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Sample records for cigarette smoking control

  1. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  2. Behavioral Control of Cigarette Smoking: A Comprehensive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; Horan, John

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been a behavioral enigma. Single treatment techniques, when successful, are usually plagued by high recidivism rates and "practical" insignificance. Two recent developments, rapid smoking and comprehensive behavioral programming, hold promise for the eventual behavioral control of smoking. This study describes one such…

  3. The feasibility of using a photoelectric cigarette smoke detector for energy-efficient air quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.M.; Alevantis, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smoke sensor to monitor and control cigarette smoke levels in occupied spaces and also to determine whether the use of such a detector could result in energy savings. A smoke detector was built and tested. The experimental results show that the smoke sensor output is a function of cigarette smoke concentration and that the smoke sensor gives a rapid and continuous response. In addition, a computer program that simulates the transient mass and energy interactions in buildings was modified so that the impact of ventilation strategies on indoor air quality and energy consumption could be studied when smokers are present. The results of the numerical modeling for an arbitrary test case show that the use of a smoke sensor to detect cigarette smoke particulates and to control ventilation can allow indoor air quality to be continuously maintained at acceptable levels while minimizing energy consumption.

  4. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

  5. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  6. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  7. Brain tumours and cigarette smoking: analysis of the INTERPHONE Canada case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the associations between cigarette smoking and glioma or meningioma. Our purpose is to provide further evidence on these possible associations. Methods We conducted a set of case–control studies in three Canadian cities, Montreal, Ottawa and Vancouver. The study included 166 subjects with glioma, 93 subjects with meningioma, and 648 population-based controls. A lifetime history of cigarette smoking was collected and various smoking indices were computed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) between smoking and each of the two types of brain tumours. Results Adjusted ORs between smoking and each type of brain tumour were not significantly elevated for all smokers combined or for smokers with over 15 pack-years ((packs / day) x years) accumulated. We tested for interactions between smoking and several sociodemographic variables; the interaction between smoking and education on glioma risk was significant, with smoking showing an elevated OR among subjects with lower education and an OR below unity among subjects with higher education. Conclusion Except for an unexplained and possibly artefactual excess risk in one population subgroup, we found little or no evidence of an association between smoking and either glioma or meningioma. PMID:24972852

  8. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included in the fluid vaporised by the device. People report using e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and studies of their effects on tobacco withdrawal and craving suggest good potential as smoking cessation aids. However, to date there have been no adequately powered randomised trials investigating their cessation efficacy or safety. This paper outlines the protocol for this study. Methods/design Design: Parallel group, 3-arm, randomised controlled trial. Participants: People aged ≥18 years resident in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) who want to quit smoking. Intervention: Stratified blocked randomisation to allocate participants to either Elusion™ e-cigarettes with nicotine cartridges (16 mg) or with placebo cartridges (i.e. no nicotine), or to nicotine patch (21 mg) alone. Participants randomised to the e-cigarette groups will be told to use them ad libitum for one week before and 12 weeks after quit day, while participants randomised to patches will be told to use them daily for the same period. All participants will be offered behavioural support to quit from the NZ Quitline. Primary outcome: Biochemically verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at six months after quit day. Sample size: 657 people (292 in both the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups and 73 in the placebo e-cigarettes group) will provide 80% power at p = 0.05 to detect an absolute difference of 10% in abstinence between the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups, and 15% between the nicotine and placebo e-cigarette groups. Discussion This trial will inform international debate and policy on the regulation and

  9. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  10. Examining the Association Between Cigarette Smoking and Colorectal Cancer Using Historical Case-Control Data

    PubMed Central

    Peppone, Luke J.; Hyland, Andrew; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Reid, Mary E.; Piazza, Kenneth M.; Purnell, Jason Q.; Mustian, Karen M.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The majority of recent, well-designed studies have shown that long-term cigarette smoking increases colorectal cancer risk, but older studies with shorter durations of exposure often found no association. This study aimed to examine colorectal cancer risk by smoking exposure using data collected in the late 1950s and early 1960s. METHODS This case-control study examined colorectal cancer risk by lifetime smoking history. There were 1,365 patients who visited Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) between 1957 and 1965 diagnosed with primary, incident colorectal cancers that were matched to 4,096 malignancy-free controls on gender and age. Odds ratios were calculated using separate logistic regression models for each smoking exposure, while controlling for other tobacco use, county of residence, race, age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS The adjusted OR for individuals who reported their greatest level of smoking to be more than 1 pack/day was 0.87 (95% CI=0.67–1.15). Among those who smoked 42 or more years, the adjusted OR was 0.89 (95% CI=0.68–1.15) compared to those who never smoked. For individuals who smoked more than 45 pack-years, the OR was 0.92 (95% CI=0.72–1.19). The results did not differ significantly by gender, although men had considerably greater exposure compared to women. Results also did not differ by colorectal sub-site. CONCLUSION No association was found between long-term cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk. These results are in accord with studies that followed cohorts throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Methodological limitations, such as missing data on covariates and the higher incidence of smoking-related illness in a hospital setting, may have contributed to the null results found in this study. Prolonged population exposure to cigarettes and perhaps a changing product may explain why more recent studies have reported a positive association between smoking and colorectal cancer. PMID:19683487

  11. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  12. The political obstacles to the control of cigarette smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sapolsky, H M

    1980-01-01

    The opportunity to affect significantly the consumption of cigarettes in the United States through government action appears quite limited. Fifty million Americans smoke cigarettes. The United States is a leading producer of tobacco leaf and utilizes a price support system which is designed to protect tobacco growers. The industry is profitable and politicaly well connected. Several states are important producers of tobacco while others benefit from the excise tax imposed on cigarettes. The opposition to smoking is relatively weak and divided. Nevertheless, the tobacco industry worries about the future market for cigarettes. PMID:7419892

  13. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-03-15

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining.

  14. [Lung cancer and cigarette smoking in women. (Results of a case control study)].

    PubMed

    Vutuc, C

    1982-08-01

    Smoking habits of 297 female lung cancer patients (Kreyberg I: 202, Kreyberg II: 95) and 580 controls were analyzed. In addition tar exposures (TE) were calculated. Calculation of TE includes amount of consumptions, duration and the tar yields of all cigarette brands ever smoked. These are significant more smokers among patients (63%) and patients with a K I tumor (80%) compared to the controls (21%); K II: 29%. All patients and patients with a K I tumor had a significant longer smoking career (39.3 years; 39.6 years) and a higher tar exposure (TE = 1767; TE - 1810) compared to the controls (31.9 years, TE = 1146). K II: 37.4 years, TE = 1508. Lung cancer risks (adj. for TE) and population attributable risks (PAR) were: all age groups R = 7.3*, PAR = 54%; less than 40 years R = 1.1, PAR = 3%; 41-50 years R = 4.2*, PAR = 42% ; 51-60 years R = 7.6*, PAR = 62%; 61-70 years R = 7.8*, PAR = 54%; greater than 71 years R = 8.0*, PAR = 55%. Lung cancer risks (adj. for age) in relation to tar exposure and attributable risks (AR) were: TE less than 500: all cases R = 1.5, AT = 34% (KIR = 2.9, K II R = 0.8); TE 501-1000: all cases R = 4.2*, AR = 76% (KIR = 9.9*, K II R - 1.1): TE 1001-2000: all cases R = 12.1*, AR = 92% (KIR = 27.2*, K II R = 2.6**); TE 2001-3000: all cases R = 11.1*, AR = 91% (KIR = 25.2*, K II R = 2.0); TE greater than 3001: all cases R = 13.0*, AR = 92% (KIR = 29.3*, K II R = 3.3). These is a significant increase of risk of cigarette smokers beyond a TE of 501, which could be identified as a sort of critical exposure. There is a pronounced dose response relationship between cigarette smoking in relation to TE and lung cancer risk as concerning K I tumors but not KII tumors. Lung cancer risks in relation to age began smoking: less than 19 years R = 7.8*; 19 years and above R = 6.5*. *P less than 1%, **P less than 5%. PMID:7148206

  15. Youth smoking, cigarette prices, and anti-smoking sentiment.

    PubMed

    Decicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Mathios, Alan; Shin, Yoon-Jeong; Lim, Jae-Young

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a new direct measure of state anti-smoking sentiment and merge it with micro-data on youth smoking in 1992 and 2000. The empirical results from the cross-sectional models show two consistent patterns: after controlling for differences in state anti-smoking sentiment, the price of cigarettes has a weak and statistically, insignificant influence on smoking participation, and state anti-smoking sentiment appears to have a potentially important influence on youth smoking participation. The cross-sectional results are corroborated by results from the discrete time hazard models of smoking initiation that include state-fixed effects. However, there is evidence of price-responsiveness in the conditional cigarette demand by youth and young adult smokers. PMID:17935201

  16. The biology behind the atherothrombotic effects of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Adam; Bernhard, David

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is an aerosol that contains >4,000 chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and oxidant compounds. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces multiple pathological effects in the endothelium, several of which are the result of oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and other oxidant constituents of cigarette smoke. Cigarette-smoke exposure interferes adversely with the control of all stages of plaque formation and development and pathological thrombus formation. The reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke contribute to oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction, by reducing the bioavailability of nitric oxide. Plaque formation and the development of vulnerable plaques also result from exposure to cigarette smoke via the enhancement of inflammatory processes and the activation of matrix metalloproteases. Moreover, exposure to cigarette smoke results in platelet activation, stimulation of the coagulation cascade, and impairment of anticoagulative fibrinolysis. Many cigarette-smoke-mediated prothrombotic changes are quickly reversible upon smoking cessation. Public health efforts should urgently promote our understanding of current cigarette-smoke-induced cardiovascular pathology to encourage individuals to reduce their exposure to cigarette smoke and, therefore, the detrimental consequences of associated atherothrombotic disease. PMID:23380975

  17. The effects of cigarette smoking on human sexual potency.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D G; Hagen, R L; D'Agostino, J A

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male cigarette smokers, age 18 to 44, were randomly assigned to high-nicotine, low-nicotine, or control groups in a study relating cigarette smoking to sexual response. Subjects watched erotic film segments while their penile diameters, heart rates, and finger pulse amplitudes were continuously recorded by a polygraph. Subjects in the smoking groups smoked relatively high-nicotine (.9 mg) or very low-nicotine (.002 mg) cigarettes prior to watching the last two films, while control subjects ate candy. Smoking two high-nicotine cigarettes in immediate succession significantly decreased the rate of penile diameter change relative to the other conditions. These effects were not seen after a single cigarette was smoked. High-nicotine cigarettes caused significantly more vasoconstriction and heart rate increase than did low-nicotine cigarettes, which did not differ from control conditions. PMID:3812052

  18. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, S

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (PTR), pulmonary artery pressure (PPA), systemic blood pressure (PSYST), and left atrium pressure (PLA); and decreasing cardiac output (QAORTA) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (QLLL). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV1.0 in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo[alpha]pyrene. We demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. We also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated. PMID:3305000

  20. CIGARETTE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps speci...

  1. Cigarette Smoke Induces Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Nyunoya, Toru; Monick, Martha M.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius; Yarovinsky, Timur O.; Cagley, Jeffrey R.; Hunninghake, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for COPD. Fibroblasts play an important role in repair and lung homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a reduced growth rate for lung fibroblasts in patients with COPD. In this study we examined the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on fibroblast proliferative capacity. We found that cigarette smoke stopped proliferation of lung fibroblasts and upregulated two pathways linked to cell senescence (a biological process associated with cell longevity and an inability to replicate), p53 and p16-retinoblastoma protein pathways. We compared a single exposure of CSE to multiple exposures over an extended time course. A single exposure to CSE led to cell growth inhibition at multiple phases of the cell cycle without killing the cells. The decrease in proliferation was accompanied by increased ATM, p53, and p21 activity. However, several important senescent markers were not present in the cells at an earlier time point. When we examined multiple exposures to CSE, we found that the cells had profound growth arrest, a flat and enlarged morphology, upregulated p16, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, which is consistent with a classic senescent phenotype. These observations suggest that while a single exposure to cigarette smoke inhibits normal fibroblast proliferation (required for lung repair), multiple exposures to cigarette smoke move cells into an irreversible state of senescence. This inability to repair lung injury may be an essential feature of emphysema. PMID:16840774

  2. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations. PMID:22525279

  3. Passive Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Other Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Colleen S; Weinmann, Sheila; Riedlinger, Karen; Mullooly, John P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether passive cigarette smoke exposure increases the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease in children. Methods: In a population-based case-control study, 171 children aged 0 to 12 years with culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease during the years 1994 to 2004 were identified. Two controls were matched to each case on age and patterns of Health Plan membership. We reviewed medical records of subjects and family members for information on household cigarette smoke exposure within 2 years of the diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease. We collected information on sex, race, pneumococcal vaccination, selected medical conditions, and medications in the 3 months before the diagnosis. Results: Similar proportions of cases (25%) and controls (30%) had definite or probable passive smoke exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47–1.2). Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were more likely to be nonwhite than controls (OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.3–8.2). Elevated risk of invasive pneumococcal disease was found in subjects with recent pulmonary diagnoses (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2–4.0) and recent antibiotic use (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.3). Conclusions: Passive cigarette smoke exposure was not associated with invasive pneumococcal disease in this pediatric population. Invasive pneumococcal disease was associated with recent pulmonary diagnoses and recent antibiotic use. PMID:25431997

  4. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  5. EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a method for adjusting the analysis of occupational-environmental lung cancer risks for the effects of cigarette smoking in cohort and case control studies. he method uses a function that relates an individual's death rate to his age and cigarette smoking his...

  6. A study of the growth and decay of cigarette smoke NOx in ambient air under controlled conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C. ); Collishaw, N.E. )

    1987-01-01

    The amount of NO{sub 2} and NO produced by the machine smoking of cigarettes was determined for 15 commercial Canadian brands. Average yield of NO was 1.44 {mu}moles or about 13% of the average reported for American cigarettes. Levels of NO{sub 2} were all less than 12% of NO and were probably due to the oxidation of NO. In order to assess the contribution of tobacco smoke to levels of NO in ambient air, 5 brands of cigarettes were smoked in a 27 cubic meter controlled environment room. Ventilation conditions were either 2.5 or 5.0 air changes per hour (ACH) and each experiment was replicated 3 times for a total of 30 experiments. Ventilation rates of 0.3 and 1.5 ACH were also selected in a second series of experiments in which only one brand of cigarette was smoked. Least squares estimates for the effective ventilation rates were obtained in the usual manner after linearizing the decay portion of the NO time curve. In each of the experiments, the regression explained at least 95% of the variation in the levels of NO with time. Loss of NO due to factors other than ventilation appeared to be constant within experimental error and averaged 2.22 ACH. Equilibrium values for NO were grossly underestimated when results from currently accepted procedures for smoke analysis were used in modeling the growth and decay of NO. Goodness-of-fit was improved when equilibrium values were estimated based on observed levels in ambient air.

  7. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  8. Cigarette smoking behavior in conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, M E; Gritz, E R; Rose, J E

    1983-01-01

    A study of cigarette smoking was undertaken in a pair of craniopagus twins to determine how a transfer of products of smoking is occurring between the twins. Alternately and independently, one twin smoked a nicotine-free cigarette, then the second twin smoked a nicotine-containing cigarette. The procedure enabled the investigators to study the migration of nicotine and carbon monoxide from one twin to the other. Salivary determination provided a noninvasive method of measuring cross circulation in conjoined twins. Measurements of salivary nicotine, however, indicated that, although the nicotine levels rose following smoking, there was relatively little transfer from one twin to the other through the circulation. PMID:6673459

  9. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  10. Analysis of complex mixtures--cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, Michael; Klus, Hubert

    2005-07-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke is a complex mixture that is inhaled into the respiratory system. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of mainstream smoke are reviewed and briefly compared with that of sidestream smoke. Special attention is paid to ageing effects and artifact formation during the sampling and testing of cigarette smoke, with specific examples of artifact formation during sampling discussed (nitrogen dioxide, methyl nitrite, etc.). Historically, the generation of cigarette smoke for chemical and biological testing has been based on standard smoke generation procedures that are intended for product comparisons. More recently, emerging global regulations have called for alternative smoke generation methods, with emphasis on results relevant to conditions of product use, e.g., estimates of maximum smoke emissions. Strategies for establishing such alternative smoke generation methods are discussed and the potential effects of alternative smoking conditions on analytical accuracy and precision are addressed. Current regulatory requirements that include Hoffmann analyte analysis (i.e., constituents reported to be associated with the risks of cigarette smoking) are also summarized and the potential effect of alternative smoke generation methods on individual constituent yields considered. Finally, a limited critique of emerging regulation that relates to mainstream cigarette smoke measurements, including a discussion of recent WHO recommendations, is offered. PMID:16092717

  11. Candy cigarettes: do they encourage children's smoking?

    PubMed

    Klein, J D; Forehand, B; Oliveri, J; Patterson, C J; Kupersmidt, J B; Strecher, V

    1992-01-01

    Candy and bubble gum cigarettes are packaged to resemble cigarette brands, and so they may encourage young children to smoke. Two studies of the role of these products in the development of children's attitudes and behaviors toward smoking were conducted. In the first study, six focus group interviews were conducted with 25 children in three age groups (4 through 5, 6 through 8, and 9 through 11 years old). Children in each group were shown five candy and snack foods and asked about their opinions and experiences with each item. In the second study, 195 seventh-grade students in a southeastern city school system were surveyed about their cigarette smoking and candy cigarette use. In the focus groups, candy cigarettes were recognized by most children. Young children played with the candy cigarettes more than with other candy or snack items and made general references to smoking behaviors. Older children made favorable references to smoking behavior; most knew which stores sold candy cigarettes, and many had chosen to buy and use these items, despite parental disapproval. Candy cigarettes may play a role in the development of children's attitudes toward smoking as an acceptable, favorable, or normative behavior. Elimination of these products should be part of efforts to prevent initiation of smoking by children. PMID:1728016

  12. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  13. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p < 0.01) and Framingham reactive hyperemia (+28.3 ± 19.2% blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p < 0.0001), and the increase of systolic blood pressure (+8.4 ± 0.02% blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p < 0.05) after cigarette smoking. No effect was observed for arterial stiffness and other vital signs. In conclusion, data obtained suggest a protective role of blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:25263326

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  15. Peer Influences on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Prospective Sibling Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jennifer S.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Studied role of nonshared parent and peer influences on siblings as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking onset. Found peer influences were predictors of smoking onset when shared influences were controlled. Nonshared peer influences on siblings were stronger in educated families. Findings highlight utility of controlling for shared…

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, S.

