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1

Determinantes de la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas en menores de cinco años en Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo analiza los efectos que sobre la salud de los niños menores de cinco años tienen las características sanitarias de sus viviendas en Colombia. Específicamente, se consideran los impactos de estos factores sobre la mortalidad y la prevalencia de enfermedades diarreicas agudas (EDA). Así mismo, se estima la influencia del origen racial sobre las condiciones de salud de los

Mauricio Rodriguez Gomez

2012-01-01

2

Cinco Exemplos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a description of 5 Southwestern institutions serving American Indian and Chicano students; Tlatelolco Field Study Center, Casa de la Raza, Farmworkers Community School, Colegio Jacinto Trevino and Deganawidah-Quetzalcoatl University (DQU). (PG)

Kalvelage, Joan

1972-01-01

3

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. First, users are asked to input all factor pairs of a given number. Then, selecting each of those factor pairs, the user draws the respective rectangular array by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 and represent them with different arrays), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing the user to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

4

Qualidade de frutos de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado em função do número de frutos por planta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO-Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade de cinco híbridos de melão rendilhado, com dois e três frutos por planta, utilizando fibra da casca de coco e fertirrigação. Para tanto, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação na UNESP-FCAV, Câmpus de Jaboticabal, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, com quatro repetições.

Renata Castoldi; Hamilton César de Oliveira Charlo; Pablo Forlan Vargas; Leila Trevizan Braz

2008-01-01

5

Biologia floral, microsporogênese e número cromossômico em cinco espécies de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no Rio Grande do Sul  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Onze populações de cinco espécies de plantas medicinais utilizadas no Rio Grande do Sul, foram observadas quanto ao período de floração, durante três anos e estudadas citogeneticamente. Discaria americana e Matricharia chamomilla, florescem preferencialmente no inverno, Foeniculun vulgare e Symphytum officinale, nas estações mais quentes e Plectranthus barbatus floresce em estações mais amenas. Na meiose da microsporogênese, formaram-se 11

G. M. PEREIRA; DA SILVA

2006-01-01

6

Metamorphic evolution of the Río de la Plata Craton in the Cinco Cerros area, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metapelite and an interlayered granite were studied from the Cinco Cerros area ca. 65 km WNW of the city of Mar del Plata. Garnet in these samples is slightly zoned with core and rim compositions of pyr17(gro + andr)6spes1.5alm75.5 and pyr13.5(gro + andr)5.5spes2alm80, respectively, in the metapelite. Corresponding compositions in the granite are pyr15(gro + andr)3.5spes3.5alm78 and pyr11(gro + andr)3.5spes4.5alm81. We used the PERPLE_X computer software package to calculate P-T pseudosections. From the pseudosection of the metapelite P-T conditions of 6.7 kbar and 670 °C were derived for an early metamorphic stage. Subsequently, a pressure release occurred at decreasing temperatures. The final metamorphic P-T conditions recorded by the studied rock are 4.5 kbar and 600 °C compatible with the absence of cordierite, staurolite, and an Al2SiO5-phase. Garnet in the granitoid crystallized between 715 and 690 °C at a pressure around 7.7 kbar. U-Th-Pb age dating with the electron microprobe was performed. 16 analyses of monazite in the metapelite formed three clusters resulting in ages of I: 2073 ± 11.4 (1?) Ma, II: 1913 ± 11.0 (1?) Ma, and III: 1805 ± 20.8 (1?) Ma. Thus, the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic event can be related to the Trans-Amazonian cycle and was followed by slow cooling. As our study area is close to the margin of the Río de la Plata Craton, where abundant magmatic arc-derived plutonic rocks are outcropping, we interpret the derived P-T data as follows: A heating event (not recorded by the studied rocks) resulted from magmas that intruded during the Trans-Amazonian cycle. This event was followed by slow exhumation, probably caused by erosion, accompanied by thermal relaxation.

Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan Cruz

2012-10-01

7

Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spanish-language measures of the Big Five personality dimensions are needed for research on Hispanic minority populations. Three studies were conducted to evaluate a Spanish version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI)(O. P. John et al., 1991) and explore the generalizability of the Big Five factor structure in Latin cultural groups. In Study 1, a cross-cultural design was used to compare

Verónica Benet-Martínez; Oliver P. John

1998-01-01

8

Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: multitrait multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English.  

PubMed

Spanish-language measures of the Big Five personality dimensions are needed for research on Hispanic minority populations. Three studies were conducted to evaluate a Spanish version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI) (O. P. John et al., 1991) and explore the generalizability of the Big Five factor structure in Latin cultural groups. In Study 1, a cross-cultural design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in college students from Spain and the United States, to assess factor congruence across languages, and to test convergence with indigenous Spanish Big Five markers. In Study 2, a bilingual design was used to compare the Spanish and English BFI in a college-educated sample of bilingual Hispanics and to test convergent and discriminant validity across the two languages as well as with the NEO Five Factor Inventory in both English and Spanish. Study 3 replicated the BFI findings from Study 2 in a working-class Hispanic bilingual sample. Results show that (a) the Spanish BFI may serve as an efficient, reliable, and factorially valid measure of the Big Five for research on Spanish-speaking individuals and (b) there is little evidence for substantial cultural differences in personality structure at the broad level of abstraction represented by the Big Five dimensions. PMID:9781409

Benet-Martínez, V; John, O P

1998-09-01

9

Características estructurales de un club de fútbol profesional de elite  

Microsoft Academic Search

El nivel de profesionalización del fútbol se ha visto incrementado exponencialmente en los últimos años y de manera especial en los clubes de fútbol profesional de elite a nivel europeo. La comercialización de los derechos de televisión, primero, y el desarrollo del merchandising después, han ampliado las actividades de un club de fútbol, presionando hacia una mayor profesionalización de su

Sandalio Gomez; Magdalena Opazo

2007-01-01

10

El impacto de las reformas estructurales en la agricultura colombiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colombia, como la mayor parte de los países latinoamericanos, emprendió un ambicioso proceso de liberalización y reformas al clarear la década de los años noventa, el cual cobijó al sector agropecuario. Las reformas en el agro tuvieron tres períodos: desde el segundo semestre de 1990 hasta finales de 1992 se pusieron en marcha la mayoría de las reformas iniciales, de

Santiago Perry

2000-01-01

11

Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Factor XII deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects a protein (factor XII) involved in blood clotting. ... blood clot. This is called the coagulation cascade. Factor XII is a special protein, called a coagulation ...

12

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Mathematics, National C.

2009-07-22

13

K-factor image factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new computational paradigm is introduced. Other image representation such as Fourier transforms and wavelet decompositions depend on linear superposition of basis functions. The k-factor image factorization reduces an image into a finite or infinite set of contrast-ordered images whose joint product reproduces the original image. It is experimentally found that shadows and noise often fall into factors disjoint from the 'pure' image. The analytical foundations of the k-factor method are given, followed by full factorizations and reconstructions, and future research directions are described that include shadow removal, speckle reduction, medical and military image analysis, and commercial applications.

Johnson, John L.; Taylor, Jaime R.

1999-03-01

14

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive applet game exercises a student's factoring ability. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on grids containing the numbers 1-30, 1-49, or 1-100. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner.

Adapted with permission from "Prime Time: Factors and Multiples," Connected Mathematics Project, G. Lappan, J. Fey, W. Fitzgerald, S. Friel and E. Phillips

2000-01-01

15

Factor Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technique of factor analysis, developed by psychologists, is finding application in many fields of science. This report discusses the method, some applications and gives a detailed description of a FORTRAN II computer program to perform a varimax solu...

D. W. Spencer

1966-01-01

16

Factor Dazzle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive online game helps students develop fluency with identifying factors while fostering strategic thinking. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on a 6 by 6 grid containing the numbers 1-36. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner. This game is part of NCTM's Calculation Nation project (cataloged separately). Users may login as a guest and play against the computer, or register (free) to challenge other players online.

2011-01-01

17

Trefoil factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The present review will include the mammalian trefoil factors, TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3. It will summarise the amino acid sequences\\u000a from different species, their posttranslational modifications and their structures determined by X-ray analysis and nuclear\\u000a magnetic resonance studies. Trefoil factors all have a well-defined, structurally conserved trefoil domain. The trefoil domain\\u000a consists of 42 or 43 amino acid residues and

L. Thim; F. E. B. May

2005-01-01

18

Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in gray (or rad), to dose equivalent, expressed in sievert (or rem). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE obtained from biological experiments depends in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism and the experimental conditions. Judgment is involved, therefore, in the choice of Q. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were first raised in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to the possibility of a future increase between a factor of 3 to 10 in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of 2 in Q for fast neutrons. Both these advisory groups are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of 2. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. These issues are discussed, together with the current database for the neutron quality factor. Improvements are needed to provide better guidance with regard to both Q for neutrons and its application in radiation protection.

Kerr, G.D.

1988-08-01

19

Power Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Power Factor, is the eleventh chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: True, Reactive, and Apparent power; Calculating power factor, and Practical power factor correction. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-10

20

Factorize Two  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet helps students explore the relationship between area and multiplication. Users are asked to draw all possible factorizations of a number as rectangular arrays by clicking and dragging across a grid. Options include the use of the commutative property (e.g., user must enter both 2x4 and 4x2 for factors of 8 represented by different orientations of the array), entering a number of the user's own choice, and an optional scoring feature allowing users to keep track of the number correct.

2004-01-01

21

Factor Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem helps learners improve their knowledge of factors, especially those in the usual multiplication tables, and encourages the problem solving strategy of trial and error. The goal of the game is to go around the track in as few moves as possible, keeping to the rules that a player can move any number of spaces which is a factor of the number the player is on, except 1. There is a "training" track to play on initially to see the rules in action and then a more complicated track for players to use. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2011-06-01

22

Factor XII assay  

MedlinePLUS

Hageman factor assay ... test if a family member was diagnosed with factor XII deficiency. ... Decreased factor XII activity may indicate: Inherited (congenital) deficiency of factor XII Liver disease

23

Factor V assay  

MedlinePLUS

The factor V assay is a blood test to measure the activity of factor V. This is a substances involved in blood clotting ( ... Decreased factor V activity may be related to: Deficiency of factor ... at birth (congenital) Disseminated intravascular coagulation ( ...

24

Factor V deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Factor V deficiency is a condition that is passed down through families, which affects the ability of the blood ... These proteins are called blood coagulation factors. Factor V deficiency is caused by a lack of Factor ...

25

Alpha factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distinction is made between statistical inference and psychometric inference in factor analysis. After reviewing Rao's canonical factor analysis (CFA), a fundamental statistical method of factoring, a new method of factor analysis based upon the psychometric concept of generalizability is described. This new procedure (alpha factor analysis, AFA) determines factors which have maximum generalizability in the Kuder-Richardson, or alpha, sense.

Henry F. Kaiser; John Caffrey

1965-01-01

26

Factor Xa inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Factor Xa is the serine protease that activates prothrombin to yield thrombin. Inhibitors of factor Xa play a crucial role in curtailing thrombin generation. Two key factor Xa inhibitors that are found in blood are antithrombin III and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Inhibition of factor Xa is a mechanism that is also exploited by certain hematophagous animals to facilitate

Shi-Shan Mao

1994-01-01

27

TMD-factorization, Factorization Breaking and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an overview of the current status of perturbative QCD factorization theorems in processes that involve transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FF). We enumerate those cases where TMD-factorization is well-established, and mention cases where it is likely to fail. We discuss recent progress in the implementation of specific TMD-factorization calculations, including the implementation

S. M. Aybat; T. C. Rogers

2011-01-01

28

6.NS Factors and Common Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: List all the factors of 48. List all the factors of 64. What are the common factors of 48 and 64? What is the greatest common factor of 48 and 64?...

29

Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Risk Factors Share Compartir Certain groups of people are at ... to protect yourself against meningococcal disease. Some risk factors include: Age Meningococcal disease is more commonly diagnosed ...

30

Rheumatoid factor (RF)  

MedlinePLUS

Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test that measures the amount of the RF antibody in the blood. ... still have a "normal" or low rheumatoid factor (RF). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

31

Factor VII deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... inherited disorder in which a lack (deficiency) of plasma protein factor VII leads to abnormal bleeding. ... Partial thromboplastin time ( PTT ) Plasma factor VII activity Prothrombin ... disorder is important so that the doctor can take extra care ...

32

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

33

Biotic and Abiotic Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the ThinkQuest Library, has students investigate how "biotic and abiotic factors are interrelated. If one factor is changed or removed, it impacts the availability of other resources within the system." Students examine the ecosystem of an amusement park, the biotic and abiotic factors, identify five relationships between them, and speculate about how a change in one abiotic factor would affect the ecosystem.

34

The Venn Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan provides the teacher with an activity to help students calculate the Greatest Common Factor of two or more positive integers and develop a definition based on their exploration. Students find the prime factorization of two positive numbers using factor trees and Venn diagrams to sort the prime factors. The plan includes learning objectives, materials needed, questions to ask students, assessment options, extensions, teacher self-reflection questions, and further references.

Barron, Hilary R.

2010-01-01

35

Factor X deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Factor X deficiency is a disorder caused by too little of a protein called factor X in the blood. It leads to problems with ... is usually a higher chance of bleeding. Factor X deficiency is often caused by a defect of ...

36

Aerostructural safety factor criteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

Verderaime, V.

1992-01-01

37

Mecanismos de fallo de aceros estructurales durante la galvanización en caliente  

Microsoft Academic Search

La galvanización en caliente de perfiles de acero estructural produce, en ocasiones, grietas de considerable tamaño debido a fenómenos de corrosión bajo tensión, no siempre fáciles de detectar. Dada la importancia de las estructuras afectadas se han desarrollado numerosos proyectos de investigación en los últimos 25 años en todo el mundo con el fin de evitar la fisuración de sus

J. Carpio; J. A. Casado; J. A. Álvarez; D. Méndez; F. Gutiérrez-Solana

2008-01-01

38

Oversimplifying quantum factoring.  

PubMed

Shor's quantum factoring algorithm exponentially outperforms known classical methods. Previous experimental implementations have used simplifications dependent on knowing the factors in advance. However, as we show here, all composite numbers admit simplification of the algorithm to a circuit equivalent to flipping coins. The difficulty of a particular experiment therefore depends on the level of simplification chosen, not the size of the number factored. Valid implementations should not make use of the answer sought. PMID:23846653

Smolin, John A; Smith, Graeme; Vargo, Alexander

2013-07-11

39

Holiday Factor Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To review the idea of factor trees and prime factorization I have the students make Holiday Factor Trees. I created a template that looks like a Christmas tree that the students can trace out. We use green paper for the top of the tree and brown paper for the trunk of the tree. Each student then picks a number to find the prime factorization for. It might be helpful to assign each student a number; therefore, they do not all end up doing the same number. I then have the students make a star for the top of their tree which they write their assigned number on. Next, they cut out construction paper bulbs that become the factors on their factor tree. (Pre cut stars and bulbs may be helpful for this as well). You can choose to do any color bulbs, but one thing that I had my student do was to use the same color for the prime numbers at the bottom of the tree therefore prime factors stand out and look unified. On the trunk of the tree the students also wrote the final prime factorization using exponents. Example:1 Yellow Star: 644 multicolored Bulbs: 8, 8,4,46 Red Prime Factors Bulbs: 2,2,2,2,2,2,

2011-12-06

40

Radiation view factor program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program, RAVFAC, calculates diffuse radiation view factors, using contour integrals. Technique is combined with finite difference /double summation/ technique to compose total program package.

Lovin, J. K.; Lubkowitz, A. W.

1971-01-01

41

Integer Factorization Using Hadoop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integer factorization is an interesting but a hard problem and stays at the core of many security mechanisms. Conventional approaches to factor big integer numbers often require powerful computers and a great effort in software development. In this paper, we present a different approach to this problem by running the quadratic sieve algorithm in the Hadoop framework. This approach offers

Son T. Nguyen; Semere Tsehaye Ghebregiorgish; Nour Alabbasi; Chunming Rong

2011-01-01

42

Factors affecting tanker safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing tanker safety are discussed. For the discussion information has been gleaned from maritime labour officials, industry experts and a recent United States Coast Guard study on tanker safety. Results of other tanker safety studies and\\/or accident reports are also utilized. Some of the factors analysed are the size and age of vessel, licence qualifications for mates

Craig J. Forsyth

1991-01-01

43

Overview of environmental factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbital environment is complex, dynamic, and comprised of both natural and system-induced components. Several environment factors are important for materials. Materials selection/suitability determination requires consideration of each and all factors, including synergisms among them. Understanding and evaluating these effects will require ground testing, modeling, and focused flight experimentation.

Purvis, C. K.

1989-01-01

44

EXPOSURE FACTORS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of the latest version of the Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH): 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F) has maintained the need for a more comprehensive program that addresses issues related to exposure factors. Since the first version of the EFH was r...

45

Risk Factors for Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

2013-01-01

46

Environmental factors in autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk factors are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental factors. Moreover, similarities in how these risk factors impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059

Grabrucker, Andreas M

2012-01-01

47

Conundrums with uncertainty factors.  

PubMed

The practice of uncertainty factors as applied to noncancer endpoints in the IRIS database harkens back to traditional safety factors. In the era before risk quantification, these were used to build in a "margin of safety." As risk quantification takes hold, the safety factor methods yield to quantitative risk calculations to guarantee safety. Many authors believe that uncertainty factors can be given a probabilistic interpretation as ratios of response rates, and that the reference values computed according to the IRIS methodology can thus be converted to random variables whose distributions can be computed with Monte Carlo methods, based on the distributions of the uncertainty factors. Recent proposals from the National Research Council echo this view. Based on probabilistic arguments, several authors claim that the current practice of uncertainty factors is overprotective. When interpreted probabilistically, uncertainty factors entail very strong assumptions on the underlying response rates. For example, the factor for extrapolating from animal to human is the same whether the dosage is chronic or subchronic. Together with independence assumptions, these assumptions entail that the covariance matrix of the logged response rates is singular. In other words, the accumulated assumptions entail a log-linear dependence between the response rates. This in turn means that any uncertainty analysis based on these assumptions is ill-conditioned; it effectively computes uncertainty conditional on a set of zero probability. The practice of uncertainty factors is due for a thorough review. Two directions are briefly sketched, one based on standard regression models, and one based on nonparametric continuous Bayesian belief nets. PMID:20030767

Cooke, Roger

2010-03-01

48

Factorizations in finite groups  

SciTech Connect

A necessary condition for uniqueness of factorizations of elements of a finite group G with factors belonging to a union of some conjugacy classes of G is given. This condition is sufficient if the number of factors belonging to each conjugacy class is big enough. The result is applied to the problem on the number of irreducible components of the Hurwitz space of degree d marked coverings of P{sup 1} with given Galois group G and fixed collection of local monodromies. Bibliography: 9 titles.

Kulikov, Viktor S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-02-28

49

Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms. In studies where the distinction between ICC and ECC was used, some potential risk factors seem to have differential effect on CC depending on site. Therefore, the consistent use of more refined classification would allow better understanding of risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma.

Tyson, Gia L.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

2011-01-01

50

Angiogenic Factors and Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Summary Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder peculiar to pregnancy, is a systemic syndrome that appears to originate in the placenta and is characterized by widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. Until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of phenotypic preeclampsia was largely unknown, but recent observations support the hypothesis that altered expression of placental anti-angiogenic factors are responsible for the clinical manifestation of the disease. Soluble Flt1 and soluble endoglin, secreted by the placenta, are increased in the maternal circulation weeks before the onset of preeclampsia. These anti-angiogenic factors produce systemic endothelial dysfunction, resulting in hypertension, proteinuria, and the other systemic manifestations of preeclampsia. The molecular basis for placental dysregulation of these pathogenic factors remains unknown, and as of 2010 the role of angiogenic proteins in early placental vascular development was starting to be explored. The data linking angiogenic factors to preeclampsia have exciting clinical implications, and likely will transform the detection and treatment of preeclampsia.

Maynard, Sharon E.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

2011-01-01

51

Factors Affecting Coding Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...

S. Owsowtiz, A. Sweetland

1965-01-01

52

Israelachvili Packing factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Israelachvili Packing factor. The geometry of associated structures depends upon "packing" properties of the molecule: the optimal area of the head group, a0, volume of the chain, V, and the critical length of the tether, lc.

Iacovella, Christopher R.

2006-08-02

53

Factor II deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... loss by getting infusions of fresh or frozen plasma or concentrates of clotting factors into the blood. ... Shattil SJ, et al, eds. Hoffman Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone ...

54

Diverging Fano factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate, with reference to the so-called Fano factor, that dramatic differences between the two most popular phase-space distributions (Wigner's and Husimi's) become evident at the level of the harmonic oscillator treatment.

Pennini, F.; Plastino, A.

2010-09-01

55

Overhaul Factor Forecasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from a study of techniques for forecasting overhaul factors are reported. Techniques evaluated include cumulative history, moving average, and single and adaptive exponential smoothing. A modified version of the exponential smoothing technique pro...

P. R. Fatianow

1975-01-01

56

Aerospace Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

Jordan, Kevin

1999-01-01

57

Factors Affecting Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

2010-01-01

58

Factoring by Electronic Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe our distributed implementation of two factoring algorithms, the elliptic curve method (ecm) and\\u000a the multiple polynomial quadratic sieve algorithm (mpqs).\\u000a \\u000a Since the summer of 1987, our ecm-implementation on a network of MicroVAX processors at DEC’s Systems Research Center has\\u000a factored several most and more wanted numbers from the Cunningham project. In the summer of 1988,

Arjen K. Lenstra; Mark S. Manasse

1989-01-01

59

Health factors in colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is a breast milk produced after the birth of the newborn and lasts for 2–4 days. Colostrum is very important part\\u000a of breast milk and lays down the immune system and confers growth factors and other protective factors for the young ones\\u000a in mammals. This is the source of passive immunity achieved by the mother and is transferred to

B. R. Thapa

2005-01-01

60

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit, designed to span two class periods, helps students understand that physical factors, particularly temperature and precipitation, limit the growth of plant ecosystems. The activity begins with a discussion in which students develop their own ideas about the role of temperature, precipitation, and environment on plant growth. They will then examine X-Y graphs of vegetation growth, temperature, and precipitation versus month for four diverse ecosystems to determine which climatic factor is limiting growth. A worksheet and scoring rubric are provided.

61

Phase unwrapping by factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the numerical factorization of very high degree but well-conditioned polynomials is developed. This is used to factor the z-transform of finite-length signals, and the zeros are used to calculate the unwrapped phase. The method has been tested on signals up to 512 points in length. A complete Fortran 77 program is given for the case of a

KENNETH STEIGLITZ; BRADLEY DICKINSON

1982-01-01

62

The von Willebrand factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Von Willebrand factor (vWf) is a multimeric and multivalent adhesive protein which is essential for platelet adhesion to subendothelium\\u000a and for stabilization of factor VIII procoagulant activity in circulation. The quantitative measurement of vWf involves essentially\\u000a two different approaches. The first is based on the interaction between vWf and Gp Ib of the platelet membrane in presence\\u000a of ristocetin (ristocetin

Francesco Rodeghiero; Giancarlo Castaman

1990-01-01

63

FGF growth factor analogs  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2012-07-24

64

Hematopoietic growth factors.  

PubMed

Hematopoiesis is a complex process that underlines the production of multiple highly specialized cells. The intricate mechanisms involved in this process include both positive and negative feedback by humoral activities, pluripotent stem cell selfrenewal and differentiation, and local interactions between stromal components of the hematopoietic microenvironment and various stem and progenitor cells. A group of hematopoietic growth factors, as well as their genes and chromosomal locations, have been identified. Advances in biochemistry and molecular biology led to the purification, genetic sequencing and molecular cloning of these glycoproteins. They include interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO). The biologic specificity of these substances is defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in a semisolid clonal assay system. These factors share certain characteristics, including their ability to stimulate the function of mature cells, their overlapping activity affecting progenitor cells of several lineages, and their direct and indirect actions on nonhematopoietic cells. Trials using hematopoietic growth factors demonstrated their remarkable efficacy in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:1708221

Tabbara, I A; Robinson, B E

1991-01-01

65

Compilted Quantum Factoring Circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shor's factoring algorithm is held as one of the most promising and useful applications of quantum computing. It allows one to factor large numbers in polynomial time, undermining the most common cryptographic schemes in use today, such as RSA cryptography. The well known algorithm is based on the quantum fourier transform to find the period of a function, and also makes heavy use of the modular exponentiation operation, given by, U:a0 ->ax^a(mod N), where N is the number to be factored, and x is a random positive integer coprime with N. The modular exponentiation is the bottleneck of the algorithm, the portion that uses the most time. The generic algorithm can factorize any N in time order (N)^3, assuming sufficient memory space for intermediate calculations. Reducing the memory available (as long as it still lies above a certain threshold) increases the time taken by multiplicative factors, keeping its order the same in (N). However, for a given N, or class of N's to factorize, the generic algorithm may be suboptimal, and can be optimized to result in substantial savings in both memory needed and operation time. The different suboperations involved in modular exponentiat

Gamel, Omar; James, Daniel

2013-03-01

66

?????(?,?') transition form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surprising results by the BABAR Collaboration on the ?? transition form factor require new thoughts about the high-Q2 dependence of the form factors with virtual photons. We make use of the anomaly sum rule [J. Horejsi and O. Teryaev, Z. Phys. C 65, 691 (1995).ZPCFD20170-973910.1007/BF01578676] which relates the hadron spectral density to the axial anomaly [S. Adler, Phys. Rev. 177, 2426 (1969); J. S. Bell and R. Jackiw, Nuovo Cimento A 60, 47 (1969).]. We study the quark-hadron duality relation for this sum rule and find out that the increase of the rescaled form factor Q2F??(Q2)˜log?(Q2) suggested by the BABAR data requires the presence of a 1/s-correction term in the relation between the one-loop spectral density and the hadron-continuum spectral density.

Melikhov, Dmitri; Stech, Berthold

2012-03-01

67

Bovine factor XIIa inhibitor.  

PubMed

Bovine factor XIIa inhibitor was purified by an improved method employing affinity for heparin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing revealed a unique sequence without homology to any other known protein sequences. Peptide sequencing, however, showed that a part of the bovine factor XIIa inhibitor was homologous to human C1-inhibitor with a fraction of identical amino acid residues around 70%. Deglycosylation studies and carbohydrate analysis showed the presence of N- and O-linked carbohydrate. Bovine factor XIIa inhibitor did not inhibit plasma kallikrein and trypsin. The reactive site comprised an Arg-Asn bond, and represents the first example of asparagine as a P1' residue in Serpins with well documented inhibitory activity. PMID:8457651

Muldbjerg, M; Markussen, S; Magnusson, S; Halkier, T

1993-02-01

68

DSN human factors project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

1980-01-01

69

Psychological factors in asthma.  

PubMed

: Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Macqueen, Glenda

2008-03-15

70

Antiretroviral Restriction Factors  

PubMed Central

Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction factors, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction factors appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction factors, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.

Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D.

2011-01-01

71

Factor D Enzyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trauma caused by the open heart surgery often triggers massive inflammation because the immune system overreacts. Factor D, the protein which plays a key role in the biological steps that activate this immune response prevents the imune system from inappropriately rurning out of control, allowing the patient to recover more rapidly. Factor D blockers, with their great potential to alleviate the complication of inflammation associated with heart surgery, are now being developed for clinical trials. These new drugs, developed from space research, should be commercially available as soon as year 2001.

2004-01-01

72

Radiative Gaunt factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical methods for the evaluation of radiative Gaunt factors for complex ions, and for the calculation of the principal integrals over the Gaunt factors relevant to plasma spectroscopy, are presented. The present techniques are suitable for the computation of intermediate accuracy results for large numbers of ions over extended parameter ranges, and they cover bound-bound, bound-free, and free-free cases in both hydrogenic and nonhydrogenic approximations. The results demonstrate the reliability of the numerical methods and their advantages over the methods of Peach (1965, 1967) and Burgess and Seaton (1960). Significant differences from hydrogenic results at low and moderate z values are pointed out.

Burgess, Alan; Summers, Hugh P.

1987-05-01

73

Metric Conversion Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brought to the Web by Washington State Department of Transportation, the Metric Conversion Factors site contains a wealth of helpful physical science and engineering information. As you might guess, all sorts of conversion factors are presented, such as for area, force, hard conversions for construction materials, length, mass, pavement, pipe, plate, power, pressure or stress, reinforcing steel, sheet metal, sieve, symbols, temperature, volume, and several others. Although it's not an online conversion calculator, all of the pages are set up for efficient printing so that students can have the information with them while doing homework.

74

The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia  

PubMed Central

Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe.

2012-01-01

75

On braid monodromy factorizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and develop a language of semigroups over the braid groups to study the braid monodromy factorizations (bmf's) of plane algebraic curves and other related objects. As an application, we give a new proof of Orevkov's theorem on the realization of bmf's over a disc by algebraic curves and show that the complexity of such a realization cannot be bounded in terms of the types of factors of the bmf. We also prove that the type of a bmf distinguishes Hurwitz curves with singularities of inseparable type up to H-isotopy and J-holomorphic cuspidal curves in \\mathbb{CP}^2 up to symplectic isotopy.

Kharlamov, V. M.; Kulikov, Vik S.

2003-06-01

76

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Board , 4/2014 Risk Factors Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ... and health care choices. The cause(s) of most salivary gland cancers are unknown, but the following factors may ...

77

Nucleon Form Factors  

SciTech Connect

A review of data on the nucleon electro-weak form factors in the space-like region is presented. Recent results from experiments using polarized beams and either polarized targets or nucleon recoil polarimeters have yielded a significant improvement on the precision of the electromagnetic data obtained with the traditional Rosenbluth separation. An outlook is presented of planned experiments.

Kees de Jager

2002-10-01

78

Recombinant factor VIIa.  

PubMed

Human coagulation factor (F) VII is a single chain protease that circulates in the blood as a weakly active zymogen at concentrations of approximately 10 nmol/L. When converted to the active 2 chain form (FVIIa), it is a powerful initiator of haemostasis. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa, NovoSeven) is a genetically engineered product that was first introduced in 1988 for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and B with high inhibitory antibody titres to factors VIII and IX. Recent reports in the form of case studies and series, and early trial data, have suggested a role for rFVIIa across a diverse range of indications including bleeding associated with trauma, surgery, thrombocytopaenia, liver disease and oral anticoagulant toxicity. This review describes the physiology of the coagulation pathway and in particular the role of recombinant factor VIIa. It will also focus on the emerging role of rFVIIa in both trauma and non-trauma bleeding and its potential use in the ED. PMID:15537408

Aitken, Michael G

2004-01-01

79

Sudakov factorization and resummation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified derivation of the resummation of Sudakov logarithms, directly from the factorization properties of cross sections in which they occur. We rederive in this manner the well-known exponentiation of leading and non-leading logarithmic enhancements near the edge of phase space for cross sections such as deeply inelastic scattering, which are induced by an electroweak hard scattering. The

Harry Contopanagos; Eric Laenen; George Sterman

1997-01-01

80

Sudakov factorization and resummation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified derivation of the resummation of Sudakov logarithms, directly from the factorization properties of cross sections in which they occur. We rederive in this manner the well-known exponentiation of leading and nonleading logarithmic enhancements near the edge of phase space for cross sections such as deeply inelastic scattering, which are induced by an electroweak hard scattering. For

H F Contopanagos; Eric Laenen; George F Sterman

1996-01-01

81

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. Although practicing a mundane skill, learners enjoy the work because of the game scenario. Built into this game is cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2008-01-01

82

Limiting Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to understand that physical factors - temperature and precipitation - limit the growth of vegetative ecosystems. Students observe and record seasonal changes in their local study site. They establish that these phenomena follow annual cycles and conclude the activity by creating displays that illustrate the repeating pattern associated with the appearance and disappearance of seasonal markers.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

83

Scale Factor X  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, students navigate a maze to get to a math challenge. The three challenges are: move blue and green "fuel cells" around to match the ratios in the given containers; measure shapes to determine the scale factors needed to make them match the given templates; determine how to place bases on a map based on clues involving proportions.

2010-01-01

84

Wolf Limiting Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate a wolf and its habitat and observe what happens when the limiting factors change over time. This activity is designed for large groups of learners, but would work with smaller groups of at least 12 learners. Use this activity to discuss predator/prey relationships, habitats, and fluctuations in animal populations.

Eduweb; Zoo, Minnesota

2012-01-01

85

Transcription factors in autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of two transcription factors that, when mutated, are responsible for severe autoimmune disease in humans is leading to a better understanding of the fundamental processes involved in T-cell tolerance. Both AIRE and FOXP3, identified initially via their association with genetically manipulated mice, are critically involved in tolerance induction in humans. Although mutations in these genes may cause rare

Fred Ramsdell; Steven F Ziegler

2003-01-01

86

Assessment of Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

1999-01-01

87

BRBF response modification factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, overstrength, ductility and response modification factor of Buckling Restrained Braced frames were evaluated. To do so, buildings with various stories and different bracing configuration including diagonal, split X, chevron (V and Inverted V) bracings were considered. Static pushover analysis, nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis and linear dynamic analysis have been performed using Opensees software. The effects of some

B. Asgarian; H. R. Shokrgozar

2009-01-01

88

Brain Tumor Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... environmental factors—cured food consumption (nitrites), cigarette smoking, cell phone use, and residential power line exposure, for example— ... associated with changes in the chromosomes. Each normal cell in any human body has 23 pairs of ... Phone: 773-577-8750 Fax: 773-577-8738 CareLine: ...

89

Carcinoma de células de Merkel. Estudio de cinco casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant skin tumor of neuroendocrine origin with a poor prognosis and rapid progression. It is usually an erythematous nodule on the face, and is associated with other skin neoplasms. Its histology shows a large mass of small cells containing oval nuclei with powdery chromatin in the dermis. These cells are positive for neurospecific

Josep Bertó; Asunción Cuenca; Beatriz Díaz-Martínez; María L. Peña; Pedro Ruiz-Fernández; Francisco Sánchez de Paz

2005-01-01

90

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

91

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

92

Atomic Scattering Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for X-Ray Optics, these "atomic scattering factors are based upon photoabsorption measurements of elements in their elemental state." These easy-to-use tables allow users to search out atomic scattering factor data by element and look up the x-ray properties of elements, the index of refraction for a compound material, the x-ray attenuation length of a solid, the x-ray transmission of a solid or a gas, and more. Most of the tables are accessed by way of an online query form with variables such as material, density, and photon energy range entered by the user. Most outputs come in plot form for quick viewing, or results may be retrieved as a text or postscript file for use with a personal plotting software.

93

Growth factors for nanobacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting factors were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth factors. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi

1999-12-01

94

Human factors workplace considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

Haines, Richard F.

1988-01-01

95

Transcription Factor Effector Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The last decade has seen an incredible breakthrough in technologies that allow histones, transcription factors (TFs), and\\u000a RNA polymerases to be precisely mapped throughout the genome. From this research, it is clear that there is a complex interaction\\u000a between the chromatin landscape and the general transcriptional machinery and that the dynamic control of this interface is\\u000a central to gene regulation.

Seth Frietze; Peggy J. Farnham

96

R-Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of energy used in a home is greatly impacted by the type of materials used in constructing the home. In particular, the thermal conductivity of the materials will affect how quickly heat is allowed to enter or leave the home. In this hands-on activity, students will measure the ability of various materials to resist heat flow (R-factor) by placing a light bulb inside boxes made of the materials and monitoring the temperatures both inside and outside.

Pratte, John

97

Power factor controllers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power factor controller (PFC) is a solid state electronic device that reduces excessive energy waste in ac induction motors. The significance of the PFC lies in the fact that nearly a billion induction motors are used daily. The PFC is applicable to both single phase and three phase induction motors. Since it is connected to the power lines of the motor and requires no modification to the motor itself, it may be applied to existing motors as well as to new installations.

98

Prognostic factors for melanoma.  

PubMed

The current melanoma staging system, as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), is the standard by which melanoma prognosis is determined. This article focuses on the components of the AJCC melanoma staging system regarding patient prognosis. In addition, this article summarizes the other commonly researched clinical and histologic melanoma prognostic factors and reviews the recent advancements in genetic biomarkers associated with prognosis. PMID:22800552

Wisco, Oliver J; Sober, Arthur J

2012-07-01

99

Factor analysis regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of multicollinearity the literature points to principal component regression (PCR) as an estimation method\\u000a for the regression coefficients of a multiple regression model. Due to ambiguities in the interpretation, involved by the\\u000a orthogonal transformation of the set of explanatory variables, the method could not yet gain wide acceptance. Factor analysis\\u000a regression (FAR) provides a model-based estimation method

Reinhold Kosfeld; Jørgen Lauridsen

2008-01-01

100

Fibroblast growth factor-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a member of a large family of proteins that bind heparin and heparan sulfate and modulate the function of a wide range of cell types. FGF-2 stimulates the growth and development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) that contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases (i.e. cancer, atherosclerosis), normal wound healing and tissue development. FGF-2 contains

Matthew A Nugent; Renato V Iozzo

2000-01-01

101

The Fas Death Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fas ligand (FasL), a cell surface molecule belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family, binds to its receptor Fas, thus inducing apoptosis of Fas-bearing cells. Various cells express Fas, whereas FasL is expressed predominantly in activated T cells. In the immune system, Fas and FasL are involved in down-regulation of immune reactions as well as in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Malfunction

Shigekazu Nagata; Pierre Golstein

1995-01-01

102

Fano factor estimation.  

PubMed

Fano factor is one of the most widely used measures of variability of spike trains. Its standard estimator is the ratio of sample variance to sample mean of spike counts observed in a time window and the quality of the estimator strongly depends on the length of the window. We investigate this dependence under the assumption that the spike train behaves as an equilibrium renewal process. It is shown what characteristics of the spike train have large effect on the estimator bias. Namely, the effect of refractory period is analytically evaluated. Next, we create an approximate asymptotic formula for the mean square error of the estimator, which can also be used to find minimum of the error in estimation from single spike trains. The accuracy of the Fano factor estimator is compared with the accuracy of the estimator based on the squared coefficient of variation. All the results are illustrated for spike trains with gamma and inverse Gaussian probability distributions of interspike intervals. Finally, we discuss possibilities of how to select a suitable observation window for the Fano factor estimation. PMID:24245675

Rajdl, Kamil; Lansky, Petr

2014-02-01

103

Risk factors for cancer  

SciTech Connect

It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer.

Lyman, G.H. (Medicine Service, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States))

1992-09-01

104

Factor X deficiency.  

PubMed

Factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare, recessively inherited bleeding disorder representing 10% of all rare bleeding diseases and affecting 1 in every 1,000,000 people. Its clinical presentation places FX deficiency among the most severe of the rare coagulation defects, typically including hemarthroses, hematomas, and umbilical cord, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system bleeding. Phenotype diagnosis is based on the concomitant prolongation of the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. Through the measurement of plasma level of FX antigen and its coagulant activity, two main types of deficiency can be distinguished: type I (concomitantly low levels of activity and antigen) and type II (low coagulant activity, but normal or borderline antigen levels). FX protein is mainly synthesized by the liver and is encoded by a gene ( F10) of 27 kb located on chromosome 13, containing 8 exons. One hundred five mutations on F10 have been identified to date, 78% being missense mutations, with no hot-spot regions. There is no specific FX concentrate available, and current treatment includes the administration of fresh-frozen plasma or prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) containing FX in addition to other vitamin K-dependent factors. Administration of PCCs is associated with the risk of thromboembolic complication due to the unknown concentrations of other coagulant factors; however, to overcome this problem, a concentrate containing well-defined amounts of FX (and FIX) has recently been developed. PMID:19598069

Menegatti, Marzia; Peyvandi, Flora

2009-06-01

105

Human Factors Review Plan  

SciTech Connect

''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

1985-12-01

106

Fitting the factor analysis model  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the covariance matrix (p×P) does not satisfy the formal factor analysis model for m factors, there will be no factor matrix (p×m) such that =(-) is diagonal. The factor analysis model may then be replaced by a tautology where is regarded as the covariance matrix of a set of residual variates. These residual variates are linear combinations of discarded

Michael W. Browne

1969-01-01

107

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

108

Milestones and Impact Factors  

PubMed Central

Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

2010-01-01

109

Factor-multiple Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem offers opportunities for students to reinforce their understanding of factors and multiples and provides them the chance to justify their solutions. The goal is for the students to create number chains of four whole numbers that can range from 2 to 100 and each consecutive number is a multiple of the previous number. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a spreadsheet for students to experiment with placing numbers in specific boxes in the chain.

2007-04-01

110

von Willebrand Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

von Willebrand factor (vWF) from normal human plasma was purified and separated into three fractions containing high, medium, and low molecular weight vWF multimers. vWF fractions were tested for (1) vWF-antigen (vWF:Ag); (2) vWF-ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RiCof); (3) vWF-collagen binding activity (vWF:CBA); and (4) a monoclonal antibody-binding ELISA (mAB-binding ELISA), based on the vWF binding to immobilized monoclonal antibody directed

Bernhard E Fischer; Kathy B Thomas; Friedrich Dorner

1998-01-01

111

Nucleon elastic form factors  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.

D. Day

2007-03-01

112

The atrial natriuretic factor.  

PubMed Central

In less than three years since the rapid and potent natriuretic response to intravenous injection of atrial myocardial extract in rats was reported the factor responsible for the diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilating activity of the atrial homogenates was isolated, its chemical structure elucidated, and its total synthesis achieved. Also the cDNA and the gene encoding for the atrial natriuretic factor in mice, rats, and man have been cloned and the chromosomal site identified. The major effects of this hormone are vasodilatation, prevention and inhibition of the contraction induced by noradrenaline and angiotensin II, diuresis, and natriuresis associated in most instances with a pronounced increase in glomerular filtration rate and filtration fraction, inhibition of aldosterone secretion, and considerable stimulation of particulate guanylate cyclase activity. High density specific binding sites have been demonstrated in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, in the renal glomeruli, and in the collecting ducts, and in the brain areas involved in the regulation of blood pressure and of sodium and water (AV3V region, subfornical organ, nucleus tractus solitarius, area postrema). Images Fig 1 Fig 5

Genest, J

1986-01-01

113

[Transcription factor RUNX1].  

PubMed

Transcription factor RUNX1 is one of the key regulatory proteins in vertebrates. It controls hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. It is indispensable during embryogenesis for the emergence of sites of definitive hematopoiesis and later in mature organisms for bone marrow blood stem cells differentiation. Moreover, RUNX1 gene is a frequent target for chromosomal translocations which cause acute forms of leukemia. A lot of types of human leukemia are somehow associated with mutations in this gene. Nevertheless, to this day the precise mechanism guiding the tissue-specific manner of the RUNX1 gene expression remains unknown. In this review we tried to summarize all the experimental data accumulated during the past twenty years beginning from the date when the cDNA sequence of the RUNX1 gene was first annotated. In the first part of the review we shall focus on structure, isoforms, covalent modifications of the RUNX1 transcription factor and its participation in different regulatory cascades. In the second part we shall discuss expression regulation, mutations and chromosomal translocations of the RUNX1 gene. PMID:23350231

Markova, E N; Petrova, N V; Razin, S V; Kantidze, O L

2012-01-01

114

Factors in risk perception  

PubMed

Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

Sjoberg

2000-02-01

115

?*?*??c transition form factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ?*?*??c transition form factor, F?c??(Q12,Q22), with the local-duality (LD) version of QCD sum rules. We analyze the extraction of this quantity from two different correlators, ?PVV? and ?AVV?, with P, A, and V being the pseudoscalar, axial-vector, and vector currents, respectively. The QCD factorization theorem for F?c??(Q12,Q22) allows us to fix the effective continuum thresholds for the ?PVV? and ?AVV? correlators at large values of Q2=Q22 and some fixed value of ??Q12/Q22. We give arguments that, in the region Q2?10-15GeV2, the effective threshold should be close to its asymptotic value such that the LD sum rule provides reliable predictions for F?c??(Q12,Q22). We show that, for the experimentally relevant kinematics of one real and one virtual photon, the result of the LD sum rule for F?c?(Q2)?F?c??(0,Q2) may be well approximated by the simple monopole formula F?c?(Q2)=2ec2NcfP(MV2+Q2)-1, where fP is the ?c decay constant, ec2 is the c-quark charge, and the parameter MV lies in the mass range of the lowest c¯c vector states.

Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri

2012-07-01

116

Nuclear Factor One Transcription Factors in CNS Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors are key regulators of central nervous system (CNS) development and brain function. Research in this\\u000a area has now uncovered a new key player–the nuclear factor one (NFI) gene family. It has been almost a decade since the phenotype\\u000a of the null mouse mutant for the nuclear factor one A transcription factor was reported. Nfia null mice display a

Sharon Mason; Michael Piper; Richard M. Gronostajski; Linda J. Richards

2009-01-01

117

Hageman Factor (Factor XII) Deficiency in Marine Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematologic and coagulation studies were conducted on Atlantic bottlenose dolphins and killer whales. Hematologic values were similar to those in man. These animals differed from other mammals in that the Hageman factor (factor XII) was absent and this absence caused marked prolongation of coagulation. Levels of factors VIII and V were high and those of VII and X were low

A. Jean Robinson; Mona Kropatkin; Paul M. Aggeler

1969-01-01

118

Exposure factors handbook  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a summary of the available data on various factors used in assessing human exposure including drinking-water consumption, consumption rates of broad classes of food including fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products, and fish; soil ingestion; inhalation rate; skin area; lifetime; activity patterns; and body weight. Additionally, a number of specific exposure scenarios are identified with recommendations for default values to use when site-specific data are not available. The basic equations using these parameters to calculate exposure levels are also presented for each scenario. Default values are presented as ranges from typical to reasonable worst case and as frequency distributions where appropriate data were available. Finally, procedures for assessing the uncertainties in exposure assessments are also presented with illustrative examples. These procedures include qualitative and quantitative methods such as Monte Carlo and sensitivity analysis.

Konz, J.J.; Lisi, K.; Friebele, E.; Dixon, D.A.

1989-07-01

119

Viral Interferon Regulatory Factors  

PubMed Central

Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity by incorporating viral homolog of the cellular IRFs, called vIRFs, into its genome. Here, we summarize the novel evasion mechanisms by which KSHV, through its vIRFs, circumvents IFN-mediated innate immune responses and deregulates the cell growth control mechanism.

Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U.

2009-01-01

120

Viral interferon regulatory factors.  

PubMed

Upon viral infection, the major defensive strategy employed by the host immune system is the activation of the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral pathway, which is overseen by IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). In order to complete their life cycles, viruses must find a way to modulate the host IFN-mediated immune response. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a human tumor-inducing herpesvirus, has developed a unique mechanism for antagonizing cellular IFN-mediated antiviral activity by incorporating viral homolog of the cellular IRFs, called vIRFs, into its genome. Here, we summarize the novel evasion mechanisms by which KSHV, through its vIRFs, circumvents IFN-mediated innate immune responses and deregulates the cell growth control mechanism. PMID:19715458

Lee, Hye-Ra; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Jong-Soo; Liang, Chengyu; Jung, Jae U

2009-09-01

121

Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors  

SciTech Connect

There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

2007-10-01

122

Human factors: Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives are to provide a technology base for intelligent operator interfaces, especially with autonomous subsystems, and to develop a new generation of high performance space suits, gloves, and tools/end effectors to meet the requirements of advanced space missions. The technology base is intended to meet the requirements of productivity, efficiency, and safety in complex manned operations within automated onboard systems and extravehicular activities (EVA) environments. Crew station research is the first of two major areas. Development of methods for the astronaut to supervise, monitor, and evaluate the performance of robotic systems, other space subsystems, and orbital vehicles are key areas of research. The second major area is development of an EVA space suit and gloves. Emphasis in the space human factors research program is placed on technology baseline studies and development of methods, techniques, and data to support productive and safe operations by the astronaut and crew as they interface with complex systems, advance automation, and robotic assistants.

Jenkins, James P.

1988-01-01

123

Unity power factor converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

124

Replacements: Units, Service Lives, Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report updates the units of property, service lives, replacement factors, service life group percentages, and depreciation rates presented in the reports Replacements (dated March, 1969) and Replacement Factors and Depreciation Rates (dated May, 1969...

J. M. Eyer R. P. Branstetter

1981-01-01

125

Fano Factor Fact and Fallacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By definition, the Fano factor (F) is an intrinsic material constant which reflects the ultimate detector resolution. The paper points out the difficulties associated with Fano factor measurements; attempts to clarify the mechanisms of some apparently ano...

H. R. Zulliger D. W. Aitken

1970-01-01

126

Environmental factors and aggressive behavior  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly reviews some of the research areas which indicate a correlation between environmental factors and initiation of aggressive behavior. Environmental factors including lunar influences, month of birth, climate and the effects of crowding and certain chemicals are discussed.

Anderson, A.C.

1982-07-01

127

Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... also known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of ... to Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care ...

128

Risk factors for hypospadias.  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most common congenital defects in boys, the etiology of hypospadias remains largely unknown. In this case-referent study, we evaluated a wide spectrum of potential risk factors for hypospadias. Cases were identified from the hospital information system, and referents were recruited through the parents of the cases. Both parents of cases and referents completed written questionnaires that they received through the mail. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent contribution of different factors to the risk of hypospadias. The final database included 583 cases and 251 referents. Hypospadias more often occurred in children whose father had hypospadias (OR=9.7; 95%CI: 1.3-74.0) and in children with a low birth weight (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.2-4.2). Indications for elevated risks were found when mothers were DES-daughters (OR=3.5; 95%CI: 0.8-15.6), fathers were subfertile (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 0.7-4.5), the parents had undergone fertility treatment (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 0.9-5.8), and in twin or triplet pregnancies (OR=2.0; 95%CI: 0.8-5.1). Maternal use of iron supplements (OR=2.2; 95%CI: 0.8-6.0), maternal smoking (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), paternal prescriptive drug use (OR=2.6; 95%CI: 1.1-6.6), and paternal exposure to pesticides (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 0.6-7.1) during the 3 months immediately prior to conception or in the first trimester of pregnancy also appeared to increase the risk of hypospadias. The associations found in this study support the hypothesis that genetic predisposition, placental insufficiency, and substances that interfere with natural hormones play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:17103190

Brouwers, Marijn M; Feitz, Wouter F J; Roelofs, Luc A J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; de Gier, Robert P E; Roeleveld, Nel

2007-07-01

129

Wave friction factor rediscovered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wave friction factor is commonly expressed as a function of the horizontal water particle semi-excursion ( A wb) at the top of the boundary layer. A wb, in turn, is normally derived from linear wave theory by {{U_{{wb}}/T_{{w}}}}{{2? }} , where U wb is the maximum water particle velocity measured at the top of the boundary layer and T w is the wave period. However, it is shown here that A wb determined in this way deviates drastically from its real value under both linear and non-linear waves. Three equations for smooth, transitional and rough boundary conditions, respectively, are proposed to solve this problem, all three being a function of U wb, T w, and ?, the thickness of the boundary layer. Because these variables can be determined theoretically for any bottom slope and water depth using the deepwater wave conditions, there is no need to physically measure them. Although differing substantially from many modern attempts to define the wave friction factor, the results coincide with equations proposed in the 1960s for either smooth or rough boundary conditions. The findings also confirm that the long-held notion of circular water particle motion down to the bottom in deepwater conditions is erroneous, the motion in fact being circular at the surface and elliptical at depth in both deep and shallow water conditions, with only horizontal motion at the top of the boundary layer. The new equations are incorporated in an updated version (WAVECALC II) of the Excel program published earlier in this journal by Le Roux et al. Geo-Mar Lett 30(5): 549-560, (2010).

Le Roux, J. P.

2012-02-01

130

Physical Activity and Anthropometric Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Physical activity and certain anthropometric factors have been proposed as independent risk factors for breast cancer. Increased\\u000a physical activity appears to be associated with decreased breast cancer risk, and this association is independent of the influence\\u000a of anthropometric factors on risk. Conversely, anthropometric factors such as body mass index (BMI), weight change, and height\\u000a appear to have effects on breast

Katherine D. Henderson; Jennifer Prescott; Leslie Bernstein

131

Environmental Factors in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of diet for the risk of breast cancer is of great interest as a potentially modifiable risk factor. The evidence from prospective observational studies was reviewed and summarized on selected dietary factors, gene-diet interactions, and breast cancer incidence. Dietary factors were considered that, based on their nutritional constituents, are of particular interest in the context of breast cancer:

Karin B. Michels; Anshu P. Mohllajee; Edith Roset-Bahmanyar; Gregory P. Beehler; Kirsten B. Moysich

132

Transcription factors, chromatin and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors, chromatin and chromatin-modifying enzymes are key components in a complex network through which the genome interacts with its environment. For many transcription factors, binding motifs are found adjacent to the promoter regions of a large proportion of genes, requiring mechanisms that confer binding specificity in any given cell type. These include association of the factor with other proteins

James L. Thorne; Moray J. Campbell; Bryan M. Turner

2009-01-01

133

Factor Analysis Based Anomaly Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel anomaly detection algorithm based on factor analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Factor analysis is used to uncover the latent structure (dimensions) of a set of variables. It reduces attribute space from a larger number of variables to a smaller number of factors. The Mahalanobis distance is used to determine the \\

Ningning Wu; Jing Zhang

2003-01-01

134

FACTOR FINDER CD-ROM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Factor Finder CD-ROM is a user-friendly, searchable tool used to locate exposure factors and sociodemographic data for user-defined populations. Factor Finder improves the exposure assessors and risk assessors (etc.) ability to efficiently locate exposure-related informatio...

135

Sample size in factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the factor analysis literature, much attention has be;;n given to the issue of sample size. It is widely understood that the use of larger samples in applica- tions of factor analysis tends to provide results such that sample factor loadings are more precise estimates of population loadings and are also more stable, or les s variable, across repeated sampling.

Robert C. MacCallum; Keith F. Widaman; Shaobo Zhang; Sehee Hong

1999-01-01

136

Factor Analysis via Components Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

2011-01-01

137

Quantification of Emission Factor Uncertainty  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions factors are important for estimating and characterizing emissions from sources of air pollution. There is no quantitative indication of uncertainty for these emission factors, most factors do not have an adequate data set to compute uncertainty, and it is very difficult...

138

Fast actions of neurotrophic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversity of neurotrophic factors are required for the differentiation and survival of neurons and for maintaining their phenotype. By virtue of the rapid time scale of signal transduction in the cytosol, many of these factors also acutely regulate neuronal functions as diverse as synaptic transmission and nerve growth. These fast actions greatly expand the regulatory role of neurotrophic factors,

Benedikt Berninger; Mu-ming Poo

1996-01-01

139

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

140

K-factor shadow removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new image factorization algorithm, the k-factor method, is applied to the problem of shadow removal. Unlike the other technique, PCNN factorization, the k-factor method will completely remove shadows. It has several features that allow automatic or manual control that tailor it to specific applications. Unlike histogram equalization which globally remaps rather than remove shadows, the k-factor method eliminates regional shadows without remapping other regions. The algorithm is presented, numerous examples of its performance shown, and future plans discussed.

Taylor, Jaime R.; Johnson, John L.

1999-03-01

141

The Human Factor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inspired by âÂÂâ¦the courage, industry and intelligence required of the American working manâÂÂ, two colleagues from the Harvard Business School (Donald Davenport and Frank Ayres) sent out a call to leading businesses in order to develop a visual collection that could be used in the classroom. During the 1930s, they received over 2,100 photographs that documented âÂÂthe human factorâ embodied in the interactions between worker and machine. Recently, the Baker Library at the Harvard Business School created this online exhibition to showcase a selection of these remarkable images. Visitors should begin by reading the introductory essay; they should then proceed to the exhibition, which is divided into nine sections. Each section begins with a short preface, and then continues on to a sampling of images, which include workers monitoring massive wheels of Swiss cheese in 1933 and a photograph of women assembling parts for Philco radios in 1926. Each photograph can be viewed in great detail, and it is worth noting that the site also contains an exemplary bibliography.

142

Microphthalmia Transcription Factor  

PubMed Central

Malignant melanomas do not uniformly retain expression of melanocytic gene products—an observation associated with diagnostic dilemmas. Microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf) is a melanocytic nuclear protein critical for the embryonic development and postnatal viability of melanocytes. It serves as a master regulator in modulating extracellular signals, such as those triggered by ?-MSH and c-Kit ligand. Because of its central role in melanocyte survival and to assess its potential use as a histopathological marker for melanoma, Mitf expression was examined in histologically confirmed human melanoma specimens. Western blot analysis of melanoma cell lines revealed consistent expression of two Mitf protein isoforms differing by MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation. In a series of 76 consecutive human melanoma surgical specimens, 100% stained positively for Mitf with a nuclear pattern of reactivity. In a side-by-side comparison, Mitf staining was positive in melanomas that failed to stain for either HMB-45 or S-100, the most common currently used melanoma markers. Of 60 non-melanoma tumors, none displayed nuclear Mitf staining and two displayed cytoplasmic staining. Although Mitf does not distinguish benign from malignant melanocytic lesions, for invasive neoplasms it appears to be a highly sensitive and specific histopathological melanocyte marker for melanoma.

King, Roy; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; McGill, Gael; Cooley, Edward; Mihm, Martin; Fisher, David E.

1999-01-01

143

[Environmental factors in ALS].  

PubMed

ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

2014-05-01

144

Human Factors in Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 08 (FY08) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: (1) Risk associated with poor task design (2) Risk of error due to inadequate information (3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design

Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin; Sandor, Aniko

2009-01-01

145

Human Factors in Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions will be significantly longer than current Shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. Training efforts in FY07 strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center operations. Beginning in January 2008, the training research effort will include team training prototypes and tools. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

Barshi, Immanuel; Byme, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia

2008-01-01

146

Human Factors in Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

2010-01-01

147

Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: a key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation.  

PubMed Central

Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and factor IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. Our earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either factor VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. Adding antithrombin III and heparin blocked activation of factor X by factor VII/tissue factor but not by factor VIIa/tissue factor. When the antithrombin III and heparin were added 1 min after the other reagents, factor VII/tissue factor activation of factor X was not blocked. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation. Images

Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

1988-01-01

148

Growth factors in synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Synapses are increasingly recognized as key structures that malfunction in disorders like schizophrenia, mental retardation, and neurodegenerative diseases. The importance and complexity of the synapse has fuelled research into the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. In this regard, neurotrophic factors such as netrin, Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and others have gained prominence for their ability to regulate synaptic function. Several of these factors were first implicated in neuroprotection, neuronal growth, and axon guidance. However, their roles in synaptic development and function have become increasingly clear, and the downstream signaling pathways employed by these factors have begun to be elucidated. In this review, we will address the role of these factors and their downstream effectors in synaptic function in vivo and in cultured neurons.

Poon, Vivian Y.; Choi, Sojoong; Park, Mikyoung

2013-01-01

149

Zebrafish von Willebrand Factor  

PubMed Central

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a large protein involved in primary hemostasis. A dysfunction in this protein or an insufficient production of the protein leads to improper platelet adhesion/aggregation, resulting in a bleeding phenotype known as von Willebrand disease (vWD). To gain a better understanding of vWF interactions in vivo, the use of zebrafish as a model is ideal because of the transparency of the embryos and larvae. In this article, we examined the presence and function of vWF in hemostasis of zebrafish utilizing a variety of molecular methods. Using RT-PCR and antibody staining, we have shown that vWF mRNA is present in thrombocytes. Through antibody staining, we demonstrated vWF is synthesized in blood vessels. The role of zebrafish vWF in hemostasis was established through knockdown methods using vWF morpholino (vWF MO) antisense oligonucleotides. Embryos injected with vWF MO at the one to four cell stages resulted in a bleeding phenotype. Injection of embryos with vWF MO also caused an increase in time to occlusion within arteries in larvae upon laser induced injury. We then used vWF-specific Vivo-Morpholinos (VMO) to induce vWF knockdown in adult zebrafish by targeting the exon homologous to the human exon 28 of the vWF gene. The reduced ristocetin-mediated agglutination of thrombocytes in a plate tilting assay, using blood from adult zebrafish injected with VMO, provided evidence that vWF is involved in the hemostatic process. We also administered desmopressin acetate to larvae and adults which resulted in enhanced aggregation/agglutination of thrombocytes. Zebrafish genome database analysis revealed the presence of GPIb? gene. It also revealed the exon of zebrafish vWF gene corresponding to exon 28 of human vWF gen is highly similar to the exon 28 of human vWF gene, except that it has an insertion that leads to a translated peptide sequence that separates the two A domains coded by this exon. This exon is also conserved in other fishes. In summary, we established that zebrafish vWF has a role similar to that of vWF found in humans, thus, making zebrafish a useful model for studying the cell biology of vWF in vivo.

Carrillo, Maira; Kim, Seongcheol; Rajpurohit, Surendra Kumar; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

2010-01-01

150

Zebrafish von Willebrand factor.  

PubMed

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a large protein involved in primary hemostasis. A dysfunction in this protein or an insufficient production of the protein leads to improper platelet adhesion/aggregation, resulting in a bleeding phenotype known as von Willebrand disease (vWD). To gain a better understanding of vWF interactions in vivo, the use of zebrafish as a model is ideal because of the transparency of the embryos and larvae. In this article, we examined the presence and function of vWF in hemostasis of zebrafish utilizing a variety of molecular methods. Using RT-PCR and antibody staining, we have shown that vWF mRNA is present in thrombocytes. Through antibody staining, we demonstrated vWF is synthesized in blood vessels. The role of zebrafish vWF in hemostasis was established through knockdown methods using vWF morpholino (vWF MO) antisense oligonucleotides. Embryos injected with vWF MO at the one to four cell stages resulted in a bleeding phenotype. Injection of embryos with vWF MO also caused an increase in time to occlusion within arteries in larvae upon laser induced injury. We then used vWF-specific Vivo-morpholinos (VMO) to induce vWF knockdown in adult zebrafish by targeting the exon homologous to the human exon 28 of the vWF gene. The reduced ristocetin-mediated agglutination of thrombocytes in a plate tilting assay, using blood from adult zebrafish injected with VMO, provided evidence that vWF is involved in the hemostatic process. We also administered desmopressin acetate to larvae and adults which resulted in enhanced aggregation/agglutination of thrombocytes. Zebrafish genome database analysis revealed the presence of GPIb? gene. It also revealed the exon of zebrafish vWF gene corresponding to exon 28 of human vWF gene is highly similar to the exon 28 of human vWF gene, except that it has an insertion that leads to a translated peptide sequence that separates the two A domains coded by this exon. This exon is also conserved in other fishes. In summary, we established that zebrafish vWF has a role similar to that of vWF found in humans, thus, making zebrafish a useful model for studying the cell biology of vWF in vivo. PMID:21035359

Carrillo, Maira; Kim, Seongcheol; Rajpurohit, Surendra Kumar; Kulkarni, Vrinda; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

2010-12-15

151

GATA Factors in Gastrointestinal Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

GATA factors are unique transcription factors with conserved DNA-binding domains. They serve diverse roles in embryogenesis,\\u000a cell differentiation, regulation of tissue-specific genes, and carcinogenesis. The subfamily GATA-4, -5, and -6 are highly\\u000a expressed in endoderm-derived organs and regulate multiple gut-specific genes. Multiple studies have analyzed the role of\\u000a GATA factors in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy, such as those of the stomach,

Funmi Ayanbule; Narasimhaswamy S. Belaguli; David H. Berger

2011-01-01

152

Expression of von Willebrand Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

von Willebrand disease Normandy (vWD Normandy) is a recently described phenotype in which a mutant von Willebrand factor (vWF) appears structurally and functionally normal except that it does not bind to blood coagulation factor VIII. This interaction is required for normal survival of factor VIII in the circulation; consequently, vWD Normandy can present as apparent hemophilia A but with autosomal

Elodee A. Tuley; Christine Gaucher; Sylvie Jorieux; Neil K. Worrall; J. Evan Sadler; Claudine Mazurier

1991-01-01

153

Contributive factors to aviation accidents.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the results of aviation accident analyses performed by the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aviation Accidents (CENIPA) with the method Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The final reports of thirty-six general aviation accidents occurring between 2000 and 2005 in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil were analyzed and compared. CENIPA reports mentioned 163 contributive factors, while HFACS identified 370 factors. It was concluded that CENIPA reports did not contemplate the organizational factors associated with aviation accidents. PMID:21344127

Fajer, Marcia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Fischer, Frida Marina

2011-04-01

154

Factor Substitution and Unobserved Factor Quality in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home

John Cawley; David C. Grabowski; Richard A. Hirth

2004-01-01

155

Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colostrum is the first natural food produced by female mammals during the first 24–36h directly after giving birth. Chemically, colostrum is a very complex fluid rich in nutrients, antibodies and growth factors. In cows the antibodies provide passive immunity to the new born calf, whereas the growth factors especially stimulate the growth of the gut. The other antimicrobial components of

R. Pakkanen; J. Aalto

1997-01-01

156

Gauge links, TMD-factorization, and TMD-factorization breaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this section, we discuss some basic features of transverse momentum dependent, or unintegrated, parton distribution functions. In particular, when these correlation functions are combined in a factorization formulae with hard processes beyond the simplest cases, there are basic problems with universality and factorization. We discuss some of these problems as well as the opportunities that they offer.

P. J. Mulders; T. C. Rogers

2011-01-01

157

Protective Factors and Risk Factors in Preschool Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do resiliency or protective factors moderate risk factors in preschool aged children? This study looks at pre- and post-treatment data from 49 preschool children whose average age was 4 years old. The treatment included prevention and early intervention programs that promote emotional well-being and the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in children, ages birth to eight, and their caregivers. The

Monica R. Geist; P. Antonio; Olmos Gallo; Mary Grimmer; Daniel J. Mundfrom

2006-01-01

158

Factor substitution in nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home

John Cawley; David C. Grabowski; Richard A. Hirth

2006-01-01

159

Factorization with genus 2 curves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elliptic curve method (ECM) is one of the best factorization methods available. It is possible to use hyperelliptic curves instead of elliptic curves but it is in theory slower. We use special hyperelliptic curves and Kummer surfaces to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Our implementation GMP-HECM is faster than GMP-ECM for factoring large numbers.

Cosset, Romain

2010-04-01

160

Virulence factors of Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candidiasis is a common infection of the skin, oral cavity and esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and vascular system of humans. Although most infections occur in patients who are immunocompromised or debilitated in some other way, the organism most often responsible for disease, Candida albicans, expresses several virulence factors that contribute to pathogenesis. These factors include host recognition biomolecules (adhesins), morphogenesis

Richard A Calderone; William A Fonzi

2001-01-01

161

Male factor infertility and ART  

Microsoft Academic Search

For years, the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience’ and not ‘evidence’ based. Although not evidence-based, current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed, ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility. According to the limited evidence available, intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Herman Tournaye

2012-01-01

162

Risk Factors of Follicular Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with over thirty different subtypes. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common form of indolent NHL and the second most common form of NHL overall. It has morphologic, immunophenotypic and clinical features significantly different from other subtypes. Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of risk factors for etiology and prognosis of FL. These risk factors may advance our understanding of the biology of FL and have an impact on clinical practice. Areas covered The epidemiology of NHL and FL is briefly reviewed. For FL etiology and prognosis separately, we review clinical, environmental and molecular (including genetic, genomic, epigenetic and others) risk factors suggested in the literature. Expert opinion A large number of potential risk factors have been suggested in recent studies. However, there is a lack of consensus, and many of the suggested risk factors have not been rigorously validated in independent studies. There is a need for large-scale, prospective studies to consolidate existing findings and discover new risk factors. Some of the identified risk factors are successful at the population level. More effective individual-level risk factors and models remain to be identified.

Ma, Shuangge

2012-01-01

163

Scale Freeness in Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of scale freeness does not seem to have been well understood in the factor analytic literature. Misconceptions concerning scale-freeness are clarified, and a theorem that ensures scale freeness in the orthogonal factor model is given in this paper. (Author/JKS)

Swaminathan, Hariharan; Algina, James

1978-01-01

164

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

165

Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia.Objective: The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current

Howard Fillit; David T. Nash; Tatjana Rundek; Andrea Zuckerman

2008-01-01

166

Geographical Isolation Factors: The Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawn from a larger paper on geographical isolation, these pages present a review of literature pertaining to geographical isolation factors. The inclusion of a geographical isolation factor in a state's distribution formula for foundation aid is a mechanism for providing additional revenue to small schools or school districts that, because of…

Bass, Gerald R.

167

Estimation of Unattenuated Factor Loadings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that traditional exploratory factor analytic methods, when applied to correlation matrices, cannot be used to estimate unattenuated factor loadings. Presents a mathematical basis for the accurate estimation of such values when the disattenuated correlation matrix or the covariance matrix is used as input. Explains how the equations…

Woodward, Todd S.; Hunter, Michael A.

1999-01-01

168

Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the semi-arid tropics worldwide, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is cultivated by farmers on a subsistence level and consumed as food by humans. A nutritional limitation to its use is the poor digestibility of sorghum protein when wet cooked. The factors affecting wet cooked sorghum protein digestibility may be categorised into two main groups: exogenous factors (grain organisational structure,

K. G Duodu; J. R. N Taylor; P. S Belton; B. R Hamaker

2003-01-01

169

Social Factors in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some principles of learning, examines the relevance of these principles for social factors that influence learning about science, discusses the application of these points to science education, and suggests science policies that reflect an awareness of the influences of these social factors. (Author)

Triandis, Harry C.

1980-01-01

170

Human factors in mission assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space projects rely completely on people for development and implementation - but project-related risk list rarely include human factors as significant sources of risk. The paper notes mitigation techniques for risks associated with the human factors - readers are encouraged to come up with as many mitigation strategies as possible, and share them with each other.

Baroff, L. E.

2003-01-01

171

Smoking – A Renal Risk Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type

Stephan R. Orth

2000-01-01

172

Factors that predict incomplete colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE AND METHODS: Certain factors in a patient's history, such as prior abdominal surgery or complicated diverticular disease, have been reported to hinder cecal intubation during colonoscopy. Over a 16-month period, 1,047 consecutive colonoscopies were prospectively evaluated to determine whether these factors were indeed clinically relevant. RESULTS: Of the 90 patients (9 percent) who had incomplete intubation of the colon,

William C. Cirocco; Lawrence C. Rusin

1995-01-01

173

Activity factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.  

PubMed

Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook. PMID:24570804

Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

2014-01-01

174

Activity Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook  

PubMed Central

Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook.

Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

2014-01-01

175

Optimizing human factors in dentistry  

PubMed Central

Occupational health hazards among dental professionals are on a continuous rise and they have a significant negative overall impact on daily life. This review is intended to provide the information regarding risk factors and to highlight the prevention strategies for optimizing human factors in dentistry. Risk factors among dentists are multifactorial, which can be categorized into biomechanical and psychosocial. To achieve a realistic target of safety and health at work, prevention is clearly the best approach; therefore, musculoskeletal disorders can be reduced through proper positioning of dental worker and patient, regular rest breaks, general good health, using ergonomic equipment, and exercises designed to counteract the particular risk factors for the dental occupation. However, substantial evidences are still required to elucidate the potential risk factors and to formulate effective prevention programs.

Gupta, Arpit; Ankola, Anil V.; Hebbal, Mamata

2013-01-01

176

Mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors  

PubMed Central

Mitosis is accompanied by dramatic changes in chromatin organization and nuclear architecture. Transcription halts globally and most sequence-specific transcription factors and co-factors are ejected from mitotic chromatin. How then does the cell maintain its transcriptional identity throughout the cell division cycle? It has become clear that not all traces of active transcription and gene repression are erased within mitotic chromatin. Many histone modifications are stable or only partially diminished throughout mitosis. In addition, some sequence-specific DNA binding factors have emerged that remain bound to select sites within mitotic chromatin, raising the possibility that they function to transmit regulatory information through the transcriptionally silent mitotic phase, a concept that has been termed “mitotic bookmarking.” Here we review recent approaches to studying potential bookmarking factors with regards to their mitotic partitioning, and summarize emerging ideas concerning the in vivo functions of mitotically bound nuclear factors.

2013-01-01

177

The factor H protein family.  

PubMed

The factor H gene family provides a prime example of a multidomain multifunctional protein family whose individual members are defined by conserved common structural elements and display diverse but often overlapping functions. The six identified members of this protein family represent secreted plasma proteins that are primarily synthesized in the liver. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the function of these proteins and suggest a common role in complement control. Factor H is the best characterized member and acts as a complement regulator. The protein displays cofactor activity for factor I in the degradation of the central complement component C3b, acts as a decay accelerating factor for the C3 convertase, C3bBb and is a competitor for factor B binding to C3b. Factor H is a multifunctional protein and displays functions outside the complement system: it binds to the cellular integrin receptor (CD11b/CD18), interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans and also binds to the surface of certain pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, factor H has several binding sites for the C3 protein. The factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) or reconectin shares the complement regulatory functions with factor H and interacts with heparin. The protein displays cell spreading activity and binds to the N-terminus of the streptococcal M protein. The function of the factor H-related proteins (FHR-1 to FHR-4) is currently under investigation. These proteins are differently distributed. Three proteins (FHR-1, FHR-2 and FHR-4) are constituents of lipoproteins, while FHR-3 interacts with heparin. Binding to C3b and C3d has been demonstrated for FHR-3 and FHR-4 and the two proteins display a cofactor related activity. PMID:10408366

Zipfel, P F; Jokiranta, T S; Hellwage, J; Koistinen, V; Meri, S

1999-05-01

178

Doppler factor, Lorentz factor and viewing angle of superluminal quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the investigation of the properties of features seen within superluminal sources often referred to as components. Our result indicates a fairly strong correlation of r˜0.76 between component radial distance L and component size ?. Assumption of simple ballistic motion and free adiabatic expansion, enabled us to use the observed jet component parameters to constrain the Doppler factor, Lorentz factor and the lower limit to the viewing angle with respect to a distant observer. The estimated average Doppler factor, Lorentz factor and viewing angle respectively are 10.3±5.0, 18.3±6.2 and 3.7±2.3 for ?=4/3; while the values obtained for ?=5/3 are 12.2±5.9,17.2±5.1 and 2.9±1.6, where ? is the adiabatic index. The large scatter in our results may be due to the uncertainties introduced by the assumptions made.

Onuchukwu, C. C.; Ubachukwu, A. A.

2013-11-01

179

[Risk factors of recurrent spontaneous abortion].  

PubMed

Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) has various complicated causes, and more and more researches are focused on its etiology. Genetic factors are the most common risk factors of RSA; immune factors, infection factors, male factors and female factors play an important role; environmental pollution and some other unknown factors may also be conspirators. This article presents an overview on the possible risk factors of RSA. PMID:24010215

Gu, Chun-Hui; Liang, Wen-Jun; Fu, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Lian-Wen

2013-08-01

180

Gauge links, TMD-factorization, and TMD-factorization breaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this section, we discuss some basic features of transverse momentum\\u000adependent, or unintegrated, parton distribution functions. In particular, when\\u000athese correlation functions are combined in a factorization formulae with hard\\u000aprocesses beyond the simplest cases, there are basic problems with universality\\u000aand factorization. We discuss some of these problems as well as the\\u000aopportunities that they offer.

Piet J. Mulders; Ted C. Rogers

2011-01-01

181

Standardization of assays of factor VIII and factor IX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The development of international standards over the last 15–20 years has led to improved interlaboratory agreement on assays\\u000a of factor VIII and factor IX. In the most recent international collaborative study, the coefficient of variation for one-stage\\u000a assays (26 laboratories) was 5.6%. However, in quality assurance surveys, carried out in the UK and USA, agreement between\\u000a laboratories is much less

Trevor W. Barrowcliffe

1990-01-01

182

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: A Newly Identified Metastatic Factor in Rhabdomyosarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdomyosarcoma frequently infiltrates bone marrow and this process involves the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)- CXCR4 axis. Because leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), like SDF- 1, is secreted by bone marrow stroma and directs the regeneration of skeletal muscles, we examined whether the LIF-LIF receptor (LIF-R) axis affects the biology of rhabdo- myosarcoma cells. We found that in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, LIF stimulates the

Marcin Wysoczynski; Katarzyna Miekus; Kacper Jankowski; Jens Wanzeck; Salvatore Bertolone; Anna Janowska-Wieczorek; Janina Ratajczak; Mariusz Z. Ratajczak

2007-01-01

183

Calculation of Pion Form Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pion form factor is calculated using the structure function Wsub(2), which incorporates kinematical constraints, threshold behaviour and scaling. The Bloom-Gilman sum rule is used and only the two leading Regge trajectories are taken into account. (At...

N. Vahedi S. Amirarjomand

1975-01-01

184

Dynamic Increase Factors for Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For reinforced concrete structures subjected to blast effects, response at very high strain rates (up to 1000 s(-1)) is often sought. At these high strain rates, the apparent strength of concrete can increase significantly. The dynamic increase factor (DI...

J. E. Crawford L. J. Malvar

1998-01-01

185

What Factors Impact a Greenhouse?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use a model to investigate factors in greenhouse heating and cooling. The type of surface that sunlight first encounters is the most important factor. Forests, grasslands, ocean surfaces, ice caps, deserts, and cities all absorb, reflect, and radiate radiation differently. As a result of this activity students will be able to identify at least three factors affecting the heat-trapping ability of a greenhouse, explain the factors important in the atmosphere's heat trapping ability, and understand the influence of albedo on earth's temperature. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

186

Intraluminal Factors Affecting Iron Absorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The simplest model of iron absorption must consider (1) the mucosal uptake of dietary iron and (2) the transfer of iron from intestinal cells into the body. It provides three anatomic locations for studying regulatory factors: (a) intraluminal, (b) duoden...

M. E. Conrad

1968-01-01

187

Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technology University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2008-11-15

188

Chemical Specific Adjustment factors Workshop  

EPA Science Inventory

The World Health Organization, through the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), has established guidance on the use of mechanistic data to replace default uncertainty factors for interspecies extrapolation and intraspecies variability in deriving risk values such as...

189

Epo and other hematopoietic factors  

PubMed Central

The growth factors erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor have hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic functions. Both are used clinically in their recombinant forms. Both also have interesting tissue-protective effects in other organs, which are unrelated to their hematopoietic functions. They have clinical hematopoietic uses in neonatal populations and in experimental non-hematopoietic research, and clinical potential as neuroprotective or tissue-protective agents.

Juul, Sandra; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula

2007-01-01

190

Genetic risk factors for melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis of melanoma is complex and has both inherited and acquired components. Different genomic approaches have\\u000a been used to identify a number of inherited risk factors, which can be stratified by penetrance and prevalence. Rare high-penetrance\\u000a factors are expressed in familial clustering of melanoma and include mutations in CDKN2A (encoding p16INK4a and p14ARF) and CDK4. These genes are

Kathrine Damm Meyle; Per Guldberg

2009-01-01

191

Structure of human factor VIII  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deduced amino acid sequence of human factor VIII, obtained from the DNA sequence, predicts a mature polypeptide of 2,332 amino acids containing a triplicated domain structure. The polypeptide has 35% sequence homology with the copper-binding plasma protein, ceruloplasmin. Determination of the thrombin cleavage sites in plasma-derived factor VIII polypeptides allows prediction of the domains involved in the associated activation

Gordon A. Vehar; Bruce Keyt; Dan Eaton; Henry Rodriguez; Donogh P. O'Brien; Frances Rotblat; Herman Oppermann; Rodney Keck; William I. Wood; Richard N. Harkins; Edward G. D. Tuddenham; Richard M. Lawn; Daniel J. Capon

1984-01-01

192

Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

2000-01-01

193

Postpartum Psychosis: Risk Factors Identification  

PubMed Central

Background: A better understanding of risk factors associated with postpartum psychosis may contribute to the better management. Aims: This study was to identify the risk factors contributing to postpartum psychosis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional, case control study 100 patients of postpartum psychosis (PP) were compared with the healthy controls. Risk factors explored were sociodemographic factors (age, education, occupation, income, and family type); positive family history; pregnancy and perinatal factors (number of antenatal check-up, parity, and complications during pregnancy, perinatal phase or in newborn); and presence of husband during peripartum period. Data were analyzed by graph pad instat software using chi square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Total of 64% patients and 42% controls were less than 25 years of age (P = 0.001). Among the patients, 62% were primiparae compared with 46% in the controls (P = 0.02). Per capita family income was less than 5000 INR in 72% patients and 56% controls (P = 0.01). Maternal complications during perinatal period were observed in 38% patients and 22% controls (P = 0.01), while the complications in newborns were seen in 21% patients and 8% controls (P = 0.009). Husband was present in 58% patients and 76% controls. (P = 0.006). Conclusions: The risk factors related to PP were younger age, lower per capita income, perinatal and neonatal complications, and absence of husband in peripartum phase.

Upadhyaya, Suneet Kumar; Sharma, Archana; Raval, Chintan M

2014-01-01

194

Wedge factors for rectangular fields.  

PubMed

The variation of wedge factor with field size was measured for a range of square and rectangular fields for 45 degrees and 60 degrees wedges. Measurements were performed on accelerators with both externally mounted wedges, the Varian 600C of nominal energy 6MV and internally mounted wedges, the Philips SL75/5 of nominal energy 6MV and the Philips SL25 of nominal energy 25MV. Analysis of the results confirm previous investigations reported in the literature of the variation of wedge factor with field size and in particular the significantly greater variation for internally mounted wedges. A wedge factor for a rectangular field based on the wedge factor of the open field equivalent square gives a maximum error of 1.5%. A wedge factor for a rectangular field based on the wedge factor of the square field of equal area reduces the maximum error to 0.5% for all three accelerators. Analysis of results reported in the literature show a similar reduction. PMID:8198508

Arthur, G

1994-03-01

195

Sparse Bayesian infinite factor models  

PubMed Central

We focus on sparse modelling of high-dimensional covariance matrices using Bayesian latent factor models. We propose a multiplicative gamma process shrinkage prior on the factor loadings which allows introduction of infinitely many factors, with the loadings increasingly shrunk towards zero as the column index increases. We use our prior on a parameter-expanded loading matrix to avoid the order dependence typical in factor analysis models and develop an efficient Gibbs sampler that scales well as data dimensionality increases. The gain in efficiency is achieved by the joint conjugacy property of the proposed prior, which allows block updating of the loadings matrix. We propose an adaptive Gibbs sampler for automatically truncating the infinite loading matrix through selection of the number of important factors. Theoretical results are provided on the support of the prior and truncation approximation bounds. A fast algorithm is proposed to produce approximate Bayes estimates. Latent factor regression methods are developed for prediction and variable selection in applications with high-dimensional correlated predictors. Operating characteristics are assessed through simulation studies, and the approach is applied to predict survival times from gene expression data.

Bhattacharya, A.; Dunson, D. B.

2011-01-01

196

Structural Biology Of Factor VIIa/Tissue Factor Initiated Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Factor VII (FVII) consists of an N-terminal gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain followed by two epidermal growth factor-like (EGF1 and EGF2) domains and the C-terminal protease domain. Activation of FVII results in a two-chain FVIIa molecule consisting of a light chain (Gla-EGF1-EGF2 domains) and a heavy chain (protease domain) held together by a single disulfide bond. During coagulation, the complex of tissue factor (TF, a transmembrane glycoprotein) and FVIIa activates factor IX (FIX) and factor X (FX). FVIIa is structurally “zymogen-like” and when bound to TF, it is more “active enzyme-like.” FIX and FX share structural homology with FVII. Three structural biology aspects of FVIIa/TF are presented in this review. One, regions in soluble TF (sTF) that interact with FVIIa as well as mapping of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Zn2+ sites in FVIIa and their functions; two, modeled interactive regions of Gla and EGF1 domains of FXa and FIXa with FVIIa/sTF; and three, incompletely formed oxyanion hole in FVIIa/sTF and its induction by substrate/inhibitor. Finally, an overview of the recognition elements in TF pathway inhibitor is provided.

Vadivel, Kanagasabai; Paul Bajaj, S.

2012-01-01

197

Matrix Metalloproteinases and Angiogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether biomarkers improve the prediction of recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. A tissue microarray was constructed from prostate specimens of 278 patients who underwent open radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. For immunohistochemical studies, antibodies were used against matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-19, as well as against vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-induced factor 1?, basic fibroblast growth factor, and cluster of differentiation 31. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the potential predictors of overall, disease-specific, and recurrence-free survival. In univariate analysis of patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer, only higher expression levels of MMP-9 (hazard ratio [0.6], 95% CI 0.45?0.8) had a protective effect in terms of overall survival. This positive effect of high MMP-9 expression was also observed for recurrence-free (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78?0.99) and disease-specific survival (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.36?0.73). In multivariable analysis, none of these potential markers was found to be an independent prognostic factor of survival. Of all MMPs and angiogenic factors tested, MMP-9 expression has the potential as a prognostic marker in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically organ-confined cases of prostate cancer.

Boxler, Silvan; Djonov, Valentin; Kessler, Thomas M.; Hlushchuk, Ruslan; Bachmann, Lucas M.; Held, Ulrike; Markwalder, Regula; Thalmann, George N.

2010-01-01

198

Self-similar factor approximants.  

PubMed

The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Padé approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Padé approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties. PMID:12636750

Gluzman, S; Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

2003-02-01

199

TRASYS form factor matrix normalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

1992-01-01

200

Factorization for generic jet production  

SciTech Connect

Factorization is the central ingredient in any theoretical prediction for collider experiments. We introduce a factorization formalism that can be applied to any desired observable, like event shapes or jet observables, for any number of jets and a wide range of jet algorithms in leptonic or hadronic collisions. This is achieved by using soft-collinear effective theory to prove the formal factorization of a generic fully differential cross section in terms of a hard coefficient, and generic jet and soft functions. In this formalism, whether a given observable factorizes in the usual sense, depends on whether it is inclusive enough, so the jet functions can be calculated perturbatively. The factorization formula for any such observable immediately follows from our general result, including the precise definition of the jet and soft functions appropriate for the observable in question. As examples of our formalism, we work out several results in two-jet production for both e{sup +}e{sup -} and pp collisions. For the latter, we also comment on how our formalism allows one to treat underlying events and beam remnants.

Bauer, Christian W.; Hornig, Andrew; Tackmann, Frank J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2009-06-01

201

R factor transmission in vivo.  

PubMed

Experimental infections were induced in weanling pigs orally both with nalidixic acid (NA)-sensitive and -resistant strains of Salmonella choleraesuis var. kunzendorf, designated RC221 and RC221NA, respectively. Prior to the time of infection, cultures of normal bacterial flora were isolated from swine fecal matter and screened for the presence of R factors. A majority of these bacterial isolates harbored transferable resistances. Both strains RC221 and RC221NA have been shown to be competent recipients in vitro of the R factors present in the normal intestinal flora. The property of NA resistance greatly facilitated recovery of the infecting organism. After infection, salmonellae from liver, lung, spleen, lymph node, intestine, and feces were screened for the presence of R factors. Transfer of drug resistance in vivo was a rare occurrence; however, if infected specimens, particularly intestinal, were incubated in nutrient broth prior to plating, R factor transfer occurred, presumably in the test tube. Changes in recipient cultures were frequently observed after introduction of R factors from organisms of pig origin into the S. choleraesuis var. kunzendorf test organisms. Alterations include changes in typing reaction, granular growth in broth, differences in colony form, and reduction of virulence. PMID:4897113

Jarolmen, H; Kemp, G

1969-08-01

202

Regulatory Effects of Cell Density on the Binding of Transforming Growth Factor ß, EpidermalGrowth Factor, Platelet-derivedGrowth Factor,and Fibroblast Growth Factor1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work described in this paper demonstrates that the cellular binding of transforming growth factor ß, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor is reduced as cell density is increased. The reduction in transforming growth factor \\/•>' binding was observed in five different cell lines. Examination of several of the cell lines, under conditions where transforming growth

Angie Rizzino; Peter Kazakoff; Eric Ruff; Charles Kuszynski; John Nebelsick

203

[Risk factors for preterm encephalopathy].  

PubMed

Encephalopathy in a common neonatological sense is a term referring to a complex of clinical symptoms occurring in term infants in the first days of their life as a result of hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, if we accept the encyclopedic definition of encephalopathy as a vast or multifocal brain lesions caused by a variety of factors, we may use the term to describe all patients with traumatic, hypoxic or toxic brain lesions, and therefore also newborns at different levels of maturity. Contrary to term newborns, in which case the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are mostly intrauterine, for preterm infants there is a number of factors which destroy neural tissue postnatally The occurrence of those factors is often influenced by elements of essential intensive care. The article describes the most common biochemical disturbances and clinical causes. PMID:19824462

Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Bargiel, Agata

2009-08-01

204

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis  

SciTech Connect

Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Epstein, S. (Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Bhattacharyya, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Pounds, J. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States))

1994-04-01

205

[Success factors in hospital management].  

PubMed

The hospital environment of most Western countries is currently undergoing dramatic changes. Competition among hospitals is increasing, and economic issues have become decisive factors for the allocation of medical care. Hospitals therefore require management tools to respond to these changes adequately. The balanced scorecard is a method of enabling development and implementation of a business strategy that equally respects the financial requirements, the needs of the customers, process development, and organizational learning. This method was used to derive generally valid success factors for hospital management based on an analysis of an academic hospital in Switzerland. Strategic management, the focus of medical services, customer orientation, and integration of professional groups across the hospital value chain were identified as success factors for hospital management. PMID:10023551

Heberer, M

1998-12-01

206

Factors influencing vitamin D status.  

PubMed

The steroid hormone vitamin D is required for normal calcium and phosphorus metabolism and is thus an important contributor to musculoskeletal health. Recent data have linked low vitamin D levels to a wide range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease and infection. Adequate levels of vitamin D are maintained through its cutaneous photosynthesis and oral ingestion. By some estimates, one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. A number of factors influence the photosynthesis and bioavailability of vitamin D and contribute to risk of impaired vitamin D status. These factors include variation in sun exposure due to latitude, season, time of day, atmospheric components, clothing, sunscreen use and skin pigmentation, as well as age, obesity and the incidence of several chronic illnesses. This review will focus on factors that influence vitamin D status and contribute to the prevalence of low vitamin D levels. PMID:21384086

Tsiaras, William G; Weinstock, Martin A

2011-03-01

207

Can haemostatic factors predict atherothrombosis?  

PubMed

Thrombosis is "haemostasis in the wrong place", and there is increasing evidence that haemostatic factors are associated with increased risk of atherothrombotic events. Increasing plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, and with vascular and nonvascular mortality. However, as with other markers of haemostasis (and of inflammation), their additional predictive value to conventional risk factors is small. Ongoing studies of activation markers of coagulation (e.g. fibrin D-dimer), endothelium (e.g. von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator antigen) and platelets (mean platelet volume) may provide additional predictive value for atherothrombotic events. However, at present there is no sufficient evidence base for their routine measurement in prediction. PMID:21327550

Lowe, Gordon

2011-12-01

208

Highly parallel sparse Cholesky factorization  

SciTech Connect

The paper develops and compares several fine-grained parallel algorithms to compute the Cholesky factorization of a sparse matrix. The experimental implementations are on the Connection Machine, a distributed-memory SIMD machine whose programming model conceptually supplies one processor per data element. In contrast to special-purpose algorithms in which the matrix structure conforms to the connection structure of the machine, the focus is on matrices with arbitrary sparsity structure. The most promising algorithm is one whose inner loop performs several dense factorizations simultaneously on a two-dimensional grid of processors. Virtually any massively parallel dense factorization algorithm can be used as the key subroutine. The sparse code attains execution rates comparable to those of the dense subroutine. It also presents a performance model and uses it to analyze the algorithms. It finds that asymptotic analysis combined with experimental measurement of parameters is accurate enough to be useful in choosing among alternative algorithms for a complicated problem.

Gilbert, J.R.; Schreiber, R.

1990-08-01

209

General factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.  

PubMed

Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

2014-01-01

210

Keratinocyte growth factor-2 polynucleotides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to newly identified polynucleotides, polypeptides encoded by such polynucleotides, the use of such polynucleotides and polypeptides, as well as the production of such polynucleotides and polypeptides. More particularly, the polypeptide of the present invention is a Keratinocyte Growth Factor, sometimes hereinafter referred to as "KGF-2" also formerly known as Fibroblast Growth Factor 12 (FGF-12). This invention further relates to the therapeutic use of KGF-2 to promote or accelerate wound healing. This invention also relates to novel mutant forms of KGF-2 that show enhanced activity, increased stability, higher yield or better solubility.

2007-06-19

211

Environmental factors associated with asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma, a disease of attacks and remission, continues to account for substantial morbidity and direct economic costs. Numerous studies--epidemiologic, toxicologic and clinical--present evidence for a broad spectrum of environmental risk factors associated with asthma. This review summarizes current thinking on a subset of these factors. Knowledge of potential environmental determinants of asthma is important to both the patient and healthcare professional in the application of multiple modalities of medical and environmental intervention for management of the development, and exacerbation of this chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways.

Walker, Bailus; Stokes, Lynette D.; Warren, Rueben

2003-01-01

212

Genetics Home Reference: Factor V deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Factor V deficiency On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2013 What is factor V deficiency? Factor V deficiency is a rare ...

213

Introduction to Human Factors and Combat Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis discusses the incorporation of human factors into combat models. First, an historical perspective to determine the significant human factors reveals that human factors fall into two categories based upon when they affect man the most: before/a...

T. F. Schroth

1989-01-01

214

Environmental Factors Influencing School Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper hypothesizes that both the structure and function of school systems are influenced by the following environmental factors: the institutional division of labor, the degree of homogeneity, the degree of stability, the degree of competition, and the amount and source of funding. Support for the hypotheses relies on open systems theory and…

Azumi, Jann E.

215

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

216

Document clustering by concept factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new data clustering method called concept factorization that models each concept as a linear combination of the data points, and each data point as a linear combination of the concepts. With this model, the data clustering task is accomplished by computing the two sets of linear coefficients, and this linear coefficients computation is carried

Wei Xu; Yihong Gong

2004-01-01

217

Pollution, Factor Taxation and Unemployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

When consumers choose between clean and dirty goods and the labour market clears, a green tax reform may not bring about a double dividend in the sense of increasing environmental quality and increasing employment. However, when firms choose between clean and dirty factors of production, and when there is unemployment, such a result is very likely to occur. The paper

Erkki Koskela; Ronnie Schöb; Hans-Werner Sinn

1998-01-01

218

Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

2009-01-01

219

Factors associated with cerebral malaria.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective unmatched case-control study using the medical records of patients admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand to investigate factors associated with cerebral malaria. The records of 137 patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum without cerebral malaria and 35 patients with cerebral malaria hospitalized during 1997-2005 were reviewed and compared. Ten factors associated with cerebral malaria were identified: pulmonary edema [odds ratio (OR)= 13.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-143.2], splenomegaly (OR=3.7; 95% CI: 1.3-44.7), fever (OR=3.3; 95% CI: 1.7-14.3), day 1 malarial density < or = 249,999/microl (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-14.6), day 2 malarial density < or =249,999/microl (OR=3.4; 95% CI: 1.3-35.1), dyspnea (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-12.1), hepatomegaly (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 0.2-12.1), being a referred patient (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2), a higher systolic blood pressure (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1) and a higher body mass index (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6). Pulmonary edema was the strongest factor associated with cerebral malaria in our study. Clinicians who treat patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria should be aware these factors are associated with cerebral malaria. PMID:24450230

Adhikari, Bipin; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat

2013-11-01

220

Nonideality Correction Factors for Adsorbates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The values of the nonideality factor, ?, obtained by P. H. Emmett and S. Brunauer, (J. Am. Chem. Soc.59,1553 (1937)) with the aid of the van der Waals equation of state for various adsorbates, and which are routinely utilized in adsorption experiments, are valid only for nonpolar gases such as nitrogen, argon, and oxygen. On the other hand, for most

A. Venkatraman; L. T. Fan; W. P. Walawender

1996-01-01

221

Three phase power factor controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power control circuit for a three phase induction motor is described. The power factors for the three phases are summed to provide a control signal. This control signal is particularly filtered and then employed to control the duty cycle of each phase of input power to the motor.

Nola, F. J.

1980-10-01

222

Factor analysis of dichotomized variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for multiple factor analysis of dichotomized variables is presented. It is based on the distribution of the first and second order joint probabilities of the binary scored items. The estimator is based on the generalized least squares principle. Standard errors and a test of the fit of the model is given.

Anders Christoffersson

1975-01-01

223

Radiation-View-Factor Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VIEW is interactive program determining view factors, graphically displays surfaces, and evaluates solar irradiation of assemblage of surfaces. VIEW programs available in two machine versions. IBM PC version (LAR-14217) written in FORTRAN 77, C language, and assembly language. DEC VAX VMS version (LAR-14468) written in FORTRAN 77.

Emery, Ashley F.

1993-01-01

224

Synthetic Division and Matrix Factorization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthetic division is viewed as a change of basis for polynomials written under the Newton form. Then, the transition matrices obtained from a sequence of changes of basis are used to factorize the inverse of a bidiagonal matrix or a block bidiagonal matrix.

Barabe, Samuel; Dubeau, Franc

2007-01-01

225

NASA Space Human Factors Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

1992-01-01

226

Factors Influencing College Science Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses throughout the…

Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

2006-01-01

227

Human Factors in Electrical Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance with regulations or consensus codes and standards is often not sufficient to eliminate the potential for injury or fatality from electrical sources. Recently available data on the scope of electrical incidents underscores the need to revisit the strategic advantages to be gained through implementation of human factors principles across engineering and management processes. This review provides historical, regulatory, and

S. Jamil; A. Golding; H. L. Floyd; M. Capelli-Schellpfeffer

2007-01-01

228

Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story Sleep Apnea Research: The HeartBeat Study The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project Heart Disease Risk Factors All of Our Stories Are Red: Yaskary's Story 04/11/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Eileen's Story ...

229

Prognostic Factors in Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is among the neoplastic diseases that has the best long-term outcome after cytotoxic treatment. Cure rates approach 80–90%; however, 15–20% of patients will be resistant to therapy (primary refractory) or relapse after treatment. Prognostic factors should help to stratify treatment according to the risk profile and identify patients at risk for failure. Significance of prognostic factors partly depends on the efficacy of the treatments administered, since new effective therapies can variably counterbalance the adverse effects of some unfavorable clinical determinants. As a consequence, some prognostic factors thought to be important in the past may become meaningless when modern successful therapies are used. Therefore, the value of prognostic factors has to be updated periodically, and then adapted to new emerging biomarkers. Besides the prognostic role of PET imaging, tissue and circulating biomarkers, as the number of tumor-infiltrating macrophages, cytokine and chemokine levels and profiling of circulating nucleic acids (DNA and microRNAs) have shown promise.

Cuccaro, Annarosa; Bartolomei, Francesca; Cupelli, Elisa; Galli, Eugenio; Giachelia, Manuela; Hohaus, Stefan

2014-01-01

230

Impact factors in nursing journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journal impact factors (IFs), a measure of citation frequency, are published annually in Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Journal IFs, although controversial because of the uses to which they have been put in academic arenas, remain a metric about which nurses should be informed. This paper discusses key issues in the controversy, explains how IFs are computed, and presents historical and

Denise F. Polit; Sally Northam

2011-01-01

231

Highly parallel sparse Cholesky factorization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several fine grained parallel algorithms were developed and compared to compute the Cholesky factorization of a sparse matrix. The experimental implementations are on the Connection Machine, a distributed memory SIMD machine whose programming model conceptually supplies one processor per data element. In contrast to special purpose algorithms in which the matrix structure conforms to the connection structure of the machine, the focus is on matrices with arbitrary sparsity structure. The most promising algorithm is one whose inner loop performs several dense factorizations simultaneously on a 2-D grid of processors. Virtually any massively parallel dense factorization algorithm can be used as the key subroutine. The sparse code attains execution rates comparable to those of the dense subroutine. Although at present architectural limitations prevent the dense factorization from realizing its potential efficiency, it is concluded that a regular data parallel architecture can be used efficiently to solve arbitrarily structured sparse problems. A performance model is also presented and it is used to analyze the algorithms.

Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

1990-01-01

232

Quantum Computers, Factoring and Decoherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a quantum computer any superposition of inputs evolves unitarily into the correspond- ing superposition of outputs. It has been recently demonstrated that such computers can dramatically speed up the task of finding factors of large numbers - a problem of great practical significance because of its cryptographic applications. Instead of the nearly ex- ponential (? exp L1\\/3, for a

I. L. Chuang; R. Laflamme; P. Shor; W. H. Zurek

1995-01-01

233

Family Factors and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable debate about the relative importance of family versus school factors in producing academic and nonacademic student outcomes, and whether and how their impacts vary across different student groups. In addition to critically reviewing and synthesizing earlier work, this study extends the literature by (a) using the ECLS-K, a…

Xia, Nailing

2009-01-01

234

Stress Factors among College Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress factors affecting community college educators in Ontario were determined using a questionnaire survey. The effect of demographic variables (campus location, program types and specialization, gender, age, and years taught at the college) on perceived stress levels were evaluated. Participants rated their present stress levels on a…

Grant, George Farid

235

Vandalism: Environmental and Social Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…

Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan

2003-01-01

236

Factores geográficos en la epidemiología  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of fruits from the genus Karwinskia may cause a flaccid paralysis that can be confused with the Guillan-Barré syndrome or poliomyelitis. Paralysis resulting from con- sumption of such fruit has emerged as a public health problem in certain regions of Mexico. The purpose of this study was to investigate geographical factors associated with this intoxication in the 72 cases

María Eugenia; Arreola Nav; José Luis Vázquez Castellanos; Miguel Ernesto González Castañeda

237

Risk factors in toxic megacolon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of data from a series of 22 patients with toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis was performed in an attempt to detect factors associated with the fatal outcome of the attack. Of the 25 clinical findings studied, significant differences between survivors (17) and nonsurvivors (5) were observed in only seven. In nonsurvivors, duration of the disease was longer

R. Caprilli; P. Vernia; O. Colaneri; G. Frieri

1980-01-01

238

Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation and the…

Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

2010-01-01

239

Three Phase Power Factor Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A power control circuit for a three phase induction motor is described. The power factors for the three phases are summed to provide a control signal. This control signal is particularly filtered and then employed to control the duty cycle of each phase o...

F. J. Nola

1980-01-01

240

Technology, Trade, and Factor Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies appear to show that international trade is a secondary factor in the growing inequality of wages, with technology probably the main culprit. These studies have, however, been subjected to severe and in some cases harshly worded criticism by trade theorists, who argue that the authors of these studies have misspecified the impacts of both technology

Paul R. Krugman

1995-01-01

241

Neurophysiological Factors in Spatial Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the major lines of investigation that point to neurophysiological factors in spatial skill are presented. These lines include: the two hemispheres of the brain, recent studies, tachistoscopic studies, morphological differences between the cerebral hemispheres, Geschwind and Levitsky's discovery, cerebral dominance re-examined, sex…

Harris, Lauren Jay

242

FACTORS GOVERNING RETENTION IN COLLEGE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

INTELLIGENCE, SEX, AND AT LEAST TWO YEARS OF HIGH SCHOOL FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY ARE EXAMINED AS FACTORS IN COLLEGE PERSISTENCE. STUDIES OF ACADEMIC SUSPENSIONS AND WITHDRAWALS AFTER THE FRESHMAN YEAR AT ALABAMA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE REVEAL THAT (1) THERE IS A HIGH DEGREE OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND COLLEGE PERSISTENCE, (2) WOMEN ARE…

SKELTON, R.B.

243

Transcription factor-based biosensor  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for a system comprising a BmoR transcription factor, a .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase, and a pBMO promoter operatively linked to a reporter gene, wherein the pBMO promoter is capable of expression of the reporter gene with an activated form of the BmoR and the .sigma..sup.54-RNA polymerase.

2013-10-08

244

HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

245

Factors Affecting Nontraditional Vocational Enrollments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identifies the internal and external factors which differentiate women who enter male-traditional vocational training programs from those who enter female-traditional programs. Data were collected from 470 women enrolled in California vocational training programs. The sample was stratified on both social class and type of vocational…

Houser, Betsy Bosak; Garvey, Chris

246

Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how to solve quadratic equations with the factoring method. In 4 minutes 23 seconds, the two narrators explain in detail the steps required. Additionally, how these equations relate to objects and events in the real world such as roller coasters is covered.

2012-08-06

247

Design Changes and Human Factors  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guidelines and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure that design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors and to develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces.

Staples, Lucinda; McRobbie, Helen

2004-01-15

248

Anaphylaxis: risk factors for recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background There are few studies on the incidence or recurrence of anaphylaxis. Objective To examine the incidence of anaphylaxis and risk factors for recurrence. Methods A prospective study of 432 patients referred to a community-based specialist practice in the Australian Capital Territory with anaphylaxis, followed by a survey to obtain information on recurrence. Results Of 432 patients (48% male,

R. J. Mullins

2003-01-01

249

Human factors in software development  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

Curtis, B.

1986-01-01

250

Factors Influencing Mortality in Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of acromegaly have shown a doubling of mortality compared with the general population. With the development of new modalities of treatment, it has become important to identify prognostic factors relating to mortality. Between 1964 and 2000, 208 acromegalic patients were followed for a mean of 13 yr at Auckland Hospital. Treatment was by surgery or radionuclide pituitary implantation, and

IAN M. HOLDAWAY; RAJA C. RAJASOORYA; GREG D. GAMBLE

251

Psychological Factors in Battered Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The determinants of wife abuse and factors causing women to remain in a violent relationship were examined. A structured interview format was administered to 302 women, 137 were self-identified as battered; these were matched with controls selected from t...

I. H. Frieze

1981-01-01

252

Demand, Energy, and Power Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper briefly presents the results of a study of various utility rate schedules from across the United States and describes a video produced to explain some major features of these rate structures. In particular, the demand, energy and power factor s...

M. J. Gough

1994-01-01

253

Prognostic Factors in Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cell and are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with normo- or hyper cellular bone marrow and cytopenia(s).The natural evolution of the disease consists of bone marrow failure (leading to infectious and hemorrhagic episodes or anemia related complications) and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Because MDSs display remarkable clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic heterogeneity, with variable evolution and survival ranging from months to years, the predictive factors of prognosis have a key role in optimal therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze prognostic factors within a group of patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes. The prognostic factors taken into account are: the number and depth of cytopenias, percentage of bone marrow blasts, cytogenetic abnormalities, intensity of anemia and transfusional dependence. These factors are related to overall survival, leukemia free survival, bone marrow failure complications, leukemic evolution, treatment decisions and the response to treatment. Material and method: The study group comprises of 119 patients diagnosed with de novo MDS, between 2008 and 2011 in the Hematology Department of Coltea Clinical Hospital. In this monitoring period the patients were stratified according to the FAB (French-American-British) morphologic classification. Results: This study revealed that the outcomes of patients with MDS is influenced by the percentage of bone marrow blasts at diagnosis, the number and severity of hematopoietic lineage affected by cytopenia and by the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusions: The studied prognostic factors have predictive value in terms of survival, leukemic transformation, treatment response and development of bone marrow failure-related characteristic complications.

TRIANTAFYLLIDIS, Irina; CIOBANU, Anca; STANCA, Oana; LUPU, Anca Roxana

2012-01-01

254

Psychological factors and coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although psychological factors play an important role in coronary heart diseases (CHD), it seems there is a need for more researches in this respect. The present study aimed to review psychological factors, including depression, anxiety and stress related to etiology and prognosis of CHD. METHODS This was a review on medical and psychological literatures, particularly in the years 1995-2012. RESULTS As protective factor or risk factor, psychological factors play an important role in CHD. CONCLUSION Given the findings of this study, it seems necessary that we pay attention to psychological factors, as independent risk factors or protective factors for CHD.

Khayyam-Nekouei, Zohreh; Neshatdoost, Hamidtaher; Yousefy, Alireza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Manshaee, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

255

The mechanism underlying activation of factor IX by factor XIa.  

PubMed

Factor XI (fXI) is the zymogen of a plasma protease, factor XIa (fXIa), that contributes to thrombin generation during blood coagulation by proteolytic conversion of factor IX (fIX) to factor IXa? (fIXa?). There is considerable interest in fXIa as a therapeutic target because it contributes to thrombosis, while serving a relatively minor role in hemostasis. FXI/XIa has a distinctly different structure than other plasma coagulation proteases. Specifically, the protein lacks a phospholipid-binding Gla-domain, and is a homodimer. Each subunit of a fXIa dimer contains four apple domains (A1 to A4) and one trypsin-like catalytic domain. The A3 domain contains a binding site (exosite) that largely determines affinity and specificity for the substrate fIX. After binding to fXIa, fIX undergoes a single cleavage to form the intermediate fIX?. FIX? then rebinds to the A3 domain to undergo a second cleavage, generating fIXa?. The catalytic efficiency for the second cleavage is ~7-fold greater than that of the first cleavage, limiting fIX? accumulation. Residues at the N-terminus and C-terminus of the fXIa A3 domain likely form the fIX binding site. The dimeric conformation of fXIa is not required for normal fIX activation in solution. However, monomeric forms of fXI do not reconstitute fXI-deficient mice in arterial thrombosis models, indicating the dimer is required for normal function in vivo. FXI must be a dimer to be activated normal by the protease fXIIa. It is also possible that the dimeric structure is an adaptation that allows fXI/XIa to bind to a surface through one subunit, while binding to its substrate fIX through the other. PMID:24759143

Gailani, David; Geng, Yipeng; Verhamme, Ingrid; Sun, Mao-Fu; Bajaj, S Paul; Messer, Amanda; Emsley, Jonas

2014-05-01

256

Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior. PMID:24570803

Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

2014-01-01

257

[Prognostic factors in hantavirus infections].  

PubMed

The hantaviruses classified in Hantavirus genus of Bunyaviridae family, may cause two different types of clinical conditions, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Mortality may reach up to 40% in these infections. Hantavirus subtypes (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, Seoul, Puumala, Dobrava, etc) with different virulences represent one of the most significant factors affecting the mortality. Additionally, many other factors including age, gender, humoral immune response, genetic factors, patient's clinical and laboratory findings, transfusion, mechanical ventilation requirement, antiviral treatment and immunotherapy administered to the patient are prognostically important. Increasing age had an unfavorable effect on mortality. While the disease is commonly observed in the male gender, mortality rate is higher in the female gender. The higher the emergent neutralizing antibody response, the virus spread, the number of the infected cells and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated injury will be lower. The requirement for dialysis is reported to be higher with a poorer prognosis in individuals with HLA-B8, -DR3, -DQ2 alleles, and those with HLA-B27 allele usually experience a milder clinical course. Clinically, the risk of mortality increases in patients with multiple, central nervous system hemorrhage, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and secondary infection. The presence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the requirement for mechanical ventilation, the presence of dyspnea and hemoconcentration in HPS are reported to be the most important prognostic factors associated with death. The correlation of severity and the transfusion requirement with mortality was demonstrated. High serum levels of white blood cells, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phophokinase (CPK), C-reactive protein (CRP), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer and INR (International normalized ratio) are prognostic factors that increase the mortality risk. Hemodialysis support is particularly important in cases infected with Hantaan and Dobrava viruses. Respiratory support and mechanical ventilation can be life-saving in HPS cases. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support has been demonstrated to have a favorable contribution to the patient survival in HPS. While there are some human and animal trials showing that ribavirin reduces the severity of HFRS, hemodialysis requirement and mortality, its efficacy for HPS has not yet been demonstrated. As a result, a proper evaluation of the prognostic factors will provide physicians a perspective with respect to the disease course and the necessary treatment approach. PMID:24506730

Kaya, Selçuk

2014-01-01

258

[Prognostic factors in breast cancer].  

PubMed

Prognostic factors are clinical and pathological features that give information in estimating the likely clinical outcome of an individual suffering from cancer. The author gives a short review of the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. 376 breast cancer cases of a ten year interval in a county hospital are summarized. Traditional clinico-pathological parameters i.e. TNM and steroid receptor status are discussed. The more common karyotipic, oncogene and tumor suppressor gene alterations are outlined in the study. Methods for their detection are presented and their value in prognostication is reviewed. Emphasis was laid on steroid receptors, c-erpB-2, p53 and bcl-2 alterations. Genes responsible for heritable forms of increased breast cancer risk are briefly reviewed. PMID:9608769

Vajda, K

1998-05-01

259

[Occupational factors in spontaneous abortion].  

PubMed

Occupational factors in spontaneous abortions are reviewed and discussed in terms of difficult working conditions (physical and psychological strains) and exposition to noxious agents in women and men. The discussion was based upon clinical, epidemiological and biological studies. The results showed elevated abortion risks in different occupational groups. Risk factors for both partners were hard physical work, psychological and socio-economic stress, some chemicals, metals and pharmacological products. Animal studies demonstrated time- and dose-dependent effects on embryonic and fetal development as well as accumulation and potentiation of teratogenic agents. Chronic and multifactorial occupational effects seem to be very important and need further occupational effects seem to be very important and need further study. PMID:2194385

Läpple, M

1990-01-01

260

Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

2013-07-01

261

Risk factors for eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen driven disease, whereby food and/or aeroallergens result in inflammation and luminal narrowing, and the clinical symptoms of dysphagia and food bolus obstruction events (FBOE). Established risk factors are male gender, Caucasian race and atopy. Increased risk amongst family members, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene coding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes supports a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors including the timing and nature of food and aeroallergen exposure to the developing immune system may be important, whilst esophageal barrier function integrity and the influence of microbiota are worthy of future research. PMID:24990069

Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

2014-08-01

262

Laboratory testing for factor inhibitors.  

PubMed

Inhibitor assays are performed when patients present with unexplained prolonged routine coagulation test times and unexpected and/or unusual bleeding (potential for acquired haemophilia) as well as being a part of normal congenital haemophilia management and monitoring, particularly when bleeding occurs on therapy, or when increments in factor levels post-factor replacement remain lower than expected. In this article, we will describe the assays used, as well as their development, pitfalls in testing such as inter-laboratory variability and false negative/positive results, as well as some strategies for overcoming these pitfalls and potential alternative test approaches. The inter-laboratory coefficient of variation often approaches (and sometimes exceeds) 50%, as evidenced by various external quality assessment groups, and this variability has not improved over recent years. Additional important considerations include appropriate interpretation of test results, repeat testing for confirmation, and assessment of recovery as part of the diagnostic process. PMID:24762283

Favaloro, E J; Verbruggen, B; Miller, C H

2014-05-01

263

Quality factor measurements at NTF  

SciTech Connect

The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

1993-12-17

264

[Risk factors of endometrial carcinoma].  

PubMed

The authors base their experience on 12 women affected by endometrial carcinoma. Problems have been diagnosed in the post-menopausal and climacterium period, considering the clinical, hormonal and lipidic profile and some tumoral markers. The most risk factors for the endometrial adenocarcinoma have been collected in the adiposity with hypertension and hyperglycemia, above all in nullipara women with late menopause and dyslipidemia. PMID:8414144

Giannone, R; Bernorio, R; Poli, M

1993-01-01

265

Semi-inclusive DIS: Factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk, we will present a QCD factorization theorem for the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. There has been considerable experimental and theoretical interest in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. For example, by studying the polarized and unpolarized SIDIS, one will be able to identify

Yuan; Feng

2008-01-01

266

Adenoidal Width and HIV Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

PORPOSE: To determine the factors that correspond to adenoidal hypertrophy, often prominent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. METHODS: The sagittal T1-weighted MR images of 21 H|V-positive patients (age range, 25 to j0 years; mean, 37 years) and 2l healthy control subjects (age range, 24 to 55 years; mean, 35 years) were reviewed blindly and indepen- dently by two radiologists

David M. Yousem; Laurie A. Loevner; Jennifer D. Tobey; Rena J. Geckle; Warren B. Bilker; Ara A. Chalian

267

Trefoil factor family domain peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the past 15 years a new family of peptides has been identified, known as trefoil factor family (TFF) domain peptides;\\u000a they are associated with mucin-secreting epithelial cells and synthesised predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract. They\\u000a share a highly conserved physical structure, and their role in mucosal defence and healing is becoming increasingly clear;\\u000a more recently a tumour suppressor function

G. R. Williams; N. A. Wright

1997-01-01

268

Trefoil factors in human milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24?27 wk gestation), preterm (28?37 wk gestation), and full term (38?42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first,

Else Marie Vestergaard; Ebba Nexo; Anke Wendt; Florian Guthmann

2008-01-01

269

Human factors in incident reporting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

Jones, S. G.

1993-01-01

270

Urinary Mutagens and Lifestyle Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Lifestyle determines the amount of exposure to environmental carcinogens\\/mutagens. We examined the relationship between various lifestyle factors and the urinary level of mutagens, which reflects both exposure dose and metabolism of these carcinogens\\/mutagens.Methods.Twenty-four-hour urine specimens obtained from 69 males were subjected to blue rayon extraction, after which the elutions were fractionated by carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography. The mutagens were measured

Kanae Mure; Tatsuya Takeshita; Toru Takeuchi; Kanehisa Morimoto

1996-01-01

271

Sustained release of growth factors.  

PubMed

With the identification, characterization and cloning of specific growth factors, recombinant proteins are now widely used in the clinic. The use of recombinant hematopoietic growth factors has, for example, allowed the clinical manipulation of the hematopoietic system. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are now widely used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) thereby providing a source of HSC for autologous or allogeneic transplantation, in addition to treating congenic, iatrogenic and disease-related neutropenia. However, one disadvantage associated with the use of most recombinant molecules is their rapid clearance. Clearance mechanisms include glomerular filtration, receptor binding and/or enzymatic degradation. Because of the rapid clearance, of recombinant molecules they require repeated administration to achieve biological efficacy. Initially, continuous infusion (CI) was used to address this pharmacological deficiency. CI has the advantage of delivering drugs in a controlled manner and is particularly appropriate when it is important to maintain constant plasma drug concentrations. However, the requirement for continuous venous access and the use of ambulatory pumps limits its use. Thus other approaches have been developed to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of recombinant proteins in vivo. These have included the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the recombinant molecules (PEGylation) and the use of sustained release delivery matrices and liposomes. One goal of these approaches is to achieve clinical efficacy with significantly fewer, possibly single injections, thereby increasing patient compliance. In addition to improving the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of recombinant molecules, sustained release may also increase the biological activity of the molecules. PMID:12494898

Robinson, Simon N; Talmadge, James E

2002-01-01

272

Boltzmann factor and Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawking radiation has thermal spectrum corresponding to the temperature TH=(8, where M is the mass (energy) of the black hole. Corrections to the Hawking radiation spectrum were discovered by Kraus and Wilczek (1995) and Parikh and Wilczek (2000). Here I show that these corrections follow directly from the basic principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In essence, it is the Boltzmann factor that ought to be corrected; corrections to the Hawking (or any other) radiation spectrum then follow necessarily.

Ryskin, Gregory

2014-06-01

273

Can haemostatic factors predict atherothrombosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombosis is “haemostasis in the wrong place”, and there is increasing evidence that haemostatic factors are associated with\\u000a increased risk of atherothrombotic events. Increasing plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with increased risks of coronary\\u000a heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, and with vascular and nonvascular mortality. However, as with other\\u000a markers of haemostasis (and of inflammation), their additional

Gordon Lowe

274

Human factors in waste management  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.

Moray, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-10-01

275

Pharmacologic Factors Affecting Glycemic Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among many challenges to achieving and maintaining glycemic control, the impact of pharmacologic agents on glycemia is a significant,\\u000a but often overlooked factor. Numerous medications have been implicated in the development of drug-induced hyperglycemia and\\u000a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of these, the atypical antipsychotics (for the management of depression and psychosis), the protease-inhibitor\\u000a anti retroviral agents (for the management of

Lillian F. Lien

276

Human Factors in Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

2010-01-01

277

Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) isoforms have been under intense scrutiny for effective anticancer drug candidates. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and its receptor (FGFR) provide another pathway that seems critical to monitoring angiogenesis. Recent findings suggest that FGFR mediates signaling, regulates the PKM2 activity, and plays a crucial role in cancer metabolism. The current review also covers the recent findings on the role of FGFR1 in cancer metabolism. This paper reviews the progress, mechanism, and binding modes of recently known kinase inhibitors such as PD173074, SU series and other inhibitors still under clinical development. Some of the structural classes that will be highlighted in this review include Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, Indolin- 2-one, Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine, Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one, and 1,6- Naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones. PMID:23016864

Kumar, Suneel B V S; Narasu, Lakshmi; Gundla, Rambabu; Dayam, Raveendra; J A R P, Sarma

2013-01-01

278

Genetic risk factors for melanoma.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of melanoma is complex and has both inherited and acquired components. Different genomic approaches have been used to identify a number of inherited risk factors, which can be stratified by penetrance and prevalence. Rare high-penetrance factors are expressed in familial clustering of melanoma and include mutations in CDKN2A (encoding p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF)) and CDK4. These genes are involved in cell-cycle arrest and melanocyte senescence and are nearly invariably targeted by somatic mutations during melanoma progression. Low-penetrance factors are common in the general population and include single-nucleotide polymorphisms in or near MC1R, ASIP, TYR and TYRP1. These genes are major determinants of hair and skin pigmentation, but their role in melanoma development remains unclear. This review describes the efforts that have led to the current understanding of melanoma susceptibility as the result of complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Despite the significant advances, the majority of familial cases remain unaccounted for. PMID:19585149

Meyle, Kathrine Damm; Guldberg, Per

2009-10-01

279

Splicing factor mutations and cancer.  

PubMed

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have unexpectedly revealed that somatic mutations of splicing factor genes frequently occurred in several types of hematological malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndromes, other myeloid neoplasms, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Splicing factor mutations have also been reported in solid cancers such as breast and pancreatic cancers, uveal melanomas, and lung adenocarcinomas. These mutations were heterozygous and mainly affected U2AF1 (U2AF35), SRSF2 (SC35), SF3B1 (SF3B155 or SAP155), and ZRSR2 (URP), which are engaged in the initial steps of RNA splicing, including 3' splice-site recognition, and occur in a large mutually exclusive pattern, suggesting a common impact of these mutations on RNA splicing. In this study, splicing factor mutations in various types of cancers, their functional/biological effects, and their potential as therapeutic targets have been reviewed. WIREs RNA 2014, 5:445-459. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:24523246

Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi

2014-07-01

280

Dietary factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability.  

PubMed

While many epidemiological studies have associated the consumption of polyphenols within fruits and vegetables with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases, intervention studies have generally not confirmed these beneficial effects. The reasons for this discrepancy are not fully understood but include potential differences in dosing, interaction with the food matrix, and differences in polyphenol bioavailability. In addition to endogenous factors such as microbiota and digestive enzymes, the food matrix can also considerably affect bioaccessibility, uptake, and further metabolism of polyphenols. While dietary fiber (such as hemicellulose), divalent minerals, and viscous and protein-rich meals are likely to cause detrimental effects on polyphenol bioaccessibility, digestible carbohydrates, dietary lipids (especially for hydrophobic polyphenols, e.g., curcumin), and additional antioxidants may enhance polyphenol availability. Following epithelial uptake, polyphenols such as flavonoids may reduce phase II metabolism and excretion, enhancing polyphenol bioavailability. Furthermore, polyphenols may act synergistically due to their influence on efflux transporters such as p-glycoprotein. In order to understand polyphenol bioactivity, increased knowledge of the factors affecting polyphenol bioavailability, including dietary factors, is paramount. PMID:24828476

Bohn, Torsten

2014-07-01

281

Bayesian Estimation of Categorical Dynamic Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…

Zhang, Zhiyong; Nesselroade, John R.

2007-01-01

282

Factors affecting safety performance on construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing safety on construction sites are discussed. The impacts of the historical, economical, psychological, technical, procedural, organizational and the environmental issues are considered in terms of how these factors are linked with the level of site safety. The historical factor is assessed by the background and characteristics of the individual, such as age and experience. The economic factor

Edwin Sawacha; Shamil Naoum; Daniel Fong

1999-01-01

283

Racetrack fluxgate sensor core demagnetization factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demagnetization factor of a fluxgate core plays an important role in the resulting sensor sensitivity and noise. The global (magnetometric) demagnetization factor of fluxgate sensor ring cores was evaluated using finite element modelling. This new method was verified using measured effective demagnetization factors for ring cores and subsequently used in the modelling of the global demagnetization factor of racetrack

J. Kubík; P. Ripka

2008-01-01

284

Mechanical factors affecting hemostasis and thrombosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both physical and chemical factors can influence the activity of platelets and coagulation factors responsible for the formation of thrombotic and hemostatic masses in the vicinity of an injured vessel wall. Studies performed in controlled shear devices (viscometers) have indicated that physical factors alone can induce platelet aggregation, even in the absence of exogenous chemical factors. The physical considerations which

Vincent T. Turitto; Connie L. Hall

1998-01-01

285

28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relevant factors. Among the factors the Attorney General will...the change; and (e) The factors set forth in Village of Arlington...1977): (1) Whether the impact of the official action bears...departures from the normal factors considered; and (6)...

2013-07-01

286

Functional Determination of Factor XII in Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical assays for factor XII determination are based on measurements of coagulation time in a mul tifactorial assay requiring the availability of factor XII deficient plasma, and the determination is affected by the presence of heparin. Another way of determining the amount of functionally active factor XII in plasma is to measure the amidolytic activity of factor XIIa in a

Inger Schousboe; Rasmus Røjkær; Rita Lintner

1996-01-01

287

Major avoidable risk factors of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an aim of promoting primary prevention of cancer, major avoidable risk factors as well as protective factors of cancer are reviewed based on previous epidemiological studies. Among various risk factors of cancer, tobacco is the most important avoidable risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, lung, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidney (pelvis), ureter, bladder, and cervix.

S. Tominaga

1999-01-01

288

Academic Success Factors: An IT Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have identified causal factors for academic success. Factors vary from personal factors, such as cognitive style (McKenzie & Schweitzer, 2001), to social factors, such as culture differences (Aysan, Tanriogen, & Tanriogen, 1996). However, in these studies it is re-searchers who theorized the causal dimensions and hypothesized the…

Zhang, Aimao; Aasheim, Cheryl L.

2011-01-01

289

Significance Testing in Confirmatory Factor Analytic Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, confirmatory factor analytic models are tested against a null model of total independence. Using randomly generated factors in a matrix of 46 aptitude tests, this approach is shown to be unlikely to reject even random factors. An alternative null model, based on a single general factor, is suggested. In addition, an index of model…

Khattab, Ali-Maher; Hocevar, Dennis

290

Suicide in Developing Countries (2): Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of studies on risk factors for suicide have been conducted in developed countries, and less work has been done to systematically profile risk factors in developing countries. The current paper presents a selective review of sociodemographic, clinical, and environmental\\/situational risk factors in developing countries. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the profiles of risk factors in developing countries

Lakshmi Vijayakumar; Sujit John; Jane Pirkis; Harvey Whiteford

2005-01-01

291

Remarks on KERMA Factors in ACE files  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some neutron KERMA factors in ACE files are negative and extremely large if nuclear data libraries do not keep energy-balance. The status of neutron KERMA factors in the official ACE file of ENDF/B-VII.1 is examined. As a result, it is found out that neutron KERMA factors of nuclei more than 200 in ENDF/B-VII.1 have some problems. Effects of the inadequate KERMA factor are also investigated, which are large for neutron heat while those are small for total (neutron + gamma) heat. Users who use only neutron KERMA factors should check if the factors are adequate or not before they use the factors.

Konno, C.; Ochiai, K.; Takakura, K.; Sato, S.

2014-04-01

292

Cardiovascular diseases and psychosocial factors at work.  

PubMed

Besides the 'classic' cardiovascular risk factors (high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and diabetes), the work environment is playing an increasingly significant role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several elements contribute to the effect of the work environment: physical factors, chemical factors, shift work and psychosocial factors. The effects of psychosocial factors on the aetiology and progression of cardiovascular disease have been confirmed by several studies. Identification of these work-related psychosocial factors must be taken into account when evaluating cardiovascular risk factors, in order to ensure better prevention. PMID:22369916

Diène, Eloi; Fouquet, Aurélie; Esquirol, Yolande

2012-01-01

293

Are factors associated with suicidal ideation true risk factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adverse life events or the commencement of adverse lifestyles associate with suicidal ideation, but most associations only\\u000a have been identified in cross-sectional studies. More information is needed about whether they are true risk factors and independently\\u000a predict the development of suicidal ideation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A sample of the general population from Eastern Finland (n = 1,339) was followed-up for three-years with baseline and two

Jukka Hintikka; Heli Koivumaa-Honkanen; Soili Marianne Lehto; Tommi Tolmunen; Kirsi Honkalampi; Kaisa Haatainen; Heimo Viinamäki

2009-01-01

294

Tolerance factor for pyrochlores and related structures.  

PubMed

In this work a new empirical tolerance factor for compounds with pyrochlore structure is proposed. This suggested tolerance factor is based on experimental structural data and on the tolerance factors proposed. However, since it does not depend on the structural data, this new tolerance factor permits the prediction of some properties of these compounds directly. Also, a good structure stability field for the pyrochlore formation is observed when this tolerance factor is used. PMID:24056352

Mouta, R; Silva, R X; Paschoal, C W A

2013-10-01

295

The Human Hematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complementary DNAs and genes encoding the four major human myeloid growth factors--granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3--have all been molecularly cloned. These DNA clones have proved valuable for studying the molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules as well as for the large-scale production of the recombinant growth factor proteins. These advances have led

Steven C. Clark; Robert Kamen

1987-01-01

296

Factors Affecting Arctic Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The factors discussed in this section are building blocks to understanding arctic weather and climate. Each factor plays an important role alone and in interaction with other factors. The "Arctic Energy Budget" ties all the factors together in a description of the Arctic as a climate system. The different factors are given detailed explanations and examples, and include topics like latitude, land/see distributions, solar radiation, air temperature, Air pressure, winds, humidity, clouds, precipitations, and Arctic energy budgets.

2000-01-01

297

Interactions between human complement components factor H, factor I and C3b.  

PubMed Central

Using a microtitre plate assay, direct binding between complement factors I and H was demonstrated, and ligand blotting indicated that factor H interacts with the heavy chain of factor I. Similarly, direct C3(NH3)-factor I and C3(NH3)-factor H binding was characterized [where C3(NH3) is a form of C3 that is cleaved by factor I in the presence of factor H]. Both factor H and factor I interacted with both chains of C3(NH3) in ligand blotting. Binding reactions between all three pairs of components were highly dependent on ionic strength, and showed similar pH optima. Binding assays with all three components present led to the following conclusions. (a) Binding sites for C3(NH3) and factor I on factor H do not overlap, and binding of factor I and C3(NH3) to soluble factor H promotes the weak factor I-C3(NH3) interaction. (b) Anomalies arise with immobilized factor H, which may be artefactual or may reflect the physiological situation. (c) Similarly, binding sites on factor I for C3(NH3) and for factor H do not overlap, and binding of factor H and C3(NH3) to factor I promotes direct factor H-C3(NH3) interactions. Based on these results, a model of the interactions between factor H, factor I and C3(NH3) leading to the processing of C3(NH3) is proposed.

Soames, C J; Sim, R B

1997-01-01

298

Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to thirdhand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

2014-06-01

299

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole.

Reason, J

1995-01-01

300

Colic anastomotic leakage risk factors  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Anastomotic leakage is a dreaded complication of colorectal surgery, as it greatly increases the morbidity, mortality and has been associated with augmented local recurrence and diminished survival. The frequency of this complication is high in emergency colorectal surgery, especially for bowel occlusion, (13% for emergency vs. 4% in elective), due to visceral distension and, therefore, an incongruence in the size of each of the stumps, combined with the lack of mechanical preparation and risk of fecal contamination during operation. Methods: We studied the incidence of anastomotic fistula in the surgery clinic of the “Sf. Pantelimon” Emergency Hospital, between 2006 and 2010, on a lot of 251 patients who underwent different types of colic resection. Apart from the anatomic location of the disease, and the level of anastomosis, we included in our database the following criteria: the patient’s age and gender, type of colic pathology, surgical technique, emergency or elective surgery, comorbidities. Results: An ileocolic anastomosis was performed for 84 patients (33,46 %), for 114 patients (45,41%) a colo-colic anastomosis was carried out, 2 patients (0,79%) had ileorectal anastomosis and 51 patients (20,31%) underwent a colorectal anastomosis. From the comparative analysis of risk factors (the emergency interventions, the anastomosis location, the age and gender of the patient), a significantly increased value of the relative risk of anastomotic fistula was registered for the cases with emergency intervention (x 6,61) and for the colorectal anastomosis following the left hemi colectomies (x 2,23). Discussions: In our study, among the clinical and biological factors analyzed, emergency intervention was the most signi?cant factor associated with anastomotic leakage. Surgery performed in emergency settings, on debilitated patients without adequate preoperative preparation, has an increased risk for anastomotic dehiscence.

Calin, MD; Balalau, C; Popa, F; Voiculescu, S; Scaunasu, RV

2013-01-01

301

Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers.

Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

2009-01-01

302

Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

record abstracts with risk factor data removed. Cases were more likely than controls to suffer from prior severe kidney disease (adjusted OR [95% CI]516.9 [1.5 to 193], P50.02) and diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR [95% CI]52.7 [1.4 to 5.2], P50.004). Cases infected with skin flora had received intravenous fluids more often (adjusted OR [95% CI]56.7 [1.1 to 41], P50.04) and had

Nondental Exposures; Brian L. Strom; Mph Elias Abrutyn; Jesse A. Berlin; Scd Judith L. Kinman; Roy S. Feldman; Dmsc Paul D. Stolley; Mph Matthew E. Levison; Oksana M. Korzeniowski; Donald Kaye

303

Prognostic factors in bunion surgery.  

PubMed

Between 1977 and 1992, 42 patients were seen who had 51 feet operated upon for bunions in which the surgery failed. A total of 105 procedures were done on these 51 feet until the patients either achieved satisfactory correction (N = 28) or they declined (N = 14) further surgery. An analysis of these failures and review of literature revealed 12 anatomic variations and 7 secondary factors that were seen in association with surgical failure. These findings were correlated with published criteria and our experience with various bunion procedures to advance general indications and contraindications for specific bunion procedures. PMID:8589808

Scranton, P E; McDermott, J E

1995-11-01

304

Factors Influencing Return to Work  

PubMed Central

Seventy-seven patients with severe brachial plexus injuries were interviewed two or more years later to determine their success in returning to work and the factors that had led to good or bad resettlement. For most of them these were crucial issues potentially influencing the rest of their lives. When interviewed virtually all had regular jobs in open industry, but many had endured long delays and most were working entirely one-handed. Failure of communication was regrettably common. Too often advice by doctors had been lacking, and there was evidence that the services for vocational resettlement could be improved.

Brewerton, D. A.; Daniel, J. W.

1971-01-01

305

Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

306

Endocrine factors of pair bonding.  

PubMed

Throughout literature--fiction and poetry, fine arts and music--falling in love and enjoying romantic love plays a central role. While several psychosocial conceptions of pair attachment consider the participation of hormones, human endocrinology has dealt with this theme only marginally. According to some authors in addictology, falling in love shows some signs of hormonal response to stressors with changes in dopamine and serotonin signalling and neurotrophin (transforming growth factor b) concentration. Endorphins, oxytocin and vasopressin may play a role during the later phases of love. However, proof of hormonal events associated with love in humans has, until recently, been lacking. PMID:18780641

Stárka, L

2007-01-01

307

Chromogenic factor VIII activity assay.  

PubMed

Factor VIII (FVIII) may be measured by three different methodologies in the clinical laboratory: one-stage clotting assay, two-stage clotting assay, and chromogenic assay. These assays differ in ease of use, variety of reagents available, sensitivity to mild hemophilia A, and interference from lupus anticoagulants. This review will outline the methodology for each of the FVIII activity assays, with a discussion of assay interferences and variability. In some cases, chromogenic FVIII activity assays may be preferable to clot-based assays, and these clinical situations will be reviewed as well. Am. J. Hematol. 89:781-784, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24676945

Moser, Karen A; Adcock Funk, Dorothy M

2014-07-01

308

Recurrent IVF failure: other factors.  

PubMed

IVF failure is a problem for a couple in the singular but can be a tragedy in the plural. Recurrent IVF failure has multiple known causes but many which are not routinely considered as part of the posttreatment analysis. The reason is there are several causes associated with lifestyle and other causes related to pre-existing conditions that have only a tenuous or no apparent connection to fertility. This article examines the impact of obesity, cigarette smoke, uterine anatomy, body mass index, thyroid dysfunction, immune factors, the hereditary and acquired thrombophilias, and embryo transfer technique on recurrent IVF failure. PMID:22464759

Penzias, Alan S

2012-05-01

309

Human factors in spacecraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

1990-01-01

310

g factor of hydrogenlike ²?Si¹³?.  

PubMed

We determined the experimental value of the g factor of the electron bound in hydrogenlike ²?Si¹³? by using a single ion confined in a cylindrical Penning trap. From the ratio of the ion's cyclotron frequency and the induced spin flip frequency, we obtain g = 1.995 348 958 7(5)(3)(8). It is in excellent agreement with the state-of-the-art theoretical value of 1.995 348 958 0(17), which includes QED contributions up to the two-loop level of the order of (Z?)² and (Z?)? and represents a stringent test of bound-state quantum electrodynamics calculations. PMID:21797600

Sturm, S; Wagner, A; Schabinger, B; Zatorski, J; Harman, Z; Quint, W; Werth, G; Keitel, C H; Blaum, K

2011-07-01

311

Weak-shock reflection factors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

Reichenbach, H. [Ernst Mach Inst., Freiburg (Germany); Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-09-07

312

Human factors in space telepresence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of interfacing a human with a teleoperation system, for work in space are discussed. Much of the information presented here is the result of experience gained by the M.I.T. Space Systems Laboratory during the past two years of work on the ARAMIS (Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems) project. Many factors impact the design of the man-machine interface for a teleoperator. The effects of each are described in turn. An annotated bibliography gives the key references that were used. No conclusions are presented as a best design, since much depends on the particular application desired, and the relevant technology is swiftly changing.

Akin, D. L.; Howard, R. D.; Oliveria, J. S.

1983-01-01

313

Psychological factors in emergency medicine.  

PubMed

Human psychology, neuroscience and behavioural economics study the human mind, brain and behaviour. Scientific research has discovered a great deal about the factors that influence human perception, judgment and activity in the real world. In this article, I aim to provide an outline of the relationship between decision-making, cognition, emotion and behaviour. I propose that meta-cognition, or thinking-about-thinking, has the potential to inform how we practice emergency medicine. By accommodating human traits rather than trying to defy them, we can ultimately benefit our patients. PMID:24712897

Gutenstein, Marc

2014-06-01

314

Human Factors in Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and propellant; and they impact crew size and the types of activities the crew performs. Power is a limiting factor for a space vehicle. All environmental features (e.g., atmosphere, temperature, lighting) require power to maintain them. Power can be generated from batteries, from fuel cells, or from solar panels. Each of these sources requires lifting mass and volume from Earth, driving mission cost. All engineering decisions directly impact the design for habitation design and usage. For instance, if fuel cells are used they produce water, which is used for drinking and food preparation. If a different power source is used water has to be carried and stored on the vehicle which then directly impacts the food system choice as well as the launch weight of the vehicle.

Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

2005-01-01

315

Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.  

PubMed

Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs. PMID:23774041

Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

2013-09-01

316

Environmental factors and autoimmune thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Autoimmune thyroiditis, of which Hashimoto thyroiditis represents the most frequent form, is an inflammatory state of the thyroid gland that results from the interaction between genetic variants that promote susceptibility and environmental factors. High iodine intake, selenium deficiency, pollutants such as tobacco smoke, infectious diseases such as chronic hepatitis C, and certain drugs are implicated in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis, primarily in genetically predisposed people. Long-term iodine exposure leads to increased iodination of thyroglobulin, which increases its antigenicity and initiates the autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Selenium deficiency decreases the activity of selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases, which can lead to raised concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and thus promote inflammation and disease. Such environmental pollutants as smoke, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents and metals have been implicated in the autoimmune process and inflammation. Environmental factors have not yet, however, been sufficiently investigated to clarify their roles in pathogenesis, and there is a need to assess their effects on development of the autoimmune process and the mechanisms of their interactions with susceptibility genes. PMID:18607401

Duntas, Leonidas H

2008-08-01

317

Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

Chiem, Binh; Nguyen, Victoria; Wu, Phillis L; Ko, Celine M; Cruz, Lee Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2006-01-01

318

Male factor infertility and ART  

PubMed Central

For years, the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience' and not ‘evidence' based. Although not evidence-based, current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed, ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility. According to the limited evidence available, intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be considered as a first-line treatment in a couple in which the female partner has a normal fertility status and at least 1×106 progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation. If no pregnancy is achieved after 3–6 cycles of IUI, optimized in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be proposed. When less than 0.5×106 progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after seminal fluid processing or sperm are recovered surgically from the testis or epididymis, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed. Although the outcome of no other ART has ever been scrutinized as much before, no large-scale ‘macroproblems' have as yet been observed after ICSI. Yet, ICSI candidates should be rigorously screened before embarking on IVF or ICSI, and thoroughly informed of the limitations of our knowledge on the hereditary aspects of male infertility and the safety aspects of ART.

Tournaye, Herman

2012-01-01

319

[Risk factors for inpatient suicide].  

PubMed

Objective: The study aimed to examine suicidal behaviour during in-patient care in a psychiatric university hospital. Method: Based upon a psychiatric basic documentation system prevalence and risk factors of in-patient suicides and suicide attempts were investigated (1995?-?2010). Results: A total of 42 in-patient suicides and 166 attempts were found among 16?251 patients. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis the risk of suicide during hospitalization increases significantly for male patients, with more previous psychiatric hospitalizations and suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Patients with affective or schizophrenic disorders were at highest risk. The following risk factors are associated with suicide attempt during stay: female gender, borderline personality disorder (F60.3), more previous psychiatric hospitalizations, shorter duration of disorder, earlier age of onset, suicidality according to clinical impression at admission or suicide attempt before admission. Conclusion: As depressive and schizophrenic patients represent the high-risk group of in-patient suicide, suicide prevention should be a major goal in their treatment. More frequent suicide risk assessment is recommended particularly before granting a leave or an outing. PMID:23868715

Lieb, Martin; Palm, Ulrich; Meyer, Sebastian; Sarubin, Nina; Mokhtari-Nejad, Rabee; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Seemüller, Florian

2014-05-01

320

Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations  

PubMed Central

Much more information is required on the distribution of blackflies in various parts of the world, and in many cases an adequate methodology for obtaining such information still has to be worked out. A detailed methodology for the collection of information about blackflies is given, which was developed for investigations mainly in the Holarctic regions but is basically applicable to other parts of the world. A brief survey of the population dynamics of various species of blackflies in various parts of the Holarctic regions is given, and the main factors influencing the population dynamics are discussed. Interspecific and intraspecific fluctuations in natural blackfly populations are attributed chiefly to abiotic environmental factors rather than to competition. Larval competition in a given microhabitat is mainly individual, though specimens belonging to a given species may have a slightly more favourable position than others. The use of parasites and in particular the replacement of one species by another are promising methods of blackfly control. Predators are not generally likely to prove useful for this purpose.

Carlsson, G.

1967-01-01

321

Regulation of myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factors by neurotoxins.  

PubMed

Various isoforms of myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) constitute a group of nuclear proteins found to play important roles in increasing types of cells. In neurons, MEF2s are required to regulate neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, as well as survival. MEF2s promote the survival of several types of neurons under different conditions. In cellular models, negative regulation of MEF2s by stress and toxic signals contributes to neuronal death. In contrast, enhancing MEF2 activity not only protects cultured primary neurons from death in vitro but also attenuates the loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta in a 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. In this work, the mechanisms of regulation of MEF2 function by several well-known neurotoxins and their implications in various neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:21741404

She, Hua; Mao, Zixu

2011-10-01

322

Leukemia inhibitory factor: a newly identified metastatic factor in rhabdomyosarcomas.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyosarcoma frequently infiltrates bone marrow and this process involves the stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-CXCR4 axis. Because leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), like SDF-1, is secreted by bone marrow stroma and directs the regeneration of skeletal muscles, we examined whether the LIF-LIF receptor (LIF-R) axis affects the biology of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. We found that in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, LIF stimulates the following: (a) phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p42/44, AKT, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, (b) adhesion and chemotaxis, and (c) increased resistance to cytostatics. To compare the biological effects of LIF versus SDF-1, we examined the RH30 cell line, which is highly responsive to both ligands, and found that the chemotaxis of these cells is significantly reduced when the inhibitors of both receptors (T140 for CXCR4 and gp190 blocking antibody for LIF-R) are added simultaneously. Subsequently, by using repetitive chemotaxis to LIF or SDF-1, we selected from the RH30 line subpopulations of cells that respond to LIF but not SDF-1 (RH30-L) or to SDF-1 but not LIF (RH30-S). We found that (a) RH30-L cells seed better to the bone marrow, liver, and lymph nodes of immunodeficient mice than RH30-S cells and (b) mice inoculated i.m. with the RH30-L cells had more rhabdomyosarcoma cells in the bone marrow and lung after 6 weeks. Thus, we present the first evidence that the LIF-LIF-R axis may direct rhabdomyosarcoma metastasis. Further, because we showed that the in vivo metastasis of RH30 cells is inhibited by small interfering RNA against LIF-R, molecular targeting of this axis could become a new strategy to control the metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:17332343

Wysoczynski, Marcin; Miekus, Katarzyna; Jankowski, Kacper; Wanzeck, Jens; Bertolone, Salvatore; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

2007-03-01

323

40 CFR Table Hh-1 to Subpart Hh of... - Emissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods HH Table HH-1 to Subpart HH of Part...Table HH-1 to Subpart HH of Part 98âEmissions Factors, Oxidation Factors and Methods Factor Default value Units...

2013-07-01

324

Implications of Indeterminate Factor-Error Covariances for Factor Construction, Prediction, and Determinacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumptions of the model for factor analysis do not exclude a class of indeterminate covariances between factors and error variables (Grayson, 2003). The construction of all factors of the model for factor analysis is generalized to incorporate indeterminate factor-error covariances. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for…

Krijnen, Wim P.

2006-01-01

325

Platelet adhesiveness and aggregation in combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency and in combined factor VII and factor VIII deficiency.  

PubMed

Platelet aggregation and adhesiveness were studied in 3 patients with combined factor V and factor VIII deficiency and in 3 patients with combined factor VII and factor VIII deficiency. The first three patients belonged to three different kindreds whereas the second group belonged to the same kindred. Serotonin C14 uptake and release was also found to be normal in these patients. These studies indicate that platelet function is normal in combined defects of factor VIII. These findings were in agreement with the presence of a normal bleeding time and a normal factor VIII antigen level in all these patients. PMID:75135

Girolami, A; de Marco, L; Fabris, F; Casonato, A

1977-01-01

326

[Psychosocial stress factors and suicidal acts].  

PubMed

Suicidal behaviour is actually understood as being multidetermined and the result of an interaction between state and trait related effects. Several types of risk factors have been extensively studied: psychiatric and personality disorders, genetic variables, biological factors and psychosocial stressors, the latter being the purpose of this review. Social and familial factors, negative life events and medical illness may interact with the factors mentioned above in three main ways to produce suicidal acts: as predisposing factors increasing vulnerability, as precipitating or as contributing factors. A summary of social and clinical studies will be presented and implications for medical care and prevention will be discussed. PMID:8281899

Abbar, M; Caer, Y; Schenk, L; Castelnau, D

1993-03-01

327

Transforming Growth Factor-?1Antisense Modulates the Expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor\\/Scatter Factor in Keloid Fibroblast Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal wound healing processes can result in hypertrophic scars and keloids. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and\\u000a hepatocyte growth factor\\/scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) are biphasic growth factor cytokines in physiologic and pathophysiologic\\u000a conditions. Findings have shown TGF-?1 to be pivotal in the formation of keloid tissue. Therefore, neutralizing antibodies\\u000a may allow wound healing without keloid formation. As reported, TGF-?1 is antagonized by

R. Naim; A. Naumann; J. Barnes; A. Sauter; K. Hormann; D. Merkel; W. Aust; T. Braun; M. Bloching

2008-01-01

328

Factors for Bioenergy Market Development  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the development of the whole bioenergy market rather than isolated projects, this paper contributes to the identification of barriers and drivers behind bioenergy technology implementation. It presents a framework for the assessment of the potentials for bioenergy market growth to be used by decision makers in administration and industry. The conclusions are based on case studies of operating bioenergy markets in Austria, US and Sweden. Six important factors for bioenergy market growth have been identified: (1) Integration with other business, e.g. for biomass procurement, (2) Scale effects of bioenergy market, (3) Competition on bioenergy market, (4) Competition with other business, (5) National policy, (6) Local policy and local opinion. Different applications of the framework are discussed.

Roos, A.; Hektor, B.; Graham, R.L.; Rakos, C.

1998-10-04

329

Extraneous factors in judicial decisions  

PubMed Central

Are judicial rulings based solely on laws and facts? Legal formalism holds that judges apply legal reasons to the facts of a case in a rational, mechanical, and deliberative manner. In contrast, legal realists argue that the rational application of legal reasons does not sufficiently explain the decisions of judges and that psychological, political, and social factors influence judicial rulings. We test the common caricature of realism that justice is “what the judge ate for breakfast” in sequential parole decisions made by experienced judges. We record the judges’ two daily food breaks, which result in segmenting the deliberations of the day into three distinct “decision sessions.” We find that the percentage of favorable rulings drops gradually from ?65% to nearly zero within each decision session and returns abruptly to ?65% after a break. Our findings suggest that judicial rulings can be swayed by extraneous variables that should have no bearing on legal decisions.

Danziger, Shai; Levav, Jonathan; Avnaim-Pesso, Liora

2011-01-01

330

Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.  

PubMed

? Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients.? Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing.? Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP.? There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair. PMID:24806015

Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

2014-05-01

331

The Main Aeromonas Pathogenic Factors  

PubMed Central

The members of the Aeromonas genus are ubiquitous, water-borne bacteria. They have been isolated from marine waters, rivers, lakes, swamps, sediments, chlorine water, water distribution systems, drinking water and residual waters; different types of food, such as meat, fish, seafood, vegetables, and processed foods. Aeromonas strains are predominantly pathogenic to poikilothermic animals, and the mesophilic strains are emerging as important pathogens in humans, causing a variety of extraintestinal and systemic infections as well as gastrointestinal infections. The most commonly described disease caused by Aeromonas is the gastroenteritis; however, no adequate animal model is available to reproduce this illness caused by Aeromonas. The main pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are: surface polysaccharides (capsule, lipopolysaccharide, and glucan), S-layers, iron-binding systems, exotoxins and extracellular enzymes, secretion systems, fimbriae and other nonfilamentous adhesins, motility and flagella.

Tomas, J. M.

2012-01-01

332

Clinical Factors Associated with PANDAS  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore associated clinical factors in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus (PANDAS). Study design Children with tics and/or OCD (n = 109) were examined by personal and family history, diagnostic interview, physical examination, medical record review, and measurement of baseline levels of streptococcal antibodies. Results Significant group differences were found on several variables, such that those diagnosed with PANDAS (versus without PANDAS) were more likely to have had dramatic onset; definite remissions; remission of neuropsychiatric symptoms during antibiotic therapy; a history of tonsillectomies/adenoidectomies; evidence of GAS infection, and clumsiness. Conclusion The identification of clinical features associated with PANDAS should assist in delineating risks for this subtype of OCD/tics.

Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.; Edge, Paula J.; Goodman, Wayne K.

2011-01-01

333

Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors  

PubMed Central

Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed.

2011-01-01

334

Psychological factors affecting equine performance  

PubMed Central

For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

2012-01-01

335

A Computer Program to Relate Factors Across Separately Factor Analyzed Variable Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV program is presented which will cross-correlate least squares estimated factor scores across separately factor analyzed variable domains without the tedious necessity of actually calculating the factor scores. (RC)

Morris, John D.; Guertin, Wilson H.

1976-01-01

336

Growth factor regulation of growth factor production by multiple gene transfer to chondrocytes  

PubMed Central

Of the many classes of molecules regulated by growth factors, growth factors themselves are not well investigated. We tested the hypothesis that combinations of endogenous growth factors interactively regulate the production of other growth factors. Growth factors have therapeutic potential for articular cartilage repair, and gene transfer is a promising approach to growth factor delivery. We tested the hypothesis using adult bovine articular chondrocytes treated with combinations of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor I, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and protein-7, transforming growth factor ?1, and fibroblast growth factor 2. We found that these growth factor transgenes regulated each other’s growth factor production. This regulation ranged from stimulation to inhibition. Regulation by multiple transgenes was not predictable from the regulatory actions of the individual transgenes. Such interactions may be important for the selection of growth factor genes for cell-based therapies, including articular cartilage repair.

SHI, SHUILIANG; MERCER, SCOTT; ECKERT, GEORGE J.; TRIPPEL, STEPHEN B.

2014-01-01

337

40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.18...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping...Economic Values § 227.18 Factors considered. The assessment of the potential for impacts on esthetic,...

2010-07-01

338

40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.18...OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping...Economic Values § 227.18 Factors considered. The assessment of the potential for impacts on esthetic,...

2009-07-01

339

Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide  

MedlinePLUS

... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...

340

Compilation of Temperature Factors of Cubic Elements,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A compilation is presented of the temperature factors of twenty cubic elements. This represents the first stage of a Temperature Factor project sponsored by the Neutron Diffraction Commission of the I.U.Cr. (Acta Cryst (1985) B41 374).

N. M. Butt B. T. M. Willis G. Heger J. Bashir

1986-01-01

341

Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and your ... More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

342

Clotting Factors of Supernatant Plasma Following Cryoprecipitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The supernatant plasma which remains after cryoprecipitation is a useful component for transfusion therapy. However, from prior studies it was unclear how well plasma clotting factors were preserved following cryoprecipitation. Coagulation factor assays w...

G. J. Roth J. A. Eaton K. I. Tobias T. A. Rudai W. E. Kline

1973-01-01

343

Factors Influencing Applying for Urban Principalship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated teachers', principals', and superintendents' perspectives on factors that influence, increase, and retain urban principals. Teachers cited discordant relationships between the board, administrators, and teachers, and principals cited salaries commensurate with responsibilities as critical factors. Superintendents perceived elementary…

Cooley, Van E.; Shen, Jianping

2000-01-01

344

Influence of organizational factors on safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. Th...

S. B. Haber D. S. Metlay D. A. Crouch

1990-01-01

345

Risk Factors for Suicide in Psychiatric Outpatients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project is to determine the relationship of a variety of relevant risk factors to eventual suicide in patients evaluated at two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Data relevant to these factors have already been collected for 1987 - 1990...

A. T. Beck G. K. Brown

1993-01-01

346

[Risk factors in traffic accidents].  

PubMed

Traffic accidents, which influence to every age group people, are an important public health. This study to determine which condition it has happened more, which days, months and years it has happened, what things have caused to happen traffic accidents. The study was made in Erciyes University Medical School Emergency Department. 31,550 patients applied to emergency department in a period of twelve months in 1998. 7098 (22%) cases of these were traffic accidents. It has done on 710 patients who have been brought to emergency by traffic accidents, and 10% systematic sampling of 7098 people. 504 (71%) of patients were male, 206 (29%) of them were female, the average age was 26.0 (min-max: 1-85). It was observed that traffic accidents occurred during peak times 1200-1800 p.m. The number of traffic accidents was higher during the weekends and in may and June than other times. All the accidents occurred in the same way both within and outside urban area. But the drivers hit the pedestrians more in the urban area. Although it has been seen 'the cars' in the accidents the most. The most mortality has been occurred in bus, minibus and motorbike accidents. The first treatment place of the casualties of 80.5% was at university emergency department. 619 all of the casualties who were admitted the university emergency department was simple injured. They all left the hospital with cure. 52 of casualties lost their life. As a result, some risk factors increase incidence of traffic accidents. Considering these risk factors in taking measures is of great importance in prevention of traffic accidents. Morbidity and mortality are affected by place where accidents occur, time of accident, properties of motor vehicles, and quality of medical care performed following the incident. PMID:11813478

Sözüer, M; Yildirim, C; Senol, V; Unalan, D; Naçar, M; Günay, O

2000-10-01

347

Unity power factor switching regulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

348

Characterization of a cancer cachectic factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANCER cachexia is a syndrome of progressive wasting which has been suggested to be mediated by tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (ref. 1), interleukins 1 and 6 (ref. 2), interferon-gamma (ref. 3) and leukaemia-inhibitory factor4. It has proved difficult to correlate levels of tumour-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 with cancer cachexia5,6, and the weight loss induced by leukaemia-inhibitory factor may be due to toxicity7.

Penio Todorov; Peter Cariuk; Trudi McDevitt; Brian Coles; Kenneth Fearon; Michael Tisdale

1996-01-01

349

Universal risk factors for multifactorial diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk for multifactorial diseases is determined by risk factors that frequently apply across disorders (universal risk\\u000a factors). To investigate unresolved issues on etiology of and individual’s susceptibility to multifactorial diseases, research\\u000a focus should shift from single determinant-outcome relations to effect modification of universal risk factors. We present\\u000a a model to investigate universal risk factors of multifactorial diseases, based on

Ronald P. Stolk; Judith G. M. Rosmalen; Dirkje S. Postma; Rudolf A. de Boer; Gerjan Navis; Joris P. J. Slaets; Johan Ormel; Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel

2008-01-01

350

The B factor in multilayer thermionic refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The figure of merit for multilayer thermionic refrigeration is discussed in terms of an effective B factor, which has a similar definition as the B factor in thermoelectrics. We show that high efficiencies for cooling or power generation are only obtained with very high values of this B factor. Such high values can only be attained because of the low thermal conductivity of multilayers. The B factor for thermionics is usually less than the one for thermoelectrics. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

Vining, C. B. [ZT Services, 2203 Johns Circle, Auburn, Alabama 36830-7113 (United States)] [ZT Services, 2203 Johns Circle, Auburn, Alabama 36830-7113 (United States); Mahan, G. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200, (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200, (United States); Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6030 (United States)

1999-12-15

351

Kruppel-like factors in lymphocyte biology  

PubMed Central

The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors plays an important role in differentiation, function and homeostasis of many cell types. While their role in lymphocytes is still being determined, it is clear that these factors influence processes as varied as lymphocyte quiescence, trafficking, differentiation and function. This review will present an overview of how these factors operate and coordinate with each other in lymphocyte regulation.

Hart, Geoffrey T.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Jameson, Stephen C.

2011-01-01

352

Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) designated FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Unlike other growth factors, FGFs act in concert with heparin or heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) to activate FGFRs and to induce

V. P. Eswarakumar; I. Lax; J. Schlessinger

2005-01-01

353

Factor X deficiency--a rare disorder.  

PubMed

Congenital factor X deficiency is a very rare inherited coagulation disorder. The clinical phenotype is of varying bleeding manifestations depending upon the level of factor activity. We describe a one and a half year old patient with severe deficiency (factor level less than 1%) who manifested with only easy bruisability and epistaxis that does not correlate with level of deficiency. PMID:16295475

Trivedi, Sangita; Bhatia, Jurish; Jain, Sumit; Toprani, Tushar H

2004-04-01

354

Factors Affecting Transfer of Training in Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To begin the validation process for the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Thailand, research replicating Holton, Bates, and Ruona's study (2000) was conducted in Thailand. The LTSI was administered to 1,029 employees. Exploratory factor analysis and MANOVA were used to identify factors. A factor structure almost identical to that of…

Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

2005-01-01

355

The meaning of the Impact Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The impact factor and other bibliometric indicators are currently utilized in most countries to evaluate institutions, scientific research, entire journals, and indi - vidual articles This article addresses some of the most frequently asked questions about the impact factor and its application The impact factor's origin and methods of calculating it are examined Also, discussed are the effects of

E. Garfield

2003-01-01

356

40 CFR 227.15 - Factors considered.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.15 Section...Ocean Dumping § 227.15 Factors considered. The need for...evaluation of the following factors: (a) Degree of treatment...relative environmental risks, impact and cost for ocean...

2013-07-01

357

Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

2009-01-01

358

Prevention of hip fractures: Risk factor modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that influence the risk of hip fracture have been identified, many of which can be eliminated or modified. Even those risk factors that cannot be modified are important for identifying at-risk patients, who may benefit most from therapies that alter other risk factors. Bone mineral density (BMD) is the major measurable determinant of the risk of fragility fractures. However,

Charles Slemenda

1997-01-01

359

Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

2011-01-01

360

Factors Affecting Students' Retention at Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the factors that affect students' retention at Kuwait University. Five hundred seventy students participated in the study. A survey of 22 retention factors was designed to measure student perceptions. Students presented their agreement on factors which included: achieving personal aspiration, getting jobs, free-of-charge…

AlKandari, Nabila

2008-01-01

361

Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

1979-01-01

362

Question Number Two: How Many Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploratory factor analysis involves five key decisions. The second decision, how many factors to retain, is the focus of the current paper. Extracting too many or too few factors often leads to devastating effects on study results. The advantages and disadvantages of the most effective and/or most utilized strategies to determine the number of…

Goodwyn, Fara

2012-01-01

363

A factorization algorithm to compute Pfaffians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an explicit algorithm to factorize an even antisymmetric N matrix into triangular and trivial factors. The construction resembles the Crout algorithm for LU factorization. It allows for a straight forward computation of Pfaffians (including their signs) at the cost of N/3 flops.

Rubow, Jürgen; Wolff, Ulli

2011-12-01

364

The Factor Game (i-Math Investigations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online, interactive, multimedia math investigation. The Factor Game engages students in a friendly contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Forum, Math; Illuminations; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

2001-01-01

365

Hierarchical Factoring in a Standardized Achievement Battery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The factorial validity of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills was investigated. Hierarchical factor analysis was performed with a subset of the standardization data to explore the presence of second-order group factors. Results supported the construct validity of Language and Mathematics subscales. Verbal and Visual Information group factors were…

Martin, David J.; Dunbar, Stephen B.

1985-01-01

366

Loss Factor Characterization Methodology for Piezoelectric Ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key factor for the miniaturization of piezoelectric devices is power density, which is limited by the heat generation or loss mechanisms. There are three loss components for piezoelectric vibrators, i.e., dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric losses. The mechanical quality factor, determined by these three factors, is the figure of merit in the sense of loss or heat generation. In this

Yuan Zhuang; Seyit O. Ural; Kenji Uchino

2011-01-01

367

Human factors: a necessary tool for industry  

SciTech Connect

The need for human factors (ergonomics) input in the layout of a ferroelectric ceramics laboratory is presented as an example of the overall need for human factors professionals in industry. However, even in the absence of one trained in human factors, knowledge of a few principles in ergonomics will provide many possibilities for improving performance in the industrial environment.

Starcher, K.O.

1984-03-09

368

ESTIMATING UNCERTAINITIES IN FACTOR ANALYTIC MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

When interpreting results from factor analytic models as used in receptor modeling, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in those results. For example, if the presence of a species on one of the factors is necessary to interpret the factor as originating from a certain ...

369

Synergistic induction of endothelial tissue factor by tumor necrosis factor and vascular endothelial growth factor: functional analysis of the tumor necrosis factor receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue factor expression on the surface of endothelial cells can be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a synergistic manner. We have investigated the role of the two different TNF receptors for this synergy. Firstly, stimulation of the 60 kDa TNF receptor (TNFR60) by a mutant of TNF specific for TNFR60 induced responses

Matthias Clauss; Matthias Grell; Carmen Fangmann; Walter Fiers; Peter Scheurich; Werner Risau

1996-01-01

370

Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors

Torbert, Brison

371

Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

2012-01-01

372

14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15...Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

2009-01-01

373

14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15...Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

2010-01-01

374

DBD: a transcription factor prediction database  

PubMed Central

Regulation of gene expression influences almost all biological processes in an organism; sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors are critical to this control. For most genomes, the repertoire of transcription factors is only partially known. Hitherto transcription factor identification has been largely based on genome annotation pipelines that use pairwise sequence comparisons, which detect only those factors similar to known genes, or on functional classification schemes that amalgamate many types of proteins into the category of ‘transcription factor’. Using a novel transcription factor identification method, the DBD transcription factor database fills this void, providing genome-wide transcription factor predictions for organisms from across the tree of life. The prediction method behind DBD identifies sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors through homology using profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of domains. Thus, it is limited to factors that are homologus to those HMMs. The collection of HMMs is taken from two existing databases (Pfam and SUPERFAMILY), and is limited to models that exclusively detect transcription factors that specifically recognize DNA sequences. It does not include basal transcription factors or chromatin-associated proteins, for instance. Based on comparison with experimentally verified annotation, the prediction procedure is between 95% and 99% accurate. Between one quarter and one-half of our genome-wide predicted transcription factors represent previously uncharacterized proteins. The DBD () consists of predicted transcription factor repertoires for 150 completely sequenced genomes, their domain assignments and the hand curated list of DNA-binding domain HMMs. Users can browse, search or download the predictions by genome, domain family or sequence identifier, view families of transcription factors based on domain architecture and receive predictions for a protein sequence.

Kummerfeld, Sarah K.; Teichmann, Sarah A.

2006-01-01

375

A Comparative Investigation on Model Selection in Independent Factor Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With uncorrelated Gaussian factors extended to mutually independent factors beyond Gaussian, the conventional factor analysis is extended to what is recently called independent factor analysis. Typically, it is called binary factor analysis (BFA) when the factors are binary and called non-Gaussian factor analysis (NFA) when the factors are from real non-Gaussian distributions. A crucial issue in both BFA and NFA

Yujia An; Xuelei Hu; Lei Xu

2006-01-01

376

Factors affecting fertility in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Data of the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1984-85 were used to determine whether there are any differentials in fertility levels by age at marriage, educational level, work status, region of residence (province), and place of residence (urban or rural) in Pakistan. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of these factors on fertility. The technique of Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) was used to determine the net effect of each factor. Among the predictors, age at marriage was the most significant variable, followed by the husband's education, woman's education, husband's occupation, woman's work status, region, and place of residence. Among the demographic variables, age and age at marriage were the most important determinants of fertility. Among the socioeconomic variables, the educational level of both husband and wife were important determinants of cumulative fertility. Age at marriage was inversely related to fertility. The mean number of children ever born was 5.1 for those who married below age 16 vs. 4.1 for age at marriage 16-19, and 3.6 for 20-24. In the multivariate analysis the effect of age at marriage was the strongest as a predictor. Education had a negative effect on fertility. The mean number of children ever born to women with no education was 4.5; to women with primary education, 3.6; to women with secondary education, 3.2; and to women with tertiary education, 2.3. Women working as salaried employees had higher fertility (5.0) compared to women working in family business or at home (4.2). Women whose husbands worked as salaried employees had comparatively lower fertility than those whose husbands were working in their own business or in agriculture. The region of residence did not yield wide differentials. Furthermore, place of residence did not reveal any significant difference in fertility. The mean number of children was marginally higher among urban women (4.4) compared to their rural counterparts (4.2), indicating that the fertility transition has not started yet. PMID:12346202

Hakim, A

1994-01-01

377

Clotting factors and platelets. Immunofluorescence evidence that fibrinogen and factor VIII are present in human washed platelets, whereas prothrombin complex factors and factor XIII are lacking.  

PubMed

Factor I (fibrinogen) and factor VIII were shown, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, to be present in human washed platelets. In the case of fibrinogen, the immunofluorescent pattern had a 'clod distribution' up to a 1:128 dilution of the antiserum. Factor VIII showed a 'speckled' pattern up to the 1:64 dilution. Cross-absorption studies confirmed the presence of such factors. Factor II, VII, IX, X and XIII, however, were not found in washed platelets. A diffuse fluorescence was noted using normal rabbit sera, but this was due to a cross-reaction, since it disappeared using a 1:32 diluted sera. PMID:328347

Betterle, C; Fabris, F; de Marco, L; Del Prete, G F; Girolami, A

1977-01-01

378

Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

2008-01-01

379

Uncertainty of the tritium dose conversion factor.  

PubMed

Environmental releases of tritium oxide at a number of Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities contribute to a significant portion of environmental dose. Several conversion factors are utilized in the estimation of human impact from these releases, e.g., dispersion coefficients, consumption rates, uptake factors, transport factors, dose conversion factors, and risk coefficients. A probabilistic determination of the tritium dose conversion factor was generated in this work to assess the uncertainty of the internal dosimetry required to estimate dose equivalent given an intake of tritium oxide. The tritium dose conversion factor was found to vary by a factor of about 15 with a median value of 2.2 x 10(-11) Sv Bq(-1) when considering orthovoltage x rays as the standard for estimating the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. The median dose conversion factor increases by about 50%; however, when gamma radiation is considered as the standard. The current deterministic estimate of the tritium dose conversion factor published by the DOE and the EPA is 1.7 x 10(-11) Sv Bq(-1), 25-50% lower than the median probabilistic values. The tritium oxide dose conversion factor model was found to be most sensitive to biological half-life and quality factor and is highly dependent on the standardizing radiation for RBE assessments. PMID:10456500

Hamby, D M

1999-09-01

380

Growth Factor Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Functionally, the pancreas consists of two types of tissues: exocrine and endocrine. Exocrine pancreatic disorders mainly involve acute and chronic pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis typically is benign, while chronic pancreatitis is considered a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Most pancreatic cancers develop in the exocrine tissues. Endocrine pancreatic tumors are more uncommon, and typically are less aggressive than exocrine tumors. However, the endocrine pancreatic disorder, diabetes, is a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality. Importantly, different growth factors and their receptors play critical roles in pancreatic pathogenesis. Hence, an improved understanding of how various growth factors affect pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma is necessary to determine appropriate treatment. This chapter describes the role of different growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) in various pancreatic pathophysiologies. Finally, the crosstalk between different growth factor axes and their respective signaling mechanisms, which are involved in pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, are also discussed.

Nandy, Debashis; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

2011-01-01

381

Optimizing neurotrophic factor combinations for neurite outgrowth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most neurotrophic factors are members of one of three families: the neurotrophins, the glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor family ligands (GFLs) and the neuropoietic cytokines. Each family activates distinct but overlapping cellular pathways. Several studies have shown additive or synergistic interactions between neurotrophic factors from different families, though generally only a single combination has been studied. Because of possible interactions between the neurotrophic factors, the optimum concentration of a factor in a mixture may differ from the optimum when applied individually. Additionally, the effect of combinations of neurotrophic factors from each of the three families on neurite extension is unclear. This study examines the effects of several combinations of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), the GFL glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and the neuropoietic cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on neurite outgrowth from young rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. The combination of 50 ng ml-1 NGF and 10 ng ml-1 of each GDNF and CNTF induced the highest level of neurite outgrowth at a 752 ± 53% increase over untreated DRGs and increased the longest neurite length to 2031 ± 97 µm compared to 916 ± 64 µm for untreated DRGs. The optimum concentrations of the three factors applied in combination corresponded to the optimum concentration of each factor when applied individually. These results indicate that the efficacy of future therapies for nerve repair would be enhanced by the controlled release of a combination of neurotrophins, GFLs and neuropoietic cytokines at higher concentrations than used in previous conduit designs.

Deister, C.; Schmidt, C. E.

2006-06-01

382

Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.  

PubMed

Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation. PMID:12434838

Pedersen, Darhl M

2002-10-01

383

Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniations  

PubMed Central

The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future.

2014-01-01

384

Factor tree (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual manipulative challenges the learner to find the prime factors for a pair of numbers. The factors for each number are displayed in a tree diagram from which the student drags the factors to the appropriate areas of a Venn diagram. The Venn diagram offers a useful visual display showing unique factors and common factors for the original pair of numbers. Using the display, the learner must find the pair's least common multiple (LCM) and greatest common factor (GCF). Buttons allow users to check their answers and select new problems. Instructions for using the manipulative are included, along with information about factoring. The site also links to the NCTM standard for number and operations. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

385

Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex  

SciTech Connect

Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca(2+) and two Cu(2+) ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

Chi Ki Ngo,J.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.; Furie, B.; Furie, B.

2008-01-01

386

Crystal Structure of Human Factor VIII: Implications for the Formation of the Factor IXa-Factor VIIIa Complex  

SciTech Connect

Factor VIII is a procofactor that plays a critical role in blood coagulation, and is missing or defective in hemophilia A. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of B domain-deleted human factor VIII. This protein is composed of five globular domains and contains one Ca{sup 2+} and two Cu{sup 2+} ions. The three homologous A domains form a triangular heterotrimer where the A1 and A3 domains serve as the base and interact with the C2 and C1 domains, respectively. The structurally homologous C1 and C2 domains reveal membrane binding features. Based on biochemical studies, a model of the factor IXa-factor VIIIa complex was constructed by in silico docking. Factor IXa wraps across the side of factor VIII, and an extended interface spans the factor VIII heavy and light chains. This model provides insight into the activation of factor VIII and the interaction of factor VIIIa with factor IXa on the membrane surface.

Ngo, J.C.; Huang, M.; Roth, D.A.; Furie, B.C.; Furie, B. (Wyeth); (MBL)

2008-06-03

387

Verdier specialization via weak factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let X? V be a closed embedding, with V? X nonsingular. We define a constructible function ? X, V on X, agreeing with Verdier's specialization of the constant function 1 V when X is the zero-locus of a function on V. Our definition is given in terms of an embedded resolution of X; the independence of the choice of resolution is obtained as a consequence of the weak factorization theorem of Abramovich-Karu-Matsuki-W?odarczyk. The main property of ? X, V is a compatibility with the specialization of the Chern class of the complement V? X. With the definition adopted here, this is an easy consequence of standard intersection theory. It recovers Verdier's result when X is the zero-locus of a function on V. Our definition has a straightforward counterpart ? X, V in a motivic group. The function ? X, V and the corresponding Chern class c SM( ? X, V ) and motivic aspect ? X, V all have natural `monodromy' decompositions, for any X? V as above. The definition also yields an expression for Kai Behrend's constructible function when applied to (the singularity subscheme of) the zero-locus of a function on V.

Aluffi, Paolo

2013-04-01

388

Human factors in agile manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

Forsythe, C.

1995-03-01

389

Genetic factors in systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

A number of genetic loci have been identified that appear to be associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). There is mounting evidence suggesting that these genetic associations may in fact be associated with distinct phenotypes in SSc based on autoantibody pattern rather than with SSc as a single disease entity. This may ultimately have implications for approaches to therapy as well as responses to therapy. The most promising candidate genes are those involved in pathways that lead to the vascular damage and fibrosis that are the hallmarks of this disease. There is uncertainty, however, regarding the nature of the key pathological mechanisms that link these two disease processes. Recent studies have focused on Fli1 (friend leukaemia integration 1), a transcription factor that is found in immune cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells that regulates collagen gene function and angiogenesis. Fli1 is dysregulated in SSc skin and dermal blood vessels, and appears to play a pathological role in SSc skin fibrosis and vessel degeneration. Whether this dysregulation is due to genetic polymorphisms in the Fli1 pathway or to epigenetic mechanisms is not clear.

Mayes, Maureen D; Trojanowska, Maria

2007-01-01

390

Barrier-to-autointegration factor  

PubMed Central

Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a DNA-bridging protein, highly conserved in metazoans. BAF binds directly to LEM (LAP2, emerin, MAN1) domain nuclear membrane proteins, including LAP2 and emerin. We used site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical analysis to map functionally important residues in human BAF, including those required for direct binding to DNA or emerin. We also tested wild-type BAF and 25 point mutants for their effects on nuclear assembly in Xenopus egg extracts, which contain ?12 ?M endogenous BAF dimers. Exogenous BAF caused two distinct effects: at low added concentrations, wild-type BAF enhanced chromatin decondensation and nuclear growth; at higher added concentrations, wild-type BAF completely blocked chromatin decondensation and nuclear growth. Mutants fell into four classes, including one that defines a novel functional surface on the BAF dimer. Our results suggest that BAF, unregulated, potently compresses chromatin structure, and that BAF interactions with both DNA and LEM proteins are critical for membrane recruitment and chromatin decondensation during nuclear assembly.

Segura-Totten, Miriam; Kowalski, Amy K.; Craigie, Robert; Wilson, Katherine L.

2002-01-01

391

Interaction of factor XIII subunits.  

PubMed

Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a heterotetramer consisting of 2 catalytic A subunits (FXIII-A2) and 2 protective/inhibitory B subunits (FXIII-B2). FXIII-B, a mosaic protein consisting of 10 sushi domains, significantly prolongs the lifespan of catalytic subunits in the circulation and prevents their slow progressive activation in plasmatic conditions. In this study, the biochemistry of the interaction between the 2 FXIII subunits was investigated. Using a surface plasmon resonance technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding assay, the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for the interaction was established in the range of 10(-10) M. Based on the measured Kd, it was calculated that in plasma approximately 1% of FXIII-A2 should be in free form. This value was confirmed experimentally by measuring FXIII-A2 in plasma samples immunodepleted of FXIII-A2B2. Free plasma FXIII-A2 is functionally active, and when activated by thrombin and Ca(2+), it can cross-link fibrin. In cerebrospinal fluid and tears with much lower FXIII subunit concentrations, >80% of FXIII-A2 existed in free form. A monoclonal anti-FXIII-B antibody that prevented the interaction between the 2 subunits reacted with the recombinant combined first and second sushi domains of FXIII-B, and its epitope was localized to the peptide spanning positions 96 to 103 in the second sushi domain. PMID:24408323

Katona, Eva; Pénzes, Krisztina; Csapó, Andrea; Fazakas, Ferenc; Udvardy, Miklós L; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Orosz, Zsuzsanna Z; Muszbek, László

2014-03-13

392

Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

Brown, E.

1993-10-06

393

Impact factors in nursing journals.  

PubMed

Journal impact factors (IFs), a measure of citation frequency, are published annually in Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Journal IFs, although controversial because of the uses to which they have been put in academic arenas, remain a metric about which nurses should be informed. This paper discusses key issues in the controversy, explains how IFs are computed, and presents historical and 2009 IF data for nursing journals. The number of nursing journals indexed in JCR has grown from 35 in 2004 to 74 in 2009. The journals currently indexed are diverse in terms of focus (practice vs research), specialty areas, and country of publication. The median IF score for nursing journals (0.91 in 2009) is similar to that for several other health care categories. Given the controversies surrounding IFs, it may be useful for nurses to play a more active role in furthering the debate by undertaking research relating to IFs, including studies of how they affect nurses' scholarly pursuits and publication decisions. PMID:21256359

Polit, Denise F; Northam, Sally

2011-01-01

394

Semi-inclusive DIS: Factorization  

SciTech Connect

In this talk, we will present a QCD factorization theorem for the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. There has been considerable experimental and theoretical interest in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes. For example, by studying the polarized and unpolarized SIDIS, one will be able to identify the sea quark distribution and polarization in nucleon, and the experimental results from the HERMES collaboration have revealed nontrivial sea structure in nucleon [1]. More recently, SIDIS opened a new window to study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distributions and fragmentation functions from the low transverse momentum hadron production. The transverse momentum distribution of the final state hadron is directly related to the transverse momentum dependence of the parton distributions and fragmentation. These studies will provide new opportunities to explore the partonic structure of nucleon, especially the three-dimension distribution of partons inside nucleon. The DIS experiments, including HERMES, COMPAS, and JLab Hall B collaborations, have studied various azimuthal asymmetries in SIDIS. In particular, the HERMES collaboration found sizable single spin asymmetries in these processes involving nontrivial QCD effects and hadron structure.

Yuan, Feng

2008-12-10

395

Bioaccumulation factors for PCBs revisited.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Barents Sea and White Sea marine calanoid copepods were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than BAFs in the same species in Canadian and Alaskan Arctic Ocean areas, and in freshwater plankton (Lake Ontario) reported from the mid- to early 1980s. The present study reviews variability in PCB BAFs from the North American Great Lakes and the Arctic Ocean, and discusses possible explanations for the large variation among different studies. BAFs are higher in recent arctic marine and Great Lakes studies than previously reported, and they are at least 10 times higher than those predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW). If the recent high BAFs are realistic, it means that earlier reported BAFs are too low. This is likely due to earlier erroneously high quantification of water PCB concentrations, and it implies that bioaccumulation in zooplankton is more efficient than previously assumed. Evidence is presented supporting that also trophic transfer and biomagnification of PCBs in zooplankton leads to BAFs well above those predicted by simple equilibrium partitioning. Overall, miss-measurement of water PCB concentrations and biomagnification contribute significantly to variability in BAFs for PCBs within and among studies. This large variability of BAFs for PCBs in zooplankton illustrated in the present study is of importance for future assessments of potential new bioaccumulative chemicals that rely on measured BAFs, such as the European Union Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals program (REACH). PMID:16047789

Borgå, Katrine; Fisk, Aaron T; Hargrave, Barry; Hoekstra, Paul F; Swackhamer, Deborah; Muir, Derek C G

2005-06-15

396

Factor Structure of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: Examination of a Method Factor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was originally designed as a unifactorial measure of pathological trait worry. However, recent studies supported a two-factor solution with positively worded items loading on the first factor and reverse-scored items loading on a second factor. The current study compared this two-factor model to a negative…

Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Ullman, Jodie B.; Craske, Michelle G.

2004-01-01

397

Total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) in healthy population, uncomplicated term pregnancies and neonates.  

PubMed

Free digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (DLIF) which may have a homeostatic role, as documented in different physiological conditions, but is generally undetectable in plasma from normal population. Total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) (protein bound and free) can be estimated after plasma is heated. In this study, total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) as measured in plasma in a well defined control population and compared to healthy term pregnant women and neonates, categories known to be associated with increased free digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) concentrations. The mean level of this factor(s) in the control group was 706 +/- 129 pg digoxin equivalent/ml (pg/ml) and was unaffected by age and sex. Significantly increased levels of total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) were found in pregnant women and neonates (928 +/- 127 and 1242 +/- 367 pg/ml, respectively). We conclude that levels of total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) are increased in term pregnancies and neonates, similarly to its free form. However total digoxin-like immunoreactive factor(s) is detected in the normal population as a plasma component, contrary to its free form, which is generally undetectable. PMID:2319115

Krivoy, N; Jakobi, P; Paldi, E; Alroy, G

1990-01-01

398

Factor Structure and Invariance Across Gender of the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment Protective Factor Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood social–emotional assessment has traditionally focused on risk factors or psychopathology, and has less frequently examined protective factors that may serve to promote positive developmental outcomes for children. To advance conceptual models that include protective factors as key explanatory constructs, there is a need for quantitative measures of protective factors that are psychometrically sound and function similarly across different

Julia A. Ogg; Tara M. Brinkman; Robert F. Dedrick; John S. Carlson

2010-01-01

399

Sulfation of von Willebrand factor  

SciTech Connect

von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated (35S)-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate.

Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-12-15

400

Purification of macrophage deactivating factor  

PubMed Central

Macrophage deactivation factor (MDF) in P815 tumor cell-conditioned medium was assayed by its suppression of the ability of activated mouse peritoneal macrophages to release hydrogen peroxide. MDF displayed properties of a soluble protein(s) associated with both low (8-25,000) and high (greater than 450,000) Mr fractions. MDF was purified 6,140- fold by a seven-step procedure: extraction with acid-ethanol; precipitation with ether; and fractionation on gel filtration, anion- exchange, diphenyl reversed-phase and C4 reversed-phase HPLC columns, the last column twice. The final preparation contained two species: (a) a approximately 13,000 Mr band on reducing or nonreducing SDS-PAGE and on autoradiograms after radioiodination with chloramine T, and (b) a 66,000 Mr species ranging from approximately 5% to approximately 50% of the protein detectable by silver strain. The 66,000 Mr species was identified as albumin from its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. However, no amino acid sequence could be obtained for the approximately 13,000 Mr species, either in fluid phase or after electroelution of the corresponding SDS-PAGE band. Thus, approximately 13,000 Mr MDF associates tightly with albumin through a variety of separation techniques, and may have a blocked NH2 terminus. Purified MDF afforded 50% inhibition of activated macrophage H2O2 releasing capacity at a concentration of 1-10 nM. Separation of MDF from most higher Mr moieties was associated with disproportionately small increases in specific activity, suggesting MDF might be partially inactivated by purification. As purified, MDF was approximately 1,000-fold less potent at deactivating macrophages than TGF-beta. Antibodies that neutralized the macrophage-deactivating effect of TGF-beta did not inhibit deactivation by MDF.

1990-01-01

401

Isolation and characterization of canine factor IX.  

PubMed

Canine plasma factor IX was purified to homogeneity by a combination of barium citrate precipitation and three-step column chromatographies of DEAE sepharose, heparin agarose and a monoclonal antifactor IX antibody-linked agarose. Canine factor IX has an apparent molecular size of 61 kDa, which is slightly smaller than that of human factor IX, as determined by denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino acid composition, amino-terminal and carboxyterminal amino acid sequences agreed well with those predicted from the reported cDNA. Unlike purified human factor IX, canine factor IX preparation often showed a discrete smaller molecular species (approximately 50 kDa) which was generated by a specific proteolytic cleavage between Arg310 and Val311. When purified canine factor IX was utilized as a standard for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the concentration of canine factor IX in the pooled normal dog plasma was determined to be 5.3 micrograms/ml with 11.2% carbohydrate content (or 4.7 micrograms/ml for its polypeptide chain moiety). Concentration of plasma factor IX antigen was measured in six severely affected, unrelated hemophilia B dogs. Four had factor IX antigen of less than 1% of the normal, and two had undetectable levels. The latter two had gross molecular abnormalities in their factor IX genes. Three obligate carrier females had variable but proportionately reduced factor IX antigen and factor IX coagulant activity levels. These results provide a quantitative method for measuring canine factor IX antigen which is a prerequisite for studying hemostasis and development of gene transfer approaches in the canine model of hemophilia B. PMID:8701406

Sugahara, Y; Catalfamo, J; Brooks, M; Hitomi, E; Bajaj, S P; Kurachi, K

1996-03-01

402

Male factor subfertility: possible causes and the impact of nutritional factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review possible causes for male factor subfertility with emphasis on nutritional factors such as zinc and folate.Design: A literature search was performed on MEDLINE and via bibliographies of published works.Result(s): Many causes for male factor subfertility are described in the literature. Both environmental and genetic factors could play a role. However, the pathogenesis of male factor infertility is

Wai Yee Wong; Chris M. G Thomas; Johannus M. W. M Merkus; Gerhard A Zielhuis; Régine P. M Steegers-Theunissen

2000-01-01

403

Activated factor V is a cofactor for the activation of factor XI by thrombin in plasma  

PubMed Central

The mechanism by which the intrinsic pathway of coagulation contributes to physiological hemostasis is enigmatic. Thrombin activates factor XI, a key zymogen in this pathway, which leads to increased thrombin generation. As thrombin-dependent activation of factor XI in vitro is relatively inefficient, we hypothesized that a physiological cofactor supports this reaction in a plasma environment. We therefore investigated whether the cofactors of coagulation, activated factor V, activated factor VIII, high-molecular weight kininogen, or protein S, influenced activation of factor XI by thrombin. Only activated factor V stimulated activation of factor XI by thrombin in a purified system. Binding studies demonstrated that factor XI specifically interacts with both factor V and factor Va through multiple binding sites. We further investigated this cofactor function of activated factor V in plasma. Depletion of factor V, or the addition of activated protein C, decreased the activation of the intrinsic pathway by thrombin in plasma. However, activated protein C did not exert this effect in the plasma of a homozygous carrier of the prothrombotic factor V Leiden mutation. In conclusion, we propose a role for (activated) factor V as a cofactor in the activation of factor XI by thrombin. These findings offer insights into the coagulation system in both health and disease.

Maas, Coen; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Marquart, J. Arnoud; Bakhtiari, Kamran; Weeterings, Cees; de Groot, Philip G.; Urbanus, Rolf T.

2010-01-01

404

GATA transcription factors and fat cell formation.  

PubMed

GATA transcription factors play important roles in a variety of developmental processes. Recently, we discovered that GATA factors also play a key role in adipogenesis. Two isoforms, GATA-2 and GATA-3, are specifically expressed in murine preadipocytes but not mature adipocytes. Continuous expression of GATA factors in preadipocyte cell lines inhibits terminal differentiation into mature adipocytes. In contrast, GATA-3-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells possess a higher capacity to convert to adipocytes. The inhibitory effect of GATA on adipogenesis is mediated in part by suppression of promoters of adipogenic factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, but additional mechanisms are also likely to be in effect. These findings indicate that GATA factors function as molecular gatekeepers at the onset of terminal adipocyte differentiation. Whether GATA factors are also involved in the commitment of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells to progenitors of the adipogenic lineage is under investigation. PMID:14702139

Tong, Qiang; Tsai, Judy; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

2003-11-01

405

Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

Resnick, Marc L.

2003-01-01

406

Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity  

PubMed Central

Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment.

Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

2007-01-01

407

What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use. Proximity, however, was found to not make a significant difference throughout the analysis, suggesting that exposure to wind turbines in any stage of development does not decrease a person's favorable perception towards wind turbines. Results also showed that those who found wind technology to be reliable, are twice as likely to have an overall positive perception and want to implement them into their communities. Socio-economic implications were also seen within the research suggesting those who believe wind turbines will benefit their local community will be more favorable towards developing them in their community.

Stein, Tatiana

408

Factors affecting calculation of L  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient, radio signals from billions of stars. SETI could succeed tomorrow, or it may be an endeavor for multiple generations. We are a very young technology in a very old galaxy. While our own leakage radiation continues to outshine the Sun at many frequencies, we remain detectable to others. When our use of the spectrum becomes more efficient, it will be time to consider deliberate transmissions and the really tough questions: Who will speak for Earth? What will they say?

Ciotola, Mark P.

2001-08-01

409

[Breastfeeding: prevalence and determinant factors].  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is the best way of feeding the baby for the first six months of life. However, in Portugal the abandonment rate of breastfeeding is very high during the baby first's months of life. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of breastfeeding and to identify related factors during the six months after delivery, as socio demographic variables and life styles. We conducted a cohort study at the Maternity of the Hospital Santa Maria. A standard questionnaire was applied to 475 women after delivery, at three and six months postpartum. We studied socio demographics aspects, life styles and the way of feeding during the six months after delivery. Multivariate analysis was performed. The women studied (mean age of 29.8 +/- 5,4 years), 52.2% were primiparous, 86.1% were Caucasian, 40% had a high school degree and 33% had a University degree. Four hundred and sixty (96.8%) received prenatal care. The mean gestational age was 38.8 +/- 2 weeks and the birth weight was 3198.3 +/- 545.3 g. At the discharge 91% were breastfeeding (77% exclusively), 54.7% at third month and 34.1% at sixth month. The main causes pointed for abandoning breastfeeding were insufficient milk production, bad sucking and return to work. The milk formula introduction was in 68.6% cases by medical recommendation. The decision in maintenance breastfeeding at third and sixth months was correlated with a previous positive breastfeed experience, high educational level, healthy lifestyles, as non-smoking, regular physical activity, and information about advantage of breastfeed for mother health. Information about breastfeeding was received by media, friends, family and only 9% by health professionals. Fifty (13%) women had no information about breastfeeding. Although breastfeeding rate at discharge was high, there was an important rate of abandonment at third and sixth month. Healthy lifestyles, high educational level, a previous positive breastfeed experience had a positive influence in breastfeeding. Understanding attitudes towards pregnancy and breastfeeding can lead to new strategies for its promotion and maintenance. PMID:17868527

Sandes, Ana Rita; Nascimento, C; Figueira, J; Gouveia, R; Valente, S; Martins, S; Correia, S; Rocha, E; Da Silva, L J

2007-01-01

410

Bayesian Model Selection in Factor Analytic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Factor analytic models are widely used in social science applications to study latent traits, such as intelligence, creativity,\\u000a stress, and depression, that cannot be accurately measured with a single variable. In recent years, there has been a rise\\u000a in the popularity of factor models due to their flexibility in characterizing multivari-ate data. For example, latent factor\\u000a regression models have been

Joyee Ghoshand; David B. Dunson

411

Projective Nonnegative Matrix Factorization with ?-Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new matrix factorization algorithm which combines two recently proposed nonnegative learning techniques is presented. Our\\u000a new algorithm, ?-PNMF, inherits the advantages of Projective Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (PNMF) for learning a highly orthogonal factor\\u000a matrix. When the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is generalized to ?-divergence, it gives our method more flexibility in approximation. We provide multiplicative update rules for ?-PNMF and

Zhirong Yang; Erkki Oja

2009-01-01

412

Human Factors Considerations in System Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

Mitchell, C. M. (editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (editor); Moe, K. L. (editor)

1983-01-01

413

Therapeutic Alliance and Common Factors in Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Changes in therapy can result from variables unique to a particular treatment package (i.e., specific factors), as a function\\u000a of variables common to a variety of treatments (i.e., nonspecific\\/common factors), or a combination of both specific and nonspecific\\u000a ingredients (Kazdin,1979). Nonspecific (or common) treatment factors include variables that are common across different treatment\\u000a modalities, which are thought to influence outcomes

Daniella M. Halperin; Meara L. Weitzman; Michael W. Otto

414

Biotic and Abiotic Factors in Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will research ecosystems and list the biotic and abiotic factors in that ecosystem. As table partners visit the links below, choose 3 of the listed ecosystems and find out what kinds of biotic and abiotic factors are present in each of the ecosystems you picked. Read about each ecosystem, look at any pictures included on the website, and then list 12 factors of each ecosystem in ...

Smith, Mrs.

2010-10-17

415

Design and Synthesis of Binding Growth Factors  

PubMed Central

Growth factors play important roles in tissue regeneration. However, because of their instability and diffusible nature, improvements in their performance would be desirable for therapeutic applications. Conferring binding affinities would be one way to improve their applicability. Here we review techniques for conjugating growth factors to polypeptides with particular affinities. Conjugation has been designed at the level of gene fusion and of polypeptide ligation. We summarize and discuss the designs and applications of binding growth factors prepared by such conjugation approaches.

Tada, Seiichi; Kitajima, Takashi; Ito, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

416

Erosion—diagnosis and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition: The interplay of chemical, biological and behavioural factors is crucial and\\u000a helps explain why some individuals exhibit more erosion than others. The erosive potential of erosive agents like acidic drinks\\u000a or foodstuffs depends on chemical factors, e.g. pH, titratable acidity, mineral content, clearance on tooth surface and on\\u000a its calcium-chelation properties. Biological factors such

A. Lussi; T. Jaeggi

2008-01-01

417

Exploratory factor analysis revealing complex structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study introduces varimin, a novel factorial rotation which, unlike Thurstone’s principle of simple structure, attempts to model complexity. Varimin-rotated factors are conceived as components of functional structure. Simple structure- (e.g., varimax-) rotated factors are conceived as representing indeterminate clusters of those components. An exploratory factor analysis was performed on decathlon scores from Olympic Games 1948–1988 of 233 decathletes. I

Suitbert Ertel

2011-01-01

418

Nonlinear factorization in the hippocampal neural structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intrinsic factor analysis (factorization) framework for information redundancy elimination by means of Hebbian learning in sparsely encoded Hopfield-like neural networks is presented. Computer simulations revealed that the information redundancy, which can be eliminated by factorization, is sparseness dependent. Due to strong similarity of Hopfield-like neural networks to that of CA3 field of the hippocampus and following Marr's ideas we

A. M. Sirota; A. A. Frolov; D. Husek

1999-01-01

419

Critical factors of information security implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research report focuses on the issue of critical factors in relation to the implementation of information security (InfoSec). Several authors have proposed ways of implementing critical factors of InfoSec, suggesting particular methodologies to achieve them. In this paper the researchers summarise the advice of different authors and identify critical factors in the InfoSec implementation. This leads us to an

Ahmad Al-Tameem; Mohamed Zairi; Mumtaz Kamala

2009-01-01

420

The factors during protein crystallization: A review  

SciTech Connect

Many factors have effects on crystallization. The major influencing factors during protein crystallization are summarized in this paper. Recommendations are made about the basic process of crystallization and the analysis of the thermodynamic effects on crystallization, and the dynamics factors effecting crystallization during an equilibrium process are discussed. The advantages of ionic liquid in various chemical processes, especially in the field of biochemistry, are emphasized, and some tentative conclusions are made about future short-term trends.

Li, X. X.; Xu, X. D., E-mail: xuxiaodong@hrbeu.edu.cn; Dan, Y. Y.; Zhang, M. L. [Harbin Engineering University, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (China)

2008-12-15

421

Mammalian SIRT1 Represses Forkhead Transcription Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAD-dependent deacetylase SIR2 and the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 regulate lifespan in model organisms, such as yeast and C. elegans. Here we show that the mammalian SIR2 ortholog SIRT1 deacetylates and represses the activity of the forkhead transcription factor Foxo3a and other mammalian forkhead factors. This regulation appears to be in the opposite direction from the genetic interaction of

Maria Carla Motta; Nullin Divecha; Madeleine Lemieux; Christopher Kamel; Delin Chen; Wei Gu; Yvette Bultsma; Michael McBurney; Leonard Guarente

2004-01-01

422

[Factors influencing participation in colorectal screening].  

PubMed

Participation of the target population in coloretal screening is generally low. In addition to demographic and socio-economic factors, the health care system and- in particular - family doctors play an important role. Further, the rate of participation is influenced by psychological, cognitive and behavioural factors, too. The paper analyses factors related to colorectal screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to screening uptake. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(27), 1051-1056. PMID:24974839

Döbr?ssy, Lajos; Kovács, Attila; Cornides, Agnes; Budai, András

2014-07-01

423

Human Monocytes Support Factor X Activation by Factor VIIa, Independent of Tissue Factor: Implications for the Therapeutic Mechanism of High-Dose Factor VIIa in Hemophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

bosis to complicate its use. These complications are seen when preparations of the activated vitamin-K-dependent coagulation proteins, such as Autoplex, are used to treat pa- tients with inhibitors. High-dose factor VIIa therapy has not shown a propensity to initiate DIC or thrombosis in clinical trial^.^ Factor VIIa can activate factor X in vitro in the pres- ence of phospholipid vesicles

Maureane Hoffman; Dougald M. Monroe; Harold R. Roberts

1994-01-01

424

Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa  

SciTech Connect

Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using /sup 125/I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa.

Mann, P.; Nesbitt, J.A.; Ge, M.; Kisiel, W.

1986-03-05

425

Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.  

PubMed

Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-?1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. PMID:23097312

Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

2013-04-01

426

Matrix factorization on a hypercube multiprocessor  

SciTech Connect

This paper is concerned with parallel algorithms for matrix factorization on distributed-memory, message-passing multiprocessors, with special emphasis on the hypercube. Both Cholesky factorization of symmetric positive definite matrices and LU factorization of nonsymmetric matrices using partial pivoting are considered. The use of the resulting triangular factors to solve systems of linear equations by forward and back substitutions is also considered. Efficiencies of various parallel computational approaches are compared in terms of empirical results obtained on an Intel iPSC hypercube. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Geist, G.A.; Heath, M.T.

1985-08-01

427

Factor Structure of Emotional Intelligence in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Social cognition, which includes emotional intelligence, is impaired in schizophrenia. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a widely-used assessment of emotional intelligence, with a four-factor structure in healthy individual. However, a recent factor analysis in schizophrenia patients revealed a two-factor structure of the MSCEIT. The current study aimed to replicate this finding in a larger, more diverse, schizophrenia sample (n = 194). Our findings revealed an identical two-factor structure as in the previously-reported study, indicating that emotional intelligence is organized in a different manner in schizophrenia than it is in healthy controls.

Lin, Yu-chung; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F.

2012-01-01

428

NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiscal year 1989 descriptions of technical accomplishments in seven sections are presented: automation and robotics; communications; computer sciences; controls and guidance; data systems; human factors; and sensor technology.

Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul

1990-01-01

429

Nuclear transcription factors in mammalian mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Nuclear transcription factors have been detected in mammalian mitochondria and may directly regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Emerging genomics techniques may overcome outstanding challenges in this field.

Sarah Leigh-Brown; José Antonio Enriquez; Duncan T Odom

2010-01-01

430

NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

L. Holcomb R. Hood M. Montemerlo J. Jenkins P. Smith

1991-01-01

431

Proteomic methodologies to study transcription factor function  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors regulate transcription by binding to regulatory regions of genes including the promoter. Few of the transcription factors are well characterized and few promoters have been described in detail. New methods have been developed to improve both transcription factor and promoter characterization, some of which are discussed here. Trapping methodology applicable to both individual transcription factors and intact transcription complexes are described, as well as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Southwestern blotting, and basic liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methodology. These methods have proved useful in the study of transcriptional regulation.

Jarrett, Harry W.

2012-01-01

432

NASA information sciences and human factors program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

1991-01-01

433

NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains FY 1984/85 descriptions and accomplishments in six sections: Computer Science and Automation, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, Sensor Technology, and Communications.

Holcomb, Lee B.; Mciver, Duncan E.; Dibattista, John D.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Wallgren, Ken; Sokoloski, Marty; Wasicko, Dick

1985-01-01

434

Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor

Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

2012-01-01

435

The BDI-II factor structure in pregnancy and postpartum: Two or three factors?  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in pregnancy and postpartum. Women were asked to fill in the BDI-II in their last trimester of pregnancy and at 3 months after delivery. A total of 331 pregnant women, with a mean age of 29.7 years (SD=4.6), and 354 mothers, aged 30.6 years (SD=4.6 years), answered the BDI-II. The first group was mainly nulliparas (65.6%) and the second group was mostly primiparas (57.4%). Factor analyses with principal components solution and varimax rotation were performed. Based on the scree test of Cattell a 2-factor solution and a 3-factor solution were explored. The 2-factor solution was identical in pregnancy and postpartum. Items loading in the Cognitive-Affective factor and in the Somatic-Anxiety factor were almost the same, though the Cognitive-Affective factor explained more of the BDI-II total variance in pregnancy, whereas in postpartum both factors explained similar total variances. The 3-factor solution of the BDI-II in pregnancy and postpartum slightly diverged. Besides the Cognitive-Affective and the Somatic-Anxiety factors, a third factor, Fatigue, was obtained in pregnancy while Guilt was the third factor identified in postpartum. This study reveals that the BDI-II 3-factor solution might be more appropriate to assess depressive symptoms in pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:19091525

Carvalho Bos, Sandra; Pereira, Ana Telma; Marques, Mariana; Maia, Berta; Soares, Maria João; Valente, José; Gomes, Ana; Macedo, António; Azevedo, Maria Helena

2009-06-01

436

Results from a Web Impact Factor Crawler.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Web impact factors (WIFs), Web versions of the impact factors for journals, and how they can be calculated by using search engines. Highlights include HTML and document indexing; Web page links; a Web crawler designed for calculating WIFs; and WIFs for United Kingdom universities that measured research profiles or capability. (Author/LRW)

Thelwall, Mike

2001-01-01

437

Interference of pathway specific transcription factors.  

PubMed

A mechanism for reversibility of cellular decisions, e.g., proliferation or differentiation, is mediated by direct interference of pathway-specific transcription factors. Due to the relative activity of the transcription factors, genetic programs are reversibly switched on and off. In the case of the transcription factors AP-1 and the family of steroid hormone receptors (including retinoic acid receptor, thyroid hormone and vitamin D receptors) two different mechanisms account for negative interference. In one case overlapping DNA binding sites are suggestive of mutually exclusive binding of transcription factors to account for repression. In the other case, a DNA bound transcription factor is attacked by another one via protein-protein interaction, without the need of the latter factor binding to DNA. Although it is not excluded, that also in the case of overlapping DNA binding elements protein-protein interaction might in fact be responsible for repression instead of substitution, the two situations can be clearly distinguished by specific mutants in the glucocorticoid receptor and in Jun and Fos. For the interaction mechanism, we favor the interpretation that the binding of one transcription factor to another one interferes with transactivation directly without influence on DNA binding. The fact that at least two different mechanisms are established to guarantee effective interference, demonstrates how important this type of transcription factor crosstalk is. PMID:1536876

Ponta, H; Cato, A C; Herrlich, P

1992-02-11

438

Calculating parts factors for redundant systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method that is easily programmed simplifies calculation of parts factor. Individual module unreliabilities are computed as function of number of service intervals and service interval length. At each service interval, unreliability is sum of unreliabilities of replaced and original modules. It must be calculated for each module to obtain parts factor.

Derocher, W. L., Jr.

1978-01-01

439

Evaluation of Geometry Factors in Roller Bearings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental study to evaluate the effect of five geometry factors and two operational factors on roller end wear and skidding in roller bearings is described. Running each of 80 test specimens for five two-hour cycles or until failure constituted the ...

V. M. Zwicker

1970-01-01

440

Photon impact factor in the NLO  

SciTech Connect

The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

Balitsky, Ian [JLAB

2013-04-01

441

Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

2010-01-01

442

Coagulation factor VIII: structure and stability.  

PubMed

Factor VIII (FVIII), a coagulation factor in the blood, is one of the most complex proteins known today. To facilitate the rapid development of a more convenient and safer FVIII product and to improve the quality of life for hemophilia patients, this short article reviews the recent investigations on the structure, activity, and more importantly, stability of FVIII. PMID:12787631

Wang, Wei; Wang, Y John; Kelner, Drew N

2003-06-18

443

Verification of Self-Report Temperament Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an earlier report of this project, French describes 28 temperament factors for which there is sufficient consensus in the literature to call them 'established'. The specific objective of the present study is to determine, by means of factor analyses us...

D. Dermen J. W. French H. H. Harman

1974-01-01

444

Contributions to factor analysis of dichotomous variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed for the factor analysis of dichotomous variables. Similar to the method of Christoffersson this uses information from the first and second order proportions to fit a multiple factor model. Through a transformation into a new set of sample characteristics, the estimation is considerably simplified. A generalized least-squares estimator is proposed, which asymptotically is as efficient

1978-01-01

445

Information as An Important Production Factor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on the importance of information and documentation (I&D) as one of the essential production factors in pharmaceutical industrial activities. The read for and use of I&D services depends far more on such factors as product profile, decis...

S. Ljungberg

1978-01-01

446

Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

2002-01-01

447

TREATING VASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTING ALZHEIMER'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until a few years ago, vascular risks were not considered to play a role in Alzheimer's disease; However recent studies on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease now suggest a strong association between vascular risk factors linked to cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore,vascular factors in middle age have been suggested to increase the risk of late onset Alzheimer's

K. ALAGIAKRISHNAN

2007-01-01

448

Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

Berling, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

449

How Student Satisfaction Factors Affect Perceived Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from students in two sections of a general education course offered at a research university in spring 2009 were used to explore whether student satisfaction factors are associated with perceived learning as rated by students. A list of 22 elements in the learning environment was explored. The 22 were used in creating 3 satisfaction factors

Lo, Celia C.

2010-01-01

450

Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

Jabnoun, Naceur

2009-01-01

451

The calculation of web impact factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study reports the investigations into the feasibility and reliability of calculating impact factors for web sites, called Web Impact Factors (Web-IF). The study analyses a selection of seven small and medium scale national and four large web domains as well as six institutional web sites over a series of snapshots taken of the web during a month. The

Peter Ingwersen

1998-01-01

452

Results from a web impact factor crawler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web impact factors, the proposed web equivalent of impact factors for journals, can be calculated by using search engines. It has been found that the results are problematic because of the variable coverage of search engines as well as their ability to give significantly different results over short periods of time. The fundamental problem is that although some search engines

Mike Thelwall

2001-01-01

453

Factors Associated with Eating Disorders in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various factors associated with eating disorders have been studied, no comprehensive source of research findings was identified in this review. The purpose of this study was to identify and synthesize research findings of factors associated with eating disorders in women published from 1992-2008. These findings may be useful to nurses, other professionals, families, and the public to facilitate the

Christina Knowles; Faculty Mentor; Frances Smith

454

Behçet's syndrome and factor XII deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain thrombotic tendency in Behçet's syndrome. We report the case of a 43-year old woman presenting retinal-vein thrombosis, factor XII deficiency and Behçet's syndrome. This kind of association has thus far never been reported. Factor XII deficiency is known to possibly induce various types of thrombosis and might explain the prevalence of ocular

P. Disdier; J. R. Harle; A. Mouly; M. F. Aillaud; P. J. Weiller

1992-01-01

455

Factor Analysis Algorithm with Mercer Kernel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear factor analysis method was studied by Mercer kernel function which can map the data in the original space to a high-dimensional feature space, and a comparison with the related method kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) was made. It is pointed that the best error rate in handwritten digit recognition by kernel factor analysis (KFA) with varimax (4.2%) is competitive

Guo-en Xia; Pei-ji Shao

2009-01-01

456

The Invariance Problem in Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The accuracy of the varimax and promax methods of rotation of axes in reproducing known factor matrices was examined. It was found that only when all tests are univocal, or nearly so, could one be reasonably confident that an obtained factor matrix faithfully reproduces a contrived matrix. (Author/JKS)

Guilford, J. P.

1977-01-01

457

Risk factors and epidemiology of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the principal cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. Risk factors for breast cancer are manifold. Certain risk factors, such as age and family history are well established. Research in the past decade has further elucidated disease aetiology, in particular the role of hormones and the discovery of breast

Elinor Washbrook

2006-01-01

458

Gender differences in dementia risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With the aging of the population, dementia has become an important health concern in most countries. There is a growing body of literature on the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia, and mixed dementia (AD with cerebrovascular disease).Objective: This article reviews the role of major risk factors in dementia between both

Nahid A. Azad; Muneerah Al Bugami; Inge Loy-English

2007-01-01

459

ART and SIRT correction factors in geotomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ART and SIRT image reconstruction techniques are introduced and a correction factor which provides high resolution images is presented. The techniques were tested using synthetic measurements. In order to examine the manner in which each reconstruction progresses, the Euclidean distance for the reconstructions were plotted, versus iteration number. Results indicate that ART produces better reconstructed profiles than the SIRT (using identical correction factors).

Balanis, C. A.; Hill, H. W.; Freeland, K. A.

1983-04-01

460

Accelerating subsurface scattering using Cholesky factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a simplified subsurface scattering model that exploits a diffusion mechanism to provide a simpler solution to the transport equation. Our model is based on numerical analysis techniques that are amenable to Cholesky factorization. We treat the factorization as a precomputed scattering quantity which can be used to significantly speed up multiple scattering calculations as the

Richard Sharp; Raghu Machiraju

2006-01-01

461

Space Human Factors Advanced Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Space Human Factors community engages in activities that range from basic research through advanced development projects to applications associated with ongoing programs such as the International Space Station and the Shuttle. This panel of NASA human factors specialists will present information relating to advanced development projects aimed at the creation of tools that can be applied to the

B. Woolford; T. Rathjen; M. Whitmore; S. Rajulu; J. Blume Novak; J. McCandless; B. Peacock; R. Prouty; R. Burnett; C. Booher; R. Ortiz; M. Segal; K. Smart; J. Gonzales; M. Dhutia; D Ngyuen; S. Vallance; E. Morphew; D. Balmer; S. Ramsey; V. Byrne

462

Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury  

PubMed Central

Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unknown regarding hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors for ACL injury. Data Sources: Studies were identified from MEDLINE (1951–March 2011) using the MeSH terms anterior cruciate ligament, knee injury, and risk factors. The bibliographies of relevant articles and reviews were cross-referenced to complete the search. Study Selection: Prognostic case-control and prospective cohort study designs to evaluate risk factors for ACL injury were included in this review. Results: A total of 50 case-control and prospective cohort articles were included in parts 1 and 2. Twenty-one focused on hormonal, genetic, cognitive function, previous injury, and extrinsic risk factors. Conclusions: Several risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury—such as female sex, prior reconstruction of the ACL, and familial predisposition. These risk factors most likely act in combination with the anatomic factors reviewed in part 1 of this series to influence the risk of suffering ACL injury.

Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

463

Preservice Music Teachers' Employment Preferences: Consideration Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to investigate preservice music teachers' (N = 187) perceptions of employment preferences when considering future teaching positions. Adaptive Conjoint Analysis, a business market-based research tool, was used to determine preferences for personal factors (e.g., salary, commute), school environmental factors (e.g.,…

Robinson, Nicole R.

2012-01-01

464

Murine Oligodendroglial Cells Express Nerve Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies reported here present evidence for the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by an oligodendroglial cell line and of NGF by oligodendrocytes in mouse primary culture. An immortalized oligodendroglial cell line (N19) expressing markers for immature oligodendrocytes stimulated PC12 cells to elaborate processes. Polymerase chain reaction analysis with degenerate primers indicated that the

Sujatha Byravan; Lyndon M. Foster; Tommy Phan; A. Neil Verity; Anthony T. Campagnoni

1994-01-01

465

Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin

2007-01-01

466

Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

467

Growth factors from genes to clinical application  

SciTech Connect

The last decade has witnessed an explosion in the identification of growth factors and their receptors. This has been greatly facilitated by recombinant DNA technology, which has provided the tools not only to identify these proteins at the gene level but also to produce recombinant proteins for evaluating their biological activities. With the help of such techniques, we are moving toward an understanding of the biosynthesis of growth factors and their receptors, structure-function relationships, as well as mechanisms for intracellular signal transmission. The possibility of modifying these factors has opened new fields of clinical application. In this paper, four major areas of growth factor research are presented: the characterization of growth factor genes and their protein products, growth factor receptors and signal transduction by the receptors to mediate biological action, the biological actions of the various growth factors, and the role of growth factors in health and disease and their possible clinical application. Some of the topics covered include: structure of the IGFs and their variants; isoforms of PDGF receptor types; tyrosine kinase activation; structure of G-proteins in biological membranes; possible therapeutic application of NGF in the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; PDGF's possible role in the development of several fibroproliferative diseases and its therapeutic application in wound healing; and the possible use of angiogenic inhibitors in tumor treatment.

Sara, V.R. (Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE)); Hall, K.; Low, H. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (SE))

1990-01-01

468

Thesaurus of Human Factors in Mining Terminology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Thesaurus of Human Factors in Mining Terminology was developed to familiarize users of a computerized data base called the Human Factors in Mining Search System (HFMSS) with the key words or descriptive terms associated with the discipline of human fact...

E. G. Aiken

1986-01-01

469

Factors Contributing to Institutions Achieving Environmental Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine what factors contributed to three universities achieving environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A case study methodology was used to determine how each factor contributed to the institutions' sustainability. Site visits, fieldwork, document reviews, and interviews with…

James, Matthew; Card, Karen

2012-01-01

470

Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

Altan Onat

2001-01-01

471

Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in QCD  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are calculated in a light cone QCD sum rules framework using the most general form of the nucleon interpolating current. Using two models for the distribution amplitudes, we predict the form factors. The predictions are also compared with existing experimental data. It is shown that our results describe remarkably well the existing experimental data.

Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Savci, M. [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

2008-06-01

472

Critical Success Factors for International Education Marketing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a survey of 315 higher education and private secondary institutions in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States that investigated factors critical to success in international marketing of educational programs. Results suggest that two factor groups (reputation and resources, and possession of international…

Mazzarol, Tim

1998-01-01

473

Factor Analysis of the Commander's Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A factor-analytic study was conducted to determine what the current Commander's Evaluation Report (CER) measures and what a revised CER should measure. For these purposes, samples from the 2 and 4 skill levels were used. Five interpretable factors were ex...

V. W. Urry W. A. Nicewander

1966-01-01

474

Factors Affecting the Nucleosynthesis of CALCIUM48  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the synthesis of 48Ca in stellar environments are discussed. These factors include the entropy of the matter which is being processed and the neutron richness of the matter. The production of 48Ca depends highly on the entropy of the expanding matter. High entropy environments produce little 48Ca, while low entropy environments produce abundant 48Ca. This suggests that Type

Tracy Dawn Krishnan

1997-01-01

475

Basic Concepts of Confirmatory Factor Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers acknowledge the prominent role that factor analysis can play in efforts to establish construct validity. Data can be analyzed with no preconceived ideas about the underlying constructs of structure of the data. This approach is exploratory factor analysis, Another approach is used when the researcher has an understanding of the…

Roberts, J. Kyle

476

Trophic experiments to estimate isotope discrimination factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2008a) rats were fed with experimental diets of distinct isotopic values (d 13 Ca ndd 15 N) in order to infer the discrimination factors. We showed negative relation- ships between discrimination factors and diet isotopic values. In Caut, Angulo & Courchamp (2009), our aim was to generalize these relationships to other taxonomic groups

Stephane Caut; Elena Angulo; Franck Courchamp; Jordi Figuerola

2010-01-01

477

Organizational factors affecting Internet technology adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - To explore the factors that affect the implementation of Internet technologies and to what extent the size of the company, as an organizational factor, influences that process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - According to the innovation adoption theory, it was found that Internet adoption in firms is a process with different stages where a company is in one of a number

Ana R. Del Aguila-Obra; Antonio Padilla-Melendez

478

Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

2006-01-01

479

Risk factors for suicide in later life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suicide rates are higher in later life than in any other age group. The design of effective suicide prevention strategies hinges on the identification of specific, quantifiable risk factors. Methodological challenges include the lack of systematically applied terminology in suicide and risk factor research, the low base rate of suicide, and its complex, multidetermined nature.Although variables in mental, physical, and

Yeates Conwell; Paul R. Duberstein; Eric D. Caine

2002-01-01

480

Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior Among Alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four risk factors for parasuicide and suicide ideation in 197 male and female alcoholism inpatients were investigated: addiction severity, family addiction history, psychiatric symptomatology, and inadequate social support. Risk factors for suicide ideation were psychiatric symptom severity and social dysfunction; those for parasuicide were younger alcohol problem onset, more alcoholism symptoms, greater social dysfunction, and greater psychiatric symptom severity. Logistic

Nancy J. Smyth; Monica N. Dunn; John W. Myer; Elaine Maccio

1999-01-01

481

Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

2005-01-01

482

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

483

Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

2010-01-01

484

The inhibitory factors of implementing internet banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore the inhibitory factors that affect the implementation of Internet Banks (IBs) in Taiwan and provide suggestions for the banks that fail to implement internet banks. This study compiles the factors according to Rogers' Innovation Diffusion theory and the result of the literature review. Then, we collect data from the questionnaire survey and

Yu-Chung Hung; Yu-Hsin Lu

2008-01-01

485

On the form factor between two polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Form factors are used in radiosity to describe the fraction of dif- fusely reflected light leaving one surface and arriving at another. They are a fundamental geometric property used for computation. Many special configurations admit closed form solutions. How- ever, the important case of the form factor between two polygons in three space has had no known closed form solution.

Peter Schröder; Pat Hanrahan

1993-01-01

486

Transcription factors as targets for cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited list of transcription factors are overactive in most human cancer cells, which makes them targets for the development of anticancer drugs. That they are the most direct and hopeful targets for treating cancer is proposed, and this is supported by the fact that there are many more human oncogenes in signalling pathways than there are oncogenic transcription factors.

James E. Darnell

2002-01-01

487

Anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer of the prostate is the leading cancer among American men, yet few risk factors are known. Anthropometry may help uncover potential risk factors for prostate cancer, since fat distribution, skeletal structure, and musculature may differ between men with this hormonally linked cancer and those without it. A case?control study was undertaken to determine whether anthropometric differences exist between prostate

Mark R. Conaway; Cary N. Robertson; Barbara J. Mathias; E. Everett Anderson; David F. Paulson

1997-01-01

488

Income distribution, factor endowments, and trade openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the empirical links among factor endowments, trade and personal income distribution. By using panel data, we show that land and capital intensive countries have a less equal income distribution while skill intensive countries have a more equal income distribution. We also show that the effects of trade openness on inequality depend on factor endowments in a way

Antonio Spilimbergo; Juan Luis Londoño; Miguel Székely

1999-01-01

489

Total factor productivity and the convergence hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the convergence, or lack thereof, of total factor productivity and real gross domestic product (GDP) per worker for a pooled (cross-section, time-series) sample of developed and developing countries, adding breadth and depth to the convergence debate. We first estimate total factor productivity from a parsimonious specification of the aggregate production function involving output per worker, capital per worker,

Stephen M. Miller; Mukti P. Upadhyay

2002-01-01

490

Contextual and cultural factors underlying Americanization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – American cultural influence is evident throughout the world to varying degrees. The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence the extent to which a particular country adopts elements of American culture. Factors related to information, ideas, technology, goods, and capital as well as cultural proximity are used to explain the degree of Americanization a country

C. Samuel Craig; Susan P. Douglas; Aronte Bennett

2009-01-01

491

Dietary Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods Branch  

Cancer.gov

Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.

492

Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

2009-01-01

493

Growth factors, nutrient signaling, and cardiovascular aging  

PubMed Central

Growth factors regulated by specific macronutrients have been shown to promote aging and accelerate mortality in the great majority of the organisms studied. In particular, the enzymes activated by growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in mammals and their orthologs in simple model organisms represent perhaps the best-understood proteins involved in the aging process. Dietary restriction (DR), which reduces the level of IGF-I and of other growth factors, has been associated with protection from diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases and deficiencies in GH signaling and IGF-I are strongly associated with protection from cancer and diabetes in both mice and humans, but their role in cardiac function and cardiovascular diseases is controversial. Here we review the link between growth factors, cardiac function and heart disease with focus on the cardioprotective and sensitizing effect of growth factors in both model organisms and humans.

Fontana, Luigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Longo, Valter D.

2012-01-01

494

Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

495

Form factors in the radiative pion decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform an analysis of the form factors that rule the structure-dependent amplitude in radiative pion decay. The resonance contributions to ??e?e? decays are computed through the proper construction of the vector and axial-vector form factors by setting the QCD driven asymptotic properties of the three-point Green functions and , and by demanding the smoothening of the form factors at high transfer of momentum. A comparison between theoretical and experimental determination of the form factors is also carried out. We also consider and evaluate the role played by a non-standard tensor form factor. We conclude that, at present and due to the hadronic uncertainties, the search for new physics in this process is not feasible.

Mateu, V.; Portolés, J.

2007-10-01

496

Factor XI deficiency in animal models.  

PubMed

The blood coagulation system forms fibrin to limit blood loss from sites of injury, but also contributes to occlusive diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the current model of a coagulation balance, normal hemostasis and thrombosis represent two sides of the same coin; however, data from coagulation factor XI-deficient animal models have challenged this dogma. Gene targeting of factor XI, a serine protease of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, severely impairs arterial thrombus formation but is not associated with excessive bleeding. Mechanistically, factor XI may be activated by factor XII following contact activation or by thrombin in a feedback activation loop. This review focuses on the role of factor XI, and its deficiency states as novel target for prevention of thrombosis with low bleeding risk in animal models. PMID:19630774

Renné, T; Oschatz, C; Seifert, S; Müller, F; Antovic, J; Karlman, M; Benz, P M

2009-07-01