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Sample records for cinnamomum camphora seedlings

  1. An Efficient Protocol for Plantlet Regeneration via Direct Organogenesis by Using Nodal Segments from Embryo-Cultured Seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora L.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Li, Yongpeng; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient plantlet regeneration protocol via direct organogenesis was established for camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.). Stem segments with one node (SN explants) from embryo-cultured seedlings (EC seedlings) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine was used to induce cotyledonary embryo germination. This medium was also used for EC seedlings propagation and adventitious bud induction from SN explants. Regenerated plantlets were cultured on hormone-free MS medium for elongation and root induction. The regeneration capability of SN explants was compared by using EC seedling lines established in this research. EC seedling line EL6 exhibited the highest adventitious bud induction frequency (91.7%) and the highest number of buds per responding explant (5.2), which was considered as the most efficient EC seedling line for further gene transformation research. PMID:25962170

  2. Headspace constituents of the tree remain of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Kubota, K

    2001-01-01

    The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified. Of these ingredients, camphor was obtained as the most abundant component. PMID:11547425

  3. Extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jian-Ren; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Feng, Fong-Long; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-12-01

    83 acres of rice paddy fields in Taoyuan county, Taiwan, were polluted by cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) through a nearby irrigation channel, and rice plantation was ceased in 1987. Camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora) have been planted in 2 acre of the above fields since 1991. Heavy metal accumulation of roots, leaves, branches and heartwood of camphor trees were analyzed during 20-year afforestation. Averaged Cd contents of the roots were found larger than the ones of the branches, leaves, sapwood and heartwood of camphor trees growing in three polluted plots. Averaged diameters at breast height (DBH) of the planted camphor trees were 13-15 cm. Cd pollution did not significantly impact the growth of camphor trees, as similar DBH's were found from both polluted and control sites. Annual growths of DBH were from 0.63 to 0.77 cm year(-1). Planting camphor trees sequestered 68.8 ton biomass per acre. During 20-year period, 0.69-1.98 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) were sequestered on three polluted plots. The above numbers exceeded IPCC LULUCF reference values 0.31-0.53 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) for activities at forest lands. PMID:25204813

  4. Feeding stimulant in Cinnamomum camphora for the common bluebottle, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wakui, Ryu; Horie, Masanori; Nishimura, Yoshichika; Nishiyama, Yoshihide; Ikeno, Yasunori; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) as a host plant for the larvae of common bluebottle (Graphium sarpedon nipponum) was explained by the presence of feeding stimulants in the leaves. When the active methanol extract of C. camphora leaves was separated into hexane and water layers, both layers showed high feeding activities for the larvae of G. sarpedon nipponum. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane layer resulted in the isolation of a highly active compound, which was identified as a-linolenic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:21138058

  5. [Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangmei; Wu, Yanfang; Xiao, Fuming; Xiong, Zhenyu; Xu, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) is a representative species in Lauraceae family, and can be subdivided into five types: linalool, camphor, cineol, iso-nerolidol and borneol. In this paper, the leaves transcriptomes of Cinnamomum camphora were sequenced with the platform of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. Based on the GO (Gene Ontology), COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, the function classification, pathway annotation, and the coding sequence prediction of all-Unigenes were carried out. 156 278 Unigenes with an average length of 584 bp and N50 (N50 value is defined as the Unigene length where half the assembly is represented by Unigenes of this size or longer) of 1 023 bp were generated by de novo assembly. A total of 5 5955 Unigenes (35.80%) were annotated through similarity comparison, in which 24 717 and 21 806 Unigenes were assigned into GO and COG, respectively. By searching KEGG database, 3 350 Unigenes were involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in which 424 Unigenes were involved in monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The analysis of monoterpenoids biosynthesis pathway showed that 9 Unigenes likely encode (+)-linalool synthase, and their expression levels were higher in linalool type but lower in cineole type. This study provides a foundation for further characterizing the functional genes in C. camphora. PMID:24846919

  6. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  7. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  8. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS. PMID:26181048

  9. Non-Stomatal Limitation to Photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora Seedings Exposed to Elevated O3

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv′/Fm′) was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may

  10. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  11. Bioactivities and compositional analyses of Cinnamomum essential oils from Nepal: C. camphora, C. tamala, and C. glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Poudel, Ambika; Dosoky, Noura S; Pokharel, Kiran Kumar; Setzer, William N

    2013-12-01

    This work examines the biological activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora leaves, C. glaucescens fruit, and C. tamala root from Nepal. The oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against lettuce and perennial ryegrass, brine shrimp lethality, and antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. C. camphora leaf essential oil was phytotoxic to lettuce, antifungal to Aspergillus niger, and insecticidal, particularly toward midge and butterfly larvae, fruit flies, and fire ants. C. camphora oil was also toxic to brine shrimp and human breast tumor cells. C. glaucescens fruit essential oil showed notable nematicidal activity, as well as termiticidal and mosquito larvicidal activity. The root essential oil of C. tamala was toxic to mosquito larvae and fire ants. PMID:24555298

  12. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  13. Cleavage of supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA induced by a eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhong; Wei, Xu-Bin; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2004-09-01

    A eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from mature seeds of the disease- and insect-resistant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). Besides the known role of this SOD in protecting cells against oxidative stress, it can induce the cleavage of supercoiled double-stranded DNA into nicked and linear DNA. It can not cleave linear DNA or RNA, demonstrating there is no DNase or RNase in the purified cambialistic SOD. Furthermore, the SOD can linearize circular pGEM-4Z DNA that is relaxed by topoisomerase I. This result indicates that the DNA-cleaving activity requires substrates being topologically constrained. The supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity of the cambialistic SOD can be inhibited by either SOD inhibitor (azide) or catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers (ethanol and mannitol). The chelator of iron, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), also inhibits the supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity. These results show that the dismutation activity is crucial for the supercoiled DNA cleavage. The modification of tryptophan residue of the cambialistic SOD with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) shows that these two activities are structurally correlative. The reaction mechanism is proposed that the hydroxyl radical formed in a transition-metal-catalyzing Fenton-type reaction contributes to the DNA-cleaving activity. In addition, the cleavage sites in supercoiled pGEM-4Z DNA are random. PMID:15346198

  14. Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, is a storage protein in the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-shui; Wei, Guo-qing; Yang, Qiang; He, Wen-jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2002-03-15

    Cinnamomin is a novel type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated in our laboratory from the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper the physiological role it plays in the plant cell was studied. Northern and Western blotting revealed that cinnamomin was expressed specifically in cotyledons. It accumulated in large amounts simultaneously with other proteins at the post-stages of seed development. Cinnamomin degraded rapidly during the early stages of seed germination. Endopeptidase was proved to play an important role in the degradation of cinnamomin. Western blotting of total proteins from the protein body with antibodies against cinnamomin demonstrated that it only existed in this specific cellular organelle as a storage protein. The similar properties of cinnamomin and other seed storage proteins of dicotyledons were compared. We conclude that cinnamomin is a special storage protein in the seed of C. camphora. PMID:11879193

  15. Propylene epoxidation over biogenic Au/TS-1 catalysts by Cinnamomum camphora extract in the presence of H2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingming; Huang, Jiale; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-03-01

    The Au/TS-1 catalysts with different Au nanoparticles (NPs) sizes ranging from 3.1 to 8.4 nm but the same Au loading of 0.5 wt% were prepared by Cinnamomum camphora (CC) extract, and were used for propylene epoxidation. The results showed that the interaction between Au and TS-1 support surface is important for propylene epoxidation and much smaller Au NPs (<3 nm) are the dominant active sites. After reaction of 100 h, there is no decreasing in both the activity and the PO selectivity for the Au/TS-1 catalysts, and only 1.8 wt% of the carbonaceous deposits on the surface of the catalyst after reaction, suggesting that the desorption of the product from the modified catalysts surface by residual biomolecules is much easier.

  16. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  17. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p < 0.05). Levels of blood total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  18. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Zhu, Xue-mei; Luo, Li-ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-yuan; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) is rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) or medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs). The purpose of the present study was to produce zero-trans MCTs-enriched plastic fat from a lipid mixture (500 g) of palm stearin (PS) and CCSO at 3 weight ratios (PS:CCSO 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, wt/wt) by using lipase (Lipozyme TL IM, 10% of total substrate) as a catalyst at 65 °C for 8 h. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic acid (C16:0, 42.68% to 53.42%), oleic acid (C18:1, 22.41% to 23.46%), and MCFAs (8.67% to 18.73%). Alpha-tocopherol (0.48 to 2.51 mg/100 g), γ-tocopherol (1.70 to 3.88 mg/100 g), and δ-tocopherol (2.08 to 3.95 mg/100 g) were detected in the interesterified products. The physical properties including solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), and crystal polymorphism of the products were evaluated for possible application in shortening or margarine. Results showed that the SFCs of interesterified products at 25 °C were 9% (60:40, PS:CCSO), 18.50% (70:30, PS:CCSO), and 29.2% (80:20, PS:CCSO), respectively. The β' crystal form was found in most of the interesterified products. Furthermore, no trans fatty acids were detected in the products. Such zero-trans MCT-enriched fats may have a potential functionality for shortenings and margarines which may become a new type of nutritional plastic fat for daily diet. PMID:22515238

  19. Enzymatic production of zero-trans plastic fat rich in α-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids from highly hydrogenated soybean oil, Cinnamomum camphora seed oil, and perilla oil by lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-Li; Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Hong-Yan; Luo, Li-Ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2013-02-13

    In the present study, zero-trans α-linolenic acid (ALA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA)-enriched plastic fats were synthesized through enzymatic interesterification reactions from highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO), and perilla oil (PO). The reactions were performed by incubating the blending mixtures of HSO, CCSO, and PO at different weight ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) using 10% (total weight of substrate) of Lipozyme TL IM at 65 °C for 8 h. After reaction, the physical properties (fatty acids profile, TAG composition, solid fat content, slip melting point, contents of tocopherol, polymorphic forms, and microstructures) of the interesterified products and their physical blends were determined, respectively. Results showed that the fatty acid compositions of the interesterified products and physical blends had no significant changes, while the content of MCFA in both interesterified products and physical blends increased to 8.58-18.72%. Several new types of TAG species were observed in interesterified products (SSL/SLS, PLO/LLS, and OLLn/LnLO/LOLn). It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFA) were detected in all products. As the temperature increased, the solid fat content (SFC) of interesterified products was obviously lower than that of physical blends. The SFCs of interesterified products (60:40:100, 70:30:100, and 80:20:100, HSO:CCSO:PO) at 25 °C were 6.5%, 14.6%, and 16.5%, respectively, whereas the counterparts of physical blends were 32.5%, 38.5%, and 43.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, interesterified products showed more β' polymorphs than physical blends, in which β' polymorph is a favorite form for production of margarine and shortening. Such zero-trans ALA and MCFA-enriched fats may have desirable physical and nutritional properties for shortenings and margarines. PMID:23350869

  20. [Spectroscopic analysis of the decay resistance of wood treated with extracts from the xylem of Cinnamomum Camphora with XRD and FTIR approaches].

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Wang, Xiao-Xian; Lin, Jin-Guo

    2014-03-01

    Four kinds of extracts from the xylem of C. Camphora, ACQ and camphor were selected to make wood preservatives for laboratory toxicity test of wood preservatives for decay fungus. The results showed that the treated blocks with 4% ACQ and 10% methanol extracts could meet the demand of degree I of preservation and showed strong resistance to brown-rot fungus at tack. The wood treated with 4% camphor extracts, 10% ethyl acetate extracts, and 10% acetone extracts reached the demand of degree II and showed moderate decay resistance. The blocks treated with 10% hot water extracts and untreated samples meet the demand of degree III. Through XRD comparison, the author was found that the preservative effects of four extracts are proportional to the degree of crystallinity. Crystallization fields 2 theta diffraction angle were ordered from larger to little as 10% hot wa-ter extracts > untreated samples > 10% acetone extracts > 10% methanol extracts > 1% ethyl acetate extracts. According to FTIR analysis, the amount of degraded cellulose and hemicellulose increased with the decline of characteristic absorption peak at 1,374, 1,160, 1,106, 1,056 and 897 cm(-1), meaning that the preservative effect of corresponding preservatives were getting worse. The peak height of characterization of lignin is higher compared to the untreated wood. I1,510/I1,738, I1,510/I1,374, l51,510/ I1,160 of the treated blocks with 10% methanol extracts and 4% ACQ are the smallest in all the treated blocks, which proved that the degradation ability of brown--rot fungus to the holocellulose is the weakest, and the wood preservative is best. PMID:25208421

  1. Ecophysiological characteristics of Taiwan alder (Alnus formosana) seedlings adapted to the subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tien-Szu; Weng, Jen-Hsien

    2002-04-01

    We investigated several ecophysiological characteristics of seedlings of a low-elevation (100-200 m) and a high-elevation (2000-2400 m) population of Taiwan alder (Alnus formosana Makino) from subtropical Taiwan. Both populations had a wide optimal temperature range for photosynthesis, and there was little difference in the optimal temperature range for photosynthesis between populations. Photosynthetic rate (P(N)) was near maximal from 20 to 35 degrees C when seedlings of both the low-elevation and the high-elevation populations were acclimated at a day/night temperature of 30/23 degrees C. When seedlings were acclimated at a day/night temperature of 20/10 degrees C, P(N) was near maximal over the range 15-35 degrees C in the low-elevation population and 15-30 degrees C in the high-elevation population. Compared with nine other tree species native to Taiwan, Taiwan alder had a high P(N) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) under well-watered conditions. Reflecting its higher transpiration rate, Taiwan alder had a significantly greater leaf-air temperature difference than camphor (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), a co-occurring lowland tree species with leaves similar in shape and size to those of Taiwan alder. Despite higher g(s), high root and shoot hydraulic conductances enabled Taiwan alder to maintain higher leaf water potentials than camphor under well-watered conditions. We conclude that both photosynthetic characteristics and water relations are important factors enabling Taiwan alder to adapt to a wide temperature range, thereby ensuring its success at both high and low elevations in subtropical Taiwan. PMID:11960760

  2. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The Σ15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. PMID:24480428

  3. [Levels and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Wen-Long; Li, Ling-Ling; Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Fei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Thirty-three camphor tree bark samples were collected from Southern Jiangsu in August 2012. They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDTs (o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The concentrations of HCB, sigma6 DDTs and sigma Chlordanes ranged (dw) from 0.31 ng x g(-1) to 1.81 ng x g(-1), 0.40 ng x g(-1) to 17.3 ng x g(-1) and n. d. to 1.03 ng x g(-1), respectively. Due to the high volatility, the spatial distribution of HCB in Southern Jiangsu was uniform. Compared to the other results, the HCB concentration in Southern Jiangsu was lower. The historical usage of technical DDT mixture and the dicofol-type DDT were the major sources of DDTs in southern Jiangsu. The TC/CC ratio is usually used to distinguish between aged and fresh chlordane. According to the ratio of TC/CC, the chlordane in the urban area was derived from the fresh application of technical chlordane, and that in the rural area was attributed to the historical usage. PMID:24881411

  4. Camphor--a fumigant during the Black Death and a coveted fragrant wood in ancient Egypt and Babylon--a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyang; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule. PMID:23666009

  5. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  6. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  7. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities. PMID:26498626

  8. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:25838932

  9. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. PMID:25605550

  10. Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Wu, Liang-Hong; Zhu, Ren-Guo; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive δ(15)N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and ∆δ(15)N=δ(15)N(upper)-δ(15)N(lower)>0, while those near the industrial area had more negative δ(15)N values and ∆δ(15)N<0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO(x) by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of (15)N-depleted NH(y) in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that (15)N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. PMID:21130551

  11. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  12. Study on Cinnamomum oils: compositional pattern of seven species grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Son, Le C; Dai, Do N; Thang, Tran D; Huyen, Duong D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of seven Vietnamese species of the genus Cinnamomum were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the species fall into three groups in which one group contains aromatic components, while the second group contains both terpenes and aromatic constituents and the third group contains only terpene constituents. The first group had only Cinnamomum curvifolium as its member and produced oil rich in benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate. The second group producing mixture of phenylpropanoids and oxygenated monoterpene components includes leaves of Cinnamomum kunstleri (methyl eugenol, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole) and Cinnamomum mairei (eugenol, 1, 8-cineole, neryl acetate and eugenol acetate). The third group rich in terpene constituents could also be divided into two classes. The first class produced oils rich in monoterpene components and includes Cinnamomum damhaensis (linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene and 1,8-cineole), Cinnamomum cambodianum (linalool and terpinen-4-ol) and Cinnamomum caryophyllus (1,8-cineole, α-pinene and camphene). The second class contains oil with abundance of sesquiterpene compounds and peculiar to Cinnamomum rigidifolium (α-selinene, β-caryophyllene and α-copaene). This paper discusses further the chemotaxonomic importance of these results and previous data on essential oils of Cinnamomum species analysed from Vietnam. PMID:25274473

  13. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  14. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  15. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2009-10-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (1 1 1) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  16. Antileukemic activity of lignans and phenylpropanoids of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon.

    PubMed

    Adfa, Morina; Rahmad, Rizki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yudha S, Salprima; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of fractions and isolated constituents from Cinnamomum parthenoxylon woods against human leukemia HL-60 and U937 cells. The n-Hex, EtOAc, and MeOH-H2O fractions of the woods inhibited cell proliferation in both cell lines. Our phytochemical investigation of the n-Hex and EtOAc fractions led to the isolation of lignans and phenylpropanoids, whose chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileukemic activity; especially, hinokinin and cubebin exhibited strong inhibition toward U937 cell proliferation. Morphological observation indicated that these cytotoxic actions were mediated by apoptosis. Our findings suggested that an oxygenated functional group at the C-9 position in dibenzylfuran skeleton contributed their potency. In addition, these results enhanced the ethnopharmacological value of C. parthenoxylon. PMID:26774581

  17. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  18. Seedling disease in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet seedlings (24 entries of a larger genetic population constructed to dissect Rhizoctonia disease reaction in sugar beet) were screened for their response to a highly virulent isolate of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2. Seedlings were grown to the two-leaf stage in the greenhouse, thinned to 15 p...

  19. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  20. A geraniol-synthase gene from Cinnamomum tenuipilum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Li, Jing; Wang, Hao-Xin; Zeng, Ying

    2005-02-01

    Geraniol may accumulate up to 86-98% of the leaf essential oils in geraniol chemotypes of the evergreen camphor tree Cinnamomum tenuipilum. A similarity-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone that appeared to encode a terpene synthase and which could be phylogenetically grouped within the angiosperm monoterpene synthase/subfamily. After its expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with prenyl diphosphates as substrates, the enzyme encoded by the putative C. tenuipilum monoterpene synthase gene was shown to specifically convert geranyl diphosphate to geraniol as a single product by GC-MS analysis. Biochemical characterization of the partially purified recombinant protein revealed a strong dependency for Mg2+ and Mn2+, and an apparent Michaelis constant of 55.8 microM for geranyl diphosphate. Thus, a new member of the monoterpene synthase family was identified and designated as CtGES. The genome contains a single copy of CtGES gene. Expression of CtGES was exclusively observed in the geraniol chemotype of C. tenuipilum. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that CtGES mRNA was localized in the oil cells of the leaves. PMID:15680985

  1. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae (Hayata), the first to be completely sequenced of Lauraceae family, is presented in this study. The total genome size is 152,700 bp, with a typical circular structure including a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/b) of 20,107 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 93,642 bp and 18,844 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content of the genome is 39.1%. The nucleotide sequence shows 91% identities with Liriodendron tulipifera in the Magnoliaceae. In total, 123 annotated genes consisted of 79 coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 36 tRNA genes. Among all 79 coding genes, seven genes (rpoC1, atpF, rpl2, ndhB, ndhA, rps16, and rpl2) contain one intron, while two genes (ycf3 and clpP) contain two introns. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. kanehirae chloroplast genome is closely related to Calycanthus fertilis within Laurales order. PMID:26053940

  2. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Koo, Ja Yong; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Kang, Sam Sik; Bae, KiHwan; Kim, Yeong Sik; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook

    2010-10-01

    Cinnamomum cassia is a well-known traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. An extract of this plant showed both platelet anti-aggregation and blood anti-coagulation effects in preliminary testing. Among the 13 compounds obtained from this plant, eugenol (2), amygdalactone (4), cinnamic alcohol (5), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (7), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (8), and coniferaldehyde (9) showed 1.5-73-fold greater inhibitory effects than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 3.8, 5.16, 31.2, 40.0, 16.9, and 0.82 μM, respectively, vs. 60.3 μM) and 6.3-730-fold stronger effect than ASA on U46619 (a thromboxane A₂ mimic)-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 3.51, 33.9, 31.0, 51.3, 14.6, and 0.44 μM, respectively, vs. 321 μM). The other compounds, coumarin (3), cinnamaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (10), icariside DC (11), and dihydrocinnacasside (12), also inhibited (2.5 to four times greater than ASA) U46619-induced aggregation. In addition, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were 1.3-87 times more effective than ASA against epinephrine-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 1.86, 1.10, 37.7, 25.0, 16.8, 15.3, and 0.57 μM, respectively, vs. 50.0 μM). However, the 13 compounds were only very mildly effective against blood coagulation, if at all. In conclusion, compounds 2, 4, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory potencies than others on AA-, U46619-, and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Eugenol (2) and coniferaldehyde (9) were the two of the most active anti-platelet constituents of C. cassia. PMID:20828311

  3. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

  4. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  5. Germination and seedling development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed germination and seedling development are highly sensitive to the environment at planting and for several weeks after that. Major factors that affect germination and development are temperature, water availability, soil conditions such as compaction, rhizosphere gases, and seed and seedlin...

  6. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed. PMID:24236996

  7. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study. PMID:26041191

  8. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed. PMID:16710900

  9. Seedling Disease Survey in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stand establishment and persistence continue to be problems for Michigan growers. To determine the extent and severity of the problem, a survey of diseased seedlings from Michigan fields was initiated in 2008. Samples were collected of diseased seedlings for two years. In 2008, samples were collecte...

  10. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Singh, S. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients. PMID:22701361

  11. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication. PMID:25051315

  12. Potentiation of antifungal activity of amphotericin B by essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Portugal, H

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia, alone or combined with amphotericin B, a drug widely used for most indications despite side-effects was investigated. The composition of the oil was analysed by GC/MS and characterized by its very high content of cinnamaldehyde (92.2%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 80%), used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida albicans, was determined by a macrobroth dilution method followed by a modelling of fungal growth. The essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia exhibited strong antifungal effect (MIC 80% = 0.169 microL/mL and K(aff) = 18,544 microL/mL). A decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B was obtained when the culture medium contained essential oil concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.1 microL/mL. The strongest decrease (70%) was obtained when the medium contained 0.1 microL/mL of essential oil. This potentiation of amphotericin B obtained in vitro may show promise for the development of less toxic and more effective therapies especially for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:16397923

  13. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Pulong; Yang, Yifu; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s) in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s) that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F) and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1), parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases. PMID:25530780

  14. Space Station Live: Seedling Growth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the Inte...

  15. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

  16. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  17. A new coumarin and cytotoxic activities of constituents from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Tran Minh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Son, Doan Cao; Hung, Tran Viet; Van Kiem, Phan

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin derivative, coumacasia (1) and eight known compounds, coumarin (2), cinnamaldehyde (3), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (4), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (5), coniferaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (7), 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (8), and cinnamic alcohol (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data and by comparison with the reported literature. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-9 were evaluated with two human cancer cell lines, HL-60 and A-549. Compound 1 showed growth inhibitory effects in the HL-60 and A-549 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.2 +/- 0.5 and 11.3 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Compounds 3-6, and 8 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 20.5 to 65.6 microM. PMID:24868863

  18. Characterization of the leaf essential oils of an endemic species Cinnamomum perrottetii from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sriramavaratharajan, Venkatraman; Sudha, Veerappan; Murugan, Ramar

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaf of Cinnamomum perrottetii Meissn. collected from three distinct populations in the southern Western Ghats, India were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 56 volatile constituents representing 92.2-96.3% of the oils were identified. Variations in the chemical constituents of the oils were found. Only three major components namely, α-pinene (5.1-6.6%), tau-cadinol (8.7-20.5%) and α-cadinol (7.3-13%) out of 10 were found in all three samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compositions of leaf essential oil of C. perrottetii. PMID:26453373

  19. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  20. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  1. Beet Rust and Seedling Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet rust, caused by Uromyces betae, can cause pustules on most beet types, and can be a problem in various beet growing areas. Seedling rust, caused by Puccinia subnitens can cause lesions on young beets, primarily on cotyledons, and does not cause economic damage. This chapter describes the dise...

  2. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  3. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  4. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  5. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  6. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds. PMID:22687781

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22536283

  8. Cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as NF-kappaB inhibitors from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavala Matta; Seo, Jee Hee; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Kyung Rak; Kim, Youngsoo

    2004-09-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-cB is a transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory and immune genes. In the present study, an extract from stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume(Lauraceae) was discovered to have an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NF-KB transcriptional activity, which was determined using macrophages RAW 264.7 transfected stably with an alkaline phosphatase reporter construct containing four copies of the NF-KB binding KB sequence. Following activity-guided fractionation, trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde were identified as the NF-KB inhibitors from C cassia with IC50 values of 43 MM and 31 pM, respectively. As a positive control, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) showed an IC50 value of 2 uM on NF-KB transcriptional activity. Both trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-KB in addition to NF-KB transcription-al activity. PMID:15503352

  9. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  10. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  11. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. PMID:20828600

  12. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites. PMID:22383303

  13. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  14. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. PMID:26434143

  15. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels. PMID:26134381

  16. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except γ-terpinene. The MIC values of γ-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of γ-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, α-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity. PMID:25126170

  17. Field measurement of cotton seedling evapotranspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on cotton evapotranspiration (ET) during the seedling growth stage and under field conditions is scarce because ET is a difficult parameter to measure. Our objective was to use weighable lysimeters to measure daily values of cotton seedling ET. We designed and built plastic weighable mic...