    1987-06-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (P/sub TR/), pulmonary artery pressure (P/sub PA/), systemic blood pressure (P/sub SYST/), and left atrium pressure (P/sub LA/); and decreasing cardiac output (Q/sub AORTA/) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (Q/sub LLL/). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV/sub 1.0/ in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. The authors demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. They also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated.

  17. Cigarette smoking and survival after ovarian cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Christina M; Bain, Christopher J; Webb, Penelope M

    2006-12-01

    We have examined the association between cigarette smoking and ovarian cancer survival in 676 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, recruited into a case-control study in the early 1990s. Information about cigarette smoking and other personal and reproductive factors was obtained from a personal interview at the time of diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and time to ovarian cancer death. Current smokers at diagnosis were more likely to die early than women who had never smoked [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.01-1.84]. Increased risks of dying were greater among those who had accumulated more pack-years of smoking (HR for 30+ pack-years compared with never smokers, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.41-2.66) and smoked more cigarettes per day (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.37-2.73). All these associations were stronger among women with late-stage disease (HR for current versus never smokers, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.15-2.18). Time since quitting had little effect on survival after adjusting for lifetime smoking exposure. These results validate and extend recent findings and suggest that premorbid cigarette smoking is related to worse outcome in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:17164386

  18. An Ecological View of Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Evidence indicates many smokers use cigarettes as an important aid to coping and as an ego-enhancer. Paper read at the American Cancer Society Conference on Smoking in Tucson, Arizona, on March 30 and 31, 1972. (DS)

  19. BEHAVIOR OF CIGARETTE SMOKE IN HUMAN AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental deposition patterns of cigarette smoke in surrogate human airway systems are very heterogeneous. article deposits are enhanced at predictable, well-defined morphological regions; most specifically, carinal ridges within bifurcation zones, and along posterior sections...

  20. E-Cigarettes a Gateway to Smoking for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159340.html E-Cigarettes a Gateway to Smoking for Teens: Study ... who had never smoked, but who had used e-cigarettes, were substantially more likely to begin smoking ...

  1. Magnitudes of biomarker reductions in response to controlled reductions in cigarettes smoked per day: a one-week clinical confinement study.

    PubMed

    Theophilus, Eugenia H; Coggins, Christopher R E; Chen, Peter; Schmidt, Eckhardt; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco toxicant-related exposure reduction is an important tool in harm reduction. Cigarette per day reduction (CPDR) occurs as smokers migrate from smoking cigarettes to using alternative tobacco/nicotine products, or quit smoking. Few reports characterize the dose-response relationships between CPDR and effects on exposure biomarkers, especially at the low end of CPD exposure (e.g., 5 CPD). We present data on CPDR by characterizing magnitudes of biomarker reductions. We present data from a well-controlled, one-week clinical confinement study in healthy smokers who were switched from smoking 19-25 CPD to smoking 20, 10, 5 or 0 CPD. Biomarkers were measured in blood, plasma, urine, and breath, and included smoke-related toxicants, urine mutagenicity, smoked cigarette filter analyses (mouth level exposure), and vital signs. Many of the biomarkers (e.g., plasma nicotine) showed strong CPDR dose-response reductions, while others (e.g., plasma thiocyanate) showed weaker dose-response reductions. Factors that lead to lower biomarker reductions include non-CPD related contributors to the measured response (e.g., other exposure sources from environment, life style, occupation; inter-individual variability). This study confirms CPDR dose-responsive biomarkers and suggests that a one-week design is appropriate for characterizing exposure reductions when smokers switch from cigarettes to new tobacco products. PMID:25572415

  2. Characteristics of smoking used cigarettes among an incarcerated population.

    PubMed

    Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J; Roberts, Mary B; Bock, Beth C; Stein, L A R; Parker, Donna R; Friedmann, Peter D; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as "smoking used cigarettes." Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes ("butts"), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a U.S. prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using 3 questions; 1 about sharing cigarettes with strangers, 1 about smoking a "found" cigarette, and 1 about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared with those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least 1 smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the United States. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25180554

  3. Is the Exhaled Breath Temperature Sensitive to Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Ruggieri, Cinzia; Scioscia, Giulia; Storto, Maria Maddalena Lo; Zoppo, Luigi; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    The smoking habit is accompanied by an acute inflammatory response which follows tissue injury. It would be desirable to find a non-invasive inflammatory marker that would simplify the task of studying and monitoring smokers more simply and allow us to identify populations at risk of contracting Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Today's expectations regarding research focus on issues ranging from inflammatory markers to those of exhaled breath temperature (EBT) are considerable. That said, although the EBT has been largely studied in asthma and COPD, there have not been any studies thus far that have analysed the effect of cigarette smoking on the EBT.  Bearing this in mind, in this longitudinal study we aim to analyse the EBT in current smokers, monitor the effects both of cigarette smoking on EBT and of what happens after smoking cessation. Twenty-five (25) smokers (59.5 ± 3.1 yrs, 12 M) who participated in a multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme and 25 healthy never-smokers (58.7 ± 2.9, 13 M) underwent EBT measurement. EBT values were higher in smokers before smoking (T0) than in never-smokers [34.6 (34.2-35) vs 33.2 (32.4-33.7)°C, p < 0.001. The smokers repeated measurement 5 minutes after smoking a cigarette (T1) and 2 hours after (T2). They repeated EBC measurement after 1 week (T3) and then after 3 months (T4) from smoking cessation. EBT is higher in smokers compared to controls. EBT increases after cigarette smoking and progressively decreases with the increase of time from when the last cigarette was smoked.  Thus, we can conclude that EBT is increased in smokers and also sensitive to the acute effect of cigarette smoke. PMID:26934668

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:18639603

  5. Cigarette smoking and thinning of the brain's cortex.

    PubMed

    Karama, S; Ducharme, S; Corley, J; Chouinard-Decorte, F; Starr, J M; Wardlaw, J M; Bastin, M E; Deary, I J

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but the extent of the association between smoking and structural brain changes remains unclear. Importantly, it is unknown whether smoking-related brain changes are reversible after smoking cessation. We analyzed data on 504 subjects with recall of lifetime smoking data and a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at age 73 years from which measures of cortical thickness were extracted. Multiple regression analyses were performed controlling for gender and exact age at scanning. To determine dose-response relationships, the association between smoking pack-years and cortical thickness was tested and then repeated, while controlling for a comprehensive list of covariates including, among others, cognitive ability before starting smoking. Further, we tested associations between cortical thickness and number of years since last cigarette, while controlling for lifetime smoking. There was a diffuse dose-dependent negative association between smoking and cortical thickness. Some negative dose-dependent cortical associations persisted after controlling for all covariates. Accounting for total amount of lifetime smoking, the cortex of subjects who stopped smoking seems to have partially recovered for each year without smoking. However, it took ~25 years for complete cortical recovery in affected areas for those at the mean pack-years value in this sample. As the cortex thins with normal aging, our data suggest that smoking is associated with diffuse accelerated cortical thinning, a biomarker of cognitive decline in adults. Although partial recovery appears possible, it can be a long process. PMID:25666755

  6. Naloxone does not affect cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Nemeth-Coslett, R; Griffiths, R R

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide information about the hypothesis that endogenous opioids mediate the reinforcing properties of cigarette smoking, the present study examined the effects of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, on cigarette smoking in seven normal volunteers. The study used experimental procedures that had previously been shown sensitive for detecting the effects of other drugs, (including a nicotine antagonist) on smoking. Isolated subjects smoked their regular brand of cigarettes freely in a naturalistic laboratory environment while watching television or reading. Sixty minutes before each 2 h smoking session subjects received an IM injection of naloxone HCl (0.0625, 0.25, 1.0, or 4.0 mg/kg) or placebo. Each subject received each treatment three times in a mixed order across days. Naloxone did not significantly affect any measure of cigarette smoking including number of cigarettes, number of puffs, or expired air carbon monoxide level. Naloxone did, however, produce significant dose-related increases in subject ratings of yawning, stretching, and relaxation. The results of the present study provide no support for the endogenous opioid theory of smoking reinforcement. PMID:3088648

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  8. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Sees, K L

    1990-01-01

    Since the 1988 Surgeon General's report on nicotine addiction, more attention is being given to nicotine dependence as a substantial contributing factor in cigarette smokers' inability to quit. Many new medications are being investigated for treating nicotine withdrawal and for assisting in long-term smoking abstinence. Medications alone probably will not be helpful; they should be used as adjuncts in comprehensive smoking abstinence programs that address not only the physical dependence on nicotine but also the psychological dependence on cigarette smoking. PMID:2190425

  9. Effect of solvent and extraction methods on the bacterial mutagenicity of sidestream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.

  10. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in relation to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Yoshikazu; Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fukamachi, Kayoko; Sato, Ikuro; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    An association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk has been hypothesized. However, results from previous studies have been inconsistent. This case-control study investigated the association of cigarette smoking with breast cancer risk in terms of estrogen-receptor/progesterone-receptor (ER/PgR) status. From among female patients aged 30 years and over admitted to a single hospital in Japan between 1997 and 2011, 1,263 breast cancer cases (672 ER+/PgR+, 158 ER+/PgR-, 22 ER-/PgR+, 308 ER-/PgR- and 103 missing) and 3,160 controls were selected. History of smoking (ever, never), some smoking-related measures, and passive smoking from husbands (ever, never) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Polytomous logistic regression and tests for heterogeneity across ER+/PgR + and ER-/PgR- were conducted. For any hormone receptor subtype, no significant association was observed between history of smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk. Analysis of smoking-related measures revealed that starting to smoke at an early age of ≤19 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer (odds ratio = 7.01, 95% confidence interval: 2.07-23.73). Other measures of smoking such as the number of cigarettes per day, the duration of smoking, and start of smoking before the first birth were not associated with breast cancer risk for any receptor subtype. There was no association between passive smoking (ever, never) and breast cancer risk for any of the four subtypes. These results indicate that history of smoking and passive smoking from husbands may have no overall effect on breast cancer risk for any hormone receptor subtype. However, it is possible that women who start to smoke as teenagers may have a higher risk of developing postmenopausal ER-/PgR- cancer. Further studies are needed to clarify the association of smoking with breast cancer risk, especially the role of starting to smoke at an early age. PMID

  11. Vascular effects of cigarette smoke in isolated pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, M.J.; Sylvester, J.T.; Kennedy, T.P.; Menkes, H.A.; Traystman, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    To determine the local effects of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary vasculature, we measured pulmonary artery pressure--flow curves in isolated, blood-perfused pig lungs before and after 4 exposures to cigarette smoke. During each exposure, smoke was administered into the trachea for 3 to 4 min at a rate of 20 to 25 puffs/min and a puff volume of 35 to 50 ml with a smoking machine. During hypoxia (inspired PO2, 50 mmHg), when baseline vasomotor tone was high, cigarette smoke caused an acute transient vasodilation. During control (inspired PO2, 200 mmHg), when baseline tone was low, no significant effect was observed. In addition to this acute effect, cigarette smoke caused a depression of the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia, which developed gradually during the course of the experiment. Indomethacin, at perfusate concentrations of 20 and 100 micrograms/ml, did not significantly alter the acute vasodilating effect of smoking, suggesting that prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenase were not the mediators of this response. Indomethacin did, however, prevent the gradual depression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia.

  12. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vani, G.; Anbarasi, K.; Shyamaladevi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke. PMID:26413118

  13. Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Tobacco use is the leading ... This measure is calculated by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease ...

  14. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  15. Percentage of U.S. Adults Who Smoke Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coverage Percentage of Adults Who Smoke Cigarettes by Medicaid Coverage 6mph-3zwu Download these data » Click on ... Coverage Percentage of Adults Who Smoke Cigarettes by Medicare Coverage 5pgf-ueam Download these data » Click on ...

  16. Explaining adolescents' cigarette smoking: a comparison of four modes of action control and test of the role of self-regulatory mode.

    PubMed

    Rivis, Amanda; Sheeran, Paschal; Armitage, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    The present study compared how well four modes of action control (intentional, habitual, reactive and stereotype activation) explain adolescents' cigarette smoking, and examined whether individual differences in self-regulation (locomotion and assessment tendencies; Higgins, Kruglanski, & Pierro, 2003) moderate the behavioural impact of the respective modes. Findings from a prospective questionnaire survey showed that (a) willingness, prototype perceptions and past behaviour--but not intention--predicted smoking behaviour, and explained 63% of the variance, and (b) the assessment mode of self-regulation moderated the past behaviour-future behaviour relation such that past behaviour had less impact on future smoking behaviour at high levels of assessment. These findings suggest that adolescents' smoking is controlled by stereotype activation, habitual and reactive processes. Implications of the results for designing effective adolescent smoking cessation programmes are considered. PMID:20204964

  17. Microcirculatory dysfunction induced by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Lehr, H A

    2000-12-01

    This review deals with the deleterious effects of cigarette smroking on the microcirculation, both in terms of morphological (i.e., vessel wall injury, capillary loss) and functional aspects. The latter concerns predominantly changes in tissue perfusion and its regullatory mechanisms (i.e., reactive hyperemia, sequestration of blood cells in the microcirculation). The mechanisms of action of cigarette smoking on the microcirculation include compromised endothelial-dependent voasorelaxation, platelet aggregation, emdothelial cell dysfunction and the activation of circulating leukocytes. Through these mechanisms, cigarette smoking elicits the aggregation and adhesion of leukocytes and/or platelets to the microvascular endothelium in venules and arterioles, as assessed by intravital fluorescence microscopy in the hamster skinfold chamber model. This model has allowed us to learn more about the participation of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory mediators, and adhesion molecules in the orchestration of microcirculatory dysfunction after cigarette smoking. In the final part of this review, the clinical consequences of microcirculatory dysfunction are discussed and an outlook is offered on potential prophylactic interventions (i.e., antioxidant vitamins) aimed at abrogating the deleterious action of cigarette smoking on the microcirculation. PMID:11142334

  18. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  19. Determinants of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Jordanian Schoolchildren: Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Attonito, Jennifer; Madhivanan, Purnima; Yi, Qilong; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify determinants of cigarette smoking initiation, by gender, among schoolchildren in Irbid, Jordan. Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, data were collected annually using self-reported questionnaires over 4-years in a prospective cohort of 1,781 students recruited from all 7th grade classes in 19 secondary schools, selected out of a total 60, using probability-proportionate-to-size method. Independent predictors of smoking initiation were identified among the cigarette naïve participants (N = 1,454) with mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. Results: Participants were 12.6 years of age on average at baseline. 29.8% of the 1,454 students (37.2% of boys and 23.7% of girls) initiated cigarette smoking by 10th grade. Of those who initiated (n = 498), 47.2% of boys and 37.2% of girls initiated smoking in the 8th grade. Determinants of cigarette smoking initiation included ever smoking a waterpipe, low cigarette refusal self-efficacy, intention to start smoking cigarettes, and having friends who smoked. For girls, familial smoking was also predictive of cigarette initiation. Conclusion: This study shows that many Jordanian youth have an intention to initiate cigarette smoking and are susceptible to cigarette smoking modeled by peers and that girls are influenced as well by familial cigarette smoking. Prevention efforts should be tailored to address culturally relevant gender norms, help strengthen adolescents’ self-efficacy to refuse cigarettes, and foster strong non-smoking social norms. PMID:25143297

  20. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M A

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  1. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  2. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  4. Adult Smokers’ Reactions to Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Thailand and Moderating Effects of Type of Cigarette Smoked: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, we aimed to examine, in Thailand, the impact on smokers’ reported awareness of and their cognitive and behavioral reactions following the change from text-only to pictorial warnings printed on cigarette packs. We also sought to explore differences by type of cigarette smoked (roll-your-own [RYO] vs. factory-made [FM] cigarettes). Methods: Data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey, conducted in Thailand and Malaysia, where a representative sample of 2,000 adult smokers from each country were recruited and followed up. We analyzed data from one wave before (Wave 1) and two waves after the implementation of the new pictorial warnings (two sets introduced at Waves 2 and 3, respectively) in Thailand, with Malaysia, having text-only warnings, serving as a control. Results: Following the warning label change in Thailand, smokers’ reported awareness and their cognitive and behavioral reactions increased markedly, with the cognitive and behavioral effects sustained at the next follow-up. By contrast, no significant change was observed in Malaysia over the same period. Compared to smokers who smoke any FM cigarettes, smokers of only RYO cigarettes reported a lower salience but greater cognitive reactions to the new pictorial warnings. Conclusions: The new Thai pictorial health warning labels have led to a greater impact than the text-only warning labels, and refreshing the pictorial images may have helped sustain effects. This finding provides strong support for introducing pictorial warning labels in low- and middle-income countries, where the benefits may be even greater, given the lower literacy rates and generally lower levels of readily available health information on the risks of smoking. PMID:23291637

  5. Alteration of sperm protein profile induced by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Xu, Wangjie; Miao, Maohua; Zhu, Zijue; Dai, Jingbo; Chen, Zhong; Fang, Peng; Wu, Junqing; Nie, Dongsheng; Wang, Lianyun; Wang, Zhaoxia; Qiao, Zhongdong; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with lower semen quality, but how cigarette smoking changes the semen quality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to screen the differentially expressed proteins in the sperm of mice with daily exposure to cigarette smoke. The 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses results showed that the mouse sperm protein profile was altered by cigarette smoking. And 22 of the most abundant proteins that correspond to differentially expressed spots in 2DE gels of the sperm samples were identified. These proteins were classified into different groups based on their functions, such as energy metabolism, reproduction, and structural molecules. Furthermore, the 2DE and MS results of five proteins (Aldoa, ATP5a1, Gpx4, Cs, and Spatc1) were validated by western blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results showed that except Spatc1 the other four proteins showed statistically significant different protein levels between the smoking group and the control group (P < 0.05). The expressions of three genes (Aldoa, Gpx4, and Spatc1) were significantly different (P < 0.05) at transcription level between the smoking group and the control group. In addition, five proteins (Aldoa, ATP5a1, Spatc1, Cs, and Gpx4) in human sperm samples from 30 male smokers and 30 non-smokers were detected by western blot analysis. Two proteins (Aldoa and Cs) that are associated with energy production were found to be significantly altered, suggesting that these proteins may be potential diagnostic markers for evaluation of smoking risk in sperm. Further study of these proteins may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying infertility in smoking persons. PMID:26063603

  6. Up in Smoke: How Cigarettes Came to be a Controlled Substance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Allan M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the popularity of smoking in the twentieth-century United States and the government's attempts to educate the public to the health risks of tobacco. Examines the surgeon general's reports, the tobacco lobby's response, and the use of mass media advertising by both. Suggests that the United States needs to rethink the nature of behavioral…

  7. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Karp, Igor; Koulis, Theodoro; Paradis, Gilles; Difranza, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Few prospective studies of smoking initiation have investigated a wide range of time-varying and invariant predictor variables at the individual and contextual levels concurrently. In this study (1999-2005), 877 Canadian students (mean age = 12.7 years) who had never smoked at baseline completed self-report questionnaires on cigarette smoking and 32 predictor variables in 20 survey cycles during secondary school. Height and weight were measured in survey cycles 1, 12, and 19. School administrators completed questionnaires on school tobacco control policies/activities, and trained observers collected data on access to tobacco products in commercial establishments near schools. Younger age, single-parent family status, smoking by parents, siblings, friends, and school staff, stress, impulsivity, lower self-esteem, feeling a need to smoke, not doing well at school, susceptibility to tobacco advertising, alcohol use, use of other tobacco products, and attending a smoking-tolerant school were independent determinants of smoking initiation. Independent determinants of daily smoking onset among initiators of nondaily smoking included smoking by siblings and friends, feeling a need to smoke, susceptibility to tobacco advertising, use of other tobacco products, and self-perceived mental and physical addiction. Adolescent tobacco control programs should address multiple individual and contextual-level risk factors. Strategies that address nicotine dependence symptoms are also needed for adolescents who have already initiated smoking. PMID:19635735

  8. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  9. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  10. The Implications of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke for Cardiovascular Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurshman, Larry G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Non-smokers exposed to emissions from a burning cigarette in ambient air demonstrate measureable physiological responses. The study showed that work capacity was reduced as a result of exposure to their sidestream cigarette smoke. (RE)

  11. Associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mikuls, Ted R.; Sayles, Harlan; Yu, Fang; LeVan, Tricia; Gould, Karen A.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Conn, Doyt; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Reynolds, Richard; Bridges, S. Louis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African Americans and to determine to whether this association is impacted by HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). Methods Smoking status, cumulative smoking exposure, and SE status were measured in African American patients with RA and in healthy controls. Associations of smoking with RA were examined using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression. Additive and multiplicative SE-smoking interactions were examined. Results After adjusting for age and gender, ever (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) and current smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.26) were more common in African American RA cases (n = 605) than in controls (n = 255). The association of smoking with RA was limited to those with a cumulative exposure exceeding 10 pack-years, associations that were evident in both autoantibody positive and negative disease. There was evidence of a significant additive interaction between SE status and heavy smoking (≥ 10 pack-years) in RA risk (attributable proportion due to interaction [AP] of 0.58, p = 0.007) with an AP of 0.47 (p = 0.006) between SE status and ever smoking. There was no evidence of multiplicative interactions. Conclusion Among African Americans, cigarette smoking is associated not only with the risk of autoantibody positive RA but also with the risk of autoantibody negative disease. RA risk attributable to smoking is limited to African Americans with more than 10 pack-years of exposure and is more pronounced among individuals positive for HLA-DRB1 SE. PMID:20722010

  12. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(α)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of

  13. Deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, F.C.; McCusker, K.T.; Mazumder, M.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Bone, R.C.

    1982-04-01

    Measurement of deposition of sidestream cigarette smoke in the human respiratory tract is important for assessing the health effects of sidestream cigarette smoke. We measured the deposition fraction of sidestream cigarette smoke in 5 normal adult male volunteers using sidestream smoke at a concentration similar to that encountered indoors with smokers present. The mean deposition was 11%. These data indicate that the deposition fraction of sidestream smoke is similar to other previously studied aerosols in the same size range and is much less than mainstream smoke.

  14. Determination of toxic carbonyl compounds in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2006-02-01

    Toxic carbonyl compounds, including formaldehyde, malonaldehyde, and glyoxal, formed in mainstream cigarette smoke were quantified by derivatization-solid phase extraction-gas chromatography methods. Cigarette smoke from 14 commercial brands and one reference (2R1F) was drawn into a separatory funnel containing aqueous phosphate-buffered saline. Reactive carbonyl compounds trapped in the buffer solution were derivatized into stable nitrogen containing compounds (pyrazoles for beta-dicarbonyl and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde; quinoxalines for alpha-dicarbonyls; and thiazolidines for alkanals). After derivatives were recovered using C(18) solid phase extraction cartridges, they were analyzed quantitatively by a gas chromatograph with a nitrogen phosphorus detector. The total carbonyl compounds recovered from regular size cigarettes ranged from 1.92 mg/cigarette(-1) to 3.14 mg/cigarette(-1). The total carbonyl compounds recovered from a reference cigarette and a king size cigarette were 3.23 mg/cigarette(-1) and 3.39 mg/cigarette(-1), respectively. The general decreasing order of the carbonyl compounds yielded was acetaldehyde (1110-2101 microg/cigarette(-1)) > diacetyl (301-433 microg/cigarette(-1)), acrolein (238-468 microg/cigarette(-1)) > formaldehyde (87.0-243 microg/cigarette(-1)), propanal (87.0-176 microg/cigarette(-1)) > malonaldehyde (18.9-36.0 microg/cigarette(-1)), methylglyoxal (13.4-59.6 microg/cigarette(-1)) > glyoxal (1.93-6.98 microg/cigarette(-1)). PMID:16463255

  15. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  16. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  17. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response.

    PubMed

    Menegali, Bruno T; Nesi, Renata T; Souza, Priscila S; Silva, Luciano A; Silveira, Paulo C L; Valença, Samuel S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-12-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in

  18. Coordinate Control of Expression of Nrf2-Modulated Genes in the Human Small Airway Epithelium Is Highly Responsive to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Ralf-Harto; Schwartz, Jamie D; De Bishnu, P; Ferris, Barbara; Omberg, Larsson; Mezey, Jason G; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an oxidant-responsive transcription factor known to induce detoxifying and antioxidant genes. Cigarette smoke, with its large oxidant content, is a major stress on the cells of small airway epithelium, which are vulnerable to oxidant damage. We assessed the role of cigarette smoke in activation of Nrf2 in the human small airway epithelium in vivo. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used to sample the small airway epithelium in healthy-nonsmoker and healthy-smoker, and gene expression was assessed using microarrays. Relative to nonsmokers, Nrf2 protein in the small airway epithelium of smokers was activated and localized in the nucleus. The human homologs of 201 known murine Nrf2-modulated genes were identified, and 13 highly smoking-responsive Nrf2-modulated genes were identified. Construction of an Nrf2 index to assess the expression levels of these 13 genes in the airway epithelium of smokers showed coordinate control, an observation confirmed by quantitative PCR. This coordinate level of expression of the 13 Nrf2-modulated genes was independent of smoking history or demographic parameters. The Nrf2 index was used to identify two novel Nrf2-modulated, smoking-responsive genes, pirin (PIR) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1-family polypeptide A4 (UGT1A4). Both genes were demonstrated to contain functional antioxidant response elements in the promoter region. These observations suggest that Nrf2 plays an important role in regulating cellular defenses against smoking in the highly vulnerable small airway epithelium cells, and that there is variability within the human population in the Nrf2 responsiveness to oxidant burden. PMID:19593404

  19. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001. PMID:20687040

  20. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  1. Teen Smoking Down, E-Cigarette Use Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159286.html Teen Smoking Down, E-Cigarette Use Up CDC survey finds ... are getting some health messages loud and clear. Smoking among high school students is at an all- ...

  2. Trends in major risk factors. Cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this paper is to examine the role of smoking as a risk factor in coronary heart disease, starting with a brief history of smoking in the U.K. and a reminder of the epidemiological evidence linking smoking and cardiovascular disease. This is followed by a more detailed look at the trends in consumption of tobacco and the major factors influencing those trends, together with an outline of the main components of a smoking control policy designed to combat our epidemic of smoking-induced disease. PMID:6694941

  3. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  4. Earlier Joint Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Low Perceived Self-control as Predictors of Later Poor Health for Women in their Mid-60s

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current study was designed to assess the prospective relationship between the earlier joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and low perceived self-control (X¯ age = 40-48) and later health problems (X¯ age = 65.2) within a community sample of understudied females. Methods: The participants were given self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of the growth mixture model suggested 5 joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and perceived self-control, which consisted of 1 at-risk group (chronic smoking and low perceived self-control), 1 low-risk group (infrequent or nonsmoking and high perceived self-control), and 3 intermediate groups (i.e., high on one factor and low on the other). The results from logistic regression analyses supported a model by which (a) women in the at-risk group, in comparison with the low-risk group, were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; p < .001) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 5.98; p < .001); (b) women in the at-risk group as compared with women in the intermediate groups were also more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.36; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.86; p < .01); and (c) women in the intermediate group were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.04; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.09; p < .05) than women in the low-risk group. Conclusions: The findings highlight the significance of targeting dispositional factors (e.g., perceived self-control) in conjunction with smoking in designing programs for promoting the health of women in midlife. PMID:22193579

  5. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  6. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  7. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Lv, Gang; Wang, Yan-song; Guo, Zhan-peng

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether cigarette smoke has neuroprotective or toxic effects on spinal cord injury (SCI). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were included in the study and received either cigarette smoke exposure or fresh air exposure. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke or fresh air exposure, all rats were injured at thoracic level 12 (T12), using an established static compression model. Our data showed that the cigarette smoke group had higher water content; higher permeability of the blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB); higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) protein expression, and mRNA levels; and lower glutathione (GSH) levels than the control group values at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after SCI. There was no significant difference in these between the cigarette smoke group and the control group at 0 h after SCI. The results of the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) hindlimb locomotor rating scale showed that rats in the cigarette smoke group had greater dysfunction in hindlimb movement than did rats in control group from 2 to day 6 after SCI. The extent of recovery did not make any difference from day 7 to day 10 after SCI between the cigarette smoke group and the control group. These results suggested that cigarette smoke can reinforce the oxidative stress injury via HIF-1α and AQP4 in the early stage after SCI. It is possible that cigarette smoke exposure does not affect SCI recovery in the long term; however, it can aggravate the edema and deteriorate BSCB disruption via HIF-1α and AQP4 in the early stage after SCI. More studies will be essential to consider this hypothesis and elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:23234244

  8. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  9. Smoking control and cessation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, I A

    Over the last 30 years the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adults in the UK has fallen to around 30%. Smoking will still kill 100,000 people each year well into the next century. Smoking in children is related to whether their parents smoke. Moves to reduce smoking in adults will therefore reduce smoking in children. The Government should be urged to raise taxes on cigarettes and ban advertising. Smoking should be banned from all health care premises. Hospitals should be encouraged to appoint smoking cessation counsellors to work with both staff and patients. PMID:8348004

  10. Educational attainment and cigarette smoking: a causal association?†

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Stephen E; Martin, Laurie T; Abrams, David B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura; Loucks, Eric B; Rende, Richard; Rudd, Rima; Buka, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that lower education is associated with a higher risk of smoking, whether the association is causal has not been convincingly established. Methods We investigated the association between education and lifetime smoking patterns in a birth cohort established in 1959 and followed through adulthood (n = 1311). We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders that were measured prior to school entry, and also estimated sibling fixed effects models to control for unmeasured familial vulnerability to smoking. Results In the full sample of participants, regression analyses adjusting for multiple childhood factors (including socioeconomic status, IQ, behavioural problems, and medical conditions) indicated that the number of pack-years smoked was higher among individuals with less than high school education [rate ratio (RR) = 1.58, confidence interval (CI) = 1.31, 1.91]. However, in the sibling fixed effects analysis the RR was 1.23 (CI = 0.80, 1.93). Similarly, adjusted models estimated in the full sample showed that individuals with less than high school education had fewer short-term (RR = 0.40; CI = 0.23, 0.69) and long-term (RR = 0.59; CI = 0.42, 0.83) quit attempts, and were less likely to quit smoking (odds ratio = 0.34; CI = 0.19, 0.62). The effects of education on quitting smoking were attenuated in the sibling fixed effects models that controlled for familial vulnerability to smoking. Conclusions A substantial portion of the education differential in smoking that has been repeatedly observed is attributable to factors shared by siblings that contribute to shortened educational careers and to lifetime smoking trajectories. Reducing disparities in cigarette smoking, including educational disparities, may therefore require approaches that focus on factors early in life that influence smoking risk over the adult life span. PMID:18180240

  11. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  12. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  13. Cigarette smoke inhalation and the acute airway response.

    PubMed Central

    Higenbottam, T; Feyeraband, C; Clark, T J

    1980-01-01

    The acute airway response to smoking varying numbers (one to four) of identical cigarettes in rapid succession and smoking single cigarettes of differing tar/nicotine yields was assessed repeatedly in 13 healthy smokers. The airway response was variable, indicating airway narrowing consistently in only three subjects. There appeared no difference between forced spirometry and measurement of airway resistance in detecting the airway response. No relationship was observed between the airway response and amount of smoke inhaled into the lungs as measured either by changes in venous blood nicotine or percentage carboxyhaemoglobin. When five smokers inhaled smoke directly from a cigarette acute airway narrowing was consistently observed. A normal smoking pattern consisting of an initial drag of smoke into the mouth, followed after a pause by inhalation of smoke diluted with air, did not consistently cause airway narrowing although similar amounts of smoke as the direct drag were inhaled as assessed by changes in venous blood nicotine. The manner of smoke inhalation affects the relative concentrations of the different constituents of smoke reaching the lungs and also appears to be the main determinant of the acute airway response to smoking, which was unrelated to the number of cigarettes smoked or the tar content of the smoke. This suggests that patterns of smoke inhalation may influence the pathogenesis of bronchial disease associated with smoking. PMID:7434266

  14. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on microcirculation of the thumb.

    PubMed

    van Adrichem, L N; Hovius, S E; van Strik, R; van der Meulen, J C

    1992-01-01

    The acute effect of smoking on the microcirculation of the skin of the thumb was investigated in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two were smokers and 10 were non-smokers. The flow was assessed by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. The smokers inhaled 2 cigarettes. During smoking of their first and second cigarette respectively, a mean decrease in laser Doppler flow of 23.8% and 29.0% was seen (p = 0.03; p = 0.01). Ten minutes after smoking this decrease was recovered by half. This experiment confirms that one should prohibit smoking of cigarettes pre- and postoperatively for optimal wound healing conditions. PMID:1737221

  15. Brain oxidative damage restored by Sesbania grandiflora in cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Thiyagarajan; Sureka, Chandrabose; Bhuvana, Shanmugham; Begum, Vavamohaideen Hazeena

    2015-08-01

    Cigarette smoking has been associated with high risk of neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, etc., The present study was designed to evaluate the restorative effects of Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) on oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in the brain of rats. Adult male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 90 days and consecutively treated with S. grandiflora aqueous suspension (SGAS, 1000 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage) for a period of 3 weeks. The levels of protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, and activities of cytochrome P450, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of total thiol, protein thiol, non-protein thiol, nucleic acids, tissue protein and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase were significantly diminished in the brain of rats exposed to cigarette smoke as compared with control rats. Also cigarette smoke exposure resulted in a significant alteration in brain total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids content. Treatment of SGAS is regressed these alterations induced by cigarette smoke. The results of our study suggest that S. grandiflora restores the brain from cigarette smoke induced oxidative damage. S. grandiflora could have rendered protection to the brain by stabilizing their cell membranes and prevented the protein oxidation, probably through its free radical scavenging and anti-peroxidative effect. PMID:25620659

  16. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  17. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  18. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  19. Smoking and interstitial lung disease. The effect of cigarette smoking on the incidence of pulmonary histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Hance, A J; Basset, F; Saumon, G; Danel, C; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Chrétien, J; Georges, R

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking produces marked alterations in the lung parenchyma and in the population of immune and inflammatory cells present in the lower respiratory tract. These cigarette-induced changes appear to influence the incidence of two different interstitial lung diseases, histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Smoking is a strong risk factor for the development of pulmonary histiocytosis X, since the incidence of smoking is very high among patients with histiocytosis X: 90% of the patients with histiocytosis X were smokers; 46% of the controls were smokers (p less than .001). In contrast, smoking appears to reduce the incidence of sarcoidosis: 31% of the patients with sarcoidosis were smokers (p less than .05 compared to controls). In an effort to understand how cigarette smoking influences the incidence of these two disorders, we compared the numbers and types of immune and inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from nonsmoking and smoking controls and patients with histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. Although nonsmoking patients with histiocytosis X did not have a significant increase in the number of alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage (p greater than .2 compared to normals), smoking patients had an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages similar to that observed in the control population. In contrast, the number of macrophages recovered from patients with sarcoidosis who smoked was considerably less than that observed in normal smokers (p less than .05 comparing patients with sarcoidosis and controls who smoked 1-20 cigarettes/day). This difference in the intensity of the cigarette-induced macrophage alveolitis observed in the two patient groups may be important in explaining the opposite effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of histiocytosis X and sarcoidosis. PMID:3488004

  20. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  1. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. PMID:26585203

  2. Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, P J; Gupta, R R

    1990-01-01

    Studies were done to evaluate the lower oesophageal sphincter function of chronic smokers compared with non-smokers and to ascertain the acute effects of smoking on the sphincter and the occurrence of acid reflux. All subjects (non-smokers, asymptomatic cigarette smokers, and smokers with oesophagitis) were studied postprandially with a lower oesophageal sphincter sleeve assembly, distal oesophageal pH electrode, and submental electromyographic electrodes. The two groups of cigarette smokers then smoked three cigarettes in succession before being recorded for an additional hour. As a group, the cigarette smokers had significantly lower lower oesophageal sphincter pressure compared with non-smokers but the sphincter was not further compromised by acutely smoking cigarettes. Cigarette smoking did, however, acutely increase the rate at which acid reflux events occurred. The mechanisms of acid reflux during cigarette smoking were mainly dependent upon the coexistence of diminished lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. Fewer than half of reflux events occurred by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. The majority of acid reflux occurred with coughing or deep inspiration during which abrupt increases in intra-abdominal pressure overpowered a feeble sphincter. We conclude that cigarette smoking probably exacerbates reflux disease by directly provoking acid reflux and perhaps by a long lasting reduction of lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. PMID:2318431

  3. Cigarette smoking and the development of premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Hankinson, Susan E; Johnson, Susan R; Manson, Joann E

    2008-10-15

    Moderate to severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects as many as 20% of premenopausal women. Although smoking may be more common in women with PMS, it is unknown whether smoking is involved in PMS etiology. In 1991-2001, the authors conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II. Participants were US women aged 27-44 years and free of PMS at baseline, including 1,057 who developed PMS over 10 years and 1,968 reporting no diagnosis of PMS and only minimal menstrual symptoms during this time. Smoking at various ages was assessed by questionnaires. After adjustment for oral contraceptives and other factors, current smokers were 2.1 times as likely as never smokers to develop PMS over the next 2-4 years (95% confidence interval: 1.56, 2.83). Total pack-years and smoking during adolescence and young adulthood were also independently associated with a higher risk of PMS. For example, the relative risk for women who started smoking before age 15 years, compared with never smokers, was 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.70, 3.76). Results suggest that smoking, especially in adolescence and young adulthood, may increase risk of moderate to severe PMS. These findings may provide an additional incentive for young women to avoid cigarette smoking. PMID:18701443

  4. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  5. Psychosocial determinants of cigarette smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Kear, Mavra E

    2002-01-01

    Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents and adults consistently declined in the past decade, smoking among college students rose sharply. To reduce the morbidity and premature mortality caused by smoking, antismoking interventions need to target this vulnerable population. Anonymous self-report data were collected from a convenience sample of 224 college students who voluntarily completed a Web-based survey developed to assess the relation of risk-taking tendency, depression, social normative beliefs, and smoking resistance self-efficacy to cigarette smoking behavior. Employing structural analysis using LISREL (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1996), all 4 factors were confirmed as determinants of smoking. Resistance self-efficacy, the only direct antecedent, mediated the link to risk-taking tendency, depression, and social normative beliefs. Antismoking interventions that focus on enhancing refusal skills and are delivered to homogeneous groups are proposed as an effective approach to reducing cigarette smoking among college students. PMID:12494745

  6. Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking: a "partner" for gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Ko, J K; Cho, C H

    2000-12-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are two etiologic factors that have a close relationship with peptic ulcer diseases. Chronic active gastritis is reportedly associated with chronic alcohol ingestion. Nonetheless, the inflammatory changes are likely to be related to concurrent Helicobacter pylori infection that is common among alcoholics. Moreover, chronic alcoholism is also correlated with the presence of gastric metaplasia. Both clinically and experimentally, alcohol had been shown to affect the mucosal barrier and histology. These ulcerogenic effects play a crucial role in altering gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. Cigarette smoking is coupled with the initiation and prolongation of gastric ulcers. Epidemiologic data show that cigarette smoking increases both the incidence and relapse rate of peptic ulcer diseases and also delays ulcer healing in humans. Retrospective studies also indicate that cigarette smoking is a key factor in inducing ulcer diseases rather than a linked behavior. The general detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in the gastric mucosa include reduction of circulating epidermal growth factor, increase in tissue free radical production and the presence of free radicals in smoke, together with reduction of mucosal constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity. Furthermore, the alteration of normal gastric mucosal blood flow and angiogenesis and the suppression of cell proliferation contribute largely to the delay in ulcer healing in cigarette smokers. Concurrent consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of gastric ulcers. In animal experiments, cigarette smoking potentiated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. The reduction of mucus secretion, increase in leukotriene B4 level, increased activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase, and the expression of adhesion molecules in the gastric mucosa accompanied such potentiating effects. Substances other than

  7. Cigarette smoking and lung destruction. Accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, G W; Crystal, R G

    1983-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that lung destruction in persons with emphysema associated with cigarette smoking is mediated by elastase released by neutrophils that have migrated to the alveolar structures in response to cigarette smoke. To directly evaluate this hypothesis, cell suspensions, isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers with normal lung parenchyma and from open lung biopsies of nonsmokers and cigarette smokers who have sarcoidosis were evaluated for the presence of neutrophils. A significantly increased number of neutrophils was present in the cell suspensions isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and from open lung biopsies of both normal and sarcoid cigarette smokers compared with that in the nonsmokers (p less than 0.01, each comparison). Evaluation of the alveolar macrophages present in lavage fluid suggested a mechanism by which neutrophils may be attracted to the lungs of cigarette smokers: alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers release a chemotactic factor for neutrophils, whereas alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers do not. In addition, alveolar macrophages of nonsmokers, after exposure to cigarette smoke, in vitro, are stimulated to release this chemotactic factor. These studies demonstrate that an increased number of neutrophils are present in the lungs of cigarette smokers compared with that in nonsmokers and suggest that cigarette smoke may attract neutrophils to the lung by stimulating alveolar macrophages to release a potent chemotactic factor for neutrophils. PMID:6556892

  8. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  9. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

  10. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  11. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from multiethnic 1988 current daily smokers [M age = 45.1 (SD = 13.0); 51.3% Women] who had made an average lifetime quit attempts of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, “immediate reinforcement,” a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness, was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and “concerns about health” was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative “smoking” experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  12. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Surface Roughness of Different Denture Base Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Mohamed, Mahmoud Darwish; Hassan, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness is an important property of denture bases since denture bases are in contact with oral tissues and a rough surface may affect tissues health due to microorganism accumulation. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the surface roughness of two commercially available denture base materials was evaluated to emphasize which type has superior properties for clinical use. Materials and Methods A total numbers of 40 specimens were constructed from two commercially available denture base materials; heat-cured PMMA and visible light cured UDMA resins (20 for each). The specimens for each type were randomly divided into: Group I: Heat cured resin control group; Group II: Heat cured acrylic resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking; Group III: Light cured resin control group; Group IV: Light cured resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking. The control groups used for immersion in distilled water and the smoke test groups used for exposure to cigarette smoking. The smoke test groups specimens were exposed to smoking in a custom made smoking chamber by using 20 cigarettes for each specimen. The surface roughness was measured by using Pocket SurfPS1 profilometer and the measurements considered as the difference between the initial and final roughness measured before and after smoking. Results The t-test for paired observation of test specimens after exposure to smoking was indicated significant change in surface roughness for Group II (p< 0.05) but has no significance with Group IV. Otherwise, there were no significant differences with control groups (Group I and III). Conclusion The surface roughness of the dentures constructed from heat cured acrylic resin had been increased after exposure to cigarette smoke but had no impact on the dentures constructed from visible light cured resin. PMID:26501010

  13. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis. PMID:22392377

  14. Decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius: questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Helen S; Williams, Joanne W; de Courten, Maximilian P; Chitson, Pierrot; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Zimmet, Paul Z

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius from 1987 to 1998, and to relate these changes to legislative and health promotion efforts over the same period. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean with a population of about 1.2 million (about 70% south Asian, 2% Chinese, and 28% Creole). Participants Data were obtained from 5072 participants in 1987, 6573 in 1992, and 6281 in 1998. Main outcome measures Prevalence of current smoking in 1987, 1992, and 1998, sales of cigarettes in Mauritius, and information on activities for control of tobacco. Results Self reported cigarette smoking has been decreasing in Mauritius since 1987, with the largest decrease between 1987 and 1992. From 1987 to 1998 smoking prevalence decreased by 23% in men and 61% in women. Smoking decreased across all age and ethnic groups and across different levels of income and education. Sales of cigarettes also decreased in line with smoking prevalence. Conclusions The introduction of cigarette taxes, a limited health promotion programme, and the absence of massive promotional campaigns by the sole tobacco company on Mauritius have led to a striking and continued decrease in smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption on the island. PMID:10926592

  15. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. PMID:24157424

  16. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers. PMID:26886210

  17. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state level, impeding local-level action. Methods We used data on 4.7 million adults age 18 and older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1996 to 2012. We derived cigarette smoking status from self-reported data in the BRFSS and applied validated small area estimation methods to generate estimates of current total cigarette smoking prevalence and current daily cigarette smoking prevalence for 3,127 counties and county equivalents annually from 1996 to 2012. We applied a novel method to correct for bias resulting from the exclusion of the wireless-only population in the BRFSS prior to 2011. Results Total cigarette smoking prevalence varies dramatically between counties, even within states, ranging from 9.9% to 41.5% for males and from 5.8% to 40.8% for females in 2012. Counties in the South, particularly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, as well as those with large Native American populations, have the highest rates of total cigarette smoking, while counties in Utah and other Western states have the lowest. Overall, total cigarette smoking prevalence declined between 1996 and 2012 with a median decline across counties of 0.9% per year for males and 0.6% per year for females, and rates of decline for males and females in some counties exceeded 3% per year. Statistically significant declines were concentrated in a relatively small number of counties, however, and more counties saw statistically significant declines in male cigarette smoking prevalence (39.8% of counties) than in female cigarette smoking prevalence (16.2%). Rates of decline varied by income level: counties in the top quintile in terms of income experienced noticeably faster declines than those in the bottom quintile. Conclusions County-level estimates of cigarette

  18. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking and Pain Among Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better understanding of how cigarette use relates to pain may assist in veteran cigarette cessation and pain management efforts. To assist these efforts, we searched the literature using keywords, such as “pain,” “smoking,” and “veteran,” to identify 23 journal articles published from 1993 to 2013 that reported on studies examining pain and smoking variables among military or veteran populations. Studies found that veterans reported using cigarettes to cope with pain, there was greater occurrence of pain and disability among smokers in the military, and smoking increased the odds of veterans receiving an opioid prescription for pain and misusing opioids. Studies also found increased odds of pain and smoking among Veterans Health Administration patients with post-traumatic stress disorder when compared with those without post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies support an interaction between pain and smoking among veterans. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Future studies focused on this interaction would benefit veteran populations. PMID:25595170

  19. Organ specificity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Arashidani, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kodama, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Biotransformation of many chemicals found in cigarette smoke, such as PAHs and nitrosamines, is generally considered essential for the mutagenic, carcinogenic effects of these xenobiotics. In fact, the genotic action of these premutagens or precarcinogens is dependent on metabolic activation catalyzed by microsomal monooxygenases. The first enzymatic reaction of the PAHs metabolic pathway is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase, the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). AHH leads to the formation of reactive arene oxides, which are further metabolized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction into many metabolites. AHH induction in laboratory animals exposed to cigarette smoke has also been reported, and the data show that this response is highly dependent on species and tissues. Exposure of small laboratory animals to cigarette smoke generally induces AHH in the kidney and lung, while the effect of cigarette smoke on the hepatic AHH activity appears variable.

  20. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  1. Teen Smoking Down, E-Cigarette Use Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said, "While cigarette smoking in high school students ... D., pulmonary specialist, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York City; Dana Angelo White, M.S., R.D., clinical assistant ...

  2. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    James, Shirley A.; Meier, Ellen M.; Wagener, Theodore L.; Smith, Katherine M.; Neas, Barbara R.; Beebe, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:26959042

  3. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    James, Shirley A; Meier, Ellen M; Wagener, Theodore L; Smith, Katherine M; Neas, Barbara R; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:26959042

  4. The Association Between Smokers’ Perceived Importance of the Appearance of Cigarettes/Cigarette Packs and Smoking Sensory Experience: A Structural Equation Model

    PubMed Central

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the reliability of a measure of the latent construct “smoking sensory experience.” We further measured the relationship between “smoking sensory experience” and smokers’ rating of the importance of the appearance of cigarettes/cigarette packs in brand choice and smoking dependence. Methods: Analyses involved a national sample of smokers (n = 633) who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey (N = 3,112). Smokers ranked on a scale of 1–5, the importance of the following attributes in choosing their cigarette brand: health concerns, cost, packaging, taste, satisfaction, and flavor/strength. Using structural equation modeling, an a priori model was specified based on the hypothesis that taste, satisfaction, and flavor/strength are measures of a construct of “smoking sensory experience” and that cigarette packaging would be positively related to “smoking sensory experience.” Furthermore, “smoking sensory experience” would be positively related to cigarettes smoked per day. Results: The latent construct—“smoking sensory experience” was considered reliable (Cronbach’s α = 0.75). The structural equation model confirmed that the specified model fitted the data well (goodness of fit index = 0.993; normed fit index = 0.978; root mean square error of approximation = 0.031). Higher “smoking sensory experience” was positively associated with increasing cigarettes smoked per day (β = 0.12). Higher rating of the cigarette package in brand choice positively covaried with both “smoking sensory experience” (β = 0.29), and higher rating of health considerations (β = 0.42). Conclusions: These findings support the regulation of the appearance of cigarettes/cigarette packs to reduce cigarettes’ appeal and abuse liability in line with Article 11 of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25200812

  5. Electronic Cigarettes: Smoke-Free Laws, Sale Restrictions, and the Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Consumer use of e-cigarettes is rising despite a lack of rigorous safety testing, manufacturing controls, and a well-understood risk profile. Many states and municipalities have prohibited e-cigarette sale to minors or amended their smoke-free laws to restrict public use. I discuss the public health impact of e-cigarettes and the current lack of Food and Drug Administration regulation, and advocate that states and localities reexamine their smoke-free laws and sale restrictions to appropriately regulate public use and youth access. PMID:24825224

  6. Changes in the structure and mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Liu, S Q; Fung, Y C

    1993-09-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke on the structure and mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries was studied in 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats. The animals were exposed to cigarette smoke in a smoke-generating system 10 times per day with one cigarette each time. The smoke density and the puffing duration and frequency of the system were regulated in accordance with reference values measured from human smokers. The volume fractions of the cells, including smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components, including collagen, elastin, and remainder (components not specified in this study), of the pulmonary arteries of approximately 450 microns in external diameter (at zero pressure) were determined in smoke-exposed and control rats by using an electron microscopic method. It was found that the volume fractions of the fibroblasts, the collagenous bundles, and the elastic laminae of the pulmonary arteries were increased significantly, whereas those of the smooth muscle cells and the remainder were decreased significantly in both the 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats in comparison with those of the corresponding control rats. The mechanical properties of the pulmonary arteries were determined based on the in vitro dimensional measurement of the vessels at various inflation pressures and zero-stress state. An increase in the stiffness of the pulmonary arteries was found in both the 2- and 3-month smoke-exposed rats. We conclude that cigarette smoke can induce structural and mechanical remodeling in the pulmonary arteries of rats. PMID:8368648

  7. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  8. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010. Data on the cancer diagnosis and smoking history were obtained from an interview conducted by trained personals. "Cancer-survivor" was defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer by a physician regardless of time duration since diagnosis. Smoking status was classified into "never-smoker", "former-smoker", and "current-smoker". Former-smoker was further divided into "cessation before diagnosis" and "cessation after diagnosis". Results Overall, 2.1% of Korean adults were cancer-survivors. The smoking rate of Korean cancer-survivors was lower than that of non-cancer controls (7.8±1.3% vs. 26.4±0.4%, p<0.001). However, 53.4% of the cancer-survivors continued to smoke after their cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 6.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.62-15.31], middle-aged group (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.72), the lowest income (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.19-14.15), living with smoking family member(s) (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.42-12.48), and the poor self-perceived health status (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.01-7.71) were independently associated with persistent smoking among Korean cancer-survivors. Conclusion The smoking rate among Korean cancer survivors is low. However, the smoking cessation rate after the cancer diagnosis is also low. This mandates comprehensive and systematic intervention for smoking cessation among cancer-survivors. PMID:25684009

  9. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults. PMID:26562061

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  11. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes. PMID:25697426

  12. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Bladder Carcinogens in Man

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, W. K.; Barkin, M.; Levers, P. E.; Woo, S. K.-C.; Menczyk, Z.

    1965-01-01

    In the metabolism of the amino acid, tryptophan, certain products with the orthoaminophenol configuration are believed to act as topical carcinogens in the urinary bladder. In addition, a statistical relationship between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer has been established in recent years. Thirty metabolic studies are reported on six healthy male subjects when smoking and not smoking. Results revealed a consistent rise in carcinogenic metabolites of tryptophan when smoking (+ 50%), with a reciprocal fall in the end product, N'-methylnicotinamide (- 34%). Carcinogens fell and N'-methylnicotinamide rose when subjects stopped smoking. These metabolic studies confirm the statistical relationship between smoking and bladder cancer, and suggest that cigarette smoking blocks the normal metabolism of tryptophan, leading to the accumulation of carcinogenic metabolites. PMID:14306113

  13. Cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary alveolar macrophages of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rithidech, K.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Brooks, A.L. )

    1989-01-01

    To determine accurately the potential genetic damage induced by toxic inhaled agents, the cells that receive a high concentration of such agents should be analyzed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) represent such cells. The authors compared the cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on PAMs of rats exposed repeatedly by different methods. This study was part of a larger investigation of the health effects resulting from different methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke. Fischer 344/N male rats were randomly selected from five different exposure groups. The rats were exposed 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 22-24 days. All smoke-exposed rats received the same daily concentrations {times} time product of cigarette smoke. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine at the end of exposure. PAMs were obtained by lung lavage and chromosomal damage was measured. Highly significant smoke-induced differences in both structural and numerical aberrations were observed in continuously exposed rats vs. sham controls, regardless route of exposure. The structural aberrations observed were chromatid-type deletions. Both hypoploid and hyperploid cells were detected. The data suggest that cigarette smoke is clastogenic and may disrupt spindle-fiber formation. These activities may play a role in the induction of human carcinogenesis caused by cigarette smoke exposure.

  14. Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    Odum, Lauren E; O'Dell, Katie A; Schepers, Jacqueline S

    2012-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes have gained popularity among patients as a smoking cessation aid despite not being approved or supported for this purpose by the United States Food and Drug Administration due to concerns with poor manufacturing practices and the presence of known carcinogens in the limited products that they tested. A few studies have evaluated the effects of electronic cigarettes on plasma nicotine levels and heart rate but found negligible effects. Safety data are mainly limited to surveys in which patients report only minor side effects, such as mouth and throat irritation, headache, vertigo, and nausea. The efficacy of electronic cigarettes has been evaluated in studies in which patients report great success with being able to cut back or stop tobacco cigarette consumption. However, many of these studies introduce bias due to recruiting on e-cigarette Web sites and having tobacco cigarette use self-reported by the participant rather than objectively tested. A few studies have formally evaluated nicotine craving when using electronic cigarettes with mixed results. Although patients support the use of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, more formal studies on safety and efficacy should be completed in order to determine whether these products have a role in smoking cessation. PMID:22797832

  15. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  18. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  19. Gender Differences in Medication Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation: Results From the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip H.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Brady, Kathleen; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Hartwell, Karen; Cummings, K. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is conflicting evidence for gender differences in smoking cessation, and there has been little research on gender differences in smoking cessation medication (SCM) use and effectiveness. Using longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Surveys (ITC-4) conducted in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Australia, we examined gender differences in the incidence of quit attempts, reasons for quitting, use of SCMs, reasons for discontinuing use of SCMs, and rates of smoking cessation. Methods: Data were analyzed from adult smokers participating in the ITC-4, annual waves 2006–2011 (n = 7,825), as well as a subsample of smokers (n = 1,079) who made quit attempts within 2 months of survey. Adjusted modeling utilized generalized estimating equations. Results: There were no gender differences in the likelihood of desire to quit, plans to quit, or quit attempts between survey waves. Among quit attempters, women had 31% lower odds of successfully quitting (OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.94). Stratified by medication use, quit success was lower among women who did not use any SCMs (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.39, 0.90), and it was no different from men when medications were used (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.46, 1.16). In particular, self-selected use of nicotine patch and varenicline contributed to successful quitting among women. Conclusions: Women may have more difficulty quitting than men, and SCMs use may help attenuate this difference. PMID:25762757

  20. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  1. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  2. Cigarette smoking and its possible effects on sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikauskas, V.; Blaustein, D.; Ablin, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The possible effects of cigarette smoking on sperm were evaluated by comparison of the quality of sperm from 103 smokers and 135 nonsmokers in a blind study. Smokers were found to possess significantly decreased density (number) and motility of their sperm than nonsmokers. Morphologic abnormalities, particularly bicephalia, although prevalent among individual smokers, did not differ significantly when a comparison of smokers versus nonsmokers was made as a whole. Based on these observations and those of others demonstrating the presence of the mutagenic properties of smoke condensates, the authors suggest that decreases in sperm density and motility in cigarette smokers may be reflective of smoke condensate-induced mutagenic spermatogenital alterations.

  3. E-cigarettes: Are we renormalizing public smoking? Reversing five decades of tobacco control and revitalizing nicotine dependency in children and youth in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Stanwick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    An electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a battery attached to a chamber containing liquid that may (or may not) contain nicotine. The battery heats the liquid and converts it into a vapour, which is inhaled, mimicking tobacco smoking. The e-cigarette does not rely on tobacco as a source of nicotine but, rather, vaporizes a liquid for inhalation. E-liquids are often flavoured and may contain nicotine in various concentrations, although actual amounts are seldom accurately reflected in container labelling. The deleterious effects of nicotine on paediatric health are well established. The use of e-cigarettes in the paediatric age group is on the rise in Canada, as are associated nicotine poisonings. E-devices generate substantial amounts of fine particulate matter, toxins and heavy metals at levels that can exceed those observed for conventional cigarettes. Children and youth are particularly susceptible to these atomized products. Action must be taken before these devices become a more established public health hazard. Policies to denormalize tobacco smoking in society and historic reductions in tobacco consumption may be undermined by this new ‘gateway’ product to nicotine dependency. PMID:25838785

  4. Occluded Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causing Localized Chloracne-Like Comedones.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Tian, Frances T; Elston, Dirk M; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H

    2015-01-01

    Many environmental acne disorders, including chloracne and oil acne, were previously thought to occur predominantly in occupational settings following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Cigarette smoke has also been shown to contain a large number of these toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components and strictly correlates with noninflammatory acneiform lesion development in postadolescent patients. We report a case of localized open comedones associated with occluded cigarette smoke exposure near the nasal cavity due to infrequently changed gauze following rhinectomy. The dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components in cigarette smoke has the potential to function as a contributing factor in chloracne development. Several of these environmental and noninflammatory acne subtypes may share a common molecular propensity for enhanced comedogenesis originating from aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway effects in the skin. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the exact mechanistic pathways through which tobacco smoke impacts the integumentary system. PMID:26360246

  5. Tunable Diode Laser Applications To Cigarette Smoke Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcins, Gunars; Harward, Charles N.; Parrish, Milton E.; Forrest, Gary T.

    1983-11-01

    High resolution infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL) has been applied to the study of cigarette smoke for qualitative and quantitative determinations involved in tobacco blend and cigarette filter developments. As examples of the different types of application of this work, several TDL studies are presented. The measurements of smoke components on a puff-by-puff basis in confined sample chambers and flowing streams were used to study the smoke component deliveries and the effects of filter dilution. The study of isotopes generated during combustion of chemically treated tobaccos was another application of the TDL system to complex gas mixtures without prior separation of compo-nents. The application of the TDL to the study of cigarette filters and smoke delivery simultaneously was demonstrated by using two well resolved absorption lines of two different gases which occur on a single TDL wavelength scan.

  6. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  7. Children's hedonic judgments of cigarette smoke odor: effects of parental smoking and maternal mood.

    PubMed

    Forestell, Catherine A; Mennella, Julie A

    2005-12-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3- to 8-year-old children's liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  8. Children’s Hedonic Judgments of Cigarette Smoke Odor: Effects of Parental Smoking and Maternal Mood

    PubMed Central

    Forestell, Catherine A.; Monell, Julie A. Mennella

    2006-01-01

    Age-appropriate tasks were used to assess 3-to 8-year-old children’s liking, identification, and preference for a variety of odors, including that of exhaled cigarette smoke. Children whose parents smoke took longer to decide whether they liked the cigarette odor and were significantly more likely to prefer the odor of cigarette to the neutral and unfamiliar odor of green tea compared with children of nonsmokers. Among children of smokers, relative preferences for the cigarette odor were related to maternal mood disturbance and depression scores. These findings suggest that some early learning about cigarette smoke odor is based on sensory experiences at home and anchors it to the emotional context in which their mothers smoke. PMID:16366814

  9. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow. PMID:26273827

  10. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: sidestream cigarette smoke review

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Higgins, C.E.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods, and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Exacerbates Lung Inflammation and Compromises Immunity to Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lugade, Amit A.; Bogner, Paul N.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    The detrimental impact of tobacco on human health is clearly recognized and despite aggressive efforts to prevent smoking, close to one billion individuals worldwide continue to smoke. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are susceptible to recurrent respiratory infections with pathogens, including non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), yet the reasons for this increased susceptibility are poorly understood. As mortality rapidly increases with multiple exacerbations, development of protective immunity is critical to improving patient survival. Acute NTHI infection has been studied in the context of cigarette smoke exposure, but this is the first study to investigate chronic infection and the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI following chronic smoke exposure. After chronic NTHI infection, mice that had previously been exposed to cigarette smoke developed increased lung inflammation and compromised adaptive immunity relative to air-exposed controls. Importantly, NTHI-specific T cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and B cells produced reduced levels of antibodies against outer membrane lipoprotein P6, with impaired IgG1, IgG2a and IgA class-switching. However, production of IL-17, which is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, was enhanced. Interestingly, cigarette smoke exposed mice exhibited a similar defect in the generation of adaptive immunity following immunization with P6. Our study has conclusively demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure has a profound suppressive effect on the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI and suggests the mechanism by which prior cigarette smoke exposure predisposes COPD patients to recurrent infections, leading to exacerbations and contributing to mortality. PMID:24752444

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Lugade, Amit A; Bogner, Paul N; Thatcher, Thomas H; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2014-06-01

    The detrimental impact of tobacco on human health is clearly recognized, and despite aggressive efforts to prevent smoking, close to one billion individuals worldwide continue to smoke. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are susceptible to recurrent respiratory infections with pathogens, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), yet the reasons for this increased susceptibility are poorly understood. Because mortality rapidly increases with multiple exacerbations, development of protective immunity is critical to improving patient survival. Acute NTHI infection has been studied in the context of cigarette smoke exposure, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate chronic infection and the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI after chronic smoke exposure. After chronic NTHI infection, mice that had previously been exposed to cigarette smoke developed increased lung inflammation and compromised adaptive immunity relative to air-exposed controls. Importantly, NTHI-specific T cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and B cells produced reduced levels of Abs against outer-membrane lipoprotein P6, with impaired IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA class switching. However, production of IL-17, which is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, was enhanced. Interestingly, cigarette smoke-exposed mice exhibited a similar defect in the generation of adaptive immunity after immunization with P6. Our study has conclusively demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure has a profound suppressive effect on the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI and suggests the mechanism by which prior cigarette smoke exposure predisposes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to recurrent infections, leading to exacerbations and contributing to mortality. PMID:24752444

  13. Vitamin A depletion induced by cigarette smoke is associated with the development of emphysema in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Molteni, Agostino; Latkovich, Predrag; Castellani, William; Baybutt, Richard C

    2003-08-01

    We showed previously that vitamin A deficiency per se causes emphysema. Benzo(a)pyrene, a constituent in cigarette smoke, induces vitamin A depletion when administered to rats; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke induces vitamin A depletion, which is associated with the development of emphysema. Male weanling rats were fed a purified AIN-93G diet and divided into two groups. The experimental group was exposed to cigarette smoke from 20 nonfiltered commercial cigarettes/d for 5 d/wk, whereas the control group was exposed to air. After 6 wk, tissues were collected for histological and biochemical analyses. Retinol levels were measured in serum, lung and liver. The trachea, lung and liver were examined for histological changes. Vitamin A levels decreased significantly in serum, lung and liver of smoke-treated rats. Histological examination revealed the presence of interstitial pneumonitis along with severe emphysema. There was a significant inverse relationship between vitamin A concentration in the lung and the severity of emphysema (r = -0.69 and P < 0.03). Detachment or hyperplasia (and metaplasia) of the tracheal epithelium and liver vacuole formation also were evident in the smoke-treated rats. The results of this research indicate that exposure to cigarette smoke induces vitamin A depletion in rats, which is associated with the development of emphysema. PMID:12888649

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko )

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  15. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  16. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  17. E-Cigarette Use Among Never-Smoking California Students.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Trinidad, Dennis R; McCarthy, William J

    2015-12-01

    We determined the extent to which adolescents who have never used tobacco try e-cigarettes. Data on the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among 482,179 California middle and high school students are from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey. Overall, 24.4% had ever used e-cigarettes (13.4% have never used tobacco and 11.0% have used tobacco), and 12.9% were current e-cigarette users (5.9% have never used tobacco). Among those who have never used tobacco, males and older students were more likely to use e-cigarettes than females and younger students. Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 1.67) and those of other races (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.19, 1.29) were more likely than Whites to have ever used e-cigarettes, but only among those who had never used smokeless tobacco and never smoked a whole cigarette. E-cigarette use is very prevalent among California students who have never smoked tobacco, especially among Hispanic and other race students, males, and older students. PMID:26469671

  18. Dose-Response Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Viveca M.; Cole, John W.; Sorkin, John D.; Wozniak, Marcella A.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Giles, Wayne H.; Stern, Barney J.; Kittner, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although cigarette smoking is known to be a risk factor for ischemic stroke, there are few data on the dose-response relationship between smoking and stroke risk in a young ethnically diverse population. Methods We used data from the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study, a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in women aged 15 to 49 years to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and ischemic stroke. Historical data, including smoking history, was obtained through standardized interviews. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression. Cases (n=466) were women with stroke in the greater Baltimore-Washington area, and controls (n=604) were women free of a stroke history identified by random digit dialing. Results After multivariable adjustment, the OR comparing current smokers to never smokers was 2.6 (P<0.0001); no difference in stroke risk was observed between former smokers and never smokers. Adjusted OR increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR=2.2 for 1 to 10 cigs/d; 2.5 for 11 to 20 cigs/d; 4.3 for 21 to 39 cigs/d; 9.1 for 40 or more cigs/d). Conclusion These results suggest a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and ischemic stroke risk in young women and reinforce the need for aggressive smoking cessation efforts in young adults. PMID:18703815

  19. Rat lung macrophage tumor cytotoxin production: impairment by chronic in vivo cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Flick, D A; Gonzalez-Rothi, R J; Harris, J O; Gifford, G E

    1985-11-01

    Macrophages in the presence of bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimuli produce a soluble cytotoxin which is toxic to tumor cells. In this study, we examined various parameters of cytotoxin production from pulmonary lavage cells obtained from Fisher 344 cesarean-derived rats. Cultures of macrophages were derived from pulmonary lavage cells and stimulated in vitro with LPS. Cytotoxin production was assayed in vitro using an L-929 cell target assay. Pulmonary lavage preparations contained a relatively pure population of macrophages, and adherence studies revealed that nonadherent lavage cells contributed negligible amounts of cytotoxin, indicating that macrophages were responsible for cytotoxin production. After LPS stimulation, cytotoxin production became maximal within 10 h and thereafter plateaued. Doses of LPS above 0.1 microgram/ml were optimal for production, and in the absence of LPS, no cytotoxin was detected. Because cigarette smoke is the major etiological factor in the development of lung cancers and because smoking is known to profoundly alter the function of alveolar macrophages in humans and experimental animals, subsequent experiments examined the role of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on tumoricidal activity of lung macrophages. Rats were exposed in vivo for 8 wk to either cigarette smoke or air (sham-treated controls). When lavage cells were cultured and stimulated with LPS (1 microgram/ml), 5- to 10-fold less cytotoxin was produced by lavage cells from rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Similarly, using a direct cytotoxicity assay, lung macrophages of smoke-exposed animals also revealed marked impairment in cytotoxicity against L-929 cell targets, and this was noted over a wide range of macrophage:tumor target cell ratios. Another product of macrophages, interferon, was also decreased in rats exposed in vivo to cigarette smoke when compared to sham-treated controls. These results suggest that cigarette smoke exposure may impair pulmonary

  20. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  1. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  2. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use. PMID:21127030

  3. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  4. Cigarette smoking and chewing gum: response to a laboratory-induced stressor.

    PubMed

    Britt, D M; Cohen, L M; Collins, F L; Cohen, M L

    2001-09-01

    The current study examined the anxiolytic effects of cigarette smoking and chewing gum on urge to smoke, withdrawal, and anxiety in response to a public speaking task in 45 undergraduate smokers. Participants were asked to smoke, chew gum, or do nothing in response to the stressor. Participants completed measures of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke pre- and poststressor. The smoke group reported fewer urges to smoke pre- and poststressor than the other groups. The smoke and gum groups reported fewer withdrawal symptoms than did the control group poststressor. Chewing gum was helpful in managing levels of withdrawal symptoms compared with the control group. Groups did not differ on measures of anxiety. Results suggest that smoking in response to a stressor may not reduce levels of affective stress. Furthermore, chewing gum may be helpful in managing withdrawal symptoms in response to a stressor. PMID:11570650

  5. Opinions of Turkish University Students on Cigarette Smoking at Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keloglu-Isler, Esra; Erdogan, Irfan

    Cigarette smoking among college students is a critical public health problem with serious personal and social consequences. This study examined college student opinions about smoking in the student cafeteria, hallways and offices, considering smoking as freedom of choice, complying with the cigarette law and policy of universities on smoking. A sample of 1527 students (53.9% female, 46.1% male) attending to the six prestigious universities in Ankara, Turkey, completed a ten-item questionnaire. Results of the study showed that nonsmoking students reported the most favorable opinions toward the issues questioned, whereas occasional smokers and regular smokers reported the least favorable opinions. The highest level of disagreement by smokers and nonsmokers was provided for banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria. Students generally agreed on that teachers should not smoke in the classrooms and in their offices with doors open. Recommended actions include campus-wide no-smoking policies embracing indoors and outdoors and identification and use of new ways of providing smoking prevention and cessation programs and services.

  6. Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air.

    PubMed

    Tayyarah, Rana; Long, Gerald A

    2014-12-01

    Leading commercial electronic cigarettes were tested to determine bulk composition. The e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes were evaluated using machine-puffing to compare nicotine delivery and relative yields of chemical constituents. The e-liquids tested were found to contain humectants, glycerin and/or propylene glycol, (⩾75% content); water (<20%); nicotine (approximately 2%); and flavor (<10%). The aerosol collected mass (ACM) of the e-cigarette samples was similar in composition to the e-liquids. Aerosol nicotine for the e-cigarette samples was 85% lower than nicotine yield for the conventional cigarettes. Analysis of the smoke from conventional cigarettes showed that the mainstream cigarette smoke delivered approximately 1500times more harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) tested when compared to e-cigarette aerosol or to puffing room air. The deliveries of HPHCs tested for these e-cigarette products were similar to the study air blanks rather than to deliveries from conventional cigarettes; no significant contribution of cigarette smoke HPHCs from any of the compound classes tested was found for the e-cigarettes. Thus, the results of this study support previous researchers' discussion of e-cigarette products' potential for reduced exposure compared to cigarette smoke. PMID:25444997

  7. ‘Roll-your-own’ cigarette smoking in South Africa between 2007 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking and consumption of cigarettes have decreased in South Africa over the last 20 years. This decrease is a result of comprehensive tobacco control legislation, particularly large cigarette tax increases. However, little attention has been given to the potential use of ‘roll-your-own’ cigarettes as cheaper alternatives, especially among the socio-economically disadvantaged population. This study therefore sought to determine socio-demographic correlates of ‘roll-your-own’ cigarette use among South African adults (2007–2010). Methods This secondary data analysis used a merged dataset from two nationally representative samples of 2 907 and 3 112 South African adults (aged ≥16 years) who participated in the 2007 and 2010 annual South African Social Attitude Surveys respectively. The surveys used a face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire. The overall response rates were 83.1% for 2007 and 88.9% for 2010. Data elicited included socio-demographic data, current smoking status, type of tobacco products used, past quit attempts and self-efficacy in quitting. Data analysis included chi-square statistics and multi-variable adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 1 296 current smokers in this study, 24.1% (n = 306) reported using roll-your-own cigarettes. Some of whom also smoked factory-made cigarettes. Roll-your-own cigarette smoking was most common among black Africans and was more common among male smokers than among female smokers (27% vs 15.8%; p < 0.01). Compared to smokers who exclusively used factory-made cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarette smokers were less confident that they could quit, more likely to be less educated, and more likely to reside in rural areas. The odds of use of roll-your-own cigarette were significantly higher in 2010 than in 2007 (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07-1.44). Conclusions Despite an aggregate decline in smoking prevalence, roll-your-own cigarette smoking has

  8. Cigarette Smoke, Bacteria, Mold, Microbial Toxins, and Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. PMID:21772847

  9. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  10. Analysis of the Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Staphylococcal Virulence Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    McEachern, Elisa K.; Hwang, John H.; Sladewski, Katherine M.; Nicatia, Shari; Dewitz, Carola; Mathew, Denzil P.; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability worldwide. It is well established that cigarette smoke provokes inflammatory activation and impairs antimicrobial functions of human immune cells. Here we explore whether cigarette smoke likewise affects the virulence properties of an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, and in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infections. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and is thus exposed to inhalants, including cigarette smoke. MRSA exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE-MRSA) was more resistant to macrophage killing (4-fold higher survival; P < 0.0001). CSE-MRSA demonstrated reduced susceptibility to cell lysis (1.78-fold; P = 0.032) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (LL-37) killing (MIC, 8 μM versus 4 μM). CSE modified the surface charge of MRSA in a dose-dependent fashion, impairing the binding of particles with charge similar to that of AMPs by 90% (P < 0.0001). These changes persisted for 24 h postexposure, suggesting heritable modifications. CSE exposure increased hydrophobicity by 55% (P < 0.0001), which complemented findings of increased MRSA adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. CSE induced upregulation of mprF, consistent with increased MRSA AMP resistance. S. aureus without mprF had no change in surface charge upon exposure to CSE. In vivo, CSE-MRSA pneumonia induced higher mouse mortality (40% versus 10%) and increased bacterial burden at 8 and 20 h postinfection compared to control MRSA-infected mice (P < 0.01). We conclude that cigarette smoke-induced immune resistance phenotypes in MRSA may be an additional factor contributing to susceptibility to infectious disease in cigarette smokers. PMID:25824841

  11. Psycho-social study of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tandon, A K; Chaturvedi, P K; Dubey, A L; Narang, R K; Singh, S K; Chandra, S

    1990-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to assess the smoking habit among medical students and its relationship to demographic, social and psychological characteristics. Prevalence of smoking was found to be 30.79% in 854 students who responded to the questionnaire adequately. Smoking habit was more common among student who were married hailed from rural areas and the intensity of smoking increased with advancement in the career in medical profession. A strong association was observed between the habit and family history of smoking. The psychological factors associated with smoking were worry about examination unhappiness without justified cause and failure in friendship. PMID:21927445

  12. Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction: 14,000 cases and 32,000 controls in the United Kingdom. The International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) Collaborators.

    PubMed Central

    Parish, S.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Youngman, L.; Barton, J.; Jayne, K.; Clarke, R.; Appleby, P.; Lyon, V.; Cederholm-Williams, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the effects of cigarette smoking on the incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction, and to compare tar in different types of manufactured cigarettes. METHODS--In the early 1990s responses to a postal questionnaire were obtained from 13,926 survivors of myocardial infarction (cases) recently discharged from hospitals in the United Kingdom and 32,389 of their relatives (controls). Blood had been obtained from cases soon after admission for the index myocardial infarction and was also sought from the controls. 4923 cases and 6880 controls were current smokers of manufactured cigarettes with known tar yields. Almost all tar yields were 7-9 or 12-15 mg/cigarette (mean 7.5 mg for low tar (< 10 mg) and 13.3 for medium tar (> or = 10 mg). The cited risk ratios were standardised for age and sex and compared myocardial infarction rates in current cigarette smokers with those in non-smokers who had not smoked cigarettes regularly in the past 10 years. RESULTS--At ages 30-49 the rates of myocardial infarction in smokers were about five times those in non-smokers (as defined); at ages 50-59 they were three times those in non-smokers, and even at ages 60-79 they were twice as great as in non-smokers (risk ratio 6.3, 4.7, 3.1, 2.5, and 1.9 at 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 respectively; each 2P < 0.00001). After standardisation for age, sex, and amount smoked, the rate of non-fatal myocardial infarction was 10.4% (SD 5.4) higher in medium tar than in low tar cigarette smokers (2P = 0.06). This percentage was not significantly greater at ages 30-59 (16.6% (7.1)) than at 60-79 (1.0% (8.5)). In both age ranges the difference in risk between cigarette smokers and non-smokers was much larger than the difference between one type of cigarette and another (risk ratio 3.39 and 3.95 at ages 30-59 for smokers of similar numbers of low and of medium tar cigarettes, and risk ratio 2.35 and 2.37 at ages 60-79). Most possible confounding factors that could be tested

  13. Vegetative effects of Stroop-test solving and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Suter, T W; Bättig, K

    1982-01-01

    The vegetative effects of cigarette smoking were investigated in 28 male smokers required to answer STROOP stimuli and in 16 smokers tested under yoked conditions. The smoking effects were considerably more pronounced in the yoked group than in the task solving groups. Psychophysiological reactivity to solving the STROOP task only tented to be influenced by smoking. A possible role for the reinforcing effects of smoking in this type of experiment can therefore be seen more in the vegetative activation preparatory to coping with the task than in the modulation of the task-induced vegetative responses. PMID:7183087

  14. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel N; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B

    2011-12-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities. PMID:21903934

  15. Menthol pharmacology and its potential impact on cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2004-02-01

    Menthol is the only tobacco additive promoted and advertised by the tobacco industry. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of menthol when it is administered alone and unburned, the effects of menthol when burned in cigarette smoke are more complex because it is administered in a matrix of more than 4,000 substances. Therefore, it is difficult to isolate potential pharmacological and toxic effects of menthol when it is administered in a smoke mixture. Menthol properties include cooling and local anesthesia, as well as effects on drug absorption and metabolism, bronchodilation and respiration changes, and electrophysiology. Subjective effects of smoothness and less harshness have been identified as reasons for menthol cigarette smoking, but findings have been inconclusive regarding the effect of menthol on carbon monoxide exposure and smoking topography parameters. Gaps in the research literature and future research areas include the following: (a) What is the role of menthol in tobacco reinforcement and addiction? (b) In the absence of nicotine, is menthol reinforcing? (c) Are the pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol mediated by a menthol-specific receptor or some other central nervous system-mediated action? (d) What are the influences of menthol and menthol metabolism on the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens in tobacco smoke? and (e) Do differences exist in cigarette smoking topography in relation to the interaction of ethnicity, gender, and menthol cigarette preference? Answers to these questions will help to elucidate the function of menthol in cigarettes and its impact on smoking behavior. PMID:14982706

  16. Smoking in Malaysia: promotion and control.

    PubMed

    Soon Kee Teoh

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the promotion and control of smoking in Malaysia covers: tobacco cultivation; cigarette manufacture, advertising, and smoking; action against smoking; smoking in public; price increases; and future targets. About 62,000 families (120,000 people) of Malaysia's 14 million population are involved in tobacco farming, and 360 independent curers employ about 25,000 workers. Tobacco output has increased from 1.82 million kilograms in 1970 to a peak of 9.4 million kilograms in 1982, worth $38 million. Tobacco manufacturers have direct interest in tobacco growing. 60% of the tobacco required for cigarette manufacturing is locally produced and is expected to increase to 65-70% by 1985. The industry, unable to deny the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, is now exploiting the economy of the tobacco farmers to justify their business and to influence the government from taking any action against smoking. The government still provides technical expertise, guarantees purchase of tobacco, and provides almost 75% of the fertilizers used. There are 7 cigarette manufacturing companies. Cigarette sales in 1982 totaled nearly $460 million. The government received over $210 million or 47% of the total sales in various forms of taxes, a factor which influenced government handling of the smoking issue. Cigarettes were the most advertised product in 1981 when $9 million was spent. In 1982, all cigarette ads were banned from television and radio and in all government publications. The government stated that the revenue could be replaced. The number of cigarette smokers increased from 5 to 7% over the last decade. Recent studies of secondary school children showed a smoking incidence of about 20%; about half were habitual smokers and about 1% had smoked for over 3 years. Except for elderly villagers, few women smoke. After 7 years of lobbying by the Malaysian Medical Association and the Ministry of Health, the Cabinet approved legislation in 1977 requiring all cigarette

  17. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. Methods The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. Results The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. Conclusions There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward

  18. Functional neuroimaging study in identical twin pairs discordant for regular cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Lepore, Rebecca L; Kristjansson, Sean D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Petersen, Steven E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the tremendous public health and financial burden of cigarette smoking, relatively little is understood about brain mechanisms that subserve smoking behavior. This study investigated the effect of lifetime regular smoking on brain processing in a reward guessing task using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a co-twin control study design in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs that maximally controls for genetic and family background factors. Young adult (24-34 years) MZ female twin pairs (n = 15 pairs), discordant for regular smoking defined using Centers for Disease Control criteria as having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime, were recruited from an ongoing genetic epidemiological longitudinal study of substance use and psychopathology. We applied hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain analyses to investigate the effect of regular smoking on reward processing. Reduced response to reward and punishment in regular compared with never-regular smokers was seen in hypothesis-driven ROI analysis of bilateral ventral striatum. Whole-brain analysis identified bilateral reward-processing regions that showed activation differences in response to winning or losing money but no effect of regular smoking; and frontal/parietal regions, predominantly in the right hemisphere, that showed robust effect of regular smoking but no effect of winning or losing money. Altogether, using a study design that maximally controls for group differences, we found that regular smoking had modest effects on striatal reward processing regions but robust effects on cognitive control/attentional systems. PMID:22340136

  19. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation. Similar efficacy to other nicotine delivery devices, but many uncertainties.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    E-cigarettes, marketed as an alternative to conventional cigarettes, are designed to transform a solution of variable composition, with or without nicotine, into an aerosol that the user inhales. How effective are e-cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation, and what are their known adverse effects? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. A randomised trial involving 657 individuals who wanted to stop smoking compared e-cigarettes (with or without nicotine) with nicotine patches. There was no difference between the groups after 6 months, with an overall quit rate of about 5%. A double-blind randomised trial including 300 smokers compared the impact of e-cigarettes with or without nicotine on tobacco consumption. After 3 months, 14% of those using e-cigarettes with nicotine had quit completely, compared to 4% of those using e-cigarettes without nicotine. Adverse events reported in these trials were mild and transient, and mainly included dry mouth, irritation of the mouth and throat, dizziness, and nausea. When the solution ("e-liquid") contains nicotine, the main adverse effects are those of nicotine. Bronchial disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders and ocular irritation have been reported with inhaled propylene glycol. The effects of propylene glycol and glycerol, when heated and inhaled over long periods, are not known. The addictive effect is difficult to determine. Long-term use of e-cigarettes has been observed in about one-third of people who stopped smoking. Toxic or carcinogenic substances have been found in some e-cigarette aerosols, but at lower concentrations than in tobacco smoke. The diversity in the composition of e-liquids and the lack of proper controls make it difficult to assess the associated dangers. In early 2015, e-cigarettes containing nicotine appear to have efficacy similar to that of other nicotine delivery systems as an aid to smoking cessation. Apart from the effects of

  20. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme's surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE's inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety. PMID:27007390

  1. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme’s surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE’s inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety. PMID:27007390

  2. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke. [/sup 210/Po

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-07-01

    The ..cap alpha.. activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the ..cap alpha.. activity results from /sup 210/Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial /sup 210/Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original /sup 210/Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the ..cap alpha.. activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents.

  3. Organ specific mapping of in vivo redox state in control and cigarette smoke-exposed mice using EPR/NMR co-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caia, George L.; Efimova, Olga V.; Velayutham, Murugesan; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Kesselring, Eric; Petryakov, Sergey; Sun, Ziqi; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2012-03-01

    In vivo mapping of alterations in redox status is important for understanding organ specific pathology and disease. While electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) enables spatial mapping of free radicals, it does not provide anatomic visualization of the body. Proton MRI is well suited to provide anatomical visualization. We applied EPR/NMR co-imaging instrumentation to map and monitor the redox state of living mice under normal or oxidative stress conditions induced by secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure. A hybrid co-imaging instrument, EPRI (1.2 GHz)/proton MRI (16.18 MHz), suitable for whole-body co-imaging of mice was utilized with common magnet and gradients along with dual EPR/NMR resonators that enable co-imaging without sample movement. The metabolism of the nitroxide probe, 3-carbamoyl-proxyl (3-CP), was used to map the redox state of control and SHS-exposed mice. Co-imaging allowed precise 3D mapping of radical distribution and reduction in major organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, bladder and kidneys. Reductive metabolism was markedly decreased in SHS-exposed mice and EPR/NMR co-imaging allowed quantitative assessment of this throughout the body. Thus, in vivo EPR/NMR co-imaging enables in vivo organ specific mapping of free radical metabolism and redox stress and the alterations that occur in the pathogenesis of disease.

  4. Make Your Own Cigarettes: Toxicant Exposure, Smoking Topography, and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R.; Viray, Lauren C.; Potts, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable use of make your own (MYO) cigarettes worldwide and increasing use in the United States, relatively little is known about how these cigarettes are smoked and the resultant toxicant exposure. Methods In a laboratory study, we compared two types of MYO cigarettes – roll your own (RYO) and personal machine made (PMM) – with factory made (FM) cigarettes in three groups of smokers who exclusively used RYO (n=34), PMM (n=23) or FM (n=20). Within each group, cigarettes were smoked in three conditions: 1) after confirmed overnight tobacco abstinence; 2) in an intense smoking paradigm; 3) and without restrictions. All cigarettes were smoked ad lib through a smoking topography unit. Results Plasma nicotine significantly increased after cigarettes in all conditions except PMM in the intense smoking paradigm. Puff volume, puff duration, total puff volume and puff velocity did not differ between cigarette types but the puffs per cigarette and time to smoke were significantly smaller for RYO compared to PMM and FM. Regardless of the cigarette, participants consumed the first three puffs more vigorously than the last three puffs. Conclusions Despite the belief of many of their consumers smoking MYO cigarettes are not a safe alternative to consumption of FM cigarettes. Like FM, MYO cigarettes expose their users to harmful constituents of tobacco smoke and despite differences in size and design their puffing profiles are remarkably similar. Impact These data are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on the MYO cigarettes. PMID:24925675

  5. Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15 years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR = 1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR = 1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). PMID:23537342

  6. Cigarette smoke detection from captured image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Hironori; Matsubara, Toru; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a detection of smoke from captured image sequences. We propose to address the following two problems in order to attain this goal. The first problem is to estimate candidate areas of smoke. The second problem is to judge if smoke exists in the scene. To solve the first problem, we apply the previously proposed framework where image sequences are divided into some small blocks and the smoke detection is done in each small block. In this framework, we propose to use color and edge information of the scene. To solve the second problem, we propose a method for judging if smoke exists in the scene by using the areas of smoke obtained in the last step part. We propose some feature values for judging if smoke exists in the scene. Then, by simulation we find the best combination of feature values. In addition, we study the effect of normalization, which provide better performance in recognition.

  7. Interrelationships of cigarette smoking, testicular varicoceles, and seminal fluid indexes.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Pokoly, T B; Albert, A J; Howard, P J; Sherer, J F

    1987-03-01

    Data on cigarette smoking, testicular varicoceles, seminal fluid indexes, and oligospermia were examined in 160 young men without known disease and in 94 husbands in infertile couples. The combination of smoking and testicular varicoceles is strongly related to the incidence of oligospermia, defined as sperm count less than or equal to 20 X 10(6)/ml, in each sample. Smokers with testicular varicoceles, in each sample, had a disproportionately high incidence of oligospermia. In the combined sample of 254 men, the smokers with testicular varicoceles had an incidence of oligospermia approximately ten times greater than that in nonsmokers with testicular varicoceles and approximately five times greater than that in men who smoked but were without testicular varicoceles. This relationship of cigarette smoking and testicular varicoceles to oligospermia has not been previously reported. The pathophysiologic basis of the interaction between smoking and varicoceles was theorized to be due to an increased secretion of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla, induced by cigarette smoking. The elevated catecholamine concentrations in the renal vein would then reach the testes via retrograde flow down the internal spermatic vein in men with testicular varicoceles, resulting in seminiferous tubule damage. PMID:3556626

  8. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  9. Cigarette smoke activates the proto-oncogene c-src to promote airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Patrick; Hardigan, Andrew; Foronjy, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) confers a 2-fold increased lung cancer risk even after adjusting for cigarette smoking, suggesting that common pathways are operative in both diseases. Although the role of the tyrosine kinase c-Src is established in lung cancer, less is known about its impact in other lung diseases, such as COPD. This study examined whether c-Src activation by cigarette smoke contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. Cigarette smoke increased c-Src activity in human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells from healthy donors and in the lungs of exposed mice. Similarly, higher c-Src activation was measured in SAE cells from patients with COPD compared with healthy control subjects. In SAE cells, c-Src silencing or chemical inhibition prevented epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling in response to cigarette smoke but not EGF stimulation. Further studies showed that cigarette smoke acted through protein kinase C α to trigger c-Src to phosphorylate EGF receptor and thereby to induce mitogen-activated protein kinase responses in these cells. To further investigate the role of c-Src, A/J mice were orally administered the specific Src inhibitor AZD-0530 while they were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 months. AZD-0530 treatment blocked c-Src activation, decreased macrophage influx, and prevented airspace enlargement in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. Moreover, inhibiting Src deterred the cigarette smoke-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -12 in alveolar macrophages and lung expression of cathepsin K, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, and KC, all key factors in the pathogenesis of COPD. These results indicate that activation of the proto-oncogene c-Src by cigarette smoke promotes processes linked to the development of COPD. PMID:24111605

  10. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)-commonly called e-cigarettes-are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  11. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF. PMID:23190556

  12. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for safety (46.1%), exhibited greater comprehension of the health risks of smoking and were more likely (48.5%) than other participants (33.6%) to report quit intentions. Risk perceptions partially mediated the relationship between FDA evaluation belief and quit intentions. Conclusions These findings highlight the need for proactive, effective communication to the public about the aims of new tobacco product regulations. PMID:22251767

  13. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  14. Teenage Cigarette Smoking Self Test and Discussion Leader's Guide. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This self test was designed to help teenagers understand their feelings about cigarette smoking. The book contains a leader's guide which describes how the test can be used as a self-administered, self-scored tool; as a basis for group discussion; or for research purposes. Also included are six duplicating masters which are perforated for easy…

  15. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  16. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  17. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  18. [Oral hygiene in pregnant women versus cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Gogacz, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Proper oral hygiene is an essential element of dental caries prophylaxis and periodontitis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oral health state and the state of periodontal in pregnant women in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Survey and clinical studies were conducted in the group of 100 women--80% pregnant women and 20% in the first week of puerperium remaining at the gynaecological and obstetric hospital wards in Lublin and its region. The mean age of the investigated was 27.94. Study results revealed no correlation between the frequency of pregnant women tooth-brushing and the status of cigarette smoking or non-smoking. The average oral hygiene evaluated on the basis of API index was stated essentially more frequently in the group of non-smoking women (50%) in comparison with the smoking women (24.14%),, whereas improper oral hygiene was stated essentially more frequently in the group of smoking women (31.03%) in comparison with non-smokers (11.29%) (chi = 7.82, p < 0.05). No correlation was stated between the state of periodontal in smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. PMID:24501798

  19. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  20. Clearance of polonium-210-enriched cigarette smoke from the rat trachea and lung

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Tso, T.C.

    1985-06-30

    The distribution and clearance of alpha radioactivity in the lungs of rats were measured after inhalation of smoke from cigarettes highly enriched in /sup 210/Po. Female Fischer rats were exposed daily for 6 months to smoke from cigarettes with 500 times the normal content of /sup 210/Po. Control rats were exposed to standard cigarette smoke. Animals were serially withdrawn and killed. After necropsy the trachea, major bronchi, larynx, and nasopharynx were examined for surface alpha activity by an etched track technique utilizing cellulose nitrate detectors. Areas of accumulated activity were seen on samples of larynx from rats exposed to the /sup 210/Po-enriched cigarettes. No other local accumulations were seen on the airways. The lower lungs were analyzed radiochemically for /sup 210/Po. Both radiochemical analysis and track measurements showed highly elevated activity concentrations in rats exposed to the /sup 210/Po-enriched cigarettes. Following withdrawal from smoking, both short- and long-term clearance components were seen. The parameters which fit the postexposure data for clearance of the lung burden cannot fit the buildup during the exposure period.

  1. Smoke chemistry, in vitro and in vivo toxicology evaluations of the electrically heated cigarette smoking system series K.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Freelin, Susan A; Wrenn, Susan E; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Roemer, Ewald; Schramke, Heike; Van Miert, Erik; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Weber, Susanne; Coggins, Christopher R E

    2008-11-01

    The Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System Series K (EHCSS) produces smoke through the controlled electrical heating of tobacco. Evaluation of the EHCSS was accomplished by comparison with commercial and reference cigarettes, using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and alternative puffing regimens based on nicotine exposures measured in a short-term clinical study. Using the alternative puffing regimen and compared with conventional cigarettes on a per cigarette basis, the EHCSS had 50-60% reductions in tar and nicotine; at least 90% reductions in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, acrylonitrile, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, aromatic amines, tobacco specific nitrosamines, and phenol; and least a 40% reduction in 2-nitropropane. Other important smoke constituents in EHCSS smoke were reduced as well. The in vitro studies showed similar large reductions in biological activity. Ames mutagenicity of total particulate matter (TPM) from the EHCSS was reduced by 70-90%; cytotoxicity of the TPM was reduced by approximately 82% and 65% for the gas-vapor phase. In vivo testing under ISO smoking conditions in the mouse skin painting assay demonstrated later dermal tumor onset, lower dermal tumor incidence, reduced dermal tumor multiplicity, and a lower proportion of malignant dermal tumors in EHCSS smoke condensate-exposed mice. Thirty-five day and 90-day nose-only inhalation studies in rats showed reductions in pulmonary inflammation and other biological activity, including histopathological endpoints. We conclude that under the conditions of these in vitro and in vivo studies, the EHCSS demonstrated significantly lower biological activity compared to conventional cigarettes, and may suggest the potential for reductions in human smokers. PMID:18590791

  2. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  3. Cigarette smoking and bone healing: implications in foot and ankle surgery.

    PubMed

    Haverstock, B D; Mandracchia, V J

    1998-01-01

    Despite the known health risks associated with cigarettes, millions of Americans continue to smoke. Much has been reported on the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on wound healing. Recent experimental work and clinical observation have demonstrated the risk of impaired bone healing associated with cigarette smoking. The authors review the biological aspects of bone healing and analyze how the chemical components of cigarette smoke affect the bone healing process. Laboratory and clinical data are also reviewed. Cessation of cigarette smoking before foot and ankle surgery is recommended by the authors. PMID:9470121

  4. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M.; Williams, Michael T.; Braun, Amanda A.; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L.; Birtles, Todd S.; Greene, Robert M.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of ‘active’ maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6 h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1 h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. PMID

  5. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L; Birtles, Todd S; Greene, Robert M; Vorhees, Charles V; Pisano, M Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of 'active' maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. PMID:23314114

  6. Cigarette Smoking Among Students at the University of Tuzla

    PubMed Central

    Ibisevic, Merima; Avdic, Azra; Osmanovic, Enes; Kadric, Nedzad; Avdic, Sevleta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking among students is greatly widespread. Smoking prevalence ranges from 28% to 67% for students, respectively, from 19% to 34% for female students. Aim: The aim of this survey was to investigate the smoking habits of students, who are studying at three faculties at the University of Tuzla in academic Year 2012/2013 and to investigate whether there is a difference in smoking habits of students from different faculties and observed by gender. Patients and Methods: The study included a total of 254 students, 170 females (66.93%) and 84 male patients (33.07%). A representative sample consisted of students of three faculties of the University of Tuzla. Results: The conducted analyzes have shown that in this sample 22.8% of current smokers, and 7.8% are former smokers who now no longer smoke. Due to the adopted smoking habits, which some students began to adopt in the age of 13, in 47.5% part of students occasionally was observed some symptoms (cough, etc.) which are attributed to smoking. The analysis showed no statistically significant gender difference in smoking habits. Although the trend of smoking in the population students progression, one and the same quantity was well as male colleagues. We did not find any statistically significant difference in onset of adopting smoking habits. Conclusion: The analyzes have shown that in this sample 22.8% of current smokers, and 7.8% were former smokers who now no longer smoke. The analysis showed no statistically significant gender difference in smoking habits of all students. There were no statistically significant differences in the daily consumption of cigarettes between faculty. PMID:26005265

  7. Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644

  8. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  9. Mood Variability and Cigarette Smoking Escalation among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin; Shiffman, Saul; Flay, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined how affect dysregulation, as indexed via within-person negative mood variability, related to longitudinal patterns of smoking among adolescents. Eighth and 10th grade students (N = 517; 56% girls) provided data on cigarette use at baseline, six-, and twelve-month waves, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. As predicted, high levels of negative mood variability at baseline significantly differentiated adolescents who escalated in their smoking behavior over time from those who never progressed beyond low levels of experimentation during the course of the study. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that adolescents who escalated in their smoking experienced a reduction in mood variability as smoking increased, whereas mood variability levels were more stable among those with consistently high or low levels of cigarette use. Results suggest that high negative mood variability is a risk factor for future smoking escalation, and mood stabilizing effects may reinforce and maintain daily cigarette use among youth. PMID:19071975

  10. Cigarette smoke alters the proteomic profile of lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, Claudia; Cigna, Diego; Costanzo, Giorgia; Bruno, Andreina; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Bianchi, Laura; Bini, Luca; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is strongly associated with diseases such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung fibroblasts are crucial for the integrity of alveolar structure by producing extracellular matrix proteins which are required for attachment, structure, and function of alveolar epithelial cells. Despite the well-known association between cigarette smoke exposure and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which smoking induces diseases. The aim of this study is to detect differentially expressed proteins in human foetal lung cells (HFL-1) after 5 and 10% doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure, combining two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In order to evaluate cellular ability to recover as well as lasting damage, we analysed the proteomic pattern 24 hours after the CSE removal (release). Eleven proteins had significant changes at various experimental points. Among these, 7 were up-regulated after CSE-treatments and 4 were down-regulated. Some spots seemed to be modified permanently or in a transient manner, in fact they returned to baseline levels after CSE-removal (normalisation after CSE release) and others were modified by selective CSE concentrations or only after release. MS identified, differentially expressed proteins are involved in stress response, mitochondrial activity, and aging. These findings may improve our understanding about molecular mechanisms underlying CSE caused damage and they may also integrate the comprehension of cigarette smoke effects on human health. PMID:25900673

  11. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Hindocha, Chandni; Shaban, Natacha D.C.; Freeman, Tom P.; Das, Ravi K.; Gale, Grace; Schafer, Grainne; Falconer, Caroline J.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacco users aged between 16 and 23; follow-up consisted of 65 cannabis and tobacco users. The primary outcome variable was cannabis dependence as measured by the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS). Cannabis and tobacco smoking were assessed through a self-reported drug history. Results Regression analyses at baseline showed cigarette smoking (frequency of cigarette smoking: B = 0.029, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05; years of cigarette smoking: B = 0.159, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.27) accounted for 29% of the variance in cannabis dependence when controlling for frequency of cannabis use. At follow-up, only baseline cannabis dependence predicted follow-up cannabis dependence (B = 0.274, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53). At baseline, cigarette smoking mediated the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and dependence (B = 0.0168, 95% CI = 0.008, 0.288) even when controlling for possible confounding variables (B = 0.0153, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.027). Conclusions Cigarette smoking is related to concurrent cannabis dependence independently of cannabis use frequency. Cigarette smoking also mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence suggesting tobacco is a partial driver of cannabis dependence in young people who use cannabis and tobacco. PMID:25622777

  12. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  13. Effect of intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation on tibial lengthening: experimental study on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ueng, S W; Lee, M Y; Li, A F; Lin, S S; Tai, C L; Shih, C H

    1997-02-01

    We investigated the effect of intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation on the bone healing of tibial lengthening in rabbits. Thirty-eight male rabbits were divided into two groups of 19 animals each. The first group went through intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation, and the second group did not go through intermittent cigarette smoke inhalation. Each animal's right tibia was lengthened 5 mm using an uniplanar lengthening device. Five animals of each group were killed at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively for biomechanical testing, and one animal of each group was killed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively for histologic study. Using the contralateral nonoperated tibia as an internal control, we found that torsional strength of the lengthened tibia of the smoke inhalation group was decreased significantly compared with the non-smoke inhalation group. The mean percent of maximal torque at 4, 6, and 8 weeks were 22.0, 66.3, and 78.6%, respectively, in the smoke inhalation group, whereas the mean percent of maximal torque were 48.0, 84.1, and 90.8% %, respectively, in non-smoke inhalation group (one-tailed t test, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 at 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively). Our histologic observations revealed that the granulation tissue resorption, bone formation, and remodeling were delayed in smoke inhalation group. The results of this study suggest that intermittent inhalation of cigarette smoke delays, but does not prevent, the bone healing in tibial lengthening. PMID:9042873

  14. Cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fabiana Cristina Ribeiro de; Melo, Ana Paula Souto; Cournos, Francine; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Peixoto, Eliane Rezende de Morais; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among psychiatric patients attended in care facilities in Brazil and assess associated factors. A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted of psychiatric patients (N = 2,475) selected from 26 care facilities. Current and ex-smokers were compared to those who had never smoked. Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression. The current and past smoking prevalence rates were 52.7% and 18.9%, respectively. Being male, aged 40 years or over, drug and alcohol use, unprotected sex and a history of physical violence were factors associated with both current and past smoking, while a low education level (≤ 8 years of schooling), history of homelessness, not practicing a religion, current or previous psychiatric hospitalization, and main psychiatric diagnosis substance use disorders, were factors only associated with current smoking. Tobacco smoking prevalence among this population was high and was higher than the rate in the general population. Appropriate interventions and smoking prevention policies should be incorporated into mental health services. PMID:25099043

  15. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  16. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L; Bertrand, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother's metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring. PMID:22848202

  17. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen. PMID:25505336

  18. Cigarette smoking among Chinese PLWHA: An exploration of changes in smoking after being tested HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanhui; Chen, Xinguang; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Yan; Shan, Qiao; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-03-01

    Prevention and cessation of Tobacco use among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a significant challenge for HIV/AIDS patient care in China and across the globe. Awareness of HIV-positive status may alter the likelihood for PLWHA smokers to change their smoking habit. In this study, we tested the risk enhancement and risk reduction hypotheses by assessing changes in cigarette smoking behavior among PLWHA after they received the positive results of their HIV tests. Cross-sectional survey data collected from a random sample of 2973 PLWHA in care in Guangxi, China were analyzed. Changes in cigarette smoking after receiving the HIV-positive test results, as well as the current levels of cigarette smoking were measured. Among the total participants, 1529 (51.7%) were self-identified as cigarette smokers, of whom 436 (28.9%) reduced smoking and 286 (19.0%) quit after receiving their HIV-positive test results. Among the quitters, 210 (73.9%) remained abstinent for a median duration of two years. There were also 124 (8.2%) who increased cigarette smoking. Older age, female gender, more education, and receiving antiretroviral therapy were associated with quitting. In conclusion, our study findings support the risk reduction and risk enhancement hypotheses. A large proportion of smoking PLWHA reduced or quit smoking, while a small proportion increased smoking. Findings of this study suggest that the timing when a person receives his or her HIV-positive test result may be an ideal opportunity for care providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Longitudinal studies are indicated to verify the findings of this study and to support smoking cessation intervention among PLWHA in the future. PMID:26457812

  19. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  20. Sleep disturbances associated with cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Joseph P H; Wang, Jiantong; Holiday, David B; Warren, Jessica Young; Paradoa, Marilyn; Balkhi, Amanda Marie; Fernandez-Baca, Jeannette; McCrae, Christina S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances resulting in insufficient sleep have been linked to negative physical, cognitive, and public health outcomes. Despite this, there has yet a study that examines the impact of smoking on sleep in a US based national sample. The current study sought to observe sleep disturbances associated with smoking status. Sleep disturbances in adults aged 20 years and above, from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were measured among current, former, and never smokers (NS). Current smokers (CS) reported significantly less total sleep time, longer sleep onset latency, increased difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and waking up earlier than desired when compared to NS. Former smokers reported disturbances similar to NS and CS experienced poorer sleep than nonsmokers. Our study is the first to observe sleep difficulty by smoking status in a large, population-based, nationally representative sample. Recommendations for smoking cessation programs are discussed. PMID:24040938

  1. Haemorheological consequences of chronic cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    1995-10-01

    Smoking is a universally accepted major cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which it promotes ischaemic vascular disease are not fully understood. The changes that chronic smoking exerts on the flow properties of blood might contribute to an explanation. It is well documented that smoking leads to a rise in haematocrit. It also alters the rheological behaviour of red blood cells and increases both plasma viscosity and fibrinogen levels. Finally, it increases the total white cell count and modifies leukocyte function. Together these changes cumulate in a significant deterioration of the flow properties of blood, as evidenced by a steep increase in whole blood viscosity. Alterations of blood rheology in turn can promote atherothrombogenesis in several ways. It seems possible, therefore, that one mechanism by which smoking increases the risk of vascular diseases operates through its complex effects on blood rheology. PMID:8749271

  2. Sociocultural factors associated with cigarette smoking among women in Brazilian worksites: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Silveira, Andréa F; dos Santos, Daniele Figueiredo; Beech, Bettina M

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the contextual factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation among women in Brazilian worksites (Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil). A total of 22 focus groups were conducted among 108 women in private and public worksites. The most frequently endorsed negative factors that contributed to smoking initiation included exposure to smoking-prompting behaviors through family members, peer pressure, media and easy access/low cost of cigarettes. Positive factors that served as protective mechanisms against initiation included smoking-related health effects and strong influence from parents and family members. The most salient negative factors associated with smoking cessation included stress/anxiety-relieving benefits, weight control, access/low cost of cigarettes, being around smokers and risk-exempting beliefs. Positive factors included smoking restrictions at home and workplace and concerns about appearance. Current and former smokers reported that they had never received any assistance from their physicians to quit smoking, nor did they rely on smoking cessation programs or aids or believe in their effectiveness. There are specific contextual factors that contribute to smoking initiation/cessation among women in Brazilian worksites which have important clinical, research and policy implications. PMID:17491118

  3. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  4. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  5. Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Current Cigarette-Smoking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use is prevalent among adolescents, particularly among those who smoke cigarettes. Methods: Using data from a longitudinal study of smoking patterns among adolescents, we examined differences between CCLC users (ever and past 30 days) and nonusers (never and not in the past 30 days) among adolescents who smoked a cigarette in the last month (n = 486). Results: In our sample, 76.7% reported ever trying CCLC and 40.7% reported past month CCLC use. Bivariate analyses showed that CCLC users differed from nonusers in terms of demographics, other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that both ever and past 30-day CCLC use were strongly associated with being male and concurrent use of hookah. Ever CCLC use was also strongly associated with recent use of alcohol, and past 30-day CCLC use was strongly associated with antisocial behavior. After controlling for the number of days on which cigarettes were smoked in the past 30 days, past 30-day CCLC use was associated with most other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health, but not with number of cigarettes smoked in the past month and nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCLC use is high among adolescent cigarette users and is associated with a variety of negative correlates. Importantly, many of these relationships are not accounted for by the adolescent’s level of cigarette use. Further characterizing CCLC use will be important for developing more targeted and tailored interventions. PMID:23072873

  6. Cigarette smoke potentiates asbestos-induced airflow abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Tron, V.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that exposure to both asbestos and cigarette smoke can produce worse parenchymal lung disease than exposure to asbestos alone. Using a guinea pig model of asbestos administration that produces primarily airway disease and associated airflow abnormalities, we showed previously that the combination of asbestos and smoke acts synergistically to produce more marked increases in tissue collagen, fibrosis of airway walls, and early interstitial fibrosis than are seen with asbestos alone. To investigate the functional effects of these morphological and biochemical abnormalities, pulmonary function tests for volumes and flows, including lung volumes, pressure-volume curves, and flow-volume curves, were performed. By themselves, both smoke and asbestos produced increases in total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC); the two agents together made all these changes worse than either one alone. Both smoking and asbestos moved the pressure-volume curve upward, and the effects of the two agents together were again greater than either alone. Similarly, both smoke and asbestos decreased flows, and the two agents produced more severe impairment than either one by itself. The changes in volumes, pressure-volume curve, and flows correlated with both increased thickness of small airway walls and increases in airspace size. These observations indicate that, at least in this guinea pig model, cigarette smoke can potentiate the functional consequences of asbestos exposure.

  7. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less. PMID:24908261

  8. Epidemiologic link between tuberculosis and cigarette/biomass smoke exposure: Limitations despite the vast literature.

    PubMed

    Bishwakarma, Raju; Kinney, William H; Honda, Jennifer R; Mya, Jenny; Strand, Matthew J; Gangavelli, Avani; Bai, Xiyuan; Ordway, Diane J; Iseman, Michael D; Chan, Edward D

    2015-05-01

    The geographic overlap between the prevalence of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and tuberculosis (TB) in the world is striking. In recent years, relatively large number of studies has linked cigarette or biomass fuel smoke exposure and various aspects of TB. Our goals are to summarize the significance of the known published studies, graphically represent reports that quantified the association and discuss their potential limitations. PubMed searches were performed using the key words 'tuberculosis' with 'cigarette', 'tobacco', 'smoke' or 'biomass fuel smoke.' The references of relevant articles were examined for additional pertinent papers. A large number of mostly case-control and cross-sectional studies significantly associate both direct and second-hand smoke exposure with tuberculous infection, active TB, and/or more severe and lethal TB. Fewer link biomass fuel smoke exposure and TB. While a number of studies interpreted the association with multivariate analysis, other confounders are often not accounted for in these analyses. It is also important to emphasize that these retrospective studies can only show an association and not any causal link. We further explored the possibility that even if CS exposure is a risk factor for TB, several mechanisms may be responsible. Numerous studies associate cigarette and biomass smoke exposure with TB but the mechanism(s) remains largely unknown. While the associative link of these two health maladies is well established, more definitive, mechanistic studies are needed to cement the effect of smoke exposure on TB pathogenesis and to utilize this knowledge in empowering public health policies. PMID:25808744

  9. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  10. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  11. Cigarette Smoke Activates the Proto-Oncogene c-Src to Promote Airway Inflammation and Lung Tissue Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Patrick; Hardigan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) confers a 2-fold increased lung cancer risk even after adjusting for cigarette smoking, suggesting that common pathways are operative in both diseases. Although the role of the tyrosine kinase c-Src is established in lung cancer, less is known about its impact in other lung diseases, such as COPD. This study examined whether c-Src activation by cigarette smoke contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. Cigarette smoke increased c-Src activity in human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells from healthy donors and in the lungs of exposed mice. Similarly, higher c-Src activation was measured in SAE cells from patients with COPD compared with healthy control subjects. In SAE cells, c-Src silencing or chemical inhibition prevented epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling in response to cigarette smoke but not EGF stimulation. Further studies showed that cigarette smoke acted through protein kinase C α to trigger c-Src to phosphorylate EGF receptor and thereby to induce mitogen-activated protein kinase responses in these cells. To further investigate the role of c-Src, A/J mice were orally administered the specific Src inhibitor AZD-0530 while they were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 months. AZD-0530 treatment blocked c-Src activation, decreased macrophage influx, and prevented airspace enlargement in the lungs of cigarette smoke–exposed mice. Moreover, inhibiting Src deterred the cigarette smoke–mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -12 in alveolar macrophages and lung expression of cathepsin K, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, and KC, all key factors in the pathogenesis of COPD. These results indicate that activation of the proto-oncogene c-Src by cigarette smoke promotes processes linked to the development of COPD. PMID:24111605

  12. Cigarette Smoke Induces Systemic Defects in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function

    PubMed Central

    Raju, S. Vamsee; Jackson, Patricia L.; Courville, Clifford A.; McNicholas, Carmel M.; Sloane, Peter A.; Sabbatini, Gina; Tidwell, Sherry; Tang, Li Ping; Liu, Bo; Fortenberry, James A.; Jones, Caleb W.; Boydston, Jeremy A.; Clancy, J. P.; Bowen, Larry E.; Accurso, Frank J.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Dransfield, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Several extrapulmonary disorders have been linked to cigarette smoking. Smoking is reported to cause cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the airway, and is also associated with pancreatitis, male infertility, and cachexia, features characteristic of cystic fibrosis and suggestive of an etiological role for CFTR. Objectives: To study the effect of cigarette smoke on extrapulmonary CFTR function. Methods: Demographics, spirometry, exercise tolerance, symptom questionnaires, CFTR genetics, and sweat chloride analysis were obtained in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CFTR activity was measured by nasal potential difference in mice and by Ussing chamber electrophysiology in vitro. Serum acrolein levels were estimated with mass spectroscopy. Measurements and Main Results: Healthy smokers (29.45 ± 13.90 mEq), smokers with COPD (31.89 ± 13.9 mEq), and former smokers with COPD (25.07 ± 10.92 mEq) had elevated sweat chloride levels compared with normal control subjects (14.5 ± 7.77 mEq), indicating reduced CFTR activity in a nonrespiratory organ. Intestinal current measurements also demonstrated a 65% decrease in CFTR function in smokers compared with never smokers. CFTR activity was decreased by 68% in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to plasma from smokers, suggesting that one or more circulating agents could confer CFTR dysfunction. Cigarette smoke–exposed mice had decreased CFTR activity in intestinal epithelium (84.3 and 45%, after 5 and 17 wk, respectively). Acrolein, a component of cigarette smoke, was higher in smokers, blocked CFTR by inhibiting channel gating, and was attenuated by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, a known scavenger of acrolein. Conclusions: Smoking causes systemic CFTR dysfunction. Acrolein present in cigarette smoke mediates CFTR defects in extrapulmonary tissues in smokers. PMID:24040746

  13. Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam and Correlates of Current Cigarette Smoking: Results from GYTS 2014 Data.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi; Vu, Nga Thi Thu; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Minh, Hoang Van; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the rate of current and ever cigarette smoking and explore correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 in Viet Nam. This analysis was derived from GYTS survey, which comprised of 3,430 adolescents aged 13-15, conducted in 2014 in 13 cities and provinces of Viet Nam. We calculated the weighted rates of current and ever cigarette smoking and reported patterns of smoking behavior. We also performed logistic regression to explore correlates of current cigarette smoking behavior. The weighted rate of ever cigarette smoking was 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.5 %-10.5%), in which the weighted rate among males (15.4%; 95% CI: 13.6%-17.0%) was higher than that among females (4.2%; 95% CI: 3.3%-5.1%). The weighted rate of current cigarette smoking was relatively low at 2.5% (95%CI: 2.0%- 3.0%) with higher weighted rate among males (4.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%-5.9%) compared to the corresponding figure among females (0.2%; 95% CI: 0.0 %-0.5%). Current cigarette smoking was significantly higher among males than females, in students aged 15 versus 13 years old, and in students who had several or all close friends smoking and students with daily observation of smoking at school. For greater smoking reduction outcomes, we recommend that tobacco interventions for adolescents should consider targeting more male students at older ages, establish stricter adherence to school-based banning of cigarette smoking, engage both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents and empower adolescents to resist peer smoking influence as well as changing their norms or beliefs towards smoking benefits. PMID:27087178

  14. Heterogeneity studies of hamster calcitonin following acute exposure to cigarette smoke: evidence for monomeric secretion.

    PubMed

    Tabassian, A R; Snider, R H; Nylen, E S; Cassidy, M; Becker, K L

    1993-05-01

    Various acute stimuli, including cigarette smoke, induce hypercalcitonemia in man and hamsters. We have shown that this occurs also in thyroidectomized subjects. In the present study we have further explored this phenomenon of secretion from the lungs by studying, simultaneously, the HPLC characteristics of pulmonary tissue and serum in control hamsters and in animals immediately following short-term exposure to cigarette smoke. In addition, we have studied the immunoheterogeneity of lung calcitonin 24 hours following the acute exposure. Control lungs contained monomeric immunoreactive calcitonin (M-iCT), high molecular mass iCT (H-iCT), and CT fragments. Immediately following smoke exposure, there was an acute decrease of lung iCT by radioimmunoassay (RIA) which consisted primarily of a decrease in M-iCT by HPLC. Simultaneously, the iCT increase in the serum by RIA was shown by HPLC to involve M-iCT. Twenty-four hours after smoke inhalation, the lung iCT by RIA and M-iCT by HPLC had returned towards control levels. These findings document the molecular characteristics of lung iCT following acute cigarette smoke stimulation, and suggest that under certain circumstances M-iCT may be actively secreted by the lung. It remains to be determined whether this type of secretion reflects hemocrine or paracrine release and what the physiological role for such a secretion may be. PMID:8507014

  15. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  16. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  17. A Study of Cigarett Smoking Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    The various activities carried out under a grant from the Cancer Society are discussed, including preparatory work, pilot and exploratory studies, the conduct of the major study, and additional activities. The bulk of the report, however, is devoted to the major study in which measures were obtained of: 1) patterns of support for smoking; 2)…

  18. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  19. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Baeder, Andrea C.; Napa, Kiran; Richardson, Sarah T.; Taylor, Oliver J.; Andersen, Samantha G.; Wilcox, Shalene H.; Winden, Duane R.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure compromises health through damaging multiple physiological systems, including disrupting metabolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of oral gingiva in mediating the deleterious metabolic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on skeletal muscle metabolic function. Using an in vitro conditioned medium cell model, skeletal muscle cells were incubated with medium from gingival cells treated with normal medium or medium containing suspended cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Following incubation of muscle cells with gingival cell conditioned medium, muscle cell mitochondrial respiration and insulin signaling and action were determined as an indication of overall muscle metabolic health. Skeletal muscle cells incubated with conditioned medium of CSE-treated gingival cells had a profound reduction in mitochondrial respiration and respiratory control. Furthermore, skeletal muscle cells had a greatly reduced response in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. Altogether, these results provide a novel perspective on the mechanism whereby cigarette smoke affects systemic metabolic function. In conclusion, we found that oral gingival cells treated with CSE create an altered milieu that is sufficient to both disrupted skeletal muscle cell mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity. PMID:27034671

  20. The Effect of Different Doses of Cigarette Smoke in a Mouse Lung Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Ludmilla Nadir; de Camargo Fenley, Juliana; Braga, Lúcia Campanario; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Cury, Patrícia M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have used Balb/c mice as an animal model for lung carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of different doses of cigarette smoking in the urethane-induced Balb/c mouse lung cancer model. After injection of 3mg/kg urethane intraperitoneally, the mice were then exposed to tobacco smoke once or twice a day, five times a week, in a closed chamber. The animals were randomly divided into four groups. The control group (G0) received urethane only. The experimental groups (G1, G2 and G3) received urethane and exposure to the smoke of 3 cigarettes for 10 minutes once a day, 3 cigarettes for 10 minutes twice a day, and 6 cigarettes for 10 minutes twice a day, respectively. The mice were sacrificed after 16 weeks of exposure, and the number of nodules and hyperplasia in the lungs was counted. The results showed no statistically significant difference in the mean number of nodules and hyperplasia among the different groups, suggesting that the Balb/c mice are not suitable to study the pathogenesis of tobacco smoking-induced tumor progression in the lungs. PMID:19079653

  1. Metabolite signatures in hydrophilic extracts of mouse lungs exposed to cigarette smoke revealed by 1H NMR metabolomics investigation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Jian Z.; Wang, Xuan; Feng, Ju; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.; Liu, Maili; Hu, Mary Y.

    2015-05-12

    Herein, 1H-NMR metabolomics are carried out to evaluate the changes of metabolites in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. It is found that the concentrations of adenosine derivatives (i.e. ATP, ADP and AMP), inosine and uridine are significantly fluctuated in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke compared with those of controls regardless the mouse is obese or regular weight. The decreased ATP, ADP, AMP and elevated inosine predict that the deaminases in charge of adenosine derivatives to inosine derivatives conversion are altered in lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Transcriptional analysis reveals that the concentrations ofmore » adenosine monophosphate deaminase and adenosine deaminase are different in the lungs of mice exposed to cigarette smoke, confirming the prediction from metabolomics studies. We also found, for the first time, that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) to phosphocholine (PC) is significantly increased in the lungs of obese mice compared with regular weight mice. The ratio of GPC/PC is further elevated in the lungs of obese group by cigarette smoke exposure. Since GPC/PC ratio is a known biomarker for cancer, these results may suggest that obese group is more susceptible to lung cancer when exposed to cigarette smoke.« less

  2. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)—commonly called e-cigarettes—are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  3. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  4. Cigarette smoking is associated with thinner cingulate and insular cortices in patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Kjetil Nordbø; Psychol, Cand; Skjærvø, Ingeborg; Mørch-Johnsen, Lynn; Haukvik, Unn Kristin; Lange, Elisabeth Heffermehl; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Agartz, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show reduced cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These subtle brain abnormalities may provide insight into illness mechanisms. However, environmental and lifestyle-related factors, such as cigarette smoking, may contribute to brain structure changes. Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. In nonpsychiatric samples, smoking has been associated with reduced thickness in the anterior (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortices, the insular cortex (INS), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Methods We examined MRI scans from patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic disorders or bipolar disorder and healthy controls using FreeSurfer. Results We included 506 patients (49% smokers) and 237 controls (20% smokers) in our study. We found reduced cortical thickness in the left rostral ACC and the left INS in smoking patients compared with nonsmoking patients, but this difference was not found among healthy controls. No dose–response relationship was found between amount of smoking and cortical thickness in these regions. Among patients, maps of thickness along the whole cortical surface revealed reduced insular thickness but no effects in other regions. Among healthy controls, similar analyses revealed increased age-related cortical thinning in the left occipital lobe among smokers compared with nonsmokers. Limitations The causal direction could not be determined owing to the cross-sectional design and lack of detailed data on smoking addiction and smoking history. Conclusion The effect of cigarette smoking should be considered in MRI studies of patients with severe mental illness. PMID:25672482

  5. Cigarette Smoke Delays Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ueha, Rumi; Ueha, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kanaya, Kaori; Suzukawa, Keigo; Nishijima, Hironobu; Kikuta, Shu; Kondo, Kenji; Matsushima, Kouji; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system is a unique part of the mammalian nervous system due to its capacity for neurogenesis and the replacement of degenerating receptor neurons. Cigarette smoking is a major cause of olfactory dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs the regenerative olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) remain unclear. Here, we investigated the influence of cigarette smoke on ORN regeneration following methimazole-induced ORN injury. Administration of methimazole caused detachment of the olfactory epithelium from the basement membrane and induced olfactory dysfunction, thus enabling us to analyze the process of ORN regeneration. We found that intranasal administration of cigarette smoke solution (CSS) suppressed the recovery of ORNs and olfaction following ORN injury. Defective ORN recovery in CSS-treated mice was not associated with any change in the number of SOX2(+) ORN progenitor cells in the basal layer of the OE, but was associated with impaired recovery of GAP43(+) immature ORNs. In the nasal mucosa, mRNA expression levels of neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, neurotrophin-5, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were increased following OE injury, whereas CSS administration decreased the ORN injury-induced IGF-1 expression. Administration of recombinant human IGF-1 prevented the CSS-induced suppression of ORN recovery following injury. These results suggest that CSS impairs regeneration of ORNs by suppressing the development of immature ORNs from ORN progenitors, at least partly by reducing IGF-1 in the nasal mucosa. PMID:27003941

  6. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-01

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  7. Detection of Secondhand Cigarette Smoke via Nicotine Using Conductive Polymer Films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The 2006 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report found that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Many smokers attempt to protect others from exposure to SHS; however, it is difficult to assess effectiveness of these behavior changes. There is a need for personal monitoring devices that provide real-time SHS exposure data; at present, there is no device that measures ambient nicotine levels in real time. The development of such a sensor is the objective of this research. Methods: A nicotine sensing film comprising the conductive polymer polyaniline was linked with a reporting layer, recording changes in chemiresistance due to adsorption of nicotine. Experiments were carried out in a microprocessor-controlled smoking chamber using sidestream smoke from standard reference cigarettes; up to 10 cigarettes were smoked simultaneously. The exposure chamber was calibrated for total suspended particle, carbon monoxide, and nicotine concentrations. Results: We found significant real-time increases in the resistance of films upon exposure to SHS. The sensors were shown to be sensitive to the number of cigarettes consumed and ambient nicotine and demonstrated reasonable recovery between measurements. The sensors have sufficient sensitivity to detect off-gassing of nicotine or “thirdhand smoke.” Conclusions: A sensing element has been developed that can reliably detect secondhand and thirdhand tobacco smoke in real time through the adsorption of ambient nicotine vapor. The device was calibrated to the number of smoked cigarettes and to nicotine concentration. Development of integrated personal sensors to record exposure to SHS using this technology is currently underway. PMID:23482719

  8. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within the ... regular cigarettes, they do carry a risk of addiction.” Data were collected as part of a longitudinal ...

  9. Inhaled cigarette smoke induces the formation of DNA adducts in lungs of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1989-06-01

    Cigarette smoking causes a variety of adverse human health effects, including lung cancer. The molecular events associated with smoke-induced carcinogenesis are thought to be related in part to the genotoxic activities of the chemicals associated with smoke. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the molecular dosimetry of compounds in cigarette smoke in lungs of rats exposed by inhalation. These studies investigated the effects of exposure mode, sex, and time (adduct persistence) on the level of DNA adducts. Male and female F344/N rats were exposed 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 22 days to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC), or whole-body continuous (WBC) exposures. Separate groups of rats were sham-exposed nose-only (NOS) or whole-body (WBS) to filtered air. All smoke exposure modes yielded daily smoke exposure concentration X time products of 600 mg particulate.hr/m3 for the first week and 1200 mg particulate.hour/m3 thereafter. Groups of rats were killed at 18 hr and 3 weeks after the 22-day exposure period and DNA adducts in lung tissues were quantified by the /sup 32/P-postlabeling method. There were significant (p less than 0.05) increases in levels of clearly resolved lung DNA adducts in male and female rats exposed to smoke compared to sham-exposed rats. There were no significant effects of exposure mode or sex on lung DNA adducts. Mean levels (+/- SE) of clearly resolved lung DNA adducts for both sexes combined in NOI, NOC, WBC, NOS, and WBS groups were 50 +/- 4, 52 +/- 6, 52 +/- 7, 21 +/- 6, and 22 +/- 4 adducts per 10(9) bases, respectively. Levels of clearly resolved DNA adducts were significantly less in lungs of rats killed 3 weeks after exposure and had declined to near control levels, suggesting that smoke-induced adducts are repaired by lung DNA repair enzymes.

  10. Stimulant Treatment of ADHD and Cigarette Smoking: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship. METHODS: Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed. PMID:24819571