to addiction, and reduced neurobiological indices of error processing. The insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) are regions critically linked with error processing as well as the perpetuation of cigarette smoking. As such, we examined the interrelations between externalizing tendencies, erroneous task performance, and error-related insula and dACC activity in overnight-deprived smokers (n=24) and nonsmokers (n=20). Participants completed a self-report measure assessing externalizing tendencies (Externalizing Spectrum Inventory) and a speeded Flanker task during fMRI scanning. We observed that higher externalizing tendencies correlated with the occurrence of more performance errors among smokers but not nonsmokers. Suggesting a neurobiological contribution to such sub-optimal performance among smokers, higher externalizing also predicted less recruitment of the right insula and dACC following error commission. Critically, this error-related activity fully mediated the relationship between externalizing traits and error rates. That is, higher externalizing scores predicted less error-related right insula and dACC activity and, in turn, less error-related activity predicted more errors. Relating such regional activity with a clinically-relevant construct, less error-related right insula and dACC responses correlated with higher tobacco craving during abstinence. Given that inadequate error-related neuronal responses may contribute to continued drug use despite negative consequences, these results suggest that externalizing tendencies and/or compromised error processing among subsets of smokers may be relevant factors for smoking cessation success. PMID:24354662

  9. Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and

  10. Comparison of the characteristics of long-term users of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy: A cross-sectional survey of English ex-smokers and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Victoria A.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; Sheals, Kate; West, Robert; Shahab, Lion

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (ECs) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are non-combustible nicotine delivery devices being widely used as a partial or a complete long-term substitute for smoking. Little is known about the characteristics of long-term users, their smoking behaviour, attachment to smoking, experience of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, or their views on these devices. This study aimed to provide preliminary evidence on this and compare users of the different products. Methods UK participants were recruited from four naturally occurring groups of long-term (≥6 months) users of either EC or NRT who had stopped or continued to smoke (N = 36 per group, total N = 144). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic and smoking characteristics, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, smoker identity and attitudes towards the products they were using. Results Adjusting for relevant confounders, EC use was associated with a stronger smoker identity (Wald X2(1) = 3.9, p = 0.048) and greater product endorsement (Wald X2(1) = 4.6, p = 0.024) than NRT use, irrespective of smoking status. Among ex-smokers, EC users reported less severe mood and physical symptoms (Wald X2(1) = 6.1, p = 0.014) and cravings (Wald X2(1) = 8.5, p = 0.003), higher perceived helpfulness of the product (Wald X2(1) = 4.8, p = 0.028) and lower intentions to stop using the product (Wald X2(1) = 17.6, p < 0.001) than NRT users. Conclusions Compared with people who use NRT for at least 6 months, those who use EC over that time period appear to have a stronger smoker identity and like their products more. Among long-term users who have stopped smoking, ECs are perceived as more helpful than NRT, appear more effective in controlling withdrawal symptoms and continued use may be more likely. PMID:26026493

  11. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on tobacco craving in cigarette smokers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress with subsequent polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) peroxidation. Low concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs can affect neurotransmission, resulting in hypofunctioning of the mesocortical systems associated with reward and dependence mechanisms and thus may increase cigarette craving, hampering smoking cessation efforts. PUFA deficiency, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3), has also been linked to reduced psychological health and ability to cope with stress. Although stress is well linked to smoking urges and behavior, no research to date has examined the effects of PUFA supplementation on tobacco craving. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, performed in regular cigarette smokers (n=48), administration of 2710 mg EPA/day and 2040 mg DHA/day for one month was accompanied by a significant decrease in reported daily smoking and in tobacco craving following cigarette cue exposure. Craving did not return to baseline values in the month that followed treatment discontinuation. This is the first study demonstrating that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces tobacco craving in regular smokers, compared to placebo treatment. Thus, omega-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in managing tobacco consumption. Further studies are needed on larger samples to explore the possible therapeutic implications for heavy cigarette smokers. PMID:24899596

  12. Brief, Instructional Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Cigarette Smokers Who Do Not Intend to Quit: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (SLT) may have efficacy for smoking reduction and cessation, but its public health impact depends on how smokers use it. Methods: This pilot study explored brief, instructional low-nitrosamine SLT use among smokers unmotivated to quit. Participants (N = 57) were randomized to either a free 2-week supply of Camel Snus group or a no-supply group. Of those randomized to use Camel Snus, half were told to use it to cope with smoking restrictions (Snus to Cope), and the remaining half were advised to use it to reduce smoking (Snus to Reduce). Participants were assessed before, during, and immediately after the intervention. Results: Many Snus to Cope and Snus to Reduce participants reported daily use of Camel Snus, although the amount of use was low. Snus to Cope (18.4%) and Snus to Reduce (37.6%) participants reported a decline in number of cigarettes used per day, which was not reported by the control participants (p < .001). Intention to quit smoking and intention to quit all tobacco use (ps < .001) increased to a greater extent among Snus to Cope and Snus to Reduce participants than among control participants. Conclusions: This study replicates previous work that shows that low-nitrosamine SLT use can lead to reduced smoking and increased intention to quit, and it adds direct evidence to suggest that the function of low-nitrosamine SLT use—either to cope with smoking restrictions or to reduce smoking—can have a differential impact on smoking behavior. Overall, the results highlight the importance of messaging and, more specifically, marketing of low-nitrosamine SLT to smokers. PMID:24130144

  13. Tax, price, and cigarette brand preferences: A longitudinal study of adult smokers from the ITC Mexico Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz de Miera Juárez, Belén; Thrasher, James F; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent tax increases in Mexico differed in structure and provide an opportunity to better understand tobacco industry pricing strategies, as well as smokers’ responses to any resulting price changes. Objectives To assess if taxes were passed onto consumers of different cigarette brands, the extent of brand switching, and predictors of preference for cheaper national brands. Methods Using data from three waves of the Mexican administration of the ITC Survey, we analyzed self-reported brand and price paid at last cigarette purchase. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of price and preference for national brands. Results The average price of premium/international brands increased each year from 2008–2011; however, the price for discount/national brands increased only from 2010 to 2011. The percentage of smokers who smoked national brands remained stable between 2008 and 2010 but dropped in 2011. Factors related to smoking national as opposed to international brands included being male and having relatively older age, lower education, lower income, and higher consumption. Conclusions Tobacco industry pricing strategies in the wake of ad valorem taxes implemented in Mexico prior to 2011 had the impact of segmenting the market into discount national brands and premium international brands. The specific tax increase implemented in 2011 reduced the price gap between these two segments, by raising the price of the national brands relative to the international brands. Evidence for trading up was found after the 2011 tax increase. These results provide further evidence for the relevance of tax policy as a tobacco control strategy; in particular, they illustrate the importance of how specific rather than ad valorem taxes can reduce the potential for downward brand switching in the face of decreasing cigarette affordability. PMID:24114563

  14. How long will today's new adolescent smoker be addicted to cigarettes?

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, J P; Gilpin, E

    1996-01-01

    This study estimated the expected smoking duration for young smokers who have started recently. Data from National Health Interview Surveys were combined to model the ages at which smoking prevalence will decline to various percentages of the peak smoking prevalence for each successive birth cohort. Smoking-cessation ages were then estimated for the males and females born from 1975 through 1979. The median cessation age for those in this cohort who start smoking as adolescents is expected to be 33 years for males and 37 years for females. Thus, 50% of these adolescent males may smoke for at least 16 years and 50% of these adolescent females may smoke for at least 20 years, based on a median age of initiation of 16 to 17 years. Despite the decline in the median age of US smokers who quit, these data predict that smoking will be a long-term addiction for many adolescents who start now. PMID:8633747

  15. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  16. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  17. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  18. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers. PMID:21624148

  19. Temporal Stability of Urinary and Plasma Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Church, Timothy R.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Le, Chap; Zhang, Yan; Kampa, Diane M.; Benoit, Adam R.; Yoder, Andrea R.; Carmella, Steven G.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Intraindividual variability of measurements of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), nicotine, cotinine, and r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT) over time is uncertain. From 70 habitual smokers' plasma and urine sampled bimonthly for a year we analyzed plasma for NNAL, cotinine, and PheT; and urine for NNAL, cotinine, and nicotine. We estimated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ρI) for each measurement. Plasma and creatinine-corrected urinary NNAL were stable (ρI ≥ 70%); plasma PheT and plasma and urinary total cotinine were fairly stable (ρI ≥ 50%), but urinary nicotine ρI ≈ 40%.was not. Except for nicotine, single measurements from plasma or urine adequately represent individual mean exposure over time. PMID:20374068

  20. Urinary Levels of Cigarette Smoke Constituent Metabolites Are Prospectively Associated with Lung Cancer Development in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Gao, Yu-Tang; Murphy, Sharon E.; Carmella, Steven G.; Wang, Renwei; Zhong, Yan; Moy, Kristin A.; Davis, Andrew B.; Tao, Li; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Nelson, Heather H.; Yu, Mimi C.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are believed to be among the principal causative agents for lung cancer in smokers, but no epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship of PAH uptake and metabolism to lung cancer. In this study, we quantified prediagnostic urinary levels of r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-phenanthrene (PheT), a validated biomarker of PAH uptake and metabolism, as well as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), and cotinine and its glucuronides (total cotinine), validated biomarkers of uptake of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and nicotine, respectively, in relation to lung cancer risk among current smokers in a nested case–control study within a cohort of 18,244 Chinese men in Shanghai, China. Urinary levels of PheT, total NNAL, and total cotinine were significantly higher in cases than controls (N = 476 matched pairs). ORs (95% confidence intervals) for lung cancer in the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of PheT were 1.70 (1.00–2.88), 1.07 (0.62–1.84), 1.48 (0.86–2.53), and 2.34 (1.33–4.11), respectively, relative to the lowest quartile (Ptrend = 0.023) after adjustment for self-reported smoking intensity and duration and urinary total NNAL and total cotinine. This study also confirmed that urinary total NNAL and total cotinine are independently related to lung cancer risk. PMID:22028322

  1. Rapid lung cytokine accumulation and neutrophil recruitment after lipopolysaccharide inhalation by cigarette smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Wesselius, L J; Nelson, M E; Bailey, K; O'Brien-Ladner, A R

    1997-01-01

    Inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by humans rapidly recruits neutrophils to alveolar structures. Recruitment of neutrophils may be mediated in part by intrapulmonary release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-8, although the kinetics of cytokine accumulation and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs after LPS inhalation have not been determined. Release of some cytokines in response to LPS is reported to be decreased in smokers' alveolar macrophages compared with nonsmokers', suggesting responses to LPS may differ in smokers (S) and nonsmokers (NS). To assess the kinetics of early cytokine accumulation after LPS inhalation and to compare inflammation induced in LPS-exposed S and NS, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in 28 subjects (14 NS and 14 S) at 90 or 240 minutes after inhalation of aerosolized LPS (30 microg). BAL performed at 90 and 240 minutes after LPS inhalation recovered increased numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes in both NS and S compared with an unexposed control group (10 NS, 10 S), with greater recovery of neutrophils in S than NS (p < 0.001). BAL fluid supernate concentrations of IL-8, IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at 90 minutes were increased in S and NS compared with an unexposed control group. IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations were similar in S and NS; however, IL-1beta concentrations were greater in S (p < 0.005). BAL fluid concentrations of IL-1beta and IL-8 at 90 minutes correlated with absolute neutrophil recovery in S and NS. These findings suggest that the rapid accumulation of cytokines, particularly IL-1beta and IL-8, contributes to lung neutrophil recruitment after LPS inhalation. In addition, parameters of pulmonary inflammation present in S after LPS inhalation are similar to or increased compared with those present in NS. PMID:9011586

  2. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers’ views

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Setting Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Participants Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013–2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. Primary and secondary outcome measures The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers’ perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. Results The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. Conclusions E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. PMID:26362665

  3. Using NicAlert Strips to Validate Smoking Status Among Pregnant Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gaalema, Diann E.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Bradstreet, Matthew P.; Heil, Sarah H.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decreasing smoking during pregnancy is an important public health priority. An important step towards decreasing smoking during pregnancy is wider dissemination of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions. One such intervention is contingency management wherein mothers earn vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on biochemically-verified smoking abstinence. Wider dissemination may be possible by using smoking verification methods that require minimal training and equipment. One possibility is to use a cotinine-sensitive dipstick (NicAlert) rather than a bench-top cotinine analyzer, which is expensive and requires relatively extensive technician expertise, or breath carbon monoxide analysis, which is relatively nonspecific. The present study was conducted to begin examining the utility of cotinine-sensitive dipsticks for this purpose. Methods Fifty urine samples from pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation program were analyzed to compare three different methods for verifying smoking status: NicAlert strips, a bench-top enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) analyzer, and gas chromatography (GC), the current gold standard for determining cotinine levels in urine. Results Agreement between GC and NicAlert results were high (96%) and comparable to agreement between GC and EMIT results (94%). Semi-quantitative measurements using NicAlert were low with only 30% of samples in agreement between GC and specific ranges given on the strips. Conclusions NicAlert strips appear to be a valid measure of determining smoking status among pregnant smokers although not of absolute cotinine concentration. With minimal training and equipment required, NicAlert strips provide a potentially practical method for using urine cotinine to verify smoking status in community treatment settings. PMID:21652155

  4. Estimation of toxic elements in the samples of different cigarettes and their effect on the essential elemental status in the biological samples of Irish smoker rheumatoid arthritis consumers.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Brabazon, Dermot

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking interferes with the metal homeostasis of the human body, which plays a crucial role for maintaining the health. A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In the present study, the relationship between toxic element (TE) exposure via cigarette smoking and rheumatoid arthritis incidence in population living in Dublin, Ireland, is investigated. The trace {zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and selenium (Se)} and toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, who are smokers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmoker controls. The different brands of cigarette (filler tobacco, filter, and ash) consumed by the studied population were also analyzed for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. The concentrations of trace and TEs in biological samples and different components of cigarette were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 96.4-99.8% in certified reference materials. The filler tobacco of different branded cigarettes contains Hg, As, Cd, and Pb concentrations in the ranges of 9.55-12.4 ng, 0.432-0.727 μg, 1.70-2.12 μg, and 0.378-1.16 μg/cigarette, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean values of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compare to healthy controls, while Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se concentrations were found to be lower in rheumatoid arthritis patients, the difference was significant in the case of smoker patients (p<0.001). The levels of four toxic elements were 2-3-folds higher in scalp hair and

  5. Effects of the small molecule SIRT1 activator, SRT2104 on arterial stiffness in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Venkatasubramanian, Sowmya; Noh, Radzi M; Daga, Shruti; Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Waterhouse, Brian R; Hoffmann, Ethan; Jacobson, Eric W; Lang, Ninian N; Frier, Brian M; Newby, David E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness increases with age, and is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome including increased mortality. The effect of the oral small molecule SIRT1 activator, SRT2104, on arterial stiffness was examined in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods 24 otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and 15 people with stable type 2 diabetes were randomised in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial and received 28 days of oral SRT2104 (2.0 g/day) or matched placebo. Blood pressure was measured using non-invasive oscillatory sphygmomanometry. Pulse wave analysis and velocity were measured using applanation tonometry at baseline and the end of each treatment period. Owing to the small sample size and similar trends for both groups, data for the two groups were pooled (post hoc analysis). Results Compared to placebo, treatment with SRT2104 was associated with a significant reduction in augmentation pressure (p=0.0273) and a trend towards improvement in the augmentation index and corrected augmentation index (p>0.05 for both). However, no changes were observed in pulse wave velocity and time to wave reflection (p>0.05). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures remained unchanged throughout the study. Treatment by cohort interaction was not significant for any of the pulse wave parameters, suggesting that the response to SRT2104 in otherwise healthy smokers and people with diabetes was consistent. Conclusions SRT2104 may improve measures of arterial stiffness in otherwise healthy cigarette smokers and in participants with type 2 diabetes. Definitive conclusions are not possible given the small sample size and exploratory nature of this analysis. Trial registration number NCT01031108. PMID:27239324

  6. Hemoglobin adducts from acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in cigarette smokers: effects of glutathione S-transferase T1-null and M1-null genotypes.

    PubMed

    Fennell, T R; MacNeela, J P; Morris, R W; Watson, M; Thompson, C L; Bell, D A

    2000-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is used to manufacture plastics and fibers. It is carcinogenic in rats and is found in cigarette smoke. Ethylene oxide (EO) is a metabolite of ethylene, also found in cigarette smoke, and is carcinogenic in rodents. Both ACN and EO undergo conjugation with glutathione. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and hemoglobin adducts derived from ACN and EO and to investigate whether null genotypes for glutathione transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) alter the internal dose of these agents. The hemoglobin adducts N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEVal), which is formed from ACN, and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEVal), which is formed from EO, and GST genotypes were determined in blood samples obtained from 16 nonsmokers and 32 smokers (one to two packs/day). Smoking information was obtained by questionnaire, and plasma cotinine levels were determined by immunoassay. Glutathione transferase null genotypes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were determined by PCR. Both CEVal and HEVal levels increased with increased cigarette smoking dose (both self-reported and cotinine-based). CEVal and HEVal levels were also correlated. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes had little effect on CEVal concentrations. GSTM1 null genotypes had no significant impact on HEVal. However, HEVal levels were significantly elevated in GSTT1-null individuals when normalized to smoking status or cotinine levels. The ratio of HEVal:CEVal was also elevated in GSTT1-null smokers (1.50 +/- 0.57 versus 0.88 +/- 0.24; P = 0.0002). The lack of a functional GSTT1 is estimated to increase the internal dose of EO derived from cigarette smoke by 50-70%. PMID:10919741

  7. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  8. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  9. "A cigarette a day keeps the goodies away": smokers show automatic approach tendencies for smoking--but not for food-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Machulska, Alla; Zlomuzica, Armin; Adolph, Dirk; Rinck, Mike; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food) vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in

  10. A single-blinded, single-centre, controlled study in healthy adult smokers to identify the effects of a reduced toxicant prototype cigarette on biomarkers of exposure and of biological effect versus commercial cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite universal acceptance that smoking is harmful, a substantial number of adults continue to smoke. The development of potential reduced exposure products (more recently termed modified risk tobacco products) has been suggested as a way to reduce the risks of tobacco smoking. This trial is designed to investigate whether changes in toxicant exposure after switching from a commercial to reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarette (7 mg International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) tar yield) can be assessed by measurement of biomarkers and other factors. The primary objective is to descriptively assess changes in selected biomarkers of exposure (BoE) and biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE) within participants and within and between groups after switching. Secondary objectives are to assess similarly changes in other biomarkers, quality of life, smoking behaviours, physiological measures, mouth-level exposure to toxicants and sensory perception. Methods/design This trial will assess current smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers in a single-centre single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a forced-switching design and in-clinic (residential) and ambulatory (non-residential) periods. Smokers will be aged 23–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years) and non-smokers 28–55 years (minimum legal smoking age plus 5 years, plus minimum 5 years since last smoked). Smokers will be allowed to smoke freely at all times. We will assess changes in selected BoE and BoBE and effective dose in urine and blood after switching. Creatinine concentrations in serum, creatinine clearance in urine, cotinine concentration in saliva, diaries and collection of spent cigarette filters will be used to assess compliance with the study protocol. Mouth-level exposure to toxins will be assessed by filter analysis. Discussion Data from this study are expected to improve scientific understanding of the effects of RTP cigarettes on BoE and BoBE, and

  11. Exposure to smoking cues during an emotion recognition task can modulate limbic fMRI activation in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Artiges, Eric; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Berthoz, Sylvie; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Penttilä, Jani; Trichard, Christian; Martinot, Jean-Luc

    2009-09-01

    Smoking cues (SCs) refer to smoking-associated environmental stimuli that may trigger craving and withdrawal symptoms, and predispose to relapse in smokers. Although previous brain imaging studies have explored neural responses to SCs, no study has characterized the effects of SCs on cerebral activity in smokers engaged in an attention-demanding cognitive task that is unrelated to smoking. Thirteen tobacco smokers and a demographically matched group of 13 healthy non-smokers participated in a fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that involved a visual task integrating SCs and neutral cues (NCs) during emotion recognition trials requiring a high level of attention. No significant SC-induced alterations were detected in smokers' behavioural performance. fMRI results show that non-smokers exhibited no difference between SC and NC trials; in contrast, smokers showed SC-induced widespread deactivations in a limbic, paralimbic and striatal network classically involved in addiction, and activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, a correlation between deactivation of the right insula and the severity of smoking dependence (Fagerström test) was detected in smokers. These results suggest that the neural reactivity of smokers to SCs can be modified in the context of a cognitive challenge. This could reflect smokers' ability to inhibit cue-induced craving and may help in smoking cessation. PMID:19650816

  12. Risk and protective factors of adolescent exclusive snus users compared to non-users of tobacco, exclusive smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E; Rise, J; Lund, K E

    2013-07-01

    The use of snus is increasing in Norway. In this study we examined differences between adolescents who were exclusive snus users, and adolescent non-users, smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes on a number of psychosocial factors, categorized as risk variables and protective variables associated with involvement in health compromising behavior. We applied separate logistic regression models, where exclusive snus users (n=740) were compared with non-users (n=904), smokers (n=219), and dual users (n=367). Compared to non-users, the group of exclusive snus users was associated with variables traditionally predicting health risk behavior, such as smoking friends (OR=1.74, SD 1.27-2.38) and truancy (OR=2.12, SD 1.65-2.78). Compared to smokers, exclusive snus users were related to variables traditionally associated with protection against involvement in health risk behavior, e.g. higher academic orientation (OR=1.66, SD 1.12-2.45). Associations with protective factors were also observed when exclusive snus users were compared with dual users. While the group of exclusive snus users was associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk compared to non-users, they showed a more conventional pattern when compared to smokers and dual users. The group of exclusive snus users may be described on a continuum varying from psychosocial risk factors to protective factors of risk involvement depending on the group of comparison. PMID:23583834

  13. Clinical Trial of 2-Phenethyl Isothiocyanate as an Inhibitor of Metabolic Activation of a Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen in Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Stepanov, Irina; Murphy, Sharon E; Wang, Renwei; Allen, Sharon; Jensen, Joni; Strayer, Lori; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Le, Chap; Kurzer, Mindy S; Nelson, Heather H; Yu, Mimi C; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-05-01

    2-Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a natural product found as a conjugate in watercress and other cruciferous vegetables, is an inhibitor of the metabolic activation and lung carcinogenicity of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in F344 rats and A/J mice. We carried out a clinical trial to determine whether PEITC also inhibits the metabolic activation of NNK in smokers. Cigarette smokers were recruited and asked to smoke cigarettes containing deuterium-labeled [pyridine-D4]NNK for an acclimation period of at least 1 week. Then subjects were randomly assigned to one of two arms: PEITC followed by placebo, or placebo followed by PEITC. During the 1-week treatment period, each subject took PEITC (10 mg in 1 mL of olive oil, 4 times per day). There was a 1-week washout period between the PEITC and placebo periods. The NNK metabolic activation ratio [pyridine-D4]hydroxy acid/total [pyridine-D4]NNAL was measured in urine samples to test the hypothesis that PEITC treatment modified NNK metabolism. Eighty-two smokers completed the study and were included in the analysis. Overall, the NNK metabolic activation ratio was reduced by 7.7% with PEITC treatment (P = 0.023). The results of this trial, while modest in effect size, provide a basis for further investigation of PEITC as an inhibitor of lung carcinogenesis by NNK in smokers. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 396-405. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26951845

  14. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Rosalie V.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Stephens, W. Edryd; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced. PMID:24452255

  15. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Haiman, Christopher A; Patel, Yesha M; Stram, Daniel O; Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005) SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13]) while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005). SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) deletion explained between 14.2-31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157) and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9) of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:26959369

  16. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005) SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13]) while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005). SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) deletion explained between 14.2–31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157) and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9) of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:26959369

  17. Health Considerations in Regulation and Taxation of Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Mainous, Ryan W; Talbert, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is experiencing unprecedented growth. This can be contrasted to the use of conventional cigarettes which showed a decrease among adults with the current smoker prevalence dropping from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013. There is some data that e-cigarettes are attracting both former smokers and never smokers, and in particular, young people as users. Currently most states do not tax e-cigarettes. Taxation and regulation may have a similar overall goal of decreasing smoking but regulation tends to focus reduced availability of products. In terms of tobacco control, taxation focuses on the demand side of the equation. Taxation is a distinct strategy from regulation and has been shown to decrease new adopters of conventional cigarettes. A variety of potential taxation strategies can be considered by policymakers based on different assumptions about e-cigarettes and their utility, ranging from untaxed to taxation at moderate levels compared to conventional cigarettes to taxation equal to conventional cigarettes. Until more evidence for the benefits of e-cigarettes is presented, it seems prudent to view them as a potentially harmful and addictive product that ought to be regulated and taxed in an equivalent manner to conventional cigarettes. PMID:26546657

  18. Tobacco Health Warning Messages on Plain Cigarette Packs and in Television Campaigns: A Qualitative Study with Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Television advertisements, packaging regulations and health warning labels (HWLs) are designed to communicate anti-smoking messages to large number of smokers. However, only a few studies have examined how high smoking prevalence groups respond to these warnings. This study explored how socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers engage with health…

  19. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers

    PubMed Central

    Poussin, Carine; Weisensee, Dirk; Gebel, Stephan; Hengstermann, Arnd; Sewer, Alain; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Xiang, Yang; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2013-01-01

    Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers' airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the air-liquid interface, and we investigated various biological endpoints [e.g., gene expression and microRNA profiles, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release] at multiple postexposure time points (0.5, 2, 4, 24, 48 h). By performing a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we observed a significant enrichment of human smokers' bronchial epithelium gene signatures derived from different public transcriptomics datasets in CS-exposed AIR-100 tissue. Comparison of in vitro microRNA profiles with microRNA data from healthy smokers highlighted various highly translatable microRNAs associated with inflammation or with cell cycle processes that are known to be perturbed by CS in lung tissue. We also found a dose-dependent increase of MMP-1 release by AIR-100 tissue 48 h after CS exposure in agreement with the known effect of CS on this collagenase expression in smokers' tissues. In conclusion, a similar biological perturbation than the one observed in vivo in smokers' airway epithelium could be induced after a single CS exposure of a human organotypic bronchial epithelium-like tissue culture. PMID:23355383

  20. The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online Completion of a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Laura J; Hughes, John R; Livingston, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether offering online data collection to study participants affects compliance or produces bias. Objective To compare response rates, baseline characteristics, test-retest reliability, and outcomes between cigarette smokers who chose to complete a survey by mail versus those who chose to complete it online. Methods We surveyed cigarette smokers who intended to stop smoking within the next 30 days to determine barriers to calling a smoking quit line. Participants were offered the choice of completing a paper version of the survey sent through the mail or an online version at a password-protected website. Participants were called 2 months later to determine if they had made a quit attempt and/or called a smoking quit line since the baseline survey. We compared characteristics and outcomes among those who chose postal versus online completion. We measured test-retest reliability of the baseline survey by resurveying a semirandom sample of participants within 10 days of the original survey. Results Of 697 eligible respondents to newspaper ads in 12 US cities, 438 (63%) chose to receive a mailed paper survey and 259 (37%) chose an Internet survey. Survey return rates were the same for the 2 modes (92% versus 92%, P = .82). Online respondents were younger (mean of 46 versus 51 years old for postal, P < .001), more likely to be white (76% versus 62%, P < .001), less likely to be African American (18% versus 30%, P < .001), more highly educated (34% college graduate versus 23%, P < .001), more likely to intend to stop smoking in the next 30 days (47% definitely versus 30%, P < .001), and more likely to have heard of a smoking quit line (51% versus 40%, P = .008). Participants did not differ on gender (54% female for online versus 55% for postal, P = .72) or cigarettes smoked per day (mean of 19 versus 21, P = .30). Online respondents had slightly fewer missing items on the 79-item survey (mean of 1.7% missing versus 2.3%, P = .02). Loss to follow

  1. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers' responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  2. An evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, emotional dysregulation, and negative affectivity among daily cigarette smokers: relation to smoking motives and barriers to quitting.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C

    2008-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking. PMID:18417153

  3. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yesha M.; Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331–709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  4. Metabolites of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yesha M; Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Paiano, Viviana; Olvera, Natalie; Stram, Daniel O; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study demonstrated significant differences in lung cancer risk among cigarette smokers from five different ethnic/racial groups. For the same number of cigarettes smoked, and particularly among light smokers, African Americans and Native Hawaiians had the highest risk for lung cancer, Whites had intermediate risk, while Latinos and Japanese Americans had the lowest risk. We analyzed urine samples from 331-709 participants from each ethnic group in this study for metabolites of phenanthrene, a surrogate for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Consistent with their lung cancer risk and our previous studies of several other carcinogens and toxicants of cigarette smoke, African Americans had significantly (p<0.0001) higher median levels of the two phenanthrene metabolites 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-PheOH, 0.931 pmol/ml) and phenanthrene tetraol (PheT, 1.13 pmol/ml) than Whites (3-PheOH, 0.697 pmol/ml; PheT, 0.853 pmol/ml) while Japanese-Americans had significantly (p = 0.002) lower levels of 3-PheOH (0.621 pmol/ml) than Whites. PheT levels (0.838 pmol/ml) in Japanese-Americans were not different from those of Whites. These results are mainly consistent with the lung cancer risk of these three groups, but the results for Native Hawaiians and Latinos were more complex. We also carried out a genome wide association study in search of factors that could influence PheT and 3-PheOH levels. Deletion of GSTT1 explained 2.2% of the variability in PheT, while the strongest association, rs5751777 (p = 1.8x10-62) in the GSTT2 gene, explained 7.7% of the variability in PheT. These GWAS results suggested a possible protective effect of lower GSTT1 copy number variants on the diol epoxide pathway, which was an unexpected result. Collectively, the results of this study provide further evidence that different patterns of cigarette smoking are responsible for the higher lung cancer risk of African Americans than of Whites and the

  5. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers’ beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Rini, Christine M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand smokers’ perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  6. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungshim L; Carmella, Steven G; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P < 0.0001). Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear. PMID:26053186

  7. Influences of Self-Efficacy, Response Efficacy, and Reactance on Responses to Cigarette Health Warnings: A Longitudinal Study of Adult Smokers in Australia and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Swayampakala, Kamala; Borland, Ron; Nagelhout, Gera; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Thompson, Mary; Hardin, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Guided by the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and reactance theory, this study examined the relationship between efficacy beliefs, reactance, and adult smokers’ responses to pictorial health warning labels (HWL) on cigarette packaging, including whether efficacy beliefs or reactance modify the relationship between HWL responses and subsequent smoking cessation behavior. Four waves of data were analyzed from prospective cohorts of smokers in Australia and Canada (n = 7,120 observations) over a period of time after implementation of more prominent, pictorial HWLs. Three types of HWL responses were studied: psychological threat responses (i.e., thinking about risks from smoking), forgoing cigarettes due to HWLs, and avoiding HWLs. The results from Generalized Estimating Equation models indicated that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance were significantly associated with greater psychological threat responses to HWLs. Similar results were found for models predicting forgoing behavior, although response efficacy was inversely associated with it. Only response efficacy was significantly associated with avoiding HWLs, showing a positive relationship. Higher self-efficacy and stronger responses to HWLs, no matter the type, were associated with attempting to quit in the follow-up period; reactance was unassociated. No statistically significant interactions were found. These results suggest that stronger efficacy beliefs and lower trait reactance are associated with some stronger responses to fear-arousing HWL responses; however, these HWL responses appear no less likely to lead to cessation attempts among smokers with different levels of self-efficacy to quit, of response efficacy beliefs, or of trait reactance against attempts to control their behavior. PMID:27135826

  8. Mercapturic Acids Derived from the Toxicants Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in the Urine of Cigarette Smokers from Five Ethnic Groups with Differing Risks for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungshim L.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    The Multiethnic Cohort epidemiology study has clearly demonstrated that, compared to Whites and for the same number of cigarettes smoked, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher risk for lung cancer whereas Latinos and Japanese Americans have a lower risk. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde are two important constituents of cigarette smoke which have well documented toxic effects and could play a role in lung cancer etiology. Their urinary metabolites 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA), respectively, are validated biomarkers of acrolein and crotonaldehyde exposure. We quantified levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in the urine of more than 2200 smokers from these five ethnic groups, and also carried out a genome wide association study using blood samples from these subjects. After adjusting for age, sex, creatinine, and total nicotine equivalents, geometric mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were significantly different in the five groups (P<0.0001). Native Hawaiians had the highest and Latinos the lowest geometric mean levels of both 3-HPMA and HMPMA. Levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 3787 and 2759 pmol/ml urine, respectively, in Native Hawaiians and 1720 and 2210 pmol/ml urine in Latinos. These results suggest that acrolein and crotonaldehyde may be involved in lung cancer etiology, and that their divergent levels may partially explain the differing risks of Native Hawaiian and Latino smokers. No strong signals were associated with 3-HPMA in the genome wide association study, suggesting that formation of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein is mainly non-enzymatic, while the top significant association with HMPMA was located on chromosome 12 near the TBX3 gene, but its relationship to HMPMA excretion is not clear. PMID:26053186

  9. Protocol for a human in vivo model of acute cigarette smoke inhalation challenge in smokers with COPD: monitoring the nasal and systemic immune response using a network biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Clare L; Galloway-Phillipps, Neil; Armstrong, Paul C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D; Brearley, Christopher; Ito, Mari; Tunstall, Tanushree; Elkin, Sarah; Kon, Onn Min; Hansel, Trevor T; Paul-Clark, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoke contributes to a diverse range of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disorders and many cancers. There currently is a need for human challenge models, to assess the acute effects of a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, followed by serial sampling of blood and respiratory tissue for advanced molecular profiling. We employ precision sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid by absorption to permit soluble mediators measurement in eluates. Serial nasal curettage was used for transcriptomic analysis of mucosal tissue. Methods and analysis Three groups of strictly defined patients will be studied: 12 smokers with COPD (GOLD Stage 2) with emphysema, 12 matched smokers with normal lung function and no evidence of emphysema, and 12 matched never smokers with normal spirometry. Patients in the smoking groups are current smokers, and will be given full support to stop smoking immediately after this study. In giving a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, all patients will have abstained from smoking for 12 h, and will smoke two cigarettes with expiration through the nose in a ventilated chamber. Before and after inhalation of cigarette smoke, a series of samples will be taken from the blood, nasal mucosal lining fluid and nasal tissue by curettage. Analysis of plasma nicotine and metabolites in relation to levels of soluble inflammatory mediators in nasal lining fluid and blood, as well as assessing nasal transcriptomics, ex vivo blood platelet aggregation and leucocyte responses to toll-like receptor agonists will be undertaken. Implications Development of acute cigarette smoke challenge models has promise for the study of molecular effects of smoking in a range of pathological processes. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the West London National Research Ethics Committee (12/LO/1101). The study findings will be presented at conferences and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals

  10. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  11. Effects of Escalating and Descending Schedules of Incentives on Cigarette Smoking in Smokers without Plans to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Contingent incentives can reduce substance abuse. Escalating payment schedules, which begin with a small incentive magnitude and progressively increase with meeting the contingency, increase smoking abstinence. Likewise, descending payment schedules can increase cocaine abstinence. The current experiment enrolled smokers without plans to quit in…

  12. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  13. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…

  14. Childhood Antecedents of Being a Cigarette Smoker in Early Adulthood. The Finnish "From a Boy to a Man" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemela, Solja; Sourander, Andre; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Susser, Ezra; Helenius, Hans; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify childhood psychiatric symptoms as antecedents of cigarette smoking at age 18. Methods: In 1989, a general population sample of 2946 8-year-old boys born in Finland in 1981 was assessed using the Rutter's parent and teacher questionnaires, and the Child Depression Inventory. This birth cohort was followed up in 1999, when the…

  15. Effects of advertisements on smokers’ interest in trying e-cigarettes: the roles of product comparison and visual cues

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Southwell, Brian G; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers’ responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads’ arguments and imagery. Methods A US national sample of smokers who had never tried e-cigarettes (n=3253) participated in a between-subjects experiment. Smokers viewed an online advertisement promoting e-cigarettes using one of three comparison types (emphasising similarity to regular cigarettes, differences or neither) with one of three images, for nine conditions total. Smokers then indicated their interest in trying e-cigarettes. Results Ads that emphasised differences between e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes elicited more interest than ads without comparisons (p<0.01), primarily due to claims about e-cigarettes’ lower cost, greater healthfulness and utility for smoking cessation. However, ads that emphasised the similarities of the products did not differ from ads without comparisons. Ads showing a person using an e-cigarette created more interest than ads showing a person without an e-cigarette (p<0.01). Conclusions Interest in trying e-cigarettes was highest after viewing ads with messages about differences between regular and electronic cigarettes and ads showing product use. If e-cigarettes prove to be harmful or ineffective cessation devices, regulators might restrict images of e-cigarette use in advertising, and public health messages should not emphasise differences between regular and electronic cigarettes. To inform additional regulations, future research should seek to identify what advertising messages and features appeal to youth. PMID:24935896

  16. Lack of attentional retraining effects in cigarette smokers attempting cessation: a proof of concept double-blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Begh, Rachna; Munafò, Marcus R; Shiffman, Saul; Ferguson, Stuart G; Nichols, Linda; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Holder, Roger L; Sutton, Stephen; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown that attentional bias for smoking-related cues is associated with increased craving and relapse. Laboratory experiments have shown that manipulating attentional bias may change craving. Interventions to reduce attentional bias could reduce relapse in smokers seeking to quit. We report a clinical trial of attentional retraining in treatment-seeking smokers. Methods This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial that took place in UK smoking cessation clinics. Smokers interested in quitting were randomised to five weekly sessions of attentional retraining (N=60) or placebo training (N=58) using a modified visual probe task from one week prior to quit day. Both groups received 21 mg nicotine patches (from quit day onwards) and behavioural support. Primary outcomes included change in attentional bias reaction times four weeks after quit day on the visual probe task and craving measured weekly using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. Secondary outcomes were changes in withdrawal symptoms, time to first lapse and prolonged abstinence. Results No attentional bias towards smoking cues was found in the sample at baseline (mean difference=3 ms, 95%CI=-2, 9). Post-training bias was not significantly lower in the retraining group compared with the placebo group (mean difference=-9 ms, 95%CI=-20, 2). There was no difference between groups in change in craving (p=0.89) and prolonged abstinence at four weeks (risk ratio=1.00, 95%CI=0.70, 1.43). Conclusions Taken with one other trial, there appears to be no effect from clinic-based attentional retraining using the visual probe task. Attentional retraining conducted out of clinic may prove more effective. Clinical trial registration UK Clinical Trials ISRCTN 54375405. PMID:25697911

  17. Methodologies for the quantitative estimation of toxicant dose to cigarette smokers using physical, chemical and bioanalytical data

    PubMed Central

    McAughey, John; Shepperd, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed, described and demonstrated that convert mouth exposure estimates of cigarette smoke constituents to dose by accounting for smoke spilled from the mouth prior to inhalation (mouth-spill (MS)) and the respiratory retention (RR) during the inhalation cycle. The methodologies are applicable to just about any chemical compound in cigarette smoke that can be measured analytically and can be used with ambulatory population studies. Conversion of exposure to dose improves the relevancy for risk assessment paradigms. Except for urinary nicotine plus metabolites, biomarkers generally do not provide quantitative exposure or dose estimates. In addition, many smoke constituents have no reliable biomarkers. We describe methods to estimate the RR of chemical compounds in smoke based on their vapor pressure (VP) and to estimate the MS for a given subject. Data from two clinical studies were used to demonstrate dose estimation for 13 compounds, of which only 3 have urinary biomarkers. Compounds with VP > 10−5 Pa generally have RRs of 88% or greater, which do not vary appreciably with inhalation volume (IV). Compounds with VP < 10−7 Pa generally have RRs dependent on IV and lung exposure time. For MS, mean subject values from both studies were slightly greater than 30%. For constituents with urinary biomarkers, correlations with the calculated dose were significantly improved over correlations with mouth exposure. Of toxicological importance is that the dose correlations provide an estimate of the metabolic conversion of a constituent to its respective biomarker. PMID:23742081

  18. Methodologies for the quantitative estimation of toxicant dose to cigarette smokers using physical, chemical and bioanalytical data.

    PubMed

    St Charles, Frank Kelley; McAughey, John; Shepperd, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Methodologies have been developed, described and demonstrated that convert mouth exposure estimates of cigarette smoke constituents to dose by accounting for smoke spilled from the mouth prior to inhalation (mouth-spill (MS)) and the respiratory retention (RR) during the inhalation cycle. The methodologies are applicable to just about any chemical compound in cigarette smoke that can be measured analytically and can be used with ambulatory population studies. Conversion of exposure to dose improves the relevancy for risk assessment paradigms. Except for urinary nicotine plus metabolites, biomarkers generally do not provide quantitative exposure or dose estimates. In addition, many smoke constituents have no reliable biomarkers. We describe methods to estimate the RR of chemical compounds in smoke based on their vapor pressure (VP) and to estimate the MS for a given subject. Data from two clinical studies were used to demonstrate dose estimation for 13 compounds, of which only 3 have urinary biomarkers. Compounds with VP > 10(-5) Pa generally have RRs of 88% or greater, which do not vary appreciably with inhalation volume (IV). Compounds with VP < 10(-7) Pa generally have RRs dependent on IV and lung exposure time. For MS, mean subject values from both studies were slightly greater than 30%. For constituents with urinary biomarkers, correlations with the calculated dose were significantly improved over correlations with mouth exposure. Of toxicological importance is that the dose correlations provide an estimate of the metabolic conversion of a constituent to its respective biomarker. PMID:23742081

  19. Paying Smokers to Quit May Pay Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15, 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Money may help some smokers stub out their cigarettes ... program started, 44 percent of smokers who received money said they had been abstinent continuously, compared with ...

  20. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  1. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  2. THE USE OF FRY (EMBALMING FLUID AND PCP-LACED CIGARETTES OR MARIJUANA STICKS) AMONG CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, RONALD J.; WILLIAMS, MARK; ROSS, MICHAEL W.; ATKINSON, JOHN; McCURDY, SHERLY A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as “fry” or “wet” is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 426 African-American crack users in Houston, Texas, to investigate the difference between those who concurrently reported lifetime (defined as at least one usage of fry in life) fry use and those who stated they never used fry. The data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Fry users were significantly more likely than non-users to not have a casual sex partner (92% users vs. 84% non-users, p ≤ 0.05) and were more likely to have been diagnosed with gonorrhea in the past 12 months (9% users vs. 2% non-users, p ≤ 0.05). In addition fry users had significantly higher odds of currently trading sex for drugs (OR = 2.30, p ≤ 0.05), marijuana use (OR = 12.11, p ≤ 0.05), and codeine (syrup) use (OR = 8.10, p ≤ 0.05). These findings are important in determining the “cultural novelties” relative to crack and fry use among younger African Americans. PMID:19157045

  3. The risk of losing 10 years of life put in perspective: views of college student smokers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Hui; Huang, Song-Lih

    2015-03-01

    Health messages have limited effects on young smokers. The health effects typically have long latent periods, and the appreciation of risk depends on the meaning given to longevity. This study aims to understand how college student smokers interpreted the risks of losing 10 years of life because of smoking. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 male smokers from a relatively low-achieving college in southern Taiwan. The participants had vague ideas about the future; were not expecting a successful life, thought life was stressful and boring; and expressed that there was no need to live too long. Many believed that removing the stress and having a composed lifestyle was the way to becoming healthy, which could be achieved only by people with economic success. They would quit had they been rich. Empowerment to help young smokers gain control over their life events may be the key to tobacco control. PMID:23695539

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  5. Predictors of delay discounting among smokers: education level and a Utility Measure of Cigarette Reinforcement Efficacy are better predictors than demographics, smoking characteristics, executive functioning, impulsivity, or time perception.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A George; Franck, Christopher T; Mueller, E Terry; Landes, Reid D; Kowal, Benjamin P; Yi, Richard; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-06-01

    Ninety-four smokers completed the delay discounting procedure for either hypothetical amounts of money, $10 (money) and $1000 (money) or hypothetical amounts of cigarettes ($10 and $1000 worth of cigarettes). We investigated how variables previously found to be related to rates of delay discounting accounted for the observed results. These variables included the following: demographic information, smoking characteristics, executive function abilities, impulsivity, time perception, and the Utility Measure of Cigarette Reinforcing Efficacy (UMCE). Education level and UMCE were each significantly correlated with 3 out of 4 of the discounting measures. Moreover, the largest effect sizes observed were between these two measures and the four discounting measures. All potential discounting predictors were also investigated using step-wise linear regression with Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) analysis—these BIC models revealed that education level and UMCE accounted for large portions of the variance. We conclude that education level and UMCE were the most consistent predictors of discounting. This data is discussed within the framework of a widely accepted neuroeconomic model that suggests that two brain systems separately assess two separate facets of decision-making, and the interplay between these two systems determines self-control in smokers. We hypothesize that education level and UMCE may serve as surrogate measures of the functionality of these two systems and that discounting may be a sentinel measure of self-control. PMID:25661991

  6. Predictors of delay discounting among smokers: Education level and a Utility Measure of Cigarette Reinforcement Efficacy are better predictors than demographics, smoking characteristics, executive functioning, impulsivity, or time perception

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A. George; Franck, Christopher T.; Mueller, E. Terry; Landes, Reid D.; Kowal, Benjamin P.; Yi, Richard; Bickel, Warren K.

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-four smokers completed the delay discounting procedure for either hypothetical amounts of money, $10 (money) and $1000 (money) or hypothetical amounts of cigarettes ($10 and $1000 worth of cigarettes). We investigated how variables previously found to be related to rates of delay discounting accounted for the observed results. These variables included the following: demographic information, smoking characteristics, executive function abilities, impulsivity, time perception, and the Utility Measure of Cigarette Reinforcing Efficacy (UMCE). Education level and UMCE were each significantly correlated with 3 out of 4 of the discounting measures. Moreover, the largest effect sizes observed were between these two measures and the four discounting measures. All potential discounting predictors were also investigated using step-wise linear regression with Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) analysis — these BIC models revealed that education level and UMCE accounted for large portions of the variance. We conclude that education level and UMCE were the most consistent predictors of discounting. This data is discussed within the framework of a widely accepted neuroeconomic model that suggests that two brain systems separately assess two separate facets of decision-making, and the interplay between these two systems determines self-control in smokers. We hypothesize that education level and UMCE may serve as surrogate measures of the functionality of these two systems and that discounting may be a sentinel measure of self-control. PMID:25661991

  7. Effects of cigarette smoking on human in vivo somatic mutation: Longitudinal sampling of smokers demonstrates a decrease in glycophorin A (GPA) allele-loss variant cell frequencies following cessation

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Langlois, R.G. ); Grant, S.G.; Jensen, R.H. ); Mooney, L.M.; Perera, F.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The human in vivo glycophorin A (GPA) assay uses immunolabeling and flow cytometry to quantitate somatic variation in erythrocytes expressing GPA allele loss and allele-loss and duplication phenotypes in peripheral blood samples. The frequency of these variant erythrocytes (V[sub f]) presumably reflects the level of somatic mutation at this locus in the nucleated hematopoietic precursor cells of the bone marrow. We have previously shown that the GPA assay is a cumulative, integrating biodosimeter of accidental, medical, and occupational exposure to chemical mutagens and ionizing radiation. Surveys of otherwise unexposed populations point to an increased GPA allele loss V[sub f] in cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers consistent with the induction of somatic mutation by mutagenic components of tobacco smoke. To further test this association, blood samples from active heavy smokers who entered a multi-endpoint Smokender study were obtained at enrollment and at 10 wks and 6 and 12 mo following smoking cessation. Results from the first 109 individuals reveal a decrease in the mean GPA allele loss V[sub f] ranging from 9.0 [+-] 1.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] (n = 109) for the active smoking samples, to 9.1 [+-] 1.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] (n = 46), 6.0 [+-] 0.7 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] (n = 15), and 5.8 [+-] 1.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] (n = 8) for the three postcessation samples, respectively. No change in the GPA allele loss and duplication V[sub f] was observed, thus confining the spectrum of mutational events induced by exposure to cigarette smoke. The observed decrease in the level of somatic mutation in smokers following cessation suggests limited persistence and/or repair of tobacco-smoke-induced genetic alterations consistent with epidemiologic findings of decreased cancer risk in smokers following cessation.

  8. [Electronic cigarette: Reliable and efficient?].

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Dautzenberg, Marie-Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Before 2010, the e-cigarette remains inefficient then, its dissemination explodes in 2013 where more than 10 million people have tried it in France. The best made e-cigarette will always be potentially toxic and an addictive product. The e-cigarette is not a suitable product for non-smokers and could participate to normalize tobacco in society. To end tobacco, e-cigarette must provide a pleasant throat hit to the smoker in the first 6 seconds then deliver an adequate dose of nicotine. The majority of smokers who have tried the e-cigarette do not adopt the product because they did not like it. Health professional must help those who smoke and use e-cigarettes to remove the last cigarettes. PMID:24890639

  9. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation – quitting without pharmacological or professional support – is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies reporting on smokers who quit unassisted. We identified 11 studies and used a technique based on Thomas and Harden’s method of thematic synthesis to discern key themes relating to unassisted cessation, and to then group related themes into overarching concepts. Findings The three concepts identified as important to smokers who quit unassisted were: motivation, willpower and commitment. Motivation, although widely reported, had only one clear meaning, that is ‘the reason for quitting’. Willpower was perceived to be a method of quitting, a strategy to counteract cravings or urges, or a personal quality or trait fundamental to quitting success. Commitment was equated to seriousness or resoluteness, was perceived as key to successful quitting, and was often used to distinguish earlier failed quit attempts from the final successful quit attempt. Commitment had different dimensions. It appeared that commitment could be tentative or provisional, and also cumulative, that is, commitment could be built upon as the quit attempt progressed. Conclusion A better understanding of what motivation, willpower and commitment mean from the smoker’s perspective may provide new insights and direction for smoking cessation research and practice. PMID:26010369

  10. Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Discontinuation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding why young people try and stop electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is critical to inform e-cigarette regulatory efforts. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (N = 127) in 1 middle school (MS), 2 high schools (HSs), and 2 colleges in Connecticut to assess themes related to e-cigarette experimentation and discontinuation. We then conducted surveys to evaluate these identified themes in 2 MSs, 4 HSs, and 1 college (N = 1,175) to explore whether reasons for e-cigarette experimentation and/or discontinuation differed by school level or cigarette smoking status. Results: From the focus groups, we identified experimentation themes (i.e., curiosity, flavors, family/peer influence, easy access, and perceptions of e-cigarettes as “cool” and as a healthier/better alternative to cigarettes) and discontinuation themes (i.e., health concerns, loss of interest, high cost, bad taste, and view of e-cigarettes as less satisfying than cigarettes). The survey data showed that the top reasons for experimentation were curiosity (54.4%), appealing flavors (43.8%), and peer influences (31.6%), and the top reasons for discontinuation were responses related to losing interest (23.6%), perceiving e-cigarettes as “uncool” (16.3%), and health concerns (12.1%). Cigarette smokers tried e-cigarettes because of the perceptions that they can be used anywhere and to quit smoking and discontinued because they were not as satisfying as cigarettes. School level differences were detected. Conclusions: E-cigarette prevention efforts toward youth should include limiting e-cigarette flavors, communicating messages emphasizing the health risks of use, and changing social norms surrounding the use of e-cigarettes. The results should be interpreted in light of the limitations of this study. PMID:25481917

  11. Predictors, Indicators, and Validated Measures of Dependence in Menthol Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence. PMID:24738914

  12. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  13. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Avey, Jaedon P.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Beans, Julie A.; Robinson, Renee F.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes. PMID:26487575

  14. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (<=3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  15. [Helping the highly dependent smokers].

    PubMed

    Perriot, J; Mathern, G; André, E; Schmitt, A; Merson, F; Brousse, G; Underner, M

    2013-01-01

    Many smokers have difficulty in stopping smoking, either motivated to stop or forced for health, economic or statutory reasons. They have in common a heavy tobacco dependence and a high level of cigarette consumption. Often they combined factors impairing success in the attempt to stop smoking : e. g. anxio-depressive disorders, use of psychoactive substances, socio-economic deprivation. Smoking cessation specialists must optimize their interventions in order to improve the care of these highly dependent smokers. PMID:23888574

  16. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. PMID:25122618

  17. Electronic Cigarette Use by College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or ecigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of ecigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ecigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. Methods 4,444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Webbased survey in fall 2009. Results Ever use of ecigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or “Other race” (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Conclusions Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. PMID:23746429

  18. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  19. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  1. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Sugimoto, M; Nishi, R; Suga, M; Horio, S; Kohrogi, H; Shimazu, K; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by saline lavage from 23 healthy male volunteers--10 non-smokers and 13 cigarette smokers. Lavage produced three times as many alveolar macrophages in smokers than in non-smokers. When macrophages from smokers and from non-smokers were incubated in vitro, more cells from smokers adhered to glass, spread out, and showed enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. The surface morphology of alveolar macrophages from smokers showed more with a plate like appearance and ridge like membrane surface, while the macrophages from non-smokers were predominantly spherical with ruffles. The proportions of cells which stained highly for beta galactosidase were 55% in smokers and 11% in non-smokers. Thus, in a resting state in vitro, alveolar macrophages from smokers were more active than those from non-smokers. When, however, macrophages from smokers and non-smokers were incubated with immunobeads and with opsonised or non-opsonised BCG, the phagocytic activity and stimulated NBT reduction of alveolar macrophages from smokers were similar to or somewhat less than those of non-smokers. Images PMID:6438822

  2. Fewer Cancer-Causing Chemicals in E-Cigs Than Regular Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160527.html Fewer Cancer-Causing Chemicals in E-Cigs Than Regular Cigarettes: Study But switch from ... study suggests that smokers who completely switch to e-cigarettes and stop smoking tobacco cigarettes may significantly ...

  3. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  4. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  5. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  6. The Implications of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke for Cardiovascular Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurshman, Larry G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Non-smokers exposed to emissions from a burning cigarette in ambient air demonstrate measureable physiological responses. The study showed that work capacity was reduced as a result of exposure to their sidestream cigarette smoke. (RE)

  7. A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Anna E; McCray, Cheyenne A; Adedeji-Fajobi, Temidayo I; Sibiya, Xolani; Ucko, Peter; Lebina, Limakatso; Golub, Jonathan E; Cohen, Joanna E; Martinson, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40–50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012. Setting A convenience sample of three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Nelspruit) and two smaller towns (Musina and Ficksburg) were chosen for this study. Outcome measures Three cross-sectional approaches were used to assess the characteristics of contraband cigarettes: (1) a dummy purchase of cigarettes from informal retailers, (2) the collection of discarded cigarette packs and (3) a survey of tobacco smokers. Participants For the purposes of the survey, 40 self-reported smokers were recruited at taxi ranks in each downtown site. Adults who were over the age of 18 were asked to verbally consent to participate in the study and answer a questionnaire administered by a researcher. Results The leading reason for labelling a pack as illicit in each city/town was the absence of an excise stamp (28.6% overall), and the least common reason was an illegal tar or nicotine level (11.1% overall). The overall proportion of informal vendors who sold illicit cigarettes was 41%. Singles and packs of 20 were consistently cheaper at informal vendors. Survey participants’ responses reflected varied perspectives on illicit cigarettes and purchasing preferences. Conclusions Each approach generated an interesting insight into physical aspects of illicit cigarettes. While this pilot study cannot be used to generate generalisable statistics on illicit cigarettes, more systematic surveys of this nature could inform researchers’ and practitioners’ initiatives to combat illicit and legal cigarette

  8. Serum Uric Acid in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Bassam E.; Hamed, Jamal M.; Touhala, Luma M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the possible effect of smoking on serum uric acid. Methods Subjects enrolled in study were divided into two groups; nonsmokers and smokers, each with 60 male volunteers of the same social class and dietary habit without history of alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia and gout, renal, joint, lung or heart diseases. Fasting blood and random urine samples were obtained from both groups for measurement of uric acid and creatinine. Calculation of both urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid were done. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results No significant differences in the age, serum creatinine, spot urine uric acid/urine creatinine ratio and fraction excretion of uric acid between the two groups, serum uric acid was significantly lower in smokers. In smokers there was significant negative correlation of smoking status (average number of cigarette smoked/day, duration of smoking and cumulative amount of smoking) with serum uric acid. Conclusion After exclusion of other factors affecting uric acid level, the significant low serum uric acid level in smokers was attributed to reduce endogenous production as a result of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke that is a significant source of oxidative stress. As this reduction is proportionate with smoking status and predisposes to cardiovascular disease, it is, therefore, recommended for smokers to stop or reduce smoking and introduce serum uric acid estimation as routine test since its cheap and simple to reflect their antioxidant level. Keywords Smokers; Uric acid; CVD. PMID:22334840

  9. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Matzen, Wolfgang; Osiander-Fuchs, Helga; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 μg/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children. PMID:24373737

  10. ‘Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers’: a focus group study exploring UK adolescents’ views on e‐cigarette regulation

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Filippo; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Regulation of electronic cigarettes has moved to the top of the addiction policy agenda, as demonstrated by the recent focus across the United Kingdom on introducing age‐of‐sale restrictions. However, the views of those affected by such regulation remain largely unexplored. This paper presents the first detailed qualitative exploration of adolescents’ perceptions of existing, and opinions about potential e‐cigarette regulation. Methods Sixteen focus groups, including a total of 83 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 17 years, were conducted in deprived, mixed and affluent urban areas in Scotland and England between November 2014 and February 2015. Transcripts were imported into Nivivo 10, coded thematically and analysed. Results Participants critically considered existing evidence and competing interests in regulatory debates and demonstrated sophisticated understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of regulation. They overwhelmingly supported strong e‐cigarette regulation and endorsed restrictions on sales to minors, marketing and e‐cigarette use in public places. Concern about potential health harms of e‐cigarette use and marketing increasing the acceptability of vaping and smoking led these adolescents to support regulation. Conclusions In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e‐cigarettes supported strict regulation of e‐cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas. PMID:26948979