  18. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  19. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

  20. Seedling Diversity and the Homologies of Seedling Organs in the Order Poales (Monocotyledons)

    PubMed Central

    Tillich, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Seedlings of monocots are much more diverse than those of other angiosperms, often with very derived character states. This makes morphological interpretation difficult. The morphology of seedlings of most of the 16 families of the Poales alliance are only incompletely known. The present study aims first to develop an unambiguous terminology for the description of monocotyledonous seedlings. This makes possible clear morphological comparisons and the use of homologous terms for organs. Finally, plotting of well defined characters onto a molecular tree allows the polarization of character states. Method Seedlings were grown in Petri dishes on moist filter paper under permanent light conditions and analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Only seeds collected at natural habitats or from plants with a well documented source were used. Seedling vouchers are deposited in the alcohol collection of Monocot seedlings in the Botanische Staatssammlung München (M). Key Results Based on an unambiguous terminology, seedlings of a great number of genera are described and presented as figures, representing all families of Poales except Ecdeiocoleaceae. Seedlings of Rapateaceae, Joinvilleaceae and Mayacaceae are described for the first time. Morphological comparisons reveal a plausible interpretation of even very modified organ structures, including those of the grass seedling. Conclusions This study demonstrates that detailed studies of seedling morphology can provide interesting morphological insights and also new facts for phylogenetic analyses. However, the morphological diversity of seedlings in the monocots is as yet incompletely known, and in some, e.g. Alismatales or Zingiberales, the seedling structure is particularly poorly understood in terms of comparative morphology. PMID:17933843

  1. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  2. DESIGN ISSUES FOR EVALUATING SEEDLING EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosyst...

  3. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action. PMID:23833722

  4. Line-scan inspection of conifer seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1993-05-01

    Almost two billion conifer seedlings are produced in the U.S. each year to support reforestation efforts. Seedlings are graded manually to improve viability after transplanting. Manual grading is labor-intensive and subject to human variability. Our previous research demonstrated the feasibility of automated tree seedling inspection with machine vision. Here we describe a system based on line-scan imaging, providing a three-fold increase in resolution and inspection rate. A key aspect of the system is automatic recognition of the seedling root collar. Root collar diameter, shoot height, and projected shoot and root areas are measured. Sturdiness ratio and shoot/root ratio are computed. Grade is determined by comparing measured features with pre-defined set points. Seedlings are automatically sorted. The precision of machine vision and manual measurements was determined in tests at a commercial forest nursery. Manual measurements of stem diameter, shoot height, and sturdiness ratio had standard deviations three times those of machine vision measurements. Projected shoot area was highly correlated (r2 equals 0.90) with shoot volume. Projected root area had good correlation (r2 equals 0.80) with root volume. Seedlings were inspected at rates as high as ten per second.

  5. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  6. Genetically improved ponderosa pine seedlings outgrow nursery-run seedlings with and without competition -- Early findings

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O. ); Kitzmiller, J.H. . Chico Tree Improvement Center)

    1994-04-01

    Three classes of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings (nursery-run, wind-pollinated, control-pollinated) were evaluated for stem height and diameter at the USDA Forest Service's Placerville Nursery and the Georgetown Range District in northern California. Pines in all three classes were grown with competing vegetation or maintained in a free-to-grow condition. Control-pollinated seedlings were statistically taller than nursery-run counterparts when outplanted, and after 1 and 2 growing seasons in the field with and without competition. They also had significantly larger diameters when outplanted and after 2 growing seasons in the field when free to grow. Wind-pollinated seedlings grew taller than nursery-run seedlings when free to grow. A large amount of competing vegetation [bearclover (Chamaebatia foliolosa)--29,490 plants per acre; herbaceous vegetation--11,500; hardwood sprouts--233; and whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida) seedlings--100] ensure that future pine development will be tested rigorously.

  7. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  8. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-01-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  9. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  10. STATISTICAL ISSUES FOR SEEDLING STUDIES IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the very nature that seedlings represent the future forests, they are an important population for exposure studies. he experimental conditions for seedling studies cover a wide range of treatment combinations, facilities, and exposure regimes. he experimental utilization of ex...

  11. Changes of nucleic acids of wheat seedlings under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytnyk, K. M.; Musatenko, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the growth of wheat seedlings and their nucleic acid content were studied. It was shown that both space and ground seedlings have almost the same appearance, dry weight and nucleic acid content in the root, coleoptile and leaves. The only difference found is in the RNA and DNA content, which is twice as much in the ground seedling apices as in the space-grown seedlings.

  12. Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F

    1977-01-01

    Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

  13. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses

  14. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  15. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  16. Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 μmol/m2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.

  17. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  18. Grass seedling demography and sage steppe restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeding is a key management tool for semi-arid and arid rangeland. In these systems, however, seeded species often fail to establish. The objectives of this study were to identify demographic transitions limiting seedling recruitment in a disturbed, sage steppe system and determine the degree to w...

  19. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  20. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  1. Nursery performance of peach seedling rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nursery performance of a cross-section of both historically important and current commercial peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] seedling type rootstocks was studied over three growing seasons at six nurseries serving the southeastern US peach industry. Rootstock lines differed significantly in ...

  2. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  3. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  4. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  5. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  6. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light–dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(−)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:26151006

  7. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  8. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues. PMID:21150113

  9. In vivo antioxidant activities of essential oils and their constituents from leaves of the Taiwanese Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Lan; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Yu, Chan-Wei; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Yang, Ying-Fei; Liu, Jui-Tung; Shih, Justin; Chu, Yu-Ju; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2012-03-28

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and key constituents from the leaves of two C. osmophloeum clones were investigated. The two trees possess two chemotypes, which were classified as the cinnamaldehyde type and camphor type. We demonstrated that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves exerted in vivo antioxidant activities in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor, which respectively represent the major compounds in the cinnamaldehyde-type and camphor-type trees, exerted significant in vivo antioxidant activities against juglone-induced oxidative stress in C. elegans. Moreover, expressions of antioxidative-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were significantly induced by trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor from C. osmophloeum leaves. Our results showed that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves and their major compounds might have good potential for further development as nutraceuticals or antioxidant remedies. PMID:22380926

  10. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity. PMID:22191514

  11. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  12. Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; Lačanin, Ines; Pavlović, Hrvoje

    2013-05-01

    Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

  13. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections. PMID:26403820

  14. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  15. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  16. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  17. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  18. Seedling recruitment in forests: Calibrating models to predict patterns of tree seedling dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Ribbens, E.; Silander, J.A. Jr.; Pacala, S.W. )

    1994-09-01

    Recruitment, the addition of new individuals into a community, is an important factor that can substantially affect community composition and dynamics. We present a method for calibrating spatial models of plant recruitment that does not require identifying the specific parent of each recruitment. This method calibrates seedling recruitment functions by comparing tree seedling distributions with adult distributions via a maximum likelihood analysis. The models obtained from this method can then be used to predict the spatial distributions of seedlings from adult distributions. We calibrated recruitment functions for 10 tree species characteristic of transition oak-northern hardwood forests. Significant differences were found in recruitment abundances and spatial distributions. Predicted seedling recruitment limitation for test stands varied substantially between species, with little recruitment limitation for some species and strong recruitment limitation for others. Recruitment was limited due to low overall recruit production or to restricted recruit dispersion. When these seedling recruitment parameters were incorporated into a spatial, individual-based model of forest dynamics, called SOR-TIE, alterations of recruitment parameters produced substantial changes in species abundance, providing additional support for the potential importance of seedling recruitment processes in community structure and dynamics. 45 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Lectins in Castor Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Suzanne M.; Beevers, Harry

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of the two lectins (ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin) in tissues of castor bean seedlings were followed during germination and early growth. For measurement, lectins in extracts were separately eluted from Sepharose columns; an antibody to the agglutinin was also used to detect the lectins by immunodiffusion. The endosperm of the dry seed contains 3.5 mg total lectin (5.6% of the total seed protein), which declines by 50% by day 4 and more rapidly thereafter as the tissue is completely consumed. The cotyledons of the dry seed also contain lectins but the amounts are less than 1% of those in the endosperm, and, as in the endosperm, they are constituents of the albumin fraction of the isolated protein bodies. No lectins were detected in the green cotyledons of 10-day seedlings that had been exposed to light from day 5. The embryonic axes of 2-day seedlings contained very small amounts of lectins but they were not detectable in the aerial parts of seedlings grown for 3 weeks or in cells from endosperm grown in tissue culture. The ability of proteinases and glycosidases (isolated from endosperm of 4-day seedlings) to hydrolyze the lectins was examined. No hydrolysis of the two lectins was observed, but the subunits, separated by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, were hydrolyzed slowly by a proteinase and some release of mannose was observed in the presence of the glycosidases. Ricin was converted to its subunits by cysteine and an enzyme in an endosperm extract accelerated chain separation by glutathione. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16664561

  20. Pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS analysis for simultaneous determination of seven components in Cinnamomum cassia and the effect of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guang-Ping; Huang, Wei-Hua; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of the seven components, including cinnamaldehyde, copaene, cinnamic acid, coumarin, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 2-methoxycinnamic acid and safrole in Cinnamomum cassia. The results showed that methanol and ethanol was not available for extraction of cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde due to aldol reaction. The developed method was validated to be sensitive, accurate and simple, and was successfully employed for the analysis of 15 samples of C. cassia. The contents of the investigated components were significantly variant and cinnamaldehyde is the most abundant compound, but safrole was not detected in all samples. PMID:20572266

  1. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales

  2. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  3. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 μg) and the inhibitory activity against rat α-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  4. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  5. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  6. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  7. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Manaf, Asman; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Malinda, Desi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Patients and methods Eighty adult subjects with IGT, defined as 2-hour postprandial glucose level of 140–199 mg/dL, were enrolled in this two-arm, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled preliminary study. Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to receive either DLBS3233 at a dose of 50–100 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The study mainly assessed the improvement of homeostatic model-assessed insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), the 15-minute and 2-hour plasma insulin levels, and the oral disposition index. Results After 12 weeks, DLBS3233 improved insulin resistance better than placebo as reflected by a reduced HOMA-IR (−27.04%±29.41% vs −4.90%±41.27%, P=0.013). The improvement of the first- and second-phase insulin secretion was consistently greater in DLBS3233 group than placebo group (−144.78±194.06 vs −71.21±157.19, P=0.022, and −455.03±487.56 vs −269.49±467.77, P=0.033, respectively). Further, DLBS3233 also significantly better improved oral disposition index than placebo. No serious hypoglycemia, edema, or cardiovascular-related adverse events were found in either groups. Conclusion This study has shown that DLBS3233 at the dose of 50–100 mg once daily was well tolerated, and promisingly efficacious in improving insulin sensitivity as well as preserving β-cell performance in subjects with IGT. PMID:27099473

  8. TEMPORAL ALLOCATION OF 14C TO EXTRAMATRICAL HYPHAE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponderosa pine seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme either in growth pouches before they were transplanted to root-mycocosms (P seedlings), or at the time of transfer to root-mycocosms (V seedlings). ninoculated seedlings served as controls (U seedlings). he us...

  9. Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, G M; Merkle, S A

    2005-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and conversion of the somatic embryos. Cold treatment for 12 weeks was critical for conversion of chestnut somatic embryos to somatic seedlings, raising conversion frequencies for one line to 47%, compared to 7% with no cold treatment. AC improved germination and conversion frequency for one line to 77% and 59%, respectively, and kept roots from darkening. For two lines that produced embryos with one, two or three-plus cotyledons, cotyledon number did not affect germination or conversion frequency. We also established embryogenic American chestnut suspension cultures and adapted a fractionation/plating system that allowed us to produce populations of relatively synchronous somatic embryos for multiple lines. Embryos derived from suspension cultures of two lines tested had higher conversion frequencies (46% and 48%) than those from cultures maintained on semi-solid medium (7% and 30%). The improvements in manipulation of American chestnut embryogenic cultures described in this study have allowed over a 100-fold increase in somatic seedling production efficiency over what we reported previously and thus constitute a substantial advance toward the application of somatic embryogenesis for mass clonal propagation of the tree. PMID:15789206

  10. Kinetics for phototropic curvature by etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbovic, V.; Poff, K. L.

    1991-01-01

    An infrared-imaging system has been used to study the influence of gravity on the kinetics of first positive phototropism. The development of phototropic curvature of etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was measured in the absence of visible radiation. Following a pulse of blue light, stationary seedlings curved to a maximum of approximately 16 degrees about 80 minutes after stimulation. The seedlings then curved upward again or straightened by about 6 degrees during the subsequent 100 minutes. Seedlings rotated on a clinostat reached a similar maximum curvature following photostimulation. These seedlings maintained that curvature for 30 to 40 minutes before subsequently straightening to the same extent as the stationary seedlings. It is concluded that straightening is not a consequence of gravitropism, although gravity has some effect on the phototropism kinetics.

  11. Habitat-related variation in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekrtová, Ester; Košnar, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Differences in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica were investigated between the primary (relict) and the secondary (semi-natural) forest-free habitats of the Bohemian Forest (870-1200 m a.s.l.) and of the Alps (1045-1935 m a.s.l.) to understand the factors promoting the seedling recruitment of G. pannonica and their importance for species distribution, population structure, and conservation. In the communities with adult plants of G. pannonica, we recorded environmental variables (the slope, the altitude, and the covers of bare ground, litter, and rocks), estimated parameters of the vegetation (the covers of herbs, bryophytes, and dwarf shrubs), and counted the seedlings of G. pannonica. In a field experiment, we investigated seedling survival under different soil moisture regimes. We also observed seasonal dynamics of seedling recruitment in permanent plots over the course of three years. In the primary habitats of both regions, G. pannonica grew in a relatively wide range of communities, and its seedlings occurred in each area. In the secondary habitats of the Bohemian Forest, a very low frequency of the seedlings was recorded. The number of seedlings increased with the covers of the moss layer and of bare soil and decreased with the cover of the herb layer, especially of graminoids. The seedling mortality was significantly lower in the plots with higher soil moistures, and the emergence of new-born seedlings was concentrated in the spring season, when the soil received a high water supply due to melting of snow. For the successful generative reproduction of G. pannonica, our findings highlight the critical importance of the microsites with low levels of competition and of sufficient soil moisture G. pannonica. It seems that because of the long-term lack of grazing disturbances, the structures of the secondary habitats of G. pannonica in the Bohemian Forest have become unfavourable for seedling establishment and generative reproduction of this threatened

  12. Seedlings Finally Get Their Due: Book Review of Seedling Ecology and Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Book Review of: Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Ed. Leck, Mary Allessio, Parker, V. Thomas and Simpson, Robert L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2008. Many plant demographers find themselves, at some point, staring at a dataset full of detailed information on juvenile and adult plants,...

  13. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  15. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. Results Populations of C. kanehirae were classified into four geographic regions: northwestern (NW), west-central (WC), southwestern (SW), and southeastern (SE). In total, 113 individuals from 19 localities were sampled, and variations in the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) intron and leafy (Lfy) intron-2 sequences of nuclear DNA were examined in order to assess phylogeographic patterns, the timescales of demographic and evolutionary events, and recent anthropogenic effects. In total, 210 Chs and 170 Lfy sequences, which respectively constituted 36 and 35 haplotypes, were used for the analyses. Estimates of the migration rate (M) through time revealed a pattern of frequent gene flow during previous and the present interglacials. The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The level of among-region genetic differentiation was significant when comparing eastern to western populations. However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. Moreover, essentially no genetic structuring was found for the three regions west of the CMR. A fit of spatial range expansion was found for pooled and regional samples according to the non-significant values of the sum of squared deviations. Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. Conclusions Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic

  16. A hydrothermal seedling emergence model for giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-season seedling emergence of giant ragweed in Ohio crop fields complicates efforts for predicting the optimum time to implement control measures for minimizing crop-yield losses. Our objectives were to develop a hydrothermal seedling emergence model for a late-emerging biotype in Ohio and valid...

  17. Examining salt stress for improvement of seedling vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers worldwide. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor, with vigor defined here as the ability of seedlings to tolerate adverse environments. Ongoi...

  18. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  19. [Experimental studies on growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Pang, F; He, M; Hu, T

    1992-10-01

    By using the techniques of growing seedlings in bowshaped shed covered with plastic sheeting plus treatment with plant growth regulator, vegetative and generative propagation tests have been made of Morinda officinalis. Scientific evidences have thus been provided for growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis. PMID:1294174

  20. Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling diseases cause loss of plant stand due to pre- and post-emergence damping-off and weakened plants due to root or hypocotyl infection. Several pathogens cause seedling disease of sugar beet, including Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Pythium species, and Fusarium species. Differe...

  1. Competitive suppression of Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) seedling emergence and growth.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D R; Rice, K J

    2000-07-01

    Reduced recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings in California grasslands and woodlands may result from shifts in seasonal soil water availability coincident with replacement of the native perennial herbaceous community by Mediterranean annuals. We used a combination of container and field experiments to examine the interrelationships between soil water potential, herbaceous neighborhood composition, and blue oak seedling shoot emergence and growth. Neighborhoods of exotic annuals depleted soil moisture more rapidly than neighborhoods of a perennial grass or "no-neighbor" controls. Although effects of neighborhood composition on oak seedling root elongation were not statistically significant, seedling shoot emergence was significantly inhibited in the annual neighborhoods where soil water was rapidly depleted. Seedling water status directly reflected soil water potential, which also determined the extent and duration of oak seedling growth during the first year. End-of-season seedling height significantly influenced survival and growth in subsequent years. While growth and survival of blue oak seedlings may be initially constrained by competition with herbaceous species, subsequent competition with adult blue oak trees may further contribute to reduced sapling recruitment. PMID:10898776

  2. Chilling stress response of post-emergent cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to post-emergent 13-d-old cotton seedlings. • Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. Fo...

  3. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitiioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...

  4. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...

  5. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  6. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of ...

  7. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics. PMID:19849708

  8. Enantioselective Phytotoxicity of Imazamox Against Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Xuesheng; Zeng, Dongqiang; Tan, Huihua

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing concern about the enantioselective effects of chiral herbicides. To study the enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicide imazamox on maize, maize seedlings (Zhengda 619, Zea mays L.) were exposed to imazamox racemate and enantiomers in hydroponic experiments. The results showed that imazamox enantiomers selectively affected maize. The effective concentration of Rac-, S- and R-imazamox that caused 50 % inhibition after 5 days treatments (EC50,5d) were 0.4212, 1.2142 and 0.2460 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root length; 0.0002, 0.1005, 0.0032 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize root fresh weight; 0.7114, 1.4056 and 0.4530 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot height; 0.6220, 1.5418, 0.2286 mg L(-1), respectively, for maize shoot fresh weight; and 0.1100, 0.3306, 0.0307 mg L(-1), respectively, for the total chlorophyll content of leaves. The root morphological parameters and root activity reflected the toxicity effects in the order R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. Maize roots were more sensitive to imazamox than maize shoots. The chiral herbicide imazamox poses enantioselective phytotoxicity on maize seedlings: the order of toxicity is R-imazamox > Rac-imazamox > S-imazamox. PMID:26508428

  9. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  10. Effects of flooding regime and seedling treatment on early survival and growth of nuttall oak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Draugelis-Dale, R.O.; Williams, H.M.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three different types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two elevations on floodprone, former cropland in Sharkey clay soil. The lower of the two planting elevations was inundated for 21 days during the first growing season, whereas the higher elevation did not flood during the 5-year period of this study. The three types of 1-0 seedlings were bareroot seedlings, seedlings grown in containers (3.8 ?? 21a??cm plastic seedling cones), and container-grown seedlings inoculated with vegetative mycelia of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker. Survival of all the three seedling types was greatest at the lower, intermittently flooded elevation, indicating that drought and related effects on plant competition were more limiting to seedling survival than flooding. At the lower elevation, survival of mycorrhizal-inoculated container seedlings was greater than that of noninoculated container seedlings. Survival among bareroot seedlings and inoculated container seedlings was not significantly different at either elevation. At the higher, nonflooded elevation, however, bareroot seedling survival was greater than the survival of container seedlings without inoculation. Differences were significant among the inoculated and the noninoculated container seedlings, with higher survival of inoculated seedlings at both elevations, though differences were only significant in year 3. At the end of the fifth year, height of bareroot seedlings was significantly greater than the heights of both types of container-grown seedlings at both planting elevations. Because seedlings grown in the plastic seedlings cones did not survive better than the bareroot seedlings at either planting elevation, the bareroot stock

  11. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26087384

  12. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  13. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    PubMed

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs. PMID:23033672

  14. Flow and scour constraints on uprooting of pioneer woody seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, Sharon; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Stella, John C.; Lightbody, Anne F.

    2015-11-01

    Scour and uprooting during flood events is a major disturbance agent that affects plant mortality rates and subsequent vegetation composition and density, setting the trajectory of physical-biological interactions in rivers. During flood events, riparian plants may be uprooted if they are subjected to hydraulic drag forces greater than their resisting force. We measured the resisting force of woody seedlings established on river bars with in situ lateral pull tests that simulated flood flows with and without substrate scour. We quantified the influence of seedling size, species (Populus and Tamarix), water-table depth, and scour depth on resisting force. Seedling size and resisting force were positively related with scour depth and water-table depth—a proxy for root length—exerting strong and opposing controls on resisting force. Populus required less force to uproot than Tamarix, but displayed a greater increase in uprooting force with seedling size. Further, we found that calculated mean velocities required to uproot seedlings were greater than modeled flood velocities under most conditions. Only when plants were either shallowly rooted or subjected to substrate scour (≥0.3 m) did the calculated velocities required for uprooting decrease to within the range of modeled flood velocities, indicating that drag forces alone are unlikely to uproot seedlings in the absence of extreme events or bar-scale sediment transport. Seedlings on river bars are most resilient to uprooting when they are large, deeply rooted, and unlikely to experience substrate scour, which has implications for ecogeomorphic evolution and river management.

  15. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  16. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL – mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  17. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL - mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  18. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  19. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    PubMed

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests. PMID:16532195

  20. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change. PMID:26446268

  1. Identification of chromosome regions associated with seedling vigor in rice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng; Yu, Ting; Su, Li; Yu, Si-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zhu, Ying-Guo

    2004-06-01

    Seedling vigor is important for optimum stand establishment in rice cropping. In this paper,a set of 264 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived by single seed descent from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica) was phenotyped for three seedling vigor related traits, including seed germination rate (GR), seedling shoot length and dry weight by the rolled paper towel tests. The phenotype data and a linkage map consisting of 198 DNA markers were combined to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seedling vigor by using a computer program QTLMapper1.0. A total of 13 putative main-effect QTL were detected. All of these QTL had much smaller effects on the traits with a mean R2 of 6.2%, ranging from 2.9% to 12.7%. As for digenic interaction, 18 pairs of epistatic loci with R2 > or = 5% were resolved with a mean R2 of 6.9% ,ranging from 5.1% to 11.8%, which was slightly larger than that of the main-effect QTL identified for the traits. The majority of the main-effect and epistatic loci detected for seedling vigor related traits were clustered in a few chromosome regions. Together, seven such chromosome regions (CRs), each with three or more seedling vigor main-effect and epistatic loci, were found to be highly associated with seedling vigor. These CRs can be classified into three types, i.e. M-CRs, E-CRs and ME-CRs. For some CRs just like CR(SV-6), the QTL within one CR were found to interact simultaneously with QTL within more than one other CRs to affect different seedling vigor related traits. The above results revealed that seedling vigor in rice is controlled by many loci, most of which have relatively small effects. Comparatively, epistasis as a genetic factor would be more important than main-effects of QTL for seedling vigor in rice. Nevertheless, the effects of the QTL are still large enough to be detected and in fact several chromosome regions were found to be highly associated with seedling vigor in very different populations as compared with

  2. ARC EMCS Experiments (Seedling Growth-2) Experiment Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, David; Steele, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of the status of the ARC ISS (International Space Station) Experiment, Seedling Growth-2 to the Payload Operations Investigator Working Group meeting at MSFC, Huntsville AL. The experiment employs the European Modular Cultivation System (ECMS).

  3. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings. PMID:14969954

  4. [Development strategies on seed seedling of Chinese medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Li, Longyun; Peng, Rui; Li, Hongli; Wu, Yekuan; Cui, Guanglin

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development status, industrialization system, standardization system and new variety breeding of seed and seedling of Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the development status and problems facing to the seed and seedling industry in China, some reasonable countermeasures are proposed in this article. The main measures include strengthening new variety breeding, establishing experiment site, protecting new variety and standardizing the market and quality management. PMID:20394305

  5. Actin of Beta vulgaris seedlings under the clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L. Ye.

    We study the influence of altered gravity on actin expression in roots of Beta vulguris seedlings grown on the horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) from seed germination for three days. It is shown that the total actin quantity was not influenced. Three actin isoforms are revealed; a relative protein quantity of these isoforms was similar both in clinorotated seedlings and in ones grown in norm. This point to stable expression of actin under the altered gravity conditions.

  6. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future. PMID:19418253

  7. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  8. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  9. Lignification in young plant seedlings grown on earth and aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.; Scheld, W. H.; Peterson, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle era has provided an opportunity for investigators to conduct experiments in a microgravity environment. Two Shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, each contained an experiment designed principally to determine whether young plant seedlings exposed to microgravity had reduced lignin content in comparison to seedlings grown at one gravity. Three different plant species, pine, oats, and mung beans, were exposed for eight days to the microgravity environment of the Shuttle. The lignin content of in-flight seedlings was less than the control seedlings in all seven sets of seedlings included in these two experiments. In five sets of seedlings, the reduction in lignin content in flight seedlings ranged from 6 to 24 percent and was statistically significant. In addition, the activity of two enzymes involved in lignin synthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase, were significantly reduced in pine seedlings. It was therefore concluded that microgravity, as perceived by young plant seedlings, results in reduced lignin synthesis.

  10. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  11. Forest tree seedlings may suffer from predicted future winters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domisch, Timo; Repo, Tapani; Martz, Françoise; Rautio, Pasi

    2016-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased precipitation and air temperatures, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter, spring and autumn. However, soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the insulating snow cover. Warm periods during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles and flooding, which again can result in the formation of ice layers, affecting soil properties, soil gas concentrations and the survival of tree seedlings. We conducted two laboratory experiments of 20 weeks duration each, simulating winter, spring and early summer, and imposed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings to four different winter scenarios: (1) ambient snow cover, (2) compressed snow and ice encasement, (3) frozen flood and (4) no snow. We estimated the stress that the seedlings experienced by means of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and determining above- and belowground biomass and carbohydrate contents, as well as measuring soil oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The seedlings in the snow and compressed snow treatments survived until the end of the experiments, although only those covered with an ambient snow cover showed normal height growth and typical carbohydrate contents. The seedlings in the other treatments showed symptoms of dieback already during early spring and had almost completely died at the end of the experiment. Our results suggest the crucial significance of the protective snow cover, and that a missing soil cover or soil hypoxia and anoxia during winter can be lethal for seedlings, and that respiratory losses and winter desiccation of aboveground organs can further lead to the death of tree seedlings.

  12. Amino acids in seeds and seedlings of the genus Lens.

    PubMed

    Rozan, P; Kuo, Y H; Lambein, F

    2001-09-01

    The amino acid content of seeds and 4-day-old seedlings were studied in five species of lentil: Lens culinaris, L. orientalis, L. ervoides, L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Free amino acid and also total protein amino acid content after HCl hydrolysis were determined by HPLC. The nonprotein UV-absorbing amino acids were determined by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The content of free protein amino acids in seeds varied among species and increased dramatically after germination. Asparagine is quantitatively most important in both seed and seedling. The content of free nonprotein amino acids is variable in seeds and seedlings. gamma-Hydroxyarginine, gamma-hydroxyornithine, alpha-aminobutyric acid and taurine were found in both seeds and seedlings. Homoarginine was found in four species but not in L. orientalis while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-aaa) and three isoxazolinone derivatives: beta-(isoxazolin-5-on-2-yl)-alanine (BIA), gamma-glutamyl-BIA (gamma-glu-BIA) and 2-carboxymethyl-isoxazolin-5-one (CMI) were found exclusively in the seedlings. CMI was identified for the first time in lentil species. Lathyrine, beta-(2-amino-pyrimidine-4-yl)-alanine, which was reported to be in the seeds of some Lathyrus species was confirmed to be present also in the seedling of L. culinaris (trace amount), L. nigricans and L. odemensis. Trigonelline (N-methyl-nicotinic acid), a plant hormone, is present both in seeds and seedlings in different concentrations except in L. ervoides. The different combination of nonprotein amino acids among the species gives indication of their genetic relationship and might partly explain the varying compatibility for interspecies crossing. PMID:11551552

  13. Gene Expression in Plant Lipid Metabolism in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Haslam, Richard P.; Michaelson, Louise V.; Liao, Pan; Napier, Johnathan A.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, β-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS) was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6) in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX) lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25264899

  14. Assessing Posidonia oceanica Seedling Substrate Preference: An Experimental Determination of Seedling Anchorage Success in Rocky vs. Sandy Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Anna, Giovanni D; Magliola, Carlo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the growing awareness of the ecological importance of seagrass meadows has prompted increasing efforts to protect existing beds and restore degraded habitats. An in-depth knowledge of factors acting as major drivers of propagule settlement and recruitment is required in order to understand patterns of seagrass colonization and recovery and to inform appropriate management and conservation strategies. In this work Posidonia oceanica seedlings were reared for five months in a land-based culture facility under simulated natural hydrodynamic conditions to identify suitable substrates for seedling anchorage. Two main substrate features were investigated: firmness (i.e., sand vs. rock) and complexity (i.e., size of interstitial spaces between rocks). Seedlings were successfully grown in culture tanks, obtaining overall seedling survival of 93%. Anchorage was strongly influenced by substrate firmness and took place only on rocks, where it was as high as 89%. Anchorage occurred through adhesion by sticky root hairs. The minimum force required to dislodge plantlets attached to rocky substrates reached 23.830 N (equivalent to 2.43 kg), which would potentially allow many plantlets to overcome winter storms in the field. The ability of rocky substrates to retain seedlings increased with their complexity. The interstitial spaces between rocks provided appropriate microsites for seedling settlement, as seeds were successfully retained, and a suitable substrate for anchorage was available. In conclusion P. oceanica juveniles showed a clear-cut preference for hard substrates over the sandy one, due to the root system adhesive properties. In particular, firm and complex substrates allowed for propagule early and strong anchorage, enhancing persistence and establishment probabilities. Seedling substrate preference documented here leads to expect a more successful sexual recruitment on hard bottoms compared with soft ones. This feature could have influenced P

  15. Rhizotoxic effects of silver in cowpea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Blamey, F Pax C; Kopittke, Peter M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Kinraide, Thomas B; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-09-01

    Silver (Ag) is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, including algae, invertebrate animals, and fish, but little information exists on Ag rhizotoxicity in higher plants. In two solution culture experiments with approximately 1,000 microM Ca(NO3)2 and 5 microM H3BO3 (pH 5.4), 20 to 80% of added Ag (< or =2 microM) was lost from solution within approximately 30 min, with a further decrease after 48 h root growth. Using measured Ag concentrations at the start of the experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) for root elongation rate of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. cv. Caloona) was 0.010 microM Ag in the first 4 h of exposure (0.021 microM in the first 8 h). This demonstrates that Ag (as Ag+) is rapidly rhizotoxic to cowpea seedlings at concentrations similar to those that are toxic to freshwater biota. Rupturing of rhizodermal and outer cortical layers was evident after 48 h with 0.13 to 0.57 microM Ag initially in solution, being most severe at 0.13 or 0.25 microM Ag. An additional experiment showed that ruptures were first evident after 20 h exposure to 0.17 microM Ag, with increased severity of rupturing over time. The rhizotoxic effects of Ag are similar to those of some other trace metals (e.g., Cu, Al, La) that bind strongly to hard ligands and weakly to soft ligands. The similarity of rupturing effects, despite the difference in strong binding to soft ligands by Ag and to hard ligands by the other metals, suggests a distinctive metabolic effect of Ag that binds only weakly to hard ligands. PMID:20821665

  16. Seedling mortality from litterfall increases with decreasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Len N

    2016-02-01

    Global patterns in ecology need to be identified and interpreted if macroecological processes are to be fully understood. Facilitating effects on seedlings such as that of nurse plants and competitive effects such as allelopathy have been well recognized but the importance of plants acting as killers through physical damage by the litterfall they produce has received relatively little attention. Here I examine latitudinal patterns of physical disturbance to seedlings (microdisturbance) due to litterfall and discuss the macroecological implications in light of current research. Analyses of results from published studies show that both the risk of litterfall disturbance, as measured using artificial model seedlings, and the proportion of seedling mortalities due to litterfall decrease significantly with increasing latitude. Patterns of microdisturbance appear to be driven by the dynamic interaction between macro-litterfall, safe sites with protective overhead vegetation, topography, and animal activity. However, we are informed on this subject by few studies. There is evidence, again from a limited number of studies, for considerable spatial heterogeneity in microdisturbance intensity and for seedling resilience to litterfall damage to differ substantially among species. Therefore, differential survival among microsites may produce regeneration niche diversity. However, more focused studies are required across a range of forest types and latitudes before these results can be generalized. Therefore, there is fertile ground for researchers to use comparable multifactorial methods to investigate the implications of microdisturbance at macro-ecological scales. PMID:27145626

  17. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  18. Degraded dryland rehabilitation: boosting seedling survival using zeolitic tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamad, Mohammad Noor; Alrbabah, Mohammad; Athamneh, Hana

    2016-04-01

    More than 90% of Jordan is broadly defined as rangelands. Most rangelands are located within the arid zone of the country. Extensive grazing occurs across much of the natural pastures resulting in serious environmental degradation of natural resources in these rangelands. Several programs were carried out for rangeland conservation and rehabilitation in the country. However, these programs face a major challenge of the low survival rate of transplanted shrub seedlings. Seeking innovative approaches to assure healthy establishment of seedling is a big challenge to achieve successful rehabilitation programs. Drought is considered one of the major problems in rehabilitation. Promoting survival and growth, using zeolitic tuff added to planting holes is suggested to be a possible solution. The experiment was conducted on a factorial arrangement within RCBD design. Two shrub species (Atriplex halimus, Atriplex nummularia) were transplanted into holes prepared with three levels of tuff treatments (mulching, mixing and control) under rainfed condition. The result showed insignificant effect of tuff on seedling survival percentage, when mixing tuff with plantation soil or adding tuff as mulch. Also, the two species showed similar survival percentages over two measured dates. However, mixing tuff with soil during hole preparation significantly enhanced seedling heights. Furthers, The Australian atriplex (Atriplex nummularia) species significantly grow higher than Atriplex halimus. The study results suggested that mixing zeoltic tuff with soil during transplantation of seedling is promising in improving the success of rangeland rehabilitation in dry areas in Jordan.

  19. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition. PMID:25381741

  20. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  1. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  2. Bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Chien-Tsong; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2011-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis. The results revealed that post-treatment with 100 μmol/kg trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly decreased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in serum. Moreover, both T-cadinol and α-cadinol treatments decreased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in the liver tissues when compared with the LPS/D-GalN group. Liver histopathology also showed that silymarin, trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by LPS/D-GalN. These results suggest that the above phytochemicals exhibit potent hepatoprotection against LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage in mice, and their hepatoprotective effects may be due to the modulation of anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21699244

  3. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  4. Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi; Wang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Qing; Luo, Jie; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18) were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN. PMID:24013407

  5. Purification of a new ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Cinnamomum porrectum and characterization of the RNA N-glycosidase activity of the toxic protein.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Liu, W Y; Niu, C L

    1996-12-01

    Porrectin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), was purified from the seeds of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum porrectum) by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 4B. Porrectin is a glycoprotein (M(r)64,500, sugar content 2.5%) consisting of an A-chain (M(r)30,500) and a B-chain (M(r)33,500) linked by the disulfide bond. The terminal sugar of glycan in porrectin B-chain is determined to be mannose. By non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, porrectin displayed three isoforms that have different pl values with the same molecular weight. Porrectin is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The molecular mechanism of action of porrectin on rat liver ribosomes is demonstrated to be specific for RNA N-glycosidase. The cleavage site is the adenosine at position 4324 (rat liver 28S rRNA) embedded in the highly conserved ricin/alpha-sarcin ('R/S') domain. PMID:8997493

  6. Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Yang, C W; Liao, J W; Zhen, W W; Chu, F H; Chang, S T

    2008-11-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and anti-hyperuricemia effect in mice of Cinnamomum osmophloeum, which is an endemic tree in Taiwan, were evaluated in this study. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaves presented the strongest XOD inhibition activity (IC(50)=16.3 μg/ml); however, no significant XOD inhibition activities were found in ethanolic and hot water extracts. Furthermore, among the main compounds of essential oil, the cinnamaldehyde exhibited the potent XOD inhibition activity with an IC(50)=8.4 μg/ml. Besides, the reducing serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice by cinnamaldehyde were further investigated. The hyperuricemic mice were oral administrated cinnamaldehyde at a dosage of 150 mg/kg, the uric acid value in serum was reduced from 5.25±0.63 to 2.10±0.04 mg/dl, the levels of serum uric acid in mice was lowered down by 84.48% as compared to the hyperuricemic control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, cinnamaldehyde may be a potential lead compound for developing the pharmaceutic for anti-hyperuricemia agent. PMID:18693097

  7. Seedling Interference and Niche Differentiation Between Crested Wheatgrass and Contrasting Native Great Basin Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interference from crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.} Gaertn.) seedlings is considered a major obstacle to native species establishment; however, estimates of interference at variable seedling densities have not been fully defined. We conducted greenhouse experiments using an addition seri...

  8. Effect of sorghum seedlings and previous crop, on soil fluorescent pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The hypotheses that sorghum seedlings [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varying in sorgoleone production will differentially modify soil microorganisms and will effect subsequent planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were tested. Methods: Wheat cultivar Lewjain, and sorghum genotypes ...

  9. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and ...

  10. Nitrogen ion utilization by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Growth responses of one-year-old tulip poplar seedlings were determined for different nitrogen sources (HN/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH+/sub 4/, NO-/sub 3/, no nitrogen) at 336 ppm N in nutrient culture. At the end of three months, there were no significant differences in growth observed among treatments in terms of stem elongation, leaf area, and leaf size. After four months, however, seedlings of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) greater growth (final weight gain and stem elongation) than all other nitrogen sorces. Growth was slightly less for the NO-/sub 3/ treatment plants, but compared with NH+/sub 4/ and no nitrogen treatment, both NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and NO-/sub 3/ treatments exhibited significantly greater growth responses. NO-/sub 3/ is recommended as the sole nitrogen source, especially for small seedlings of tulip poplar.

  11. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  12. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Thermotolerance of Pea Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L.

    2008-06-01

    A coordinated plant response to simulated microgravity (clinorotation) and heat stress was analyzed. 5-d pea seedlings grown on a horizontal clinostat or in the stationary conditions were exposed to different heat treatments (mild, severe and severe after pretreatment). Temperature-dependent quantitative changes in the heat stress response were revealed in the clinorotated seedlings comparatively to the stationary grown ones: less growth activity, an increase in the production of high levels of heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90, a higher extent of the membrane damage. Thus, clinorotated seedlings were more sensitive to heat stress. The data suggest that clinorotation may influence distinct functions, including Hsps synthesis and protection of membrane integrity, that affect plant growth activity and thermotolerance as a result.

  13. Endophytic Chaetomium globosum enhances maize seedling copper stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Abou Alhamed, M F; Shebany, Y M

    2012-09-01

    This study aims at characterisation of the impact of Chaetomium globosum on copper stress resistance of maize seedlings. Higher levels of copper treatment decreased maize dry weight and induced a marked increase in osmotic solutes, antioxidant enzyme activity and the level of lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, addition of the endophytic C. globosum alleviated the toxic effect of copper on maize growth. The combination of copper sulphate and Chaetomium increased seedling dry weight, osmotic solute content and antioxidant enzyme activity compared to copper sulphate alone, while lipid peroxidation levels were also decreased. The fungal scavenger system might be important for supporting the ability of maize seedlings to resist copper toxicity. PMID:22672065

  14. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Hanne N.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Background Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. Key Considerations The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. Conclusions A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult

  15. Effect of soil bulk density on forest tree seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormanek, Mariusz; Banach, Jacek; Sowa, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of the influence of soil bulk density in a forest nursery plot on the growth and quality parameters of Scots pine and European beech seedlings. Particular density variants were obtained using a tractor device exerting controlled pressure on the soil, while field examinations were performed on an area of `Kłaj' forest nursery in Niepołomice Forest District. Three series of plots were prepared for each species, applying a unit pressure of the values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kPa, corresponding to the dry bulk density in the range of 1.03-1.19 g cm-3, and control plots without the pressure. Seeds of the examined species were sown on the prepared plots, and after 6 months of growth the seedlings were subjected to biometric analysis determining differentiation in root neck diameter, length of the above-ground part and root system, as well as dry mass of particular parts of the plant. The quality of the seedlings was also determined using the method of Schmidt-Vogt. The results obtained show that the change in dry bulk density soil significantly affected most of the growth parameters of the examined seedlings. Especially high negative correlations were obtained for the length and dry mass of the root system. A significant influence of dry bulk density variant on all growth parameters of Scots pine seedlings, and on some parameters of European beech was demonstrated. An increase in soil bulk density clearly caused also a deterioration of European beech seedlings quality

  16. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  17. The pea seedling mitochondrial Nε-lysine acetylome.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hammond, Colin L; Hoyos, Elizabeth; Miernyk, Ján A

    2014-11-01

    Posttranslational lysine acetylation is believed to occur in all taxa and to affect thousands of proteins. In contrast to the hundreds of mitochondrial proteins reported to be lysine-acetylated in non-plant species, only a handful have been reported from the plant taxa previously examined. To investigate whether this reflects a biologically significant difference or merely a peculiarity of the samples thus far examined, we immunoenriched and analyzed acetylated peptides from highly purified pea seedling mitochondria using mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that a multitude of mitochondrial proteins, involved in a variety of processes, are acetylated in pea seedlings. PMID:24780491

  18. Simultaneous existence of cinnamomin (a type II RIP) and small amount of its free A- and B-chain in mature seeds of camphor tree.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fa-Jian; Xu, Hong; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2003-04-01

    Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), was isolated from the mature seeds of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper, small amount of free A- and B-chain of cinnamomin were found to be present in the mature seed cell of C. camphora besides the intact cinnamomin. Our results demonstrated that camphorin, a type I RIP previously reported to coexist with cinnamomin in the seeds of C. camphora, actually was the A-chain of cinnamomin. The percentage of free A- and B-chain in the total cinnamomin was 2.6-2.8% in the seed extract. Of these free A- and B-chain approximate 80% already existed in the seed cell, only about 20% were produced during the purification operation. As the enzymatic activity to reduce disulfide bond of cinnamomin in the seed extract of C. camphora was detected, we proposed that the free A- and B-chain were derived from the enzymatic reduction of the interchain disulfide bond of cinnamomin. It was demonstrated that the endogenous type II RIPs of several plant species, such as Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum bodinieri and Ricinus communis, could be enzymatically reduced into the free A- and B-chain in their respective seed cells. The function of the free A-chain in the seed cell and the possibility that metabolic enzymes might be involved in the reduction of the interchain disulfide bond of type II RIPs in vivo are discussed. PMID:12565707

  19. Impact of corn gluten meal on direct-seeded vegetable seedling establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) may be used as a preemergent or preplant-incorporated herbicide for organic weed control of young developing or emerging weed seedlings; unfortunately, CGM can also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Various vegetable crop seedlings re...

  20. Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) interactions with barley, rice, and wheat seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A choice test revealed that Hessian fly adults deposited approximately three times more eggs on wheat seedlings than on barley or rice seedlings. On a barley seedling, 49.4% of eggs were deposited on either the abaxial leaf-surface or the coleoptile and first leaf-sheath (C&FLS), where newly hatche...

  1. Chromosome doubling of haploid maize seedlings by various in vitro treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year study was conducted on methods for doubling haploid maize plants with elite temperate backgrounds following various seed treatments. Seedlings were treated with colchicine or other chemicals by 1) injecting plants and 2) a soak method using various seedling treatments. Treated seedlings...

  2. SPATIAL EFFECTS OF RETENTION TREES ON MYCORRHIZAS OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention forestry places seedlings in proximity to residual trees, exposing seedlings to additional sources of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) inoculum. To investigate this, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were planted near (2-6 m) and far (16-30 m) from 44- to 72-year-ol...

  3. The vestigial root of dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) seedlings.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedlings of dodder have no leaves nor cotyledons and the terminal root-like structure lasts only a few days before death. Structural and biochemical studies indicate that the terminal appendage of the dodder, although differentiated from the shoot, has few characteristics of root tissue. The root...

  4. Weed Seedling Emergence and Survival as Affected by Crop Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured impact of cool-season crops on seedling emergence, survival, and seed production of weeds common in corn and soybean. Weed dynamics were monitored in permanently-marked quadrats in winter wheat, spring wheat, and canola. Three species, green foxtail, yellow foxtail, and common ...

  5. Validation of a metabolic cotton seedling emergence model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seedling emergence model based on thermal dependence of enzyme activity in germinating cotton was developed. The model was validated under both laboratory and field conditions with several cotton lines under diverse temperature regimes. Four commercial lines were planted on four dates in Lubbock T...

  6. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles. PMID:12232341

  7. Burst of ethylene upon horizontal placement of tomato seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M.; Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers emit a pulse of ethylene during the first 2 to 4 minutes following horizontal placement. Because this burst appears too rapid and brief to be mediated by increase in net activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, it might result form accelerated transformation of vacuolar 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to ethylene.

  8. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  9. Evaluation of a metabolic cotton seedling emergence model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model for cotton seedling emergence (MaGi) based on malate synthase kinetics was evaluated in the field at two locations, Lubbock and Big Spring, TX. Cotton, cvar. DP 444, was planted through the early spring and into typical planting times for the areas. Soil temperatures at seed depth was used a...

  10. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  11. Seedling emergence of horseweed in no-till

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density of horseweed is increasing in no-till cropping systems because horseweed seed is transported by wind and seedlings can establish from seeds lying on the soil surface. Also, horseweed has developed resistance to commonly-used herbicides, thus control tactics are often ineffective. This repo...

  12. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  13. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  14. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  15. Cotton seedling abrasion and recovery from wind blown sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be severe enough to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings...

  16. Seedling Vigor in Beta vulgaris: The Artistry of Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling vigor and stand establishment are two problems that growers have struggled with for decades. The initial conditions that a germinating seed encounters, and its ability to deal with them, affect the rate at which germination occurs, the rate of mobilization of stored energy reserves that the...

  17. Seedling vigor in Beta vulgaris: The artistry of germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor in order to overcome beet’s inherent disadvantages of small seed size and encapsulation in a corky fru...

  18. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  19. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on water stress tolerance of big sagebrush seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Stahl, P.D.; Williams, S.E.; Frost, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Reestablishment of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on mined lands has been difficult in the past even though it is widespread in the western US. Its reestablishment on mined lands has recently become law where wildlife is one of the post-mining land uses and it represented the primary premining shrub species. One hypothesis thought to contribute to its difficult reestablishment is the reduce lack of mycorrhizae inoculum present in the disturbed topsoil and the resulting effect on the seedling`s ability to extract water from the soil under the arid/semiarid climate of this region. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizae on sagebrush seedling water stress tolerance. Seedling ages evaluated ranged from 30 to 150 days. Seedling survival was greater for mycorrhizal seedlings compared to non-mycorrhizal seedlings when soil moisture tension was {minus}2.5 to {minus}3.8 MPa. At all ages, the degree of soil dryness necessary to cause sagebrush seedling mortality was significantly greater for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Seedling age and mycorrhizal infection exhibited a significant statistical interaction; suggesting that as the sagebrush seedling aged, the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) increased the plants water stress tolerance. These findings lead the authors to conclude that topsoil management that prevents/reduces the loss of AM inoculum in the topsoil will significantly enhance the success of sagebrush establishment on mined lands.

  20. Pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y; Shoji, T

    2009-06-01

    Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. Water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on Botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (DJ4) extracted from the adult Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old Japanese larch and Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nursery. In another treatment, Japanese pine sawyer adults holding DJ4 were released under a net that covered the upper half of the seedlings. Regardless of nematode inoculation method, Japanese larch seedlings were as susceptible as Japanese black pine seedlings to B. xylophilus under nursery conditions. The rate of disease development was similar on larch and pine seedlings. Nematode population densities were lower in the stems of dead larch seedlings than in the stems of dead pine seedlings. Histopathological observations revealed that the distribution of nematodes in the stems of dead larch seedlings was mostly limited to the cortex, phloem and cambial zone. Traumatic resin canal formation was one of the most characteristic symptoms in larch seedlings which was dissimilar to that in pine seedlings. PMID:22661789

  1. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pigments and protein contents decreased under water stress, but higher amount of the same was observed in stressed AB+ seedlings. Enhanced activity of nitrate reductase was recorded in AB+ seedlings with maximum in control. Water stress significantly decreased the nitrate reductase activity. A significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in leaves was recorded under water stress except in B+ with maximum increase in non-inoculated seedlings. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased in stressed non-inoculated seedlings while increased in the leaves of A+ and AB+ seedlings. Almost similar trends were recorded for both leaves and cotyledons. PGPR improved the water status in stressed seedlings and thereby physiological and biochemical parameters and thus ameliorated the severe effects of water stress. PMID:25964714

  2. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  3. Effect of Cinnamomum Verum Extract on the Amyloid Formation of Hen Egg-white Lysozyme and Study of its Possible Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramshini, Hassan; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Aryanejad, Sima; Rad, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosing and treating diseases associated with amyloid fibers remain a great challenge despite of intensive research carried out. One important approach in the development of therapeutics is the use of herbal extracts which are rich in aromatic small molecules. Cinnamomum verum extract (CE) contains proanthocyanidin and cinnamaldehyde, which have been suggested to be capable of directly inhibiting amyloid fibril formation in vitro. This study is aimed at characterizing the inhibitory activity of CE against the fibrillation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Methods: Acidic pH and high temperatures were used to drive the protein towards amyloid formation. Lysozyme was dissolved at 2 mg/mL in 50mM glycine buffer (pH 2.5), and then incubated at 57 °C for the specified durations while stirred gently by Teflon magnetic bars. Various techniques including thioflavin T, fluorescence, Congo red absorbance assay and AFM micrography were used to characterize the HEWL fibrillation processes. Results: In the absence of CE typical amyloid fibrils (like amyloids formed in Alzheimer disease) became evident after 48 h of incubation. Upon incubation with various extract concentrations in the range of 0.1–1 mg/ml, formation of fibrillar assemblies were significantly inhibited (P<0.05). AFM analysis and MTT assay also confirmed the role of the extract in amyloid inhibition. Our studies showed that the presence of CE did not have any effect on protein stabilization and thus directly interact with amyloid structure and inhibit formation of these structures. Furthermore, a docking experiment showed that a pi-pi interaction may occur between the aromatic component of cinnamaldehyde and W62. Interestingly, W62 is one of the principal aromatic residues that interact with glycine amide, which is an aggregation suppressor of HEWL. Discussion: These observations suggest that aromatic small molecules of CE may directly insert into amyloidogenic core of early aggregates and

  4. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Cherng, Jonathan; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Yang, Shu-mei; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs) were determined by neutral red staining. Results The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data implicate that 2-MCA could be a

  5. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  6. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. PMID:21893402

  7. Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Wu, Shu-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), cinnamic acid (Ca) and cinnamyl alcohol (Cal), major constituents of Cinnamomum cassia, have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other activities. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of these compounds in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and examine the effects of pifithrin-alpha (PFTα; a specific p53 inhibitor) on their apoptotic signaling transduction mechanism. The antiproliferative activity was measured by XTT assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results showed that at a concentration of 30 μM, the order of antiproliferative activity in Hep G2 cells was Cin > Ca > Cal. Cin (IC50 9.76 ± 0.67 μM) demonstrated an antiproliferative potency as good as 5-fluorouracil (an anti-cancer drug; IC50 9.57 ± 0.61 μM). Further studies on apoptotic mechanisms of Cin showed that it downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, upregulated CD95 (APO-1), p53 and Bax proteins, as well as cleaving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent pattern. PFTα pre-incubation significantly diminished the effect of Cin-induced apoptosis. It markedly upregulated the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL) expression and downregulated the pro-apoptotic (Bax) expression, as well as effectively blocking the CD95 (APO-1) and p53 expression, and PARP cleavage in Cin-treated cells. This study indicates that Cin was the most potent antiproliferative constituent of C. cassia, and its apoptotic mechanism in Hep G2 cells could be mediated through the p53 induction and CD95 (APO-1) signaling pathways. PMID:20038571

  8. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  9. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species.

    PubMed

    Caglar, S; Akgun, A

    2006-07-01

    The experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species used as rootstocks. The stratified Pistacia seeds were inoculated with VAM fungi. The highest rate of inoculated roots was 96.7% in P. khinjuck seedlings with G. clarum and G. etunicatum, 83.3% in P. vera seedlings with G. caledonium and 73.3% in P. terebinthus seedlings with G. caledonium. Mycorrhizal inoculations improved seedling height only in P. terebinthus. Certain mycorrhizal inoculations increased the leaf N, but not P and K contents. Seedlings inoculated with G. caledonium had higher reducing sugar contents. It was concluded that pre-inoculated Pistacia seedlings could have a better growth in the harsh field conditions. PMID:17402238

  10. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the seedling growth of grafted watermelon and the defensive enzyme activities in the seedling roots].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Sun, Ji-Qing; Liu, Run-Jin; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme on the seedling growth and root membrane permeability, malondiadehyde (MDA) content, and defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon growing on the continuously cropped soil. Inoculation with G. versiforme increased the seedling biomass and root activity significantly, and decreased the root membrane permeability and MDA content. The seedling shoot fresh mass, shoot dry mass, and root activity of non-grafted watermelon increased by 57.6%, 60.0% and 142.1%, and those of grafted watermelon increased by 26.7%, 28.0% and 11.0%, respectively, compared with no G. versiforme inoculation. The root membrane permeability of non-grafted seedlings (C), grafted seedlings (G), non-grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (C+M), and grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (G+M) was in the order of C >G>C+M>G+M, and the root MDA content was in the sequence of C>G>G+M>C+M. G. versiforme inoculation increased the root phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities of grafted and non-grafted seedlings significantly, and the peaks of the POD, PAL and beta-1,3-glucanase activities in the mycorrhizal roots appeared about two weeks earlier than those in the non-inoculated roots. These results indicated that inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus G. versiforme could activate the defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon seedlings, enable the seedling roots to produce rapid response to adversity, and thus, improve the capability of watermelon seedling against continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:23718001

  11. Why Seedlings Die: Linking Carbon and Water Limitations to Mechanisms of Mortality During Establishment in Conifer Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.; Mitton, J.; Castanha, C.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Recent ecophysiological studies aimed at explaining adult tree mortality during drought have examined the carbon (C)-exhaustion compared to the hydraulic-failure hypotheses for death. Prolonged drought leads to durations of stomatal closure (and thus limited C gain), which could result in long periods of negative C balance and fatal reductions in whole-plant C reserves (i.e., available non-structural carbohydrates ["NSC"]). Alternatively, C reserves may not decrease much but could become increasingly inaccessible to sink tissues in long dry-periods due to impediments to translocation of photosynthate (e.g., through disruption of hydrostatic pressure flow in phloem). As C reserves decline or become inaccessible, continued maintenance respiration has been hypothesized to lead to exhaustion of NSC after extended durations of drought, especially in isohydric plant species. On the other hand, hydraulic failure (e.g., catastrophic xylem embolisms) during drought may be the proximate cause of death, occurring before true C starvation occurs. Few studies have investigated specifically the mechanism(s) of tree death, and no published studies that we know of have quantified changes in NSC during mortality. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND HYPOTHESES We conducted two studies that investigated whole-tree and tissue-specific C relations (photosynthetic C gain, respiration, dry-mass gain, and NSC pools) in Pinus flexilis seedlings during the initial establishment phase, which is characterized by progressive drought during summer. We measured survival, growth and biomass allocation, and C-balance physiology (photosynthetic C-gain and chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration C-use, and NSC concentrations) from germination to mortality. We hypothesized that 1) stomatal and biochemical limitations to C gain would constrain seedling survival (through inadequate seasonal C-balance), as has been shown for conifer seedlings near alpine treeline; 2) hydraulic constraints (embolisms and

  12. Seedling mortality in Hawaiian rain forest: The role of small-scale physical disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.R.; Pratt, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Most montane rain forests on the island of Hawaii consist of a closed canopy formed by Cibotium spp. tree ferns beneath an open canopy of emergent Metrosideros polymorpha trees. We used artificial seedlings to assess the extent to which physical disturbance caused by the senescing fronds of tree ferns and the activities of feral pigs might limit tree regeneration. Artificial seedlings were established terrestrially (N = 300) or epiphytically (N = 300) on tree fern stems. Half of the seedlings on each substrate were in an exclosure lacking feral pigs and half were in forest with pigs present. After one year, the percentage of seedlings damaged was significantly greater among terrestrial seedlings (25.7%) than epiphytic seedlings (11.3%). Significantly more terrestrial seedlings were damaged in the presence of pigs (31.3%) than in the absence of pigs (20.0%). Senescing fronds of tree ferns were responsible for 60.3 percent of the damaged seedlings. Physical disturbance is potentially a major cause of seedling mortality and may reduce the expected half-life of a seedling cohort to less than two years.

  13. Effects of invasive rats and burrowing seabirds on seeds and seedlings on New Zealand islands.

    PubMed

    Grant-Hoffman, Madeline N; Mulder, Christa P H; Bellingham, Peter J

    2010-04-01

    Rats (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans) are important invaders on islands. They alter vegetation indirectly by preying on burrowing seabirds. These seabirds affect vegetation through nutrient inputs from sea to land and physical disturbance through trampling and burrowing. Rats also directly affect vegetation though consumption of seeds and seedlings. Seedling communities on northern New Zealand islands differ in composition and densities among islands which have never been invaded by rats, are currently invaded by rats, or from which rats have been eradicated. We conducted experimental investigations to determine the mechanisms driving these patterns. When the physical disturbance of seabirds was removed, in soils collected from islands and inside exclosures, seedling densities increased with seabird burrow density. For example, seedling densities inside exclosures were 10 times greater than those outside. Thus the negative effects of seabirds on seedlings, by trampling and uprooting, overwhelm the potentially beneficial effects of high levels of seed germination, seedling emergence, and possibly seed production, which result from seed burial and nutrient additions. Potential seedling density was reduced on an island where rats were present, germination of seeds from soils of this island was approximately half that found on other islands, but on this island seedling density inside exclosures was 7 times the density outside. Although the total negative effects of seabirds and rats on seedling densities are similar (reduced seedling density), the differences in mechanisms and life stages affected result in very different filters on the plant community. PMID:19921273

  14. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  15. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  16. G-proteins in etiolated Avena seedlings. Possible phytochrome regulation.

    PubMed

    Romero, L C; Sommer, D; Gotor, C; Song, P S

    1991-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of light signal transduction in plants mediated by the photosensor phytochrome is not well understood. The possibility that phytochrome initiates the signal transduction chain by modulating a G-protein-like receptor is examined in the present work. Etiolated Avena seedlings contain G-proteins as examined in terms of the binding of GTP as well as by cross-reaction with mammalian G-protein antibodies. The binding of GTP was regulated in vivo by red/far-red light. The possible involvement of G-proteins in the phytochrome-mediated signal transduction in etiolated Avena seedlings has been implicated from the study of the light regulated expression of the Cab and phy genes. PMID:1903719

  17. Growth Distribution during Phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Orbovic, V.; Poff, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The elongation rates of two opposite sides of hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were measured during phototropism by using an infrared imaging system. In first positive phototropism, second positive phototropism, and red light-enhanced first positive phototropism, curvature toward the light source was the result of an increase in the rate of elongation of the shaded side and a decrease in the rate of elongation of the lighted side of the seedlings. The phase of straightening that followed maximum curvature resulted from a decrease in the elongation rate of the shaded side and an increase in the elongation rate of the lighted side. These data for the three types of blue light-induced phototropism tested in this study and for the phase of straightening are all clearly consistent with the growth rate changes predicted by the Cholodny-Went theory. PMID:12231922

  18. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  19. Phytotoxicity of arsenic compounds on crop plant seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae; Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The effects of inorganic and organic arsenic on the germination and seedling growth of 10 crop plants were investigated to elucidate the relationship between toxicity and the arsenic chemical states. Two types of soils, soil A and B, were also tested to determine how physicochemical properties of soils were related to toxicity of arsenic and the sensitivity of the plants. All tested plant species, except mung bean and cucumber, showed inhibition of germination by two types of inorganic arsenic, arsenite, and arsenate, while the organic arsenic compound, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), had no inhibitory effects on plants in soil A. In contrast, the growth of seedlings of all 10 plant species was sensitive to the presence of arsenic. The sensitivity of the plants toward inorganic arsenic compounds showed similar trends but differed for DMA. Overall, seedling growth was a more sensitive endpoint to arsenic toxicity than germination, and the relative toxicity of arsenic compounds on plants was arsenite > DMA > arsenate. Interestingly, the sensitivity of wheat varied significantly when the soil was changed, and the DMA was most toxic rather than arsenite in soil B. Thus, the systematic study employed here provides insights into the mechanisms of arsenic toxicity in different plant species and the role of physicochemical properties of soils. PMID:25791266

  20. Purine Synthesis and Catabolism in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Polayes, Deborah A.; Schubert, Karel R.

    1984-01-01

    The ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, are the major nitrogenous substances transported within the xylem of N2-fixing soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Amsoy 71). The ureides accumulated in the cotyledons, roots and shoots of soybean seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium or grown in the presence of 10 millimolar nitrate. The patterns of activity for uricase and allantoinase, enzymes involved in ureide synthesis, were positively correlated with the accumulation of ureides in the roots and cotyledons. Allopurinol and azaserine inhibited ureide production in 3-day-old cotyledons while no inhibition was observed in the roots. Incubation of 4-day-old seedlings with [14C]serine indicated that in the cotyledons ureides arose via de novo synthesis of purines. The source of ureides in both 3- and 4-day-old roots was probably the cotyledons. The inhibition of ureide accumulation by allopurinol but not azaserine in 8-day-old cotyledons suggested that ureides in these older cotyledons arose via nucleotide breakdown. Incubation of 8-day-old plants with [14C]serine suggested that the roots had acquired the capability to synthesize ureides via de novo synthesis of purines. These data indicate that both de novo purine synthesis and nucleotide breakdown are involved in the production of ureides in young soybean seedlings. PMID:16663743

  1. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  2. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  3. Photosynthesis and transpiration of loblolly pine seedlings as influenced by moisture-stress conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, J.R.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    One-yr-old seedlings were exposed to 8 wk of moisture stress conditioning (MSC); seedlings were watered only when pre-dawn needle water potential fell below -1.4 MPa. Water was then withheld and photosynthesis and transpiration rates recorded. Photosynthesis in well-watered controls and MSC seedlings was reduced to zero in 12 and 17 days respectively. Seedlings were harvested and water use efficiency calculated using photosynthesis and transpiration data; it was expressed as mg of CO/sub 2/ fixed per g of water lost. Seedlings exposed to MSC continued to photosynthesize to much lower needle water potentials. This response is at least partly attributed to the significant decrease (0.45 MPa) in needle osmotic potential found in MSC seedlings, which were able to maintain turgor to lower needle water potentials. Transpiration rate decreased 30% and water use efficiency increased 67% as a result of MSC. 26 references.

  4. Influence of Merosesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges on Seedling Root Growth of Agricultural Plants.

    PubMed

    Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K; Anisimov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the merosesquiterpenoids avarol (1), avarone (2), 18-methylaminoavarone (3), melemeleone A (4), isospongiaquinone (5), ilimaquinone (6), and smenoquinone (7), isolated from marine sponges of the Dictyoceratida order, was studied on the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrumesculentum Moench), wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Compounds 2and 6 were effective for the root growth of wheat seedlings, compound 3 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and soy, compound 4 affected the roots of barley seedlings, and compound 5 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and barley. Compounds 1 and 7 showed no activity on the root growth of the seedlings of any of the studied plants. The stimulatory effect depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and the type of crop plant. PMID:26996006

  5. Survival of planted tupelo seedlings in F- and H-Area tree-kill zones

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Swamp tupelo seedlings were planted in four areas which experienced previous tree mortality at the seeplines of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The sites represented a range in severity of impact and stage of recovery. Seedlings were planted in February of 1994 and followed through the first growing season in the field. Survival on all sites through the first growing season was excellent, with greater than 92% of the seedlings still alive. Most seedlings appeared healthy with few external signs of stress. The performance of the seedlings will be followed in subsequent years to determine the physical state of the soil environment on seedling growth. Hopefully, the results will indicate that artificial reforestation can begin on similarly impacted sites prior to the beginning of natural revegetation of the site.

  6. Root graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Root graviresponsiveness in normal and carotenoid-deficient mutant seedlings of Zea mays was not significantly different. Columella cells in roots of mutant seedlings were characterized by fewer, smaller, and a reduced relative volume of plastids as compared to columella cells of normal seedlings. Plastids in columella cells of mutant seedlings possessed reduced amounts of starch. Although approximately 10 per cent of the columella cells in mutant seedlings lacked starch, their plastids were located at the bottom of the cell. These results suggest that (i) carotenoids are not necessary for root gravitropism, (ii) graviresponsiveness is not necessarily proportional to the size, number, or relative volume of plastids in columella cells, and (iii) sedimentation of plastids in columella cells may not result directly from their increased density due to starch content. Plastids in columella cells of normal and mutant seedlings were associated with bands of microtubule-like structures, suggesting that these structures may be involved in 'positioning' plastids in the cell.

  7. 3D vision sensor and its algorithm on clone seedlings plant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Hiroyasu, Takehisa; Hojo, Hirotaka; Hata, Seiji; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Today, vision systems for robots had been widely applied to many important applications. But 3-D vision systems for industrial uses should face to many practical problems. Here, a vision system for bio-production has been introduced. Clone seedlings plants are one of the important applications of biotechnology. Most of the production processes of clone seedlings plants are highly automated, but the transplanting process of the small seedlings plants cannot be automated because the shape of small seedlings plants are not stable and in order to handle the seedlings plants it is required to observe the shapes of the small seedlings plants. In this research, a robot vision system has been introduced for the transplanting process in a plant factory.

  8. Kinetics for Phototropic Curvature by Etiolated Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana 1

    PubMed Central

    Orbović, Vladimir; Poff, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    An infrared-imaging system has been used to study the influence of gravity on the kinetics of first positive phototropism. The development of phototropic curvature of etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was measured in the absence of visible radiation. Following a pulse of blue light, stationary seedlings curved to a maximum of approximately 16° about 80 minutes after stimulation. The seedlings then curved upward again or straightened by about 6° during the subsequent 100 minutes. Seedlings rotated on a clinostat reached a similar maximum curvature following photostimulation. These seedlings maintained that curvature for 30 to 40 minutes before subsequently straightening to the same extent as the stationary seedlings. It is concluded that straightening is not a consequence of gravitropism, although gravity has some effect on the phototropism kinetics. PMID:11538373

  9. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth. PMID:24039497

  10. Analysis of the relationship between photosynthetic photon flux density and natural Taxus baccata seedlings occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iszkuło, Grzegorz; Boratyński, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationship of seedlings and saplings of Taxus baccata to the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) reaching the forest floor under natural conditions. Two permanent plots, subdivided into 1 × 1 m square plots, were established in a naturally regenerating population of T. baccata formed during last decades in the Kórnik Arboretum, Poland. All seedlings in every 1 × 1 m plots were counted. Relative PPFD was measured for every plot at the canopy height of the yew seedlings. The dependence of seedling density upon PPFD was examined. We found, that the frequency of the smallest seedlings (to 6.0 cm tall) was highest in the most shaded plots and decreased in plots with increasing PPFD. Thus, the youngest yew seedlings can germinate and grow in very shady conditions. However, the older seedlings (6.1-25.0 and 25.1-100.0 classes) were observed most frequently in 2-7% PPFD. The small numbers of older, taller seedlings in deep shade likely indicate a higher mortality rate of seedlings less than 6 cm in height without promotion to the next height class. Probably the low value of PPFD under the canopy of the stand significantly reduces the competition of other plants with the youngest yew seedlings. At higher light levels they may not be able to compete with more light-demanding plants, such as herbs and seedlings of broad-leaved trees. The seedlings of the second (6.1-25.0 cm) and third (25.1-100.0 cm) height classes were observed most frequently in the plots with 2-7% PPFD ( Fig. 1b and c).

  11. [Radiobiological characteristics of chilled seedlings as an object for inflight experiments].

    PubMed

    Shaĭdorov, Iu I; Miller, A T; Fischere, G A

    1975-01-01

    It is recommended to use for experimentation cooled plant seedlings in the stage of delayed growth. Cooled seedlings have a high sensitivity to the environmental effects and can be used in long-term (up to 1-2 months) experiments. The influence of suboptimal temperatures on the radiosensitivity of seedlings, the development of radiation injury and maintenance of the radiobiological effect is described. PMID:1214486

  12. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  13. Effects of cryopreservation of recalcitrant Amaryllis belladonna zygotic embryos on vigor of recovered seedlings: a case of stress 'hangover'?

    PubMed

    Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2010-06-01

    Cryopreservation is the most promising long-term storage option for recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation-sensitive) seed germplasm; however, its effects on the vigor of recovered seedlings are unclear. This study looked at the vigor of seedlings recovered from partially dried (D) and cryopreserved (C) recalcitrant zygotic embryos (ZEs) of Amaryllis belladonna. Seedlings recovered from fresh (F), D- and C-embryos were regenerated in vitro, hardened-off ex vitro and then exposed to 12 days of watering (W) or 8 days of water deficit (S), followed by 3 days of re-watering. Seedling vigor was assessed in terms of physiological and growth responses to the imposed water stress. Compared with F-embryos, partial dehydration and cryopreservation reduced the number of embryos that produced seedlings, as well as the subsequent in vitro biomass of these seedlings. DW- and CW-seedlings (i.e. seedlings recovered from dried and cryopreserved ZEs that were watered for 12 days) exhibited lower CO(2)-assimilation rates and abnormal root growth. Stomatal density was also lower in C-seedlings. DS- and CS-seedlings were exposed to persistent low leaf water and pressure potentials and unlike FS-seedlings, displayed signs of having incurred damage to their photosynthetic machinery. CS-seedlings were less efficient at adjusting leaf water potential to meet transpirational demands and more susceptible to persistent turgor loss than DS- and FS-seedlings. DS-seedlings performed slightly better than CS-seedlings but drought-induced seedling mortality in both these treatments was higher than FS-seedlings. These results suggest that seedlings recovered from partially dried and cryopreserved embryos were less vigorous and more susceptible to hydraulic failure than those from fresh ZEs. PMID:20113434

  14. Adventitious roots, leaf abscission and nutrient status of flooded Gmelina and Tectona seedlings.

    PubMed

    Osundina, M A; Osonubi, O

    1989-12-01

    When flooded, seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. produced more adventitious roots, had lower foliar Mn concentrations and lost fewer leaves than seedlings of Tectona grandis L.f. Severing the adventitious roots produced by flooded Gmelina seedlings increased leaf Mn concentration and leaf abscission and reduced whole-plant dry matter production. Flooded Gmelina cuttings, which do not produce adventitious roots, abscised few leaves until foliar concentrations of Mn and Fe had risen substantially above those of unflooded cuttings, at which time most leaves were shed. The results indicate that the development of adventitious roots in flooded seedlings of Gmelina suppressed uptake of Mn thereby minimizing leaf abscission. PMID:14972970

  15. Community-wide spatial and temporal discordances of seed-seedling shadows in a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004-2005 and 2007-2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  16. Monitoring Acacia seedlings establishment and survival for a geo-spatial analysis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Winters, Gidon; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rachmilevitch, shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Seedlings are considered the stage most vulnerable to environmental conditions in the life cycle of plants. For plants in general but even more so for desert plants, seedling survival during the first years is crucial to the longevity of the population. Within the study area, Arava valley, southern Israeli Negev desert, flood events have been known to induce germination of seedlings, with only a small percentage (if any) of such seedlings surviving the dry summer. Following the floods of the 2013 winter (Jan-April 2013), we identified a 50 x 50 m section within the Gidron Wadi (Ephemeral river), in which we located and marked some 50 acacia (Acacia tortilis and Acacia raddiana) seedlings. We monitored the seedlings survival, growth and trunk diameter over the period of three years as well as taking periodical thermal and near infra-red (NIR) photographs. In order to better understand the geohydrology conditions we created a digital elevation model of the Wadi segment that includes the seedlings location, using total station theodolite. The survey will enable us to locate and map hotspots in the Wadi, which have high potential for seedling establishment and survival. Understanding the conditions (micro-topographic, radiative, plant competition) effect on seedling germination and establishment, can be translated into a spatial rule set of recruitment probability for population dynamic spatial models.

  17. Auxins Induce Tryptophan Decarboxylase Activity in Radicles of Catharanthus Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Rob J.; Alarco, Anne-Marie; De Luca, Vincenzo

    1992-01-01

    Germinating seedlings of Catharanthus roseus produce monoterpenoid indole alkaloids as a result of a transient increase of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) activity. The influence of auxins on this transient rise of TDC activity was studied. External application of indolebutyric acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a concentration of 20 to 40 μm enhanced and prolonged the rise in TDC activity in developing seedlings. Auxin treatment also influenced the morphology of the seedlings; it induced a shortening and thickening of the hypocotyl and the radicle and promoted the initiation of lateral roots in the radicle. During development, the radicles of auxin-treated seedlings displayed a gradual increase in TDC activity that was absent in the radicles of untreated controls. Examination of immunoblots revealed anti-TDC reactive proteins in extracts from radicles of auxin-treated seedlings, but none in extracts from radicles of control seedlings. In contrast, TDC activity and immunoreactive protein levels in the aerial parts of controls and auxin-treated seedlings were comparable. Our results indicate that externally applied auxins induce both abnormal development and TDC activity in the radicles of Catharanthus seedlings. Although auxins slightly delayed the light-mediated induction of the cotyledon-specific last step in vindoline biosynthesis (i.e. acetylcoenzyme A: deacetylvindolin-O-acetyltransferase activity), seedlings still synthesized vindoline, one of the major alkaloid end products. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653009

  18. Ames Research Center views of Oats, Slash-Pine and Mung bean seedlings STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Young oat seedlings are shown in a ground laboratory after being flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-3 in March of 1982. All plants were part of the experimental Plant Growth Unit. They appear to have grown to look similar to the control seedlings on earth. A few small roots can be seen growing upward from the soil (33915); Young slash-pine seedlings are shown upon returning from the STS-3 mission (33916); Mung bean seedlings are shown after their return from space aboard the STS-3 (37917).

  19. Community-Wide Spatial and Temporal Discordances of Seed-Seedling Shadows in a Tropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004–2005 and 2007–2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  20. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  1. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of mechanical loss of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius or naturally occurring fungi encountered during lifting of nursery seedlings to the capacity of these seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow. Seedlings were planted in January 1981. Seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae formed in the nursery can tolerate more removal of ectomycorrhizae than routine nursery seedlings with natural ectomycorrhizae. However, seedlings in both ectomycorrhizal condition groups were severely impacted by removal of ectomycorrhizae. 1 table.

  2. Terpenoid diversity in the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Bisht, Dinesh S; Mathela, Chandra S

    2009-09-01

    The leaf terpenoid compositions of nine Lauraceae species, viz., Neolitsea pallens, Lindera pulcherrima, Dodecadenia grandiflora, Persea duthiei, Persea odoratissima, Persea gamblei, Phoebe lanceolata, Cinnamomum tamala, and Cinnamomum camphora, collected from the Himalayan region (India) were examined by GC, GC/MS, and NMR analyses in order to determine the similarities and differences among their volatile constituents. Furano-sesquiterpenoids were the principal constituents of N. pallens, L. pulcherrima, and D. grandiflora. (E)-Nerolidol, limonene, beta-pinene, and alpha-pinene were the major constituents of P. duthiei; alpha-pinene, sabinene, and beta-caryophyllene were predominant in P. odoratissima, while the oils of P. gamblei and P. lanceolata possessed beta-caryophyllene as common major constituent. C. camphora and C. tamala were marked by the presence of camphor and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within nine species of six genera of Lauraceae. PMID:19774599

  3. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  4. Fuel reduction at a Spanish heathland by prescribed fire and mechanical shredding: effects on seedling emergence.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2013-11-15

    Traditional heathland burning has declined in Spain, leading to fuel accumulation and fuel reduction treatments have become common for severe wildfire hazard reduction. These methods need to maintain the botanical composition of those shrub communities. Prescribed fire has been widely used in the past, but we need to compare mechanical fuel reduction with prescribed fire because it is easier and safer to carry out in a wide range of weather conditions. This information could be particularly useful in flammable ecosystems all over the world where traditional anthropogenic burning has declined. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning and mechanical shredding on the seedling emergence and its relation to the mature vegetation in a fire-prone heathland dominated by Erica australis L. and Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., in Galicia (NW Spain). We combined a greenhouse experiment with periodic field inventories of seedling emergence. In the greenhouse study, the seedling emergence was significantly higher in the soil samples after burning (383 seedlings m(-2)) than in samples before burning (242 seedlings m(-2)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in seedling density before and after mechanical shredding (243 compared with 261 seedlings m(-2)). Also, the number of seedlings that emerged after burning was significantly higher than that emerged after mechanical shredding. The maximum temperatures at the soil organic layer surface during burning were significantly and positively related to the density of Halimium lasianthum ssp. alyssoides and P. tridentatum seedlings. In the field study, the observed seedling density was very low both after prescribed burning and mechanical shredding. There was a high degree of similarity between emerged seedlings and mature vegetation in both the treated and in the untreated soils, which was probably a consequence of the dominance of resprouting species. Some consequences for the management of

  5. [Effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui-ying; Wang, Ding-bo; Shi, Jian-guo; Zhu, Kun-lun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji-wang

    2015-08-01

    Two summer maize hybrids, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Xianyu 335 (XY335), were used as experimental materials. 4 sowing depths (3, 5, 7 and 9 cm) and uneven sowing depth (CK) were designed under sand culture and field experiments to investigate the effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize. The results showed that the seedling emergence rate gradually decreased and seedling emergence time gradually lengthened as the sowing depth increased. Compared with the sowing depth of 3 cm, the seedling emergence rates of ZD958 and XY335 sown at the depth of 9 cm were reduced by 9.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and the seedling emergence duration was prolonged 1.5 d. With the increasing sowing depth, the seedling length and uniformity decreased significantly, the mesocotyl length increased significantly, while the coleoptile length had no significant difference; the primary radicle length gradually decreased, the total length of secondary radicle gradually increased, and the total root length had no significant difference; the total dry mass of seedling and mesocotyl increased significantly, and the total root dry mass had no significant difference. With the increasing sowing depth, the soluble sugar content in each part of seedling increased and the amount of nutritional consumption of germinating seeds increased, the seedling root growth rate increased, but the root activity decreased, and the number of total nodal root and nodal layers increased. With the increasing sowing depth, harvested ears per unit area were reduced by decreased seedling emergence rate and seedling vigor, thus influenced the yield. In addition, uniform sowing depth could improve the canopy uniformity and relative characteristics, then increase the yield. PMID:26685603

  6. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhujia; Sangireddy, Sasikiran; Okekeogbu, Ikenna; Zhou, Suping; Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Howe, Kevin J.; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress) and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome) expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7) from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes) that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and establishment under

  7. Physiological effects of NaCl on Apocynum venetum seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling

    2016-04-01

    The physiological effects of NaCl on the Apocynum venetum seedlings were investigated, including the chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf potential and growth rate, etc. The findings indicated that along with hardness index increasing, the leaf sample's chlorophyll content assumed the fluctuation condition which dropped firstly elevated again; the leaf water potential maintained stable basically; the energy of light absorption, the assignment and the dissipation balanced at 10 g/L and the growth rate presented the maximum value 9.8 mm/d; Along with the stress extension, the greatest quantum yield Fv/Fm dropped, metallic ion's absorption increased. In the 21st day, non-photochemical quenching coefficient NPQ presented the maximum value, absorbed energy proportion parameter Y(II) dropped firstly restored again, 3 kind of energy absorptions, the assignment dissipation parameter proportion stabilized in 10 g/L at Y(II):Y(NO):Y(NPQ) = 65%:20%:15%.The results suggested that in the A. venetum nursery process in the southern edge of Taklimakan Desert, phased tending should be adopted according to the seedling stage: 5-10 g/L salinity water should be used in irrigation in the seedling stage to maintain a more high leaf water potential which could prevent the decomposition of chlorophyll in which higher proportion of photochemical energy conversion could be stable using 10 g/L salt water irrigation to give A. venetum a full play of stronger salt adaptability to the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert Oasis-Desert Ecotone in its restoration and construction. Key words: saline water irrigation; leaf water potential; energy allocation strategies; growth rate

  8. Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhujia; Sangireddy, Sasikiran; Okekeogbu, Ikenna; Zhou, Suping; Yu, Chih-Li; Hui, Dafeng; Howe, Kevin J; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a "sandwich" system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress) and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome) expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7) from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes) that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and establishment under soil

  9. Genetic regulation and photocontrol of anthocyanin accumulation in maize seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L P; Briggs, W R

    1990-01-01

    The flavonoid pathway leading to anthocyanin biosynthesis in maize is controlled by multiple regulatory genes and induced by various developmental and environmental factors. We have investigated the effect of the regulatory loci R, B, and Pl on anthocyanin accumulation and on the expression of four genes (C2, A1, Bz1, and Bz2) in the biosynthetic pathway during an inductive light treatment. The results show that light-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated solely by R; the contributions of B and Pl are negligible in young seedlings. Induction of the A1 and Bz2 genes by high fluence-rate white light requires the expression of a dominant R allele, whereas accumulation of C2 and Bz1 mRNA occurs with either a dominant or recessive allele at R. A1 and Bz2 mRNA accumulate only in response to high fluence-rate white light, but Bz1 is fully expressed in dim red light. Some C2 mRNA is induced by dim red light, but accumulation is far greater in high fluence-rate white light. Furthermore, expression from both dominant and recessive alleles of the regulatory gene R is enhanced by high fluence-rate white light. Seedlings with a recessive allele at R produce functional chalcone synthase protein (the C2 gene product) but accumulate no anthocyanins, suggesting that, in contrast to the R-mediated coordinate regulation of C2 and Bz1 observed in the aleurone, C2 expression in seedlings is independent of R and appears to be regulated by a different light-sensitive pathway. PMID:2136630

  10. A Chemical Genetic Screening Procedure for Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, Marta; Song, Xingshun; Dandekar, Abhaya; Franz, Annaliese; Drakakaki, Georgia; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2016-01-01

    Unbiased screening approaches are powerful tools enabling identification of novel players in biological processes. Chemical genetic screening refers to the technique of using a reporter response, such as expression of luciferase driven by a promoter of interest, to discover small molecules that affect a given process when applied to plants. These chemicals then act as tools for identification of regulatory components that could not otherwise be detected by forward genetic screens due to gene family redundancy or mutant lethality. This protocol describes a chemical genetic screen using Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, which has led to recognition of novel players in the plant general stress response.

  11. Enhancing seedling production of native species to restore gypsum habitats.

    PubMed

    Cañadas, E M; Ballesteros, M; Foronda, A; Navarro, F B; Jiménez, M N; Lorite, J

    2015-11-01

    Gypsum habitats are widespread globally and are important for biological conservation. Nevertheless, they are often affected by human disturbances and thus require restoration. Sowing and planting have shown positive results, but these actions are usually limited by the lack of native plant material in commercial nurseries, and very little information is available on the propagation of these species. We address this issue from the hypothesis that gypsum added to a standard nursery growing medium (peat) can improve seedling performance of gypsum species and, therefore, optimise the seedling production for outplanting purposes. We test the effect of gypsum on emergence, survival, and growth of nine native plant species, including gypsophiles (exclusive to gypsum) and gypsovags (non-exclusive to gypsum). We used four treatments according to the proportions, in weight, of gypsum:standard peat (G:S), i.e. high-g (50G:50S), medium-g (25G:75S), low-g (10G:90S), and standard-p (0G:100S). Our results showed that the gypsum treatments especially benefited the emergence stage, gypsophiles as group, and Ononis tridentata as a taxon. In particular, the gypsum treatments enhanced emergence of seven species, survival of three species, and growth of two gypsophiles, while the use of the standard peat favoured only the emergence or growth of three gypsovags. Improving emergence and survival at the nursery can provide a reduction of costs associated with seed harvesting, watering, and space, while enlarging seedlings can favour the establishment of individuals after outplanting. Thus, we suggest adding gypsum to standard peat for propagating seedlings in species from gypsum habitats, thereby potentially cutting the costs of restoring such habitats. Our assessment enables us to provide particular advice by species. In general, we recommend using between 25 and 50% of gypsum to propagate gypsophiles, and between 0 and 10% for gypsovags. The results can benefit not only the production

  12. Maize white seedling 3 results from disruption of homogentisate solanesyl transferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize white seedling 3 (w3) has served as a model albino-seedling mutant since its discovery in 1923. We show here that the w3 phenotype is caused by disruptions in homogentisate solanesyl transferase (HST), an enzyme that catalyzes the committed step in plastoquinone-9 (PQ9) biosynthesis. This re...

  13. CROWN GALL INCIDENCE: SEEDLING PARADOX WALNUT ROOTSTOCK VERSUS OWN-ROOTED ENGLISH WALNUT TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling Paradox (Juglans hindsii x J. regia) has been the rootstock of choice for English walnut in California because of its vigor and greater tolerance of wet soil conditions. However, seedling Paradox rootstock is highly susceptible to crown gall, a disease caused by the soil-borne bacterium Agr...

  14. Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978-January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.R.

    1980-03-01

    The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt to establish baseline survival rates for seedlings grown in totally controlled environments. Studies to determine the optimum container for tree seedling production have been run and will continue as other containers are identified and made available. The most significant of the research results has been in the maximization of seedling growth. Seedling production times have been decreased in some species by as much as 50% under the baseline production times. Controlled environment production techniques provide for plant densities as high as 144 seedlings per square foot of growing space. Investigations of growing media indicate a significant species specific responses. Preliminary results of outplanting indicate survival rates as high as 90% plus.

  15. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  16. Cotton Seedling Injury and Recovery from Wind Blown Sand Abrasion: I. Duration of Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of...

  17. Effects of seed-caching desert rodents on seedling survival of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to consuming seeds, many small mammals also cache seeds in shallowly buried scatterhoards, and seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from these caches. Scatterhoards made by desert heteromyid rodents provide the primary source of seedling re...

  18. ANATOMY OF THE SEED AND SEEDLING OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA LOIS (POACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the genus Spartina are dominant macrophytes in many salt marshes of North and South America, Europe, and Africa. Although the genus is of great ecological importance, seeds and seedlings of its 16 species have not been described. he seed and seedling of an American spe...

  19. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  20. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  1. Effects of resource availability on seedling recruitment in a fire-maintained savanna.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian D; Kirkman, L Katherine; Bruna, Emilio M

    2010-05-01

    The herbaceous ground cover of the longleaf pine ecosystem harbors the highest plant species richness in North America, with up to 50 species per square meter, but the mechanisms that regulate this diversity are not well understood. In this system, variability in seedling recruitment events may best explain the extremely high small-scale species richness and its relationship to soil moisture and system net primary productivity. To understand the potential mechanistic controls on species richness, we used a long-term resource manipulation study across a natural soil moisture gradient to assess environmental controls on seedling recruitment. We considered the availability of resources to be an indicator of seedling safe-site supply, and also manipulated seed availability to examine the relative importance of recruitment limitations on seedling diversity. We found that water availability regulated the number of species in the seedling community regardless of the underlying natural moisture gradient, and that this effect may result from differential responses of seedling guilds to resource availability. Water supply was more important than seed supply in determining seedling establishment, suggesting that appropriate sites for regeneration are a factor limiting seedling success. This is the first study that shows that the episodic supply of microsites for recruitment could influence species richness in the highly threatened and biodiverse longleaf pine savanna. PMID:19921271

  2. Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with damping-off and crown rot of rooibos seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia species were reported to be an important component of the complex involved in damping-off of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) seedlings and cause severe crown rot of seedlings in nurseries. However, no information is available on the anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia associated with d...

  3. FOLIAR N RESPONSE OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS TO ELEVATED CO2 AND O3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between needle N status and exposure to combined CO2 and O3 stresses were studied in Pinus ponderosa seedlings. The seedlings were grown for three years (April 1998 through March 2001) in outdoor chambers in native soils from eastern Oregon, and exposed to ambient ...

  4. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  5. Evaluation of rice seedling tolerance to constant and intermittent low temperature stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low temperatures generally slow or halt the growth of rice seedlings and may result in various injuries and mortality depending on the length and severity of the cold stress. Seedling cold tolerance is complex and many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified using different conditions an...

  6. Wheat Seedlings as Food Supplement to Combat Free Radicals: An In Vitro Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, P.; Shalini, G.; Jeyam, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 5 organic solvent extracts (petroleum ether, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of wheat grains, 3, 5 and 7 days old wheat seedlings. To determine the antioxidant activity of five extracts of four different samples, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and ferrous reducing power ability were carried out. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect of chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of 3 days old wheat seedlings was higher than wheat grains. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 3 days old wheat seedlings exhibited higher 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging effcet than extracts of other samples. The phenolic content was high in chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of 5 days old wheat seedlings. When compared with wheat grain, reducing power ability was high in chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of wheat seedlings, especially in 3 and 5 days old wheat seedlings. From the above results, it was concluded that chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of 3, 5 and 7 days old wheat seedlings showed better antioxidant activity than the wheat grain extracts. Hence, the results of the present study suggest the intake of wheat seedlings as a food supplement to combat the diseases caused by free radicals. PMID:26798175

  7. Seed and seedling ecology research as the foundation for enhancing restoration outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of restoration in arid and semiarid rangelands is severely limited by deficiencies in our understanding of seedling ecology and seedling recruitment. This is significant because rangelands provide sustenance for roughly one-third of the global population, and evolving challenges such as...

  8. Comparative transcription profiling analyses of maize reveals candidate defensive genes for seedling resistance against corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As maize seedlings germinate into the soil, they encounter an environment teaming with insects seeking rich sources of nutrition. Maize presumably has developed a number of molecular mechanisms to ensure survival at the beginning of its life cycle. Bioassays indicated maize seedlings were more toxic...

  9. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. PMID:25401150

  10. Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...

  11. Limited evolutionary divergence of seedlings after the domestication of plant species.

    PubMed

    Milla, R; Morente-López, J

    2015-01-01

    The most vulnerable stage in the life of plants is the seedling. The transition from wild to agricultural land that plants experienced during and after domestication implied a noticeable change in the seedlings' environment. Building on current knowledge of seedling ecology, and on previous studies of cassava, we hypothesise that cultivation should have promoted epigeal germination of seedlings, and more exposed and photosynthetic cotyledons. To test this hypothesis, we phenotyped seedling morpho-functional traits in a set of domesticated and wild progenitor accessions of 20 Eudicot herbaceous crop species. Qualitative traits like epi- versus hypogeal germination, leafy versus storage type of cotyledons, or crypto- versus phanerocotyledonar germination, remained conserved during the domestication of all 20 species. Lengths of hypocotyls and epicotyls, of cotyledon petioles, and indices of cotyledon exposure to the aboveground environment changed during evolution under cultivation. However, those changes occurred in diverse directions, depending on the crop species. No common seedling phenotypic convergence in response to domestication was thus detected among the group of species studied here. Also, none of the 20 crops evolved in accordance with our initial hypothesis. Our results reject the idea that strong selective filters exerted unconsciously by artificial selection should have resulted in generalised channelling of seedling morphology towards more productive and more herbivore risky phenotypes. This result opens up unexplored opportunities for directional breeding of seedling traits. PMID:24943713

  12. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tng, David Y P; Janos, David P; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an "ashbed effect"). PMID:25339968

  13. Anticandidial activity of some essential oils of a mega biodiversity hotspot in India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, B K; Karmakar, S; Naglot, A; Aich, J C; Begam, M

    2007-03-01

    Six essential oils viz. Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Callistemon lanceolatus, Cinnamomum camphora, Citrus limon, Tagetes petula, as well as two standard antibiotics, miconazole and clotrimazole, were tested in vitro for their anticandidial activity. All these essential oils exhibited higher activity than the two synthetic antibiotics. Highest zone of inhibition was recorded in E. citriodora (8.50 mm microl-1) followed by C. lanceolatus (5.63 mm microl-1) establishing their promising anticandidial potential. PMID:17305775

  14. Defoliation by pastoralists affects savanna tree seedling dynamics by limiting the facilitative role of canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Bufford, Jennifer L; Gaoue, Orou G

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent tree defoliation by pastoralists, akin to herbivory, can negatively affect plant reproduction and population dynamics. However, our understanding of the indirect role of defoliation in seedling recruitment and tree-grass dynamics in tropical savanna is limited. In West African savanna, Fulani pastoralists frequently defoliate several fodder tree species to feed livestock in the dry season. We investigated the direct and indirect effects of recurrent defoliation of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) by Fulani people on seedling (< 2 cm basal diameter) and sapling dynamics in West Africa using four years of demographic data on seedling and sapling density, growth, and survival, coupled with fruit production and microhabitat data over the same time period. Tree canopy cover facilitated seedlings but had negative effects on sapling growth possibly via intraspecific competition with adult plants. Interspecific competition with grasses strongly reduced seedling survival but had a weak effect on sapling growth. Fire reduced seedling survival and weakly reduced growth of seedlings and saplings, but did not affect sapling survival. These results indicate that the effect of fire on seedlings and saplings is distinct, a mechanism suitable for an episodic recruitment of seedlings into the sapling stage and consistent with predictions from the demographic bottleneck model. Defoliation affected seedling density and sapling growth through changes in canopy cover, but had no effect on seedling growth and sapling survival. In the moist region, sapling density was higher in sites with low-intensity defoliation, indicating that defoliation may strengthen the tree recruitment bottleneck. Our study suggests that large-scale defoliation can alter the facilitative role of nurse trees on seedling dynamics and tree-sapling competition. Given that tree defoliation by local people is a widespread activity throughout savanna-forest systems in West Africa, it has the potential to

  15. Forty years of inoculating seedlings with truffle fungi: past and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Murat, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The first commercialization of seedlings inoculated with truffle fungi occurred in 1973. Over the last 40 years, considerable progress has been made relative to quality control for inoculated seedlings. A recently published paper by Andrés-Alpuente and colleagues (Mycorrhiza 24:29-37, 2014) reviewed and tested the different methods of mycorrhization assessment currently used in Europe. The aim of this paper is to augment their findings by adding information to the discussion about the most important steps in seedling quality control. Additionally, the history of seedlings inoculated with truffles, procedures currently used in France for seedling control quality, and a reflection on future research aimed at increasing truffle production will be presented. PMID:24989673

  16. Sucrose Represses the Developmentally Controlled Transient Activation of the Plastocyanin Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Dijkwel, P. P.; Kock, PAM.; Bezemer, R.; Weisbeek, P. J.; Smeekens, SCM.

    1996-01-01

    The plastocyanin (PC) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is activated independently of light during early seedling development. In etiolated seedlings, PC mRNA levels increase transiently and a maximum dark level is reached after 2 d of growth in darkness. In etiolated transgenic seedlings carrying a chimeric PC-promoter: luciferase fusion gene, luciferase activity is similarly increased after 2 d of growth. The transient increase in PC mRNA and luciferase activity levels can be repressed by sucrose. Nonmetabolizable sugars and polyethylene glycol do not have a major effect on PC gene expression. Also, light-grown seedlings show a similar transient and sucrose-sensitive increase in PC mRNA levels and luciferase activity, as in dark-grown seedlings, but here expression levels are 15- fold higher. These findings suggest the presence of a sucrose-sensitive, developmentally controlled expression mechanism that operates independently of light. PMID:12226197

  17. Cryptic coloration of Macaranga bancana seedlings: A unique strategy for a pioneer species.

    PubMed

    Fadzly, Nik; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Mansor, Asyraf; Zakaria, Rahmad

    2016-07-01

    Macaranga bancana is considered as a successful pioneer plant species. Usually found in disturbed and open areas, most of the current research focused on its relations with ants. One of the unique feature of the plants is that the seedling leaves are red, resembling and almost matching the background. Using a portable spectrometer, we measured the color reflectance of M. bancana seedlings (less than 20 cm in height). We also measured the leaf litter reflectance, adult M. bancana leaves and also seedlings of several other species found in the vicinity of M. bancana seedlings. The reflectances of M. bancana seedlings are very similar to that of the leaf litter background. We suggest that this cryptic coloration is crucial during the early stages of the plant when it still cannot rely on the protection of ants. PMID:27315145

  18. Tension wood fibers are related to gravitropic movement of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jack B; Tomlinson, P Barry

    2002-02-01

    Freshly collected viviparous seedlings (propagules) were collected from wild plants of Rhizophora mangle and planted in vertical or horizontal positions. A total of 80 seedlings were examined anatomically at various ages and orientations. After rooting, seedlings reoriented from horizontal to vertical by extreme bending in the hook region of the hypocotyl directly above the basal 1 cm where roots formed. Hypocotyl bending occurred over many months. Trends in position and relative abundance of tension fibers (also called gelatinous fibers) over time were followed. The erection of the seedling was related to increased secondary xylem and the number of tension wood fibers on the upper side of the hook region. However, linear regressions had low coefficient of determination (r(2)) values, presumably related to seedlings with high variability. PMID:12884047

  19. Watermelon seedling growth and mortality as affected by Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Edelson, J V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W

    2002-06-01

    Adult squash bugs, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were confined on seedling watermelon plants at densities of zero, one, two, and four per plant. Squash bugs were allowed to feed on the plants until plants died or reached 30 cm in height. Number of leaves and length of plant vine were recorded at 2- or 3-d intervals. Seedling foliage, stems, and roots were harvested and dried after plants reached 30 cm in height. Growth of seedlings was regressed on number of squash bugs and results indicated that an increasing density of squash bugs feeding on seedlings resulted in a significant reduction in plant growth. Additionally, increased density of squash bugs resulted in reduced weight of foliage and root dry biomass. Seedling mortality increased as the density of squash bugs increased. PMID:12076005

  20. Effects of Kinetin, IAA, and Gibberellin on Ethylene Production, and Their Interactions in Growth of Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Y; Lieberman, M

    1968-12-01

    Kinetin in concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4)m, stimulated ethylene production in 3 and 4-day old etiolated seedlings of Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska). Seedlings of other species responded similarly. The response to kinetin depended on the age of the seedlings.Kinetin alone did not influence ethylene production in 6-day old stem sections, but it greatly increased the enhancing effect of IAA.Gibberellic acid had no effect on ethylene production by pea seedlings during the first 6 days of growth. Ethylene and gibberellic acid are antagonistic in their effects on growth of the seedlings; ethylene interfered severely with the action of gibberellic acid but did not completely suppress it.The inhibitors cycloheximide, cupferron, and N-ethylmaleimide, caused considerable inhibition of kinetin-induced ethylene production but were much less effective in the endogenous ethylene-forming system. PMID:16657004

  1. Root dipping of conifer seedlings shows little benefit in the northern Rocky Mountains. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    In the growth chamber, in the greenhouse, and in field studies, root dipping of bareroot lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and Engelmann spruce seedlings did not improve seedling survival, shoot growth, or root growth under dry soil conditions. Seedling root growth varied with tree species, soil type, and type of rood dip.

  2. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  3. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  4. Some Factors Regulating Auxin Translocation in Intact Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Long, John; Basler, Eddie

    1973-01-01

    Several factors which influence the translocation patterns of stem-injected indoleacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Stringless Greenpod) were characterized. The acropetal translocation of auxin from the site of injection is markedly sensitive to concentration in the range of 1.0 to 5.0 micrograms per plant. The antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid enhanced translocation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the growing shoots and primary leaves. Translocation to the roots was unaffected by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid while leaching of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid into the nutrient solution was enhanced slightly. Steam girdling experiments revealed that translocation to the primary leaves was in the xylem. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited accumulation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in young shoots, epicotyls, and roots and enhanced accumulation in the primary leaves. The relative exchangeability of auxin between xylem and phloem is discussed in terms of regulation of auxin movements in intact bean seedlings. Images PMID:16658273

  5. Arsenic toxicity in soybean seedlings and their attenuation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Ana L; Talano, Melina A; Travaglia, Claudia; Reinoso, Herminda; Wevar Oller, Ana L; Agostini, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Even though vast areas contaminated with arsenic (As) are under soybean (Glycine max) cultivation, little is known about the growth and intrinsic antioxidant metabolism of soybean in response to As exposure. Thus, an evaluation was carried out of plant growth, root anatomy, antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigment content under arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) treatment. Soybean seedling growth was significantly affected at 25 μM or higher concentrations of As(V) or As(III), and the toxic effect on root growth was associated with cell death of root tips. Microscopic analysis of cross-sections of As-treated root showed a reduction in the cortex area, dark deposits in cortex cells and broken cells in the outer layer. Similarly, in the vascular cylinder, dark deposits within xylem vessel elements and phloem cell walls were observed. In all the analyzed parameters, the deleterious effect was more evident under As(III) than As(V) treatment. Arsenic-treated soybean seedlings showed increased activity of antioxidant enzymes [total peroxidases (Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] in root and shoot harvested after 2 and 5 d of treatment. However, a reduction in chlorophyll content and an increase in membrane lipids peroxidation were observed. It is suggested that root structural alterations induced by As, such as the particular pattern of dark depositions in the vascular system, could be associated with an adaptation or detoxification mechanism to prevent As translocation to the aboveground tissues. PMID:26686284

  6. Fungal communities influence root exudation rates in pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ina C; Avis, Peter G; Phillips, Richard P

    2013-03-01

    Root exudates are hypothesized to play a central role in belowground food webs, nutrient turnover, and soil C dynamics in forests, but little is known about the extent to which root-associated microbial communities influence exudation rates in trees. We used a novel experimental technique to inoculate loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings with indigenous forest fungi to examine how diverse fungal communities influence exudation. Surface-sterilized seeds were sown in intact, unsieved soil cores for 14 weeks to promote root colonization by fungi. After 14 weeks, we transferred seedlings and root-associated fungi into cuvettes and measured exudate accumulation in trap solutions. Both the abundance and identity of root-associated fungi influenced exudation. Exudation rates were greatest in root systems least colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and most colonized by putative pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. However, the ECM community composition was not a strong determinant of exudation rates. These results suggest that environmental conditions that influence the degree to which tree roots are colonized by pathogenic and saprotrophic vs. mutualistic fungi are likely to mediate fluxes of labile C in forest soils, with consequences for soil biogeochemistry and ecosystem processes. PMID:23013386

  7. Enrichment and Analysis of Intact Phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Uma K.; Ross, Andrew R. S.; Krochko, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates diverse cellular functions and plays a key role in the early development of plants. To complement and expand upon previous investigations of protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis seedlings we used an alternative approach that combines protein extraction under non-denaturing conditions with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment of intact phosphoproteins in Rubisco-depleted extracts, followed by identification using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of selected gel spots identified 144 phosphorylated peptides and residues, of which only18 phosphopeptides and 8 phosphosites were found in the PhosPhAt 4.0 and P3DB Arabidopsis thaliana phosphorylation site databases. More than half of the 82 identified phosphoproteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis/respiration or oxidative stress response mechanisms. Enrichment of intact phosphoproteins prior to 2-DE and LC-MS/MS appears to enhance detection of phosphorylated threonine and tyrosine residues compared with methods that utilize peptide-level enrichment, suggesting that the two approaches are somewhat complementary in terms of phosphorylation site coverage. Comparing results for young seedlings with those obtained previously for mature Arabidopsis leaves identified five proteins that are differentially phosphorylated in these tissues, demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during plant development. PMID:26158488

  8. Mexican propolis flavonoids affect photosynthesis and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Granados-Pineda, Jessica; Bah, Mustapha; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-10-01

    As a continuous effort to find new natural products with potential herbicide activity, flavonoids acacetin (1), chrysin (2) and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) were isolated from a propolis sample collected in the rural area of Mexico City and their effects on the photosynthesis light reactions and on the growth of Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli and Physalis ixocarpa seedlings were investigated. Acacetin (1) acted as an uncoupler by enhancing the electron transport under basal and phosphorylating conditions and the Mg(2+)-ATPase. Chrysin (2) at low concentrations behaved as an uncoupler and at concentrations up to 100 μM its behavior was as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Finally, 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) in a concentration-dependent manner behaved as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Flavonoids 2 and 3 inhibited the uncoupled photosystem II reaction measured from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and they did not inhibit the uncoupled partial reactions measured from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo) and from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to diclorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). These results indicated that chrysin and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin inhibited the acceptor side of PS II. The results were corroborated with fluorescence of chlorophyll a measurements. Flavonoids also showed activity on the growth of seedlings of Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli. PMID:26318278

  9. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  10. Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Lyase in Germinating Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1976-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.1.13) was found in seedlings of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (watermelon). The enzyme has pH optima of 4.4 and 5.5 and is inhibited by 0.2 mM nordihydroguaiaretic acid. It is present in two functional units with estimated molecular weights of 120,000 and 240,000, respectively. A new enzyme, tentatively termed hydroperoxide lyase, has been partially purified from watermelon seedlings. The enzyme, located principally in the region of the hypocotyl-root junction, catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9-trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid and hexanal. The hydroperoxide lyase enzyme from watermelon has a molecular weight in excess of 250,000, a pH optimum in the range of 6 to 6.5, and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. Its presence has also been demonstrated in other cucurbits. The maximum activity of both enzymes occurs on the 6th day of germination. The identification of the products of the hydroperoxide lyase reaction suggests that lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase may be involved in the conversion of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids to traumatic acid (trans-2-dodecenedioic acid). PMID:16659569

  11. Gravitropic response and circumnutation in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant circumnutation is a helical movement of growing organs such as shoots and roots. Gravitropic response is hypothesized to act as an external oscillator in shoot circumnutation, although this is subject to debate. The relationship between circumnutational movement and gravitropic response in roots remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed circumnutation of agravitropic roots using the ageotropum pea (Pisum sativum) mutant, and compared it with that of wild-type (cv. Alaska) pea roots. We further examined the relationship of gravitropic response to circumnutation of Alaska seedling roots by removing the gravisensing tissue (the root cap) and by treating the roots with auxin transport inhibitors. Alaska roots displayed circumnutational movements with a period of approximately 150 min, whereas ageotropum roots did not exhibit distinct circumnutational movement. Removal of the root cap in Alaska roots reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. Treatment of Alaska roots with auxin transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), dramatically reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. These results suggest that a gravity-regulated auxin transport is involved in circumnutation of pea seedling roots. PMID:26565659

  12. Effects of Graphene on Germination and Seedling Morphology in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shangjie; Wei, Hongmin; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Shun; Yan, Han; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    The effects of graphene on the germination and growth of rice seeds were studied. Seeds were treated with graphene solutions at different concentrations. Obvious delaying effects on the germination rate were observed with the increasing of graphene concentration. The growth of radicle and plumule was inhibited. And also, the morphology (root length, stem length, adventitious number, root fresh weight, fresh weight of over ground part and root cap ratio) of rice seedlings was certainly affected. After been treated by different concentrations of graphene for 16 d, promoting effects on adventitious root number, root fresh weight and fresh weight of over ground part were observed at concentration of 5 mg/L. Significant inhibitions on the stem length and fresh weight of over ground part were observed at concentration of 50 mg/L. In addition, all the indexes were inhibited at concentrations of 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L. It indicates that graphene certainly inhibit the morphogenesis of rice seedlings. But the mechanism by which graphene of 5 mg/L improves part of growth indexes still needs further study. PMID:26353483

  13. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Ren, Li; Zhang, Jie; Reed, Barbara M; Zhang, Di; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48 h or 72 h with different survival tolerances were examined at five steps of cryopreservation, to determine the role of ROS (O2(-), H2O2 and OH) and antioxidant systems (SOD, POD, CAT, AsA and GSH) in cryo-injury. In addition, the effects of the steps on membrane lipid peroxidation were studied using malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator. The results indicated that H2O2-induced oxidative stress at the steps of dehydration and rapid warming was the main cause of cryo-injury of 48-h seedlings (high survival rate) and 72-h seedlings (no survival). The H2O2 was mainly generated in cotyledons, shoot tips and roots of seedlings as indicated by Amplex Red staining. Low survival of 72-h seedlings was associated with severe membrane lipid peroxidation, which was caused by increased OH generation activity and decreased SOD activity. The antioxidant-related gene expression by qRT-PCR and physiological assays suggested that the antioxidant system of 48-h seedlings were activated by ROS, and they mounted a defense against oxidative stress. A high level of ROS led to the weakening of the antioxidant system of 72-h seedlings. Correlation analysis indicated that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities contributed to the high survival rate of 48-h seedlings, which could reflect by cryopreservation of antioxidant mutant seedlings. This model system indicated that elevated CAT activity and AsA content were determinants of cryogenic stress tolerance, whose manipulation could improve the recovery of seedlings after cryopreservation. PMID:25489814

  14. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness. PMID:22028890

  15. Effects of Burial in Sand and Water Supply Regime on Seedling Emergence of Six Species

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, YUANRUN; XIE, ZHIXIAO; YU, YI; JIANG, LIANHE; SHIMIZU, HIDEYUKI; RIMMINGTON, GLYN M.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Air seeding has long been regarded as a quick and successful measure for vegetation rehabilitation in China. However, seedling emergence of often-used species including Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii and Medicago sativa is low. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to study the effects of sowing depth and water supply on seedling emergence, in order to understand the requirements for increasing seedling emergence. • Methods Seeds were exposed to different environments of burial and water supply regimes in PVC pots (7 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height) under the same light intensity and alternating temperature regimes in a growth chamber. • Key Results Seedlings of three species (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica) with relatively light seeds emerged well at a 0·5 cm sowing depth under a 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regime. However, few seedlings of these species emerged when the sowing depth was over 1 cm or when water supply was 5 mm. Seedlings of Caragana korshinskii, Hedysarum fruticosum and Medicago sativa emerged from sowing depths of 0·5–4 cm, 0·5–3 cm, and 0·5–4 cm, respectively, under both 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regimes. Under a 5 mm water supply regime, seedlings of these species also emerged at over 1 cm sowing depth. Seeds of all six species sown on the surface of sand did not germinate, and seedlings did not emerge when they were sown at depths greater than 6 cm. • Conclusions Based on these experiments, a 0·5 cm sowing depth resulted in the highest seedling emergence and it is concluded that this is the optimal sowing depth for seedling emergence of all six species. PMID:15820988

  16. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations. PMID:26116925

  17. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

  18. Seedling Diversity in Hydatellaceae: Implications for the Evolution of Angiosperm Cotyledons

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, Dmitry D.; Remizowa, Margarita V.; Macfarlane, Terry D.; Tuckett, Renee E.; Ramsay, Margaret M.; Beer, Anton S.; Yadav, Shrirang R.; Rudall, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Cotyledon number has long been a primary morphological feature distinguishing monocots from other angiosperms. Recent placement of Hydatellaceae near the early-divergent angiosperm order Nymphaeales, rather than in the monocot order Poales, has prompted reassessment of seedling morphology in this poorly known family. Methods Seedlings of six species representing all eco-geographical groups of Hydatellaceae are described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Two seedling types were discovered. Material examined of Trithuria submersa, T. bibracteata, T. austinensis and T. filamentosa possess a transparent bilobed sheathing structure that surrounds the main axis below the first foliage leaf. The seed coat is attached to the sheathing structure. Seedlings of Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis lack a sheathing structure, and the seed coat is attached to a short, narrow lateral outgrowth on the main axis of the seedling. Conclusions The sheathing structure that is present in seedlings of some Hydatellaceae could be homologized with the two united cotyledons of water lilies. It also resembles the single cotyledon of some monocots, and hence demonstrates a possible pathway of the origin of a monocot-like embryo, though no homology is implied. The sheathing structure is reduced in Trithuria lanterna and T. konkanensis, and the short, narrow outgrowth of its seedling could represent a single cotyledon. This synapomorphy suggests that the only Indian species of Hydatellaceae, T. konkanensis, is closer to the northern Australian T. lanterna than to the south-western Australian T. bibracteata. PMID:18032428

  19. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  20. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  1. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of submergence and reoxygenation responses in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Bishal G; Magliozzi, Joseph O; Maroof, M A Saghai; Fukao, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Complete inundation at the early seedling stage is a common environmental constraint for soybean production throughout the world. As floodwaters subside, submerged seedlings are subsequently exposed to reoxygenation stress in the natural progression of a flood event. Here, we characterized the fundamental acclimation responses to submergence and reoxygenation in soybean at the seedling establishment stage. Approximately 90% of seedlings succumbed during 3 d of inundation under constant darkness, whereas 10 d of submergence were lethal to over 90% of seedlings under 12 h light/12 h dark cycles, indicating the significance of underwater photosynthesis in seedling survival. Submergence rapidly decreased the abundance of carbohydrate reserves and ATP in aerial tissue of seedlings although chlorophyll breakdown was not observed. The carbohydrate and ATP contents were recovered upon de-submergence, but sudden exposure to oxygen also induced lipid peroxidation, confirming that reoxygenation induced oxidative stress. Whole transcriptome analysis recognized genome-scale reconfiguration of gene expression that regulates various signalling and metabolic pathways under submergence and reoxygenation. Comparative analysis of differentially regulated genes in shoots and roots of soybean and other plants defines conserved, organ-specific and species-specific adjustments which enhance adaptability to submergence and reoxygenation through different metabolic pathways. PMID:24433575

  2. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  3. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  4. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  5. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurring birch and hemlock seedlings.

    PubMed

    Poznanovic, Sarah K; Lilleskov, Erik A; Webster, Christopher R

    2015-02-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediated effects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominated stands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurring birch and hemlock, representing 75% of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrient concentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients. PMID:25091153

  6. Ethanolamide Oxylipins of Linolenic Acid Can Negatively Regulate Arabidopsis Seedling Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Keereetaweep, Jantana; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Chapman, Kent D.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are fatty-acid derivatives with potent biological activities in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Polyunsaturated NAEs are among the most abundant NAE types in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, and they can be metabolized by either fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by lipoxygenase (LOX) to low levels during seedling establishment. Here, we identify and quantify endogenous oxylipin metabolites of N-linolenoylethanolamine (NAE 18:3) in Arabidopsis seedlings and show that their levels were higher in faah knockout seedlings. Quantification of oxylipin metabolites in lox mutants demonstrated altered partitioning of NAE 18:3 into 9- or 13-LOX pathways, and this was especially exaggerated when exogenous NAE was added to seedlings. When maintained at micromolar concentrations, NAE 18:3 specifically induced cotyledon bleaching of light-grown seedlings within a restricted stage of development. Comprehensive oxylipin profiling together with genetic and pharmacological interference with LOX activity suggested that both 9-hydroxy and 13-hydroxy linolenoylethanolamides, but not corresponding free fatty-acid metabolites, contributed to the reversible disruption of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of seedling cotyledons. We suggest that NAE oxylipins of linolenic acid represent a newly identified, endogenous set of bioactive compounds that may act in opposition to progression of normal seedling development and must be depleted for successful establishment. PMID:24151297

  7. Temperature, precipitation and biotic interactions as determinants of tree seedling recruitment across the tree line ecotone.

    PubMed

    Tingstad, Lise; Olsen, Siri Lie; Klanderud, Kari; Vandvik, Vigdis; Ohlson, Mikael

    2015-10-01

    Seedling recruitment is a critical life history stage for trees, and successful recruitment is tightly linked to both abiotic factors and biotic interactions. In order to better understand how tree species' distributions may change in response to anticipated climate change, more knowledge of the effects of complex climate and biotic interactions is needed. We conducted a seed-sowing experiment to investigate how temperature, precipitation and biotic interactions impact recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings in southern Norway. Seeds were sown into intact vegetation and experimentally created gaps. To study the combined effects of temperature and precipitation, the experiment was replicated across 12 sites, spanning a natural climate gradient from boreal to alpine and from sub-continental to oceanic. Seedling emergence and survival were assessed 12 and 16 months after sowing, respectively, and above-ground biomass and height were determined at the end of the experiment. Interestingly, very few seedlings were detected in the boreal sites, and the highest number of seedlings emerged and established in the alpine sites, indicating that low temperature did not limit seedling recruitment. Site precipitation had an overall positive effect on seedling recruitment, especially at intermediate precipitation levels. Seedling emergence, establishment and biomass were higher in gap plots compared to intact vegetation at all temperature levels. These results suggest that biotic interactions in the form of competition may be more important than temperature as a limiting factor for tree seedling recruitment in the sub- and low-alpine zone of southern Norway. PMID:26065402

  8. [Roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings].

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-juan; Li, Liang; Cao, Ning; Shang, Qing-mao; Zhang, Zhi-gang

    2015-07-01

    To reveal the roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings, a specific PAL inhibitor (AOPP) was sprayed to the seedlings, and then the stress tolerance was determined. The results suggested that both gene expression and enzymatic activity of PAL in cucumber leaves were induced under low temperature. The seedlings pretreated with AOPP showed lower PAL activity and less accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids. Low temperature caused damages in cucumber seedlings, and pretreatment of AOPP aggravated these damages. Compared to the control, the seedlings pretreated with AOPP showed significantly higher relative electrolyte leakage and MDA production, lower maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) but higher photo-chemical quenching coefficient Y(NO), and reduced expression of low temperature-responsive genes (PR1-la, COR47, P5CS and HSP70). In cucumber seedlings, low temperature stress induced the accumulation of H2O2, increased the contents of ascobate (AsA) but decreased the contents of dehydroascobate (DHA), and thus reduced the value of AsA: DHA. In the AOPP-pretreated seedlings, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and APX) were significantly repressed, and excess H2O2 accumulated. The value of AsA: DHA was also lower than the control. Furthermore, co-application of H2O2 scavenger alleviated the low temperature-induced damages in the AOPP-pretreated seedlings, while coapplication of a CAT inhibitor made the seedlings more sensitive to low temperature stress. These results indicated that under low temperature stress, the enhanced activities of PAL could increase the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds and activate the cellular antioxidant enzymes, which could scavenge the excess ROS and maintain the cellular redox status, and thereby reduce the photo- and oxidative damages caused by low temperature stress. PMID:26710630

  9. Organic nitrogen uptake of Scots pine seedlings is independent of current carbohydrate supply.

    PubMed

    Gruffman, Linda; Palmroth, Sari; Näsholm, Torgny

    2013-06-01

    In boreal forests, seedling establishment is limited by various factors including soil nitrogen (N) availability. Seedlings may absorb N from soil in a variety of inorganic and organic forms; however, the energy and thus carbohydrate requirements for uptake and assimilation of N vary with N source. We studied the importance of current photoassimilates for the acquisition and allocation of different N sources by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris (L.)) seedlings. Girdling was used as a tool to impair phloem transport of photoassimilates, and hence gradually deprive roots of carbohydrates. Seedlings were cultivated in a greenhouse on equimolar N concentrations of one of the N sources-arginine, ammonium or nitrate-and then girdled prior to a pulse-chase uptake experiment with isotopically labeled N sources. Girdling proved to be efficient in decreasing levels of soluble sugars and starch in the roots. Uptake rate of arginine N was highest, intermediate for ammonium N and lowest for nitrate N. Moreover, the uptake of arginine N was unaffected by girdling, while the uptake of the two inorganic N sources decreased to 45-56% of the ungirdled controls. In arginine-treated seedlings, 95-96% of the acquired arginine N resided in the roots, whereas a significant shift in the N distribution toward the shoot was evident in girdled seedlings treated with inorganic N. This spatial shift was especially pronounced in nitrate-treated seedlings suggesting that the reduction and following incorporation into roots was limited by the availability of current photoassimilates. These results suggest that there are energetic benefits for seedlings to utilize organic N sources, particularly under circumstances where carbohydrate supply is limited. Hence, these putative benefits might be of importance for the survival and growth of seedlings when carbohydrate reserves are depleted in early growing season, or in light-limited environments, such as those sustained by continuous cover forestry systems

  10. Light limitation and litter of an invasive clonal plant, Wedelia trilobata, inhibit its seedling recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Miao, Shi-Li; Zhai, De-Li; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Invasive clonal plants have two reproduction patterns, namely sexual and vegetative propagation. However, seedling recruitment of invasive clonal plants can decline as the invasion process proceeds. For example, although the invasive clonal Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) produces numerous seeds, few seedlings emerge under its dense population canopy in the field. In this study it is hypothesized that light limitation and the presence of a thick layer of its own litter may be the primary factors causing the failure of seedling recruitment for this invasive weed in the field. Methods A field survey was conducted to determine the allocation of resources to sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment in W. trilobata. Seed germination was also determined in the field. Effects of light and W. trilobata leaf extracts on seed germination and seedling growth were tested in the laboratory. Key Results Wedelia trilobata blooms profusely and produces copious viable seeds in the field. However, seedlings of W. trilobata were not detected under mother ramets and few emerged seedlings were found in the bare ground near to populations. In laboratory experiments, low light significantly inhibited seed germination. Leaf extracts also decreased seed germination and inhibited seedling growth, and significant interactions were found between low light and leaf extracts on seed germination. However, seeds were found to germinate in an invaded field after removal of the W. trilobata plant canopy. Conclusions The results indicate that lack of light and the presence of its own litter might be two major factors responsible for the low numbers of W. trilobata seedlings found in the field. New populations will establish from seeds once the limiting factors are eliminated, and seeds can be the agents of long-distance dispersal; therefore, prevention of seed production remains an important component in controlling the spread of this invasive clonal plant. PMID:24825293

  11. Cyanogenic Lipids: Utilization during Seedling Development of Ungnadia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Selmar, D; Grocholewski, S; Seigler, D S

    1990-06-01

    Large amounts of cyanogenic lipids (esters of 1 cyano-2-methylprop-2-ene-1-ol with C:20 fatty acids) are stored in the seeds of Ungnadia speciosa. During seedling development, these lipids are completely consumed without liberation of free HCN to the atmosphere. At the same time, cyanogenic glycosides are synthesized, but the total amount is much lower (about 26%) than the quantity of cyanogenic lipids formerly present in the seeds. This large decrease in the total content of cyanogens (HCN-potential) demonstrates that at least 74% of cyanogenic lipids are converted to noncyanogenic compounds. Whether the newly synthesized cyanogenic glycosides are derived directly from cyanogenic lipids or produced by de novo synthesis is still unknown. Based on the utilization of cyanogenic lipids for the synthesis of noncyanogenic compounds, it is concluded that these cyanogens serve as storage for reduced nitrogen. The ecophysiological significance of cyanolipids based on multifunctional aspects is discussed. PMID:16667514

  12. The structure of the stem endodermis in etiolated pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiation of the endodermis was examined in third internodes of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska seedlings. The endodermis in young internodes contains large, sedimented amyloplasts; in older internodes, a casparian strip differentiates and the endodermis becomes depleted of starch except for the proximal region of the stem, which retains sedimented amyloplasts and remains graviresponsive. Sedimentation occurs in the hook but does not occur consistently until cells reach the base of the hook, where the axis becomes vertical, rapid cell elongation starts, and amyloplast diameter increases substantially. Contact between endoplasmic reticulum and amyloplasts was observed. Endoplasmic reticulum is not distributed polarly with respect to gravity. No symplastic or apoplastic blockages exist in the endodermis at the level of the stem where lateral gradients may be established during tropic curvature.

  13. Biosynthesis of trigonelline from nicotinate mononucleotide in mungbean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Matsui, Ayu; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    To determine the biosynthetic pathway to trigonelline, the metabolism of [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN) and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinate riboside (NaR) in protein extracts and tissues of embryonic axes from germinating mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus) was investigated. In crude cell-free protein extracts, in the presence of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, radioactivity from [(14)C]NaMN was incorporated into NaR, nicotinate and trigonelline. Activities of NaMN nucleotidase, NaR nucleosidase and trigonelline synthase were also observed in the extracts. Exogenously supplied [(14)C]NaR, taken up by embryonic axes segments, was readily converted to nicotinate and trigonelline. It is concluded that the NaMN-->NaR-->nicotinate-->trigonelline pathway is operative in the embryonic axes of mungbean seedlings. This result suggests that trigonelline is synthesised not only from NAD but also via the de novo biosynthetic pathway of pyridine nucleotides. PMID:17888466

  14. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  15. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I.; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G. H.; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  16. Interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism in seedling roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, A.; Takahashi, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kakimoto, Y.; Higashitani, A.; Fujii, N.; Takahashi, H.

    Roots display positive hydrotropism in response to a moisture gradient, which could play a role in avoiding drought stress. Because roots also respond to other stimuli such as gravity, touch and light and exhibit gravitropism, thigmotropism and phototropism, respectively, their growth orientation is determined by interaction among those tropisms. We have demonstrated the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism. For example, 1) agravitropic roots of pea mutant strongly respond to a moisture gradient and show positive hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism, 2) in wild type pea roots hydrotropism is weak but pronounced when rotated on clinostat, 3) cucumber roots are positively gravitropic on the ground but become hydrotropic in microgravity, and 4) maize roots change their growth direction depending on the intensities of both gravistimulation and hydrostimulation. Here we found that Arabidopsis roots could display strong hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism. It was discovered that amyloplasts in the columella cells are rapidly degraded upon exposure to a moisture gradient. Thus, degradation of amyloplasts could reduce the responsiveness to gravity, which could pronounce the hydrotropic response. In hydrotropically stimulated roots of pea seedlings, however, we could not observe a rapid degradation of amyloplasts in the columella cells. These results suggest that mechanism underlying the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism differs among plant species. To further study the molecular mechanism of hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism, we isolated unique mutants of Arabidopsis of which roots showed either ahydrotropism, reduced hydrotropism or negative hydrotropic response and examined their gravitropism, phototropism, waving response, amyloplast degradation and elongation growth. Based on the characterization of hydrotropic mutants, we will attempt to compare the mechanisms of the two tropisms and to clarify their cross talk for

  17. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 μm Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

  18. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  19. Interaction of light and gravitropism with nutation of hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orbovic, V.; Poff, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana nutated under conditions of physiological darkness while about ten percent of monitored individuals exhibited regular elliptical nutation, circumnutation. Pre-irradiation with red light prevented occurrence of circumnutation without having an effect on the average rate of the nutational movement. Phototropic response of seedlings to unilateral blue light appeared to be superimposed over nutation. Throughout gravitropism, some seedlings continued to exhibit nutation suggesting that these two processes are independently controlled. Based on these results, we suggest that nutation in Arabidopsis probably is not controlled by the mechanism predicted by the theory of gravitropic overshoots.

  20. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-mei; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  2. Use of TREGRO to simulate the effects of ozone on the growth of red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.; Kohut, R.J.; Amundson, R.G. )

    1993-08-01

    TREGRO, a model developed to simulate the growth of sapling red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), was parameterized to grow 2- to 3-yr-old seedlings. Results of the simulation compared favorably to actual growth of seedlings used in a field study of the effects of ozone and acidic precipitation on tree physiology and development. Furthermore, a 10-yr simulation produced a modeled tree that corresponded to saplings used in another field experiment. Additional simulations were conducted to compare predicted effects of ozone on seedling growth to those measured in controlled experiments. Based on the performance of the model, we believe TREGRO can be used effectively to simulate both seedling and sapling red spruce growth, and the potential effects of ozone on the development of the trees. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Multiple Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Transcription Factors Repress Premature Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Darkness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important contributing factor to the success of terrestrial flowering plants in colonizing the land was the evolution of a developmental strategy, termed skotomorphogenesis, whereby postgerminative seedlings emerging from buried seed grow vigorously upward in the subterranean darkness toward the ...

  4. Microsite abundance and distribution of woody seedlings in a South Carolina cypress-tupelo swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Huenneke, L.F.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1986-05-01

    At least 16 types of microsites or substrates for vascular plant seedlings can be distinguished in bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) swamps. We measured the relative abundances of these microsite types, and the distribution of woody seedlings on them, in two riverine swamp forests on the Savannah River floodplain, South Carolina. Microsite abundances in a little disturbed forest differed significantly from those in a more open stand which had experienced much recent sediment deposition from upstream erosion, as well as higher water temperatures. Woody seedlings were distributed nonrandomly among microsite types (i.e., not in proportion to the abundance of a given microsite type). There were significant differences in microsite distribution patterns among growth forms (tree spp. vs. shrubs vs. vines) and among species within growth form. Many human activities may alter substrate nature and abundance in a wetland, thus indirectly altering the abundance and species composition of seedling recruitment.

  5. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution. PMID:26571650

  6. Hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, hexenal and nonenal, inhibit soybean seedling growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.W.; Dornbos, D.L. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    Hexanal, a product of hydroperoxide lyase, inhibited the germination and growth of soybean seeds. Hexanal was continuously delivered to germinating seeds as a vapor dissolved in air with a flow-through system (100 ml/min). Only 0.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air was required to inhibit seedling growth by 50%; nearly 100% inhibition occurred with a dose of 1.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air. In the absence of hexanal brown spots were often visible on the seedlings, but at sublethal doses of hexanal, the seedlings were largely devoid of these spots. The relative toxicity of three hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, trans-2-hexanal and trans-2-nonenal, were compared with a Petri-dish bioassay. The order of toxicity against seedling growth was hexenal>hexanal>nonenal.

  7. Nitrogen Assimilation and Protein Synthesis in Wheat Seedlings as Affected by Mineral Nutrition. II. Micronutrients 1

    PubMed Central

    Harper, James E.; Paulsen, Gary M.

    1969-01-01

    Activity of nitrate reductase from Triticum aestivum L. seedlings was decreased by deficiencies of molybdenum, zinc, and chlorine. Nitrate accumulated in molybdenum-deficient seedlings, declined in zinc-deficient seedlings, and was unaffected by the other micronutrient treatments. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity was decreased by deficiency of molybdenum, the only nutrient that affected the enzyme. Glutamine synthetase activity was decreased only by copper deficiency, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was not affected by any micronutrient deficiencies. Incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by wheat seedlings was increased by molybdenum deficiency, apparently because of decreased inhibition from endogenous amino acids, and was decreased by copper deficiency. Protein content was not affected significantly by the micronutrient treatments. PMID:16657114

  8. Improvement of the zygote utilization and reduction of the seedling loss in the early stage of seedling production of Sargassum thunbergii (Fucales, Phaeophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Haiyi; Liu, Mengxia; Duan, Delin

    2016-05-01

    Artificial seedling production of Sargassum thunbergii is an effective way to relieve pressure on natural resources. In order to improve the utilization of zygotes and reduce the loss of seedlings, studies on the characteristic of the zygotes release, the development of rhizoids, the attachment of germlings, and the influence of jet washing were conducted. Results show that the percent of zygotes released was increased with time in the first 60 h. The capacity of germlings attached to the substratum was significantly increased, especially coincident with the time of the new rhizoids emerged and elongated. The detachment rate of germlings significantly decreased with the delay of starting time of jet washing or the reduction of jet washing velocity. However, the jet washing at any level applied in the experiment could cause considerable loss of germlings within the 20 days after the attachment. Our study provided some parameters to optimize the operation in the early stage of seedling production.

  9. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  10. Propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Wayne P; Kennedy, Peter G; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-05-01

    Variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. Using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the Caribbean coast of Panama: Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. In our field samples, all three species exhibited considerable intraspecific variation in mature propagule size, and suffered moderate to high levels of predispersal attack by larval insects. Rates of insect attack were largely independent of propagule size both within and among trees. Our experimental studies using undamaged mature propagules showed that, for all three species, seedlings established at high rates regardless of propagule size. However, propagule size did have a marked effect on early seedling growth: seedlings that developed from larger propagules grew more rapidly. Predispersal insect infestations that had destroyed or removed a substantial amount of tissue, particularly if that tissue was meristematic or conductive, reduced the establishment of propagules of all three species. The effect of sublethal tissue damage or loss on the subsequent growth of established seedlings varied among the three mangrove species. For Avicennia, the growth response was graded: for a propagule of a given size, the more tissue lost, the slower the growth of the seedling. For Laguncularia, the response to insect attack appeared to be all-or-none. If the boring insect penetrated the outer spongy seed coat and reached the developing embryo, it usually caused sufficient damage to prevent a seedling from developing. On the other hand, if the insect damaged but did not penetrate the seed coat, a completely healthy seedling developed and its growth rate was indistinguishable from a seedling developing from an

  11. Modeling of genetic gain for single traits from marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Sushan; Hardner, Craig; Carter, Patrick A; Evans, Kate; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Seedling selection identifies superior seedlings as candidate cultivars based on predicted genetic potential for traits of interest. Traditionally, genetic potential is determined by phenotypic evaluation. With the availability of DNA tests for some agronomically important traits, breeders have the opportunity to include DNA information in their seedling selection operations—known as marker-assisted seedling selection. A major challenge in deploying marker-assisted seedling selection in clonally propagated crops is a lack of knowledge in genetic gain achievable from alternative strategies. Existing models based on additive effects considering seed-propagated crops are not directly relevant for seedling selection of clonally propagated crops, as clonal propagation captures all genetic effects, not just additive. This study modeled genetic gain from traditional and various marker-based seedling selection strategies on a single trait basis through analytical derivation and stochastic simulation, based on a generalized seedling selection scheme of clonally propagated crops. Various trait-test scenarios with a range of broad-sense heritability and proportion of genotypic variance explained by DNA markers were simulated for two populations with different segregation patterns. Both derived and simulated results indicated that marker-based strategies tended to achieve higher genetic gain than phenotypic seedling selection for a trait where the proportion of genotypic variance explained by marker information was greater than the broad-sense heritability. Results from this study provides guidance in optimizing genetic gain from seedling selection for single traits where DNA tests providing marker information are available. PMID:27148453

  12. A Predictive Coexpression Network Identifies Novel Genes Controlling the Seed-to-Seedling Phase Transition in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anderson Tadeu; Ribone, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    The transition from a quiescent dry seed to an actively growing photoautotrophic seedling is a complex and crucial trait for plant propagation. This study provides a detailed description of global gene expression in seven successive developmental stages of seedling establishment in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using the transcriptome signature from these developmental stages, we obtained a coexpression gene network that highlights interactions between known regulators of the seed-to-seedling transition and predicts the functions of uncharacterized genes in seedling establishment. The coexpressed gene data sets together with the transcriptional module indicate biological functions related to seedling establishment. Characterization of the homeodomain leucine zipper I transcription factor AtHB13, which is expressed during the seed-to-seedling transition, demonstrated that this gene regulates some of the network nodes and affects late seedling establishment. Knockout mutants for athb13 showed increased primary root length as compared with wild-type (Columbia-0) seedlings, suggesting that this transcription factor is a negative regulator of early root growth, possibly repressing cell division and/or cell elongation or the length of time that cells elongate. The signal transduction pathways present during the early phases of the seed-to-seedling transition anticipate the control of important events for a vigorous seedling, such as root growth. This study demonstrates that a gene coexpression network together with transcriptional modules can provide insights that are not derived from comparative transcript profiling alone. PMID:26888061

  13. Primate extirpation from rainforest fragments does not appear to influence seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Oscarm M; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Stoner, Kathryne E

    2015-04-01

    Primates are important seed dispersers, especially of large-seeded tree species, but the impact that these animals have on seedling recruitment is unclear. Evidence suggests that forest regeneration might be disrupted in forest fragments in which primates were extirpated. We tested this hypothesis by assessing seedling recruitment in 3 forest fragments occupied (OF) by primates, 3 fragments unoccupied (UF) by primates, and 3 areas within a continuous forest (CF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. Species and stem densities of tree, palm and liana seedlings were recorded over 16 months. Individuals were classified according to dispersal mode: large-seeded animal-dispersed (LS), small- and medium-seeded animal-dispersed (SS), and abiotically-dispersed species (AD). We assessed the influence of primate presence, adult tree assemblage, and fragment spatial metrics (size, age, distance to nearest fragment, and distance to continuous forest) on seedling assemblages. We recorded 6879 seedlings belonging to 90 species, and 59 genera in 405 1-m(2) plots. Both seedlings and adults showed similar differences in species and stem densities of LS, SS and AD species among forest types, suggesting that seedling assemblages were strongly influenced by the adult assemblages. The recruitment of each LS species varied among study sites, but evidence supporting higher recruitment enhancement of these species in continuous forest and occupied fragments was weak. Distance to continuous forest was the unique fragment spatial metric related (negatively) to the recruitment of LS species. Thus, primate extirpation does not appear to disrupt seedling assemblages in the Lancandona rainforest. Nevertheless, we cannot reject the hypothesis that certain LS species such as Spondias radlkoferi may be affected by the extirpation of primates. PMID:25556633

  14. [Influence of γ-Irradiated Seeds on the Enzyme Activity in Barley Seedlings].

    PubMed

    Volkova, P Yu; Churyukin, R S; Geras'kin, S A

    2016-01-01

    Influence of γ-irradiation of barley seeds (Nur variety) at the doses of 8-50 Gy on catalase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and guaiacol peroxidase activities was studied in the seedlings on the 3, 5 and 7 days after germination. It has been shown that activities of the studied enzymes increase in the dose range that causes the growth stimulation in the seedlings (16-20 Gy). PMID:27534070

  15. Effects of nitrate on nitrogen fixation and growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    N fertilization may affect the growth of black locust via effects on N fixation (NF) and N metabolism energy costs. This work examined the effects of nitrate (n) on NF and growth of black locust seedlings (BLS). Two experiments examined the effects of n on acetylene reduction, nodule biomass (NB), and n reductase activity of families using nodulated seedlings. Two additional experiments examined the effects of n using functional growth analysis. Nitrate was enriched with [sup 15]N and seedling N was partitioned into n and atmospheric N sources. Nitrate fertilization affected both NF and growth of BLS. High concentrations of n decreased both NB and activity. Nitrate additions generally increase total plant growth. Adjustments for seedling size via allometric principles are necessary to correctly interpret treatment effects on NF. Without such adjustments, n fertilization and family effects on general seedling growth confound analysis. Nitrate fertilization decreased NF primarily by decreasing dry matter partitioning to nodules. Low concentrations of n resulted in higher total seedling NB. Once, it was thought that low levels of soil N are needed to stimulate nodule growth and NF. Allometric analysis clearly indicated that low concentrations of n did not affect nodule growth directly but did so by increasing general seedling growth. Growth analyses were conducted to correct for confounding effects of differential plant size and internal N concentration resulting from different rates of n fertilization. These analyses showed that n fertilization increased BLS growth both by increasing seedling internal N concentrations and by increasing N productivity. The latter indicates that n utilization is more energy efficient than NF. High levels of n reductase activity were observed in leaves of BLS given n. Differences in energy costs might be partly attributable to photo-reduction of n and/or nitrite in the leaves.

  16. Heat shock protein Hsp90-2 expression in the Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    Heat shock proteins 90 kDa (Hsp90) are abundant under normal conditions and induced by stress. This family is distinguished from other chaperones in that most of its substrates are signal transduction proteins. Previously, we determined some time-dependent increase in the Hsp90 level in pea seedlings in response to simulated microgravity that indicated a stress-reaction. However, expression of the individual members of the Hsp90 family have specific pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations in the gene expression pattern of cytosolic Hsp90-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under 2D-clinorotation. To obtain detailed expression pattern of the HSP90-2 genes we used seeds that provides a resource of loss-of-function mutations gene expression patterns via translational fusions with the reporter gene, GUS (a line N 166718, NASC). There were two variants of the experiment: 1) seedlings grew under clinorotation for 10, 12, 14 d; 2) seedlings grew in the stationary conditions for 10 d followed by clinorotation for 3 h -at 22o C and 16h light cycle. The seedlings grown in the stationary conditions were used as a control. GUS staining showed that HSP90-2 expression was regulated during seedling development and affected by clinorotation in the heterozygous mutant plants. In the homozygous for the mutation plants, HSP90-2 expression was stable during seedling development and not affected by clinorotation. GUS staining was observed in cotyledons, leaves and hypocotyls of the seedlings (especially intense in vascular bundles), indicating intensive cellular processes with participation of this chaperone. Possible pathways of influence of clinorotation on HSP90-2 expression are discussed.

  17. Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: a conceptual framework using mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Thorsten; Webb, Edward L; van den Elzen, Eva; Galli, Demis; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2013-01-01

    1. Vegetated biogeomorphic systems (e.g. mangroves, salt marshes, dunes, riparian vegetation) have been intensively studied for the impact of the biota on sediment transport processes and the resulting self-organization of such landscapes. However, there is a lack of understanding of physical disturbance mechanisms that limit primary colonization in active sedimentary environments. 2. This study elucidates the effect of sediment disturbance during the seedling stage of pioneer vegetation, using mangroves as a model system. We performed mesocosm experiments that mimicked sediment disturbance as (i) accretion/burial of plants and (ii) erosion/excavation of plants of different magnitudes and temporal distribution in combination with water movement and inundation stress. 3. Cumulative sediment disturbance reduced seedling survival, with the faster-growing Avicennia alba showing less mortality than the slower-growing Sonneratia alba. The presence of the additional stressors (inundation and water movement) predominantly reduced the survival of S. alba. 4. Non-lethal accretion treatments increased shoot biomass of the seedlings, whereas non-lethal erosion treatments increased root biomass allocation. This morphological plasticity in combination with the abiotic disturbance history determined how much maximum erosion the seedlings were able to withstand. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seedling survival in dynamic sedimentary environments is determined by the frequency and magnitude of sediment accretion or erosion events, with non-lethal events causing feedbacks to seedling stability. Managers attempting restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, dunes and riparian vegetation should recognize sediment dynamics as a main bottleneck to primary colonization. The temporal distribution of erosion and accretion events has to be evaluated against the ability of the seedlings to outgrow or adjust to disturbances. Our results suggest that selecting fast-growing pioneer species and

  18. Methyl Jasmonate- and Light-Induced Glucosinolate and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Radish Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kim, Sun Ju; RomijUddin, Md; Park, Woo Tae; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2015-07-01

    Radish sprouts and young seedlings are considered important dietary vegetables in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin accumulation in radish seedlings in response to light and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. MeJA facilitated the accumulation of glucosinolate and anthocyanins under light conditions. The glucosinolate and anthocyanin contents in the radish seedlings that were exposed to light after MeJA treatment were higher than those of the seedlings that were grown in the dark without MeJA. At a concentration of 100 μM, MeJA led to the greatest accumulation of the most glucosinolates under both light and dark conditions. Under light conditions, the levels of glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and glucotropaeolin accumulation were 1.53-, 1.60-, and 1.30-fold higher, respectively, than those of the control. Remarkable accumulations of glucobrassicin were observed under light conditions (4.4-, 6.7-, and 7.8-fold higher than that of the control following the application of 100, 300, and 500 μM MeJA, respectively). The level of cyanidin in the 300 μM MeJA-treated seedlings was double of that in the control without MeJA treatment. The highest level of pelargonidin was observed after treatment with 500 μM MeJA under light conditions; this level was 1.73 times higher than that in the control. A similar trend of anthocyaninaccumulation was observed in the radish seedlings following MeJA treatment under dark conditions, but the levels of anthocyanins were considerably lower in the seedlings that were grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that light and low concentrations of MeJA enhance the accumulations of glucosinolates and anthocyanins during the development of radish seedlings. PMID:26411013

  19. Seed Priming with Selenium: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth, and Biochemical Attributes of Rice.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Abdul; Aslam, Farhena; Matloob, Amar; Hussain, Saddam; Geng, Mingjian; Wahid, Abdul; ur Rehman, Hafeez

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to appraise the role of selenium priming for improving emergence and seedling growth of basmati rice. Seeds of two fine rice cultivars (Super and Shaheen Basmati) were primed with concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 μmol L(-1) selenium. Untreated dry- and hydro-primed seeds were maintained as the control and positive control, respectively. Selenium priming resulted in early commencement of emergence, triggered seedling growth irrespective of rice cultivar over untreated control, and was more effective than hydro-priming except at higher concentrations. Lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates, reduced lipid peroxidation, greater α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars, and enhanced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) were observed in seeds primed with selenium. Rice seedlings derived from selenium-primed seeds exhibited more chlorophyll contents, while total phenolics were comparable with those of the control seedlings. The improved starch metabolism, greater membrane stability, and increased activity of antioxidants were considered as possible mechanisms responsible for such improvements in emergence and seedling vigor of rice mediated by selenium priming. Priming with selenium (15-60 μmol L(-1)) favored rice emergence and seedling growth. Nevertheless, soaking seeds in relatively concentrated (90 and 105 μmol L(-1)) selenium solution had overall detrimental effects. PMID:25690516

  20. Growth and photosynthetic responses of ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu in soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide; Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Xia, Yan; Shen, Zhenguo; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-10-01

    It is still controversial whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelia filter out toxic metals in nutrient absorption of host trees. In this study, pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings colonized by Cu-sensitive and Cu-tolerant ECM species were exposed to a wide spectrum of soil Cu concentrations to investigate functions of ECM fungi under Cu stress. The photosynthetic rates of intact needles were monitored in situ periodically. The biomass and elements of plants were also measured after harvest. The ameliorating effect of ECM infection on host plants exposed to toxic stress was metal concentration specific. Under lower-level Cu stress, ECM fungi increased seedling performance, while ECM seedlings accumulated more Cu than nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings. Under higher-level Cu stress, photosynthesis decreased well before visible symptoms of Cu toxicity appeared. The reduced photosynthesis and biomass in ECM seedlings compared to NM seedlings under higher Cu conditions were also accompanied by lower phosphorus in needles. There was no marked difference between the two fungal species. Our results indicate that the two ECM fungi studied in our system may not have an ability to selectively eliminate Cu in nutrient absorption and may not act as effective barriers that decrease toxic metal uptake into host plants. PMID:25720735

  1. Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng

    1993-07-01

    A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice ( Oryza sativa), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea), maize ( Zeamays), soybean ( Glycine max), red bean ( Phaseolus angularis), mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea ( Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

  2. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J. ); Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-12-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more ({sup 35}S)cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA.

  3. Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.

    In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

  4. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  5. Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Guo; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    1999-11-01

    An evergreen oak species, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, and a deciduous oak species, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata were grown from acorns under two light levels (full sunlight and shade at about 18 % of full sunlight, simulating the light intensities in forest clearings and gaps, respectively) for one growing season. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) the deciduous species grows faster than the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings; (ii) the deciduous species responds more strongly in terms of growth and morphology to variation in light climate than the evergreen species; and (iii) seedling size is positively correlated to acorn size. The results showed: (i) at both light levels, the deciduous seedlings gained significantly more growth in biomass and height than the evergreen seedlings; (ii) both species produced significantly more biomass in full sunlight than in shade, without showing any significant difference in height between treatments. Increase in light intensity improved the growth of the deciduous seedlings more strongly; (iii) at a similar age, the deciduous seedlings showed a greater response in leaf morphology and biomass allocation to variation in light levels, but when compared at a similar size, biomass allocation patterns did not differ significantly between species; (iv) bigger acorns tended to produce larger seedlings, larger leaf sizes and more leaf area, between and within species. These differences demonstrate that the deciduous species is gap-dependent and has the advantage over the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings.

  6. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping. PMID:26926485

  7. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Lemay, R.; Peterson, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  8. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  9. Multi-Stage Metering Mechanism for Transplanting of Vegetable Seedlings in Paper Pots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandede, B. M.; Raheman, H.

    2015-12-01

    A multi-stage rotating cup type metering mechanism was developed for transplanting of vegetable seedlings of tomato, brinjal and chili raised in paper pots. The developed setup consisted of a seedling feeding wheel, metering wheel, fixed slotted plate, seedling delivery tube, furrow opener, furrow closer and a power transmission system. Its evaluation was carried out with pot seedlings of tomato, brinjal and chili of 8-11 cm height at five forward speeds (0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 2.2 and 3.2 km/h) and two plant spacings (45 and 60 cm) in controlled soil bin condition. The mean values of feeding efficiency, conveying efficiency, planting efficiency and overall efficiency of the multistage metering unit were observed to be higher than 90 % for forward speeds of 0.6 to 2.2 km/h. With further increase in speed to 3.2 km/h, the feeding and conveying efficiency were observed to be higher than 90 %, whereas, the planting efficiency drastically reduced to around 50 % due to the problem in getting the pot seedlings vertically in the furrow. Also the seedlings were falling into the furrow at an angle greater than 70° to the vertical, hence not suitable for transplanting.

  10. Long-distance dispersal helps germinating mahogany seedlings escape defoliation by a specialist caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Norghauer, Julian M; Grogan, James; Malcolm, Jay R; Felfili, Jeanine M

    2010-02-01

    Herbivores and pathogens with acute host specificity may promote high tree diversity in tropical forests by causing distance- and density-dependent mortality of seedlings, but evidence is scarce. Although Lepidoptera larvae are the most abundant and host-specific guild of herbivores in these forests, their impact upon seedling distributions remains largely unknown. A firm test of the mechanism underpinning the Janzen-Connell hypothesis is difficult, even for a single tree species, because it requires more than just manipulating seeds and seedlings and recording their fates. Experimental tests require: (1) an insect herbivore that is identified and highly specialised, (2) linkage to an in situ measure (or prevention) of herbivory, and (3) evaluation and confirmation among many conspecific adult trees across years. Here we present experimental evidence for a spatially explicit interaction between newly germinating seedlings of a Neotropical emergent tree, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), and caterpillars of a noctuid moth (Steniscadia poliophaea). In the understory of a southeastern Amazon forest, the proportion of attacks, leaf area lost, and seedling mortality due to this specialised herbivore peaked near Swietenia trees, but declined significantly with increasing distance from mature fruiting trees, as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. We conclude that long-distance dispersal events (>50 m) provided an early survival advantage for Swietenia seedlings, and propose that the role of larval Lepidoptera as Janzen-Connell vectors may be underappreciated in tropical forests. PMID:19885680

  11. Machine site preparation improves seedling performance on a high-elevation site in southwest Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D.H. . Dept. of Forest Engineering); Baker-Katz, K.; Tesch, S.D. . Dept. of Forest Science)

    1993-07-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings planted on areas receiving one of four site-preparation treatments (scarify, scarify/till, soil removal, and soil removal/till) and on unprepared control areas were compared for 5 yr at a high-elevation, nutrient-poor site in the western Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon. Fifth-year survival of seedlings was at least 85% among machine-prepared plots, compared to 42% on control plots. Cover of competing vegetation remained less than 25% during the period for all machine treatments. In contrast, vegetation cover on control plots was 30% at the time of planting and increased to nearly 75% after 5 yr. Competing vegetation clearly impeded seedling performance. The effects of unusually droughty conditions at the time of planting in 1982 were examined further by interplanting additional seedlings in the soil-removal treatment in 1985. The interplanting was followed by more normal spring precipitation, and seedlings grew better over 5 yr than those planted in 1982. The slow recovery of competing vegetation and generally poor seedling growth on all treatments during both planting years are attributed to low soil fertility.

  12. [Absorption and distribution of K, Na and Mg in Avicennia marina seedlings under cadmium stress].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Chang-xu; Ma, Li; Zheng, Wen-jiao

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, mangrove seedlings Avicennia marina were treated with various contents of cadmium (0, 0.5, 5, 25, 50, 100, 150 mg · L(-1)). These seedlings were cultivated by man-made seawater with a salinity of 15 in sand for 90 days in a greenhouse. The absorption and distribution of elements contents (K, Na and Mg) under cadmium stress were investigated at 45th and 90th day, respectively. The results showed that the enrichment of cadmium in the different components of seedlings increased with the increasing cadmium stress level and exposure time. The cadmium contents in roots and cotyledons were relatively higher than in the other components, accounting for 66.9% and 16.3% of cadmium in the seedlings under the 150 mg · L(-1) cadmium stress, respectively. The fall of cotyledons could reduce the damage of cadmium stress to the whole seedlings. The Na contents increased in roots and stems and decreased in leaves and cotyledons after cadmium stress for 90 days. The K content decreased in roots and cotyledons, while had no significant change in stems and leaves. The Mg content in roots, stems, leaves and cotyledons of seedlings treated with cadmium for 90 days were lower than those of the control, and were negatively related to the cadmium content. PMID:26571646

  13. Experimental simulation of pollinator decline causes community-wide reductions in seedling diversity and abundance.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rebekka; Totland, Ørjan; Lázaro, Amparo

    2016-06-01

    Pollinator decline can disrupt the mutualistic interactions between plants and pollinators and potentially affect the maintenance of plant populations. However, there is still little knowledge on how changes in pollinator abundance can affect seedling recruitment, which is essential for population persistence. We experimentally simulated a community-wide reduction in pollinator availability during four years to examine its effects on seedling recruitment in 10 perennial herbs in a Norwegian hay meadow. Our experimental reduction in pollinator availability significantly reduced community-wide seedling diversity. Overall seedling abundance was also consistently lower under reduced pollinator availability, although this effect was only significant when the most abundant plant species in the community was excluded from the analysis. Despite an overall negative effect on seedling abundance, the experimental reduction in pollinator availability had contrasting effects on individual plant species. This tended to cause a larger change in seedling species composition in the experimental than in the control plots after the four study years. Our study demonstrates for the first time a direct causal link between reduced pollinator availability and reduced plant diversity and abundance. PMID:27459773

  14. Large-scale comparative phosphoprotein analysis of maize seedling leaves during greening.

    PubMed

    Ning, De-Li; Liu, Ke-Hui; Liu, Chang-Cai; Liu, Jin-Wen; Qian, Chun-Rong; Yu, Yang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Wang, Ying-Chun; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-02-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION : Large-scale comparative phosphoprotein analysis in maize seedlings reveals a complicated molecular regulation mechanism at the phosphoproteomic level during de-etiolation. In the present study we report a phosphoproteomic study conducted on Zea mays etiolated leaves harvested at three time points during greening (etiolated seedlings and seedlings exposed to light for 6 or 12 h). We identified a total of 2483 phosphopeptides containing 2389 unambiguous phosphosites from 1339 proteins. The abundance of nearly 692 phosphorylated peptides containing 783 phosphosites was reproducible and profiled with high confidence among treatments. Comparisons with other large-scale phosphoproteomic studies revealed that 473 of the phosphosites are novel to this study. Of the 783 phosphosites identified, 171, 79, and 138 were identified in 0, 6, and 12 h samples, respectively, which suggest that regulation of phosphorylation plays important roles during maize seedling de-etiolation. Our experimental methods included enrichment of phosphoproteins, allowing the identification of a great number of low abundance proteins, such as transcription factors, protein kinases, and photoreceptors. Most of the identified phosphoproteins were involved in gene transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, or signal transduction, and only a few were involved in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. It is noteworthy that tyrosine phosphorylation and calcium signaling pathways might play important roles during maize seedling de-etiolation. Taken together, we have elucidated a new level of complexity in light-induced reversible protein phosphorylation during maize seedling de-etiolation. PMID:26497871

  15. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development. PMID:27085178

  16. On hybridising lettuce seedlings with nanoparticles and the resultant effects on the organisms' electrical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gizzie, Nina; Mayne, Richard; Patton, David; Kendrick, Paul; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Lettuce seedlings are attracting interest in the computing world due to their capacity to become hybrid circuit components, more specifically, in the creation of living 'wires'. Previous studies have shown that seedlings can be hybridised with gold nanoparticles and withstand mild electrical currents. In this study, lettuce seedlings were hybridised with a variety of metallic and non-metallic nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, aluminium oxide and calcium phosphate. Toxic effects and the following electrical properties were monitored: mean potential, resistance and capacitance. Macroscopic observations revealed only slight deleterious health effects after administration with one variety of particle, aluminium oxide. Mean potential in calcium phosphate-hybridised seedlings showed a considerable increase when compared with the control, whereas those administered with graphene oxide showed a small decrease; there were no notable variations across the remaining treatments. Electrical resistance decreased substantially in graphene oxide-treated seedlings whereas slight increases were shown following calcium phosphate and carbon nanotubes applications. Capacitance showed no considerable variation across treated seedlings. These results demonstrate that use of some nanomaterials, specifically graphene oxide and calcium phosphate, may be towards biohybridisation purposes including the generation of living 'wires'. PMID:27424022

  17. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The

  18. Hunting alters seedling functional trait composition in a Neotropical forest.

    PubMed

    Kurten, Erin L; Wright, S Joseph; Carson, Walter P

    2015-07-01

    Defaunation alters trophic interactions between plants and vertebrates, whichmay disrupt trophic cascades, thereby favoring a subset of plant species and reducing diversity. If particular functional traits characterize the favored plant species,.then defaunation may alter community-wide patterns of functional trait composition. Changes in plant functional traits occurring with defaunation may help identify the species interactions affected by defaunation and the potential for other cascading effects of defaunation. We tested the hypotheses that defaunation would (1) disrupt seed dispersal, thereby favoring species whose dispersal agents are not affected (e.g., small birds, bats, and abiotic agents), (2) reduce seed predation, thereby favoring larger-seeded species, and (3) reduce herbivory, thereby favoring species with lower leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf toughness, and wood density. We examined how these six traits responded to vertebrate defaunation caused by hunters or by experimental exclosures among more than-30 000 woody seedlings in a lowland tropical moist forest. Exclosures reduced terrestrial frugivores, granivores, and herbivores, while hunters also reduced volant and arboreal frugivores and granivores. The comparison of exclosures and hunting allowed us to parse the impacts of arboreal and volant species (reduced by hunters only) and terrestrial species (reduced by both hunters and exclosures). The loss of terrestrial vertebrates alone had limited effects on plant trait composition. The additional loss of volant and arboreal vertebrates caused significant shifts in plant species composition towards communities with more species dispersed abiotically, including lianas and low wood-density tree species, and fewer species dispersed by large vertebrates. In contrast to previous studies, community seed mass did not decline significantly in hunted sites. Our exclosure results suggest this is because reducing seed predators disproportionately benefits large

  19. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26676220

  20. Protective effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on endotoxin-induced intestinal injury in mice associated with suppressed local expression of molecules in the signaling pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, interferon-γ, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-ĸB, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  1. Influence of herbal combinations on the extraction efficiencies of chemical compounds from Cinnamomum cassia, Paeonia lactiflora, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis, the herbal components of Gyeji-tang, evaluated by HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Guemsan; Choi, Goya; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young-Sik

    2016-09-10

    During decoction process, the ingredients of herbal formula interact with each other, such that therapeutic properties and chemical extraction characteristics are altered. The crude drugs, Cinnamomum cassia (CC), Paeonia lactiflora (PL), and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GU), are the main herbal constituents of Gyeji-tang, a traditional herbal formula. To evaluate the chemical interaction between CC, PL, and GU during the course of decoction, quantification of 16 marker compounds in the herbal decoction, performed using a Box-Behnken experimental design, was carried out by HPLC-diode array detection using validated method. Correlations between the amounts of marker compounds from CC, PL, and GU were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained showed that amounts of single herb marker compounds significantly changed (usually decreased) by decoction in the presence of other herbs and that these changes depended on the chemical natures of the markers and the herbal medicines present. Results also demonstrated that the extraction efficiencies of marker compounds increased when the proportion of the herb containing them was increased and decreased in proportion to amounts of herbs added. In conclusion, chemical interactions between compositional herbal medicines may occur when herbs are co-decocted. This study provides insight of understanding the herbal interactions in herbal formulae. PMID:27399342

  2. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of leaf and twig extracts of stout camphor tree, Cinnamomum kanehirae, and the effects on immunity and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ruo-Yun; Shiu, Ya-Li; Shei, Shu-Chiu; Cheng, Sheng-Chi; Huang, Sung-Yan; Lin, Jiunn-Cheng; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2009-07-01

    Effects of essential oils and hot-water extracts isolated from leaf and twig of stout camphor tree, Cinnamomum kanehirae on antibacterial activity to pathogen of fish, abalone, marine fish and freshwater prawn, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei immunity and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus were carried out in this study. A better antibacterial activity against nine selected pathogen bacteria was recorded in twig essential oil, and the selected pathogens of both Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to the leaf and twig essential oils in the present study. No antibacterial activity was recorded in the hot-water extracts of leaf and twig. In challenge trial, a significant decrease of sensitivity to V. alginolyticus (1 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1)) was found in that of shrimp received hot-water extract from twig at the levels of 2 microg g shrimp(-1) compared to control. In addition, the how-water extract of twig in vitro showed greater enhanced effects on phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst and phagocytosis of white shrimp compared to the hot-water extract of leaf. It is considered that the extracts of stout camphor tree could be a candidate to replace the chemo-therapeutants through the inhibitory effects against the growth of pathogens, and enhanced effects on shrimp immunity and disease resistance. PMID:19063975

  3. Protective Effect of Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on Endotoxin-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice Associated with Suppressed Local Expression of Molecules in the Signaling Pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, interferon-γ, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-ĸB, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  4. Discovery of a novel anti-cancer agent targeting both topoisomerase I and II in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamomum verum has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in the DNA content in sub G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis. 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against Hep 3B cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity, inflammatory responses involving COX-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26707867

  5. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells. PMID:25728340

  6. Experimental Test for Facilitation of Seedling Recruitment by the Dominant Bunchgrass in a Fire-Maintained Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Iacona, Gwenllian D.; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2012-01-01

    Facilitative interactions between neighboring plants can influence community composition, especially in locations where environmental stress is a factor limiting competitive effects. The longleaf pine savanna of the southeastern United States is a threatened and diverse system where seedling recruitment success and understory species richness levels are regulated by the availability of moist microsites. We hypothesized that the dominant bunch grass species (Aristida stricta Michx.) would facilitate moist seedling microsites through shading, but that the effect would depend on stress gradients. Here, we examined the environmental properties modified by the presence of wiregrass and tested the importance of increased shade as a potential facilitative mechanism promoting seedling recruitment across spatial and temporal stress gradients. We showed that environmental gradients, season, and experimental water manipulation influence seedling success. Environmental properties were modified by wiregrass proximity in a manner that could facilitate seedling success, but we showed that shade alone does not provide a facilitative benefit to seedlings in this system. PMID:22792165

  7. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia. PMID:27600657

  8. Urban environment of New York City promotes growth in northern red oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Searle, Stephanie Y; Turnbull, Matthew H; Boelman, Natalie T; Schuster, William S F; Yakir, Dan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization is accelerating across the globe, elevating the importance of studying urban ecology. Urban environments exhibit several factors affecting plant growth and function, including high temperatures (particularly at night), CO(2) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We investigated the effects of urban environments on growth in Quercus rubra L. seedlings. We grew seedlings from acorns for one season at four sites along an urban-rural transect from Central Park in New York City to the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York (difference in average maximum temperatures of 2.4 °C; difference in minimum temperatures of 4.6 °C). In addition, we grew Q. rubra seedlings in growth cabinets (GCs) mimicking the seasonal differential between the city and rural sites (based on a 5-year average). In the field experiment, we found an eightfold increase in biomass in urban-grown seedlings relative to those grown at rural sites. This difference was primarily related to changes in growth allocation. Urban-grown seedlings and seedlings grown at urban temperatures in the GCs exhibited a lower root: shoot ratio (urban ~0.8, rural/remote ~1.5), reducing below-ground carbon costs associated with construction and maintenance. These urban seedlings instead allocated more growth to leaves than did rural-grown seedlings, resulting in 10-fold greater photosynthetic area but no difference in photosynthetic capacity of foliage per unit area. Seedlings grown at urban temperatures in both the field and GC experiments had higher leaf nitrogen concentrations per unit area than those grown at cooler temperatures (increases of 23% in field, 32% in GC). Lastly, we measured threefold greater (13)C enrichment of respired CO(2) (relative to substrate) in urban-grown leaves than at other sites, which may suggest greater allocation of respiratory function to growth over maintenance. It also shows that lack of differences in total R flux in response to environmental conditions may

  9. Seedling establishment at the alpine tree line - Can there be too much winter protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, S.; Wardle, D.; Nilsson, M. C.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion relies on tree seedling survival above the tree line, where the environment is harsh and protection by snow during winter is essential. Above the tree line, bryophytes are dominant; they may act as thermal insulators but their insulating ability differs between species. Apart from these positive effects, both snow and bryophytes may have negative effects on seedlings via shortening of the growing season or competition, respectively. Snow depth and duration are expected to change due to climate change, leading in some places to more snow and in others to less. What is the role of bryophytes insulating properties for seedling establishment under changing winter conditions at the alpine tree line? We hypothesized that protecting effects of snow and bryophytes would be more important for seedling survival in harsh climate (high elevation) than in milder climate (low elevation) (interactions: bryophyte*elevation and snow*elevation) and that negative effects of less snow would be ameliorated by well-insulating bryophytes (interaction: bryophyte*snow). To test this, we transplanted cores of three bryophyte species of differing insulation capacity and bare soil (control) from the subarctic tree line (~600m asl.) to 700 and 350 m asl. We transplanted 10 seedlings of two common tree line tree species (Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) into each core in late summer. Cores were subjected to one of three snow treatments: autumn and spring snow removal or addition, or no manipulation. After the winter we scored seedling survival. The snow treatments had different effects at the two elevations (elevation* snow: P<0.0001) whereas bryophytes did not (elevation*bryophyte: n.s). In the harsh climate, snow addition generally enhanced seedling survival. In contrast, at the milder climate site, snow addition only increased survival in the bare soil treatment but decreased survival of seedlings in the bryophyte cores (bryophyte*snow: P=0

  10. Seedling Discrimination with Shape Features Derived from a Distance Transform

    PubMed Central

    Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is an improvement of plant seedling recognition by two new approaches of shape feature generation based on plant silhouettes. Experiments show that the proposed feature sets possess value in plant recognition when compared with other feature sets. Both methods approximate a distance distribution of an object, either by resampling or by approximation of the distribution with a high degree Legendre polynomial. In the latter case, the polynomial coefficients constitute a feature set. The methods have been tested through a discrimination process where two similar plant species are to be distinguished into their respective classes. The used performance assessment is based on the classification accuracy of 4 different classifiers (a k-Nearest Neighbor, Naive-Bayes, Linear Support Vector Machine, Nonlinear Support Vector Machine). Another set of 21 well-known shape features described in the literature is used for comparison. The used data consisted of 139 samples of cornflower (Centaura cyanus L.) and 63 samples of nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). The highest discrimination accuracy was achieved with the Legendre Polynomial feature set and amounted to 97.5%. This feature set consisted of 10 numerical values. Another feature set consisting of 21 common features achieved an accuracy of 92.5%. The results suggest that the Legendre Polynomial feature set can compete with or outperform the commonly used feature sets. PMID:23624690

  11. Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Saiki, M.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions.

  12. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  13. Tocopherols in Sunflower Seedlings under Light and Dark Conditions

    PubMed Central

    del Moral, Lidia; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of tocopherols in cotyledons and radicles from sunflower seeds with high and low total tocopherol content, mainly in the α-tocopherol form, and from seeds with increased proportions of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, both under dark and light conditions. Tocopherol content was measured every 24 h from 1 to 12 days after sowing. In all cases, the content of individual tocopherol forms in the cotyledons and radicles was reduced along the sampling period, which was more pronounced under light conditions. The presence of light had a slightly greater effect on α- and γ-tocopherol than on β- and δ-tocopherol. A marked light effect was also observed on total tocopherol content, with light promoting the reduction of tocopherol content in cotyledons and radicles. The study revealed only slight differences in the patterns of tocopherol losses in lines with different tocopherol profiles, both under dark and light conditions, which suggested that the partial replacement of α-tocopherol by other tocopherol forms had no great impact on the protection against oxidative damage in seedlings. PMID:26347898

  14. Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg{sup +2} or Ca{sup +2} for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn{sup +2}, and Hg{sup +2} were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg{sup +2} was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn{sup +2} about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as ({sup 32}P) phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine.

  15. Savanna Tree Seedlings are Physiologically Tolerant to Nighttime Freeze Events

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Kimberly; Nippert, Jesse B.; Swemmer, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Freeze events can be important disturbances in savanna ecosystems, yet the interactive effect of freezing with other environmental drivers on plant functioning is unknown. Here, we investigated physiological responses of South African tree seedlings to interactions of water availability and freezing temperatures. We grew widely distributed South African tree species (Colophospermum mopane, Combretum apiculatum, Acacia nigrescens, and Cassia abbreviata) under well-watered and water-limited conditions and exposed individuals to nighttime freeze events. Of the four species studied here, C. mopane was the most tolerant of lower water availability. However, all species were similarly tolerant to nighttime freezing and recovered within one week following the last freezing event. We also show that water limitation somewhat increased freezing tolerance in one of the species (C. mopane). Therefore, water limitation, but not freezing temperatures, may restrict the distribution of these species, although the interactions of these stressors may have species-specific impacts on plant physiology. Ultimately, we show that unique physiologies can exist among dominant species within communities and that combined stresses may play a currently unidentified role in driving the function of certain species within southern Africa. PMID:26870065

  16. Rhizobacteria of Cotton and Their Repression of Seedling Disease Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, C.; Gould, W. D.; Bardinelli, T. R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1983 field season, the rhizobacteria (including organisms from rhizosphere soil and the root rhizoplane) of cotton plants at one location in Mississippi were inventoried at different plant growth stages. Isolates (1,000) were identified to the genus level and characterized for repression of Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton seedlings were initially colonized by bacteria of many different genera, and populations quickly reached 108 CFU/g of root tissue. As the season progressed, the bacterial populations declined as root mass increased and the roots became more woodlike in consistency. Fluorescent pseudomonads were the most numerous gram-negative rhizobacterial isolates of those that were randomly collected and identified, and they provided the largest number of isolates with fungal repressive activity. Several other gram-negative bacterial genera were recovered throughout the growing season, and some gram-positive bacteria were also isolated routinely, but at lower numbers. There was no correlation between the proportion of rhizobacterial isolates that possessed fungal repressive activity and the plant growth stage from which the isolates were obtained. Approximately twice as many bacterial isolates demonstrated fungal repression in the agar assay compared with the inplanta assay, and isolates were found more frequently with fungal repressive activity against P. ultimum than against R. solai. PMID:16348043

  17. Physiological responses of fenugreek seedlings and plants treated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Bassem, Khemakhem; Zeineb, Kamoun; Grubb, C Douglas; Noureddine, Drira; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-07-01

    The bioaccumulation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was examined using different concentrations of CdCl2. The germination rate was similar to control except at 10 mM Cd. However, early seedling growth was quite sensitive to the metal from the lowest Cd level. Accordingly, amylase activity was reduced substantially on treatment of seeds with 0.5, 1, and 10 mM Cd. Cadmium also affected various other plant growth parameters. Its accumulation was markedly lower in shoots as compared to roots, reducing root biomass by almost 50 %. Plants treated with 1 and 5 mM Cd presented chlorosis due to a significant reduction in chlorophyll b especially. Furthermore, at Cd concentrations greater than 0.1 mM, plants showed several signs of oxidative stress; an enhancement in root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and in shoot malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed. Conversely, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT)) increased in various plant parts. Likewise, total phenolic and flavonoid contents reached their highest values in the 0.5 mM Cd treatment, consistent with their roles in quenching low concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, maintaining oxidant and antioxidant balance may permit fenugreek to hyperaccumulate Cd and allow it to be employed in extremely Cd polluted soils for detoxification purposes. PMID:25752634

  18. Savanna Tree Seedlings are Physiologically Tolerant to Nighttime Freeze Events.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Kimberly; Nippert, Jesse B; Swemmer, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Freeze events can be important disturbances in savanna ecosystems, yet the interactive effect of freezing with other environmental drivers on plant functioning is unknown. Here, we investigated physiological responses of South African tree seedlings to interactions of water availability and freezing temperatures. We grew widely distributed South African tree species (Colophospermum mopane, Combretum apiculatum, Acacia nigrescens, and Cassia abbreviata) under well-watered and water-limited conditions and exposed individuals to nighttime freeze events. Of the four species studied here, C. mopane was the most tolerant of lower water availability. However, all species were similarly tolerant to nighttime freezing and recovered within one week following the last freezing event. We also show that water limitation somewhat increased freezing tolerance in one of the species (C. mopane). Therefore, water limitation, but not freezing temperatures, may restrict the distribution of these species, although the interactions of these stressors may have species-specific impacts on plant physiology. Ultimately, we show that unique physiologies can exist among dominant species within communities and that combined stresses may play a currently unidentified role in driving the function of certain species within southern Africa. PMID:26870065

  19. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. PMID:20590992

  20. Effect of spaceflight on isoflavonoid accumulation in etiolated soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the potential impact of microgravity on flavonoid biosynthesis, we examined isoflavonoid levels in soybean (Glycine max) tissues generated under both spaceflight and clinorotation conditions. A 6-day Space Shuttle-based microgravity exposure resulted in enhanced accumulation of isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) in hypocotyl and root tissues, but reduced levels in cotyledons (relative to 1g controls on Earth). Soybean seedlings grown on a horizontally rotating clinostat for 3, 4 and 5 days exhibited (relative to a vertical clinorotation control) an isoflavonoid accumulation pattern similar to the space-grown tissues. Elevated isoflavonoid levels attributable to the clinorotation treatment were transient, with the greatest increase observed in the three-day-treated tissues and smaller increases in the four- and five-day-treated tissues. Differences between stresses presented by spaceflight and clinorotation and the resulting biochemical adaptations are discussed, as is whether the increase in isoflavonoid concentrations were due to differential rates of development under the "gravity" treatments employed. Results suggest that spaceflight exposure does not impair isoflavonoid accumulation in developing soybean tissues and that isoflavonoids respond positively to microgravity as a biochemical strategy of adaptation.

  1. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sung, S S; Kormanik, P P; Xu, D P; Black, C C

    1989-03-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Curya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial zone. The sucrose synthase pathway was completely dependent on uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate and it was activated by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Both acid and neutral invertases were less active than sucrose synthase in sucrose sink tissues. According to the magnitude of seasonal changes in activity, sucrose synthase, the pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase, and fructokinase were identified as adaptive enzymes, whereas neutral invertase, uridine diphosphate-glucopyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, and the nonspecific, nucleotide triphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase were identified as maintenance enzymes. The periodically high activities of pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase indicate that pyrophosphate can serve as an energy source in trees. The observations support the hypothesis that sucrose glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in plants proceed by a network of alternative enzymes and substrates. PMID:14972997

  2. Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. isolated from wheat seedlings plant.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yu, Hongshan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    Strain THG-SQM11(T), a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from wheat seedlings plant in P. R. China. Strain THG-SQM11(T) was closely related to members of the genus Acinetobacter and showed the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarities with Acinetobacter junii (97.9 %) and Acinetobacter kookii (96.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization showed 41.3 ± 2.4 % DNA reassociation with A. junii KCTC 12416(T). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain THG-SQM11(T) possesses ubiquinone-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18:1 ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol %. These data, together with phenotypic characterization, suggest that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-SQM11(T) as the type strain (=CCTCC AB 2015123(T) =KCTC 42611(T)). PMID:26869166

  3. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m−2·s−1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  4. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils. PMID:27417987

  5. Effect of co-inoculations of native PGPR with nitrogen fixing bacteria on seedling traits in Prosopis cineraria.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Pancholy, Anjly; Jindal, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2014-09-01

    Prosopis cineraria significantly contribute to sand dune stabilization, soil fertility rejuvenation and is an integral component of agro-forestry systems in arid regions of India. Effect of different rhizobacterial seed treatments on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of P. cineraria (HPY-1) and (FG-1) were tested. Observations on seed germination (%) and seedling traits viz., root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling weight (g) and seedling length of different treatments were recorded. Whereas, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) and root/shoot length ratio were derived from the observed data. The scarification treatment with sulphuric acid for 10 minutes substantially enhanced germination from < 20% to 80-82% in control treatments. Treatments with co-inoculations of Bacillus licheniformis and Sinorhizobium kostiense or S. saheli supported the maximum seed germination and seedling growth and vigour. The maximum germination per cent (92.5%), seedling length (10.94 cm), seedling vigour index (10.12) and germination index (7.97) were recorded with treatment (V2T6) wherein seeds of high pod yielding genotype were co-inoculated with Bacillus licheniformis and S. kostiense. The higher positive correlations of seedling length v/s shoot length followed by SVI v/s seedling length, SVI v/s root length and seedling length v/s root length is a fair indicative of inter dependency of these characteristics. Higher R2 values of root length v/s shoot length followed by that of SVI v/s GI indicates that a regression line fits the data well and future outcomes of observed seedling traits are likely to be predicted by the model. PMID:25204069

  6. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  7. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Ohashi, Yoshiaki; Hirasaki, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 microT static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short-term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 microT(rms) sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 microT static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can observed during short-term MF exposure. PMID:15515039

  8. The effects of methyl bromide alternatives on soil and seedling microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology in Oregon and Washington forest tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six fumigant treatments were evaluated at two forest tree nurseries in Oregon and one forest tree nursery in Washington for their effects on soil microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology during a 2-year study. Fusarium commune, F. oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi complex, P. irregulare,...

  9. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  10. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  11. Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Humplík, Jan F; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) during early development was investigated in tomato seedlings. The endogenous content of ABA in particular organs was analyzed in seedlings grown in the dark and under blue light. Our results showed that in dark-grown seedlings, the ABA accumulation was maximal in the cotyledons and elongation zone of hypocotyl, whereas under blue-light, the ABA content was distinctly reduced. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that ABA promotes the growth of etiolated seedlings and the results suggest that ABA plays an inhibitory role in de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis in tomato. PMID:26322576

  12. Saturated humidity accelerates lateral root development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by increasing phloem-based auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Chhun, Tory; Uno, Yuichi; Taketa, Shin; Azuma, Tetsushi; Ichii, Masahiko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsurumi, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Auxin transport plays a significant role modifying plant growth and development in response to environmental signals such as light and gravity. However, the effect of humidity on auxin transport is rarely documented. It is shown here that the transport of labelled indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from the shoot to the root is accelerated in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cv. IR8) seedlings grown under saturated humidity (SH-seedlings) compared with plants grown under normal humidity (NH-seedlings). The development of lateral roots in SH-seedlings was greatly enhanced compared with NH-seedlings. Removal of the shoot from SH-seedlings reduced the density of lateral roots, and the application of IAA to the cut stem restored the lateral root density, while the decapitation of NH-seedlings did not alter lateral root development. Phloem-based auxin transport appeared responsible for enhanced lateral root formation in SH-seedlings since (i) the rate of IAA transport from the shoot to the root tip was greater than 3.5 cm h-1 and (ii) naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-induced reduction of polar auxin transport in the shoot did not influence the number of lateral roots in SH-seedlings. It is proposed that high humidity conditions accelerate the phloem-based transport of IAA from the leaf to the root, resulting in an increase in the number of lateral roots. PMID:17383991

  13. Early selection of black spruce seedlings and global change: Which genotypes should we favor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.M.; Lechowicz, M.J.; Potvin, C. )

    1994-08-01

    The effects of both soil fertility and predicted changes in climate on growth of different families of black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., during the first growing season was studied. The results were used to examine whether reforestation programs should consider changing their preferred family lines in anticipation of altered performance given global climate change. We grew seedlings of 16 open-pollinated maternal families of black spruce under phytotron conditions simulating present and mid-21st century climatic conditions during the growing season. The realistic, simulated future climate included both elevated CO[sub 2] levels and seasonally appropriate increases in mean daily temperature. To explore the dependence of climatic responses on site quality, seedlings were irrigated with solutions having either 5 or 100 mg/L of nitrogen. The lower nitrogen level represents a poor site for black spruce growth and survival, but the higher level provides ample nitrogen. We also recorded seed size for each seedling to evaluate the degree to which maternal investments might buffer responses to future climate and fertility during the first year on the seedbed. Seedling survival and growth increase both under the future climate regime and with nitrogen fertilization. The two factors interacted synergistically, with nitrogen enrichment significantly enhancing the positive effects of the future climate regime. Nitrogen-poor conditions, however, did not preclude a positive seedling response to the future climate. Our results indicate that seedling survival and height growth are highly dependent upon initial seed mass, seed germination, and seedling, survival and growth, but their relative performances did not vary significantly among the treatments. These results suggest that black spruce families selected for rapid growth under present conditions will also do well in the future, at least in terms of early establishment and performance on sites regenerated by seeding.

  14. Seedling establishment in a masting desert shrub parallels the pattern for forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Susan E.; Pendleton, Burton K.

    2015-05-01

    The masting phenomenon along with its accompanying suite of seedling adaptive traits has been well studied in forest trees but has rarely been examined in desert shrubs. Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) is a regionally dominant North American desert shrub whose seeds are produced in mast events and scatter-hoarded by rodents. We followed the fate of seedlings in intact stands vs. small-scale disturbances at four contrasting sites for nine growing seasons following emergence after a mast year. The primary cause of first-year mortality was post-emergence cache excavation and seedling predation, with contrasting impacts at sites with different heteromyid rodent seed predators. Long-term establishment patterns were strongly affected by rodent activity in the weeks following emergence. Survivorship curves generally showed decreased mortality risk with age but differed among sites even after the first year. There were no detectable effects of inter-annual precipitation variability or site climatic differences on survival. Intraspecific competition from conspecific adults had strong impacts on survival and growth, both of which were higher on small-scale disturbances, but similar in openings and under shrub crowns in intact stands. This suggests that adult plants preempted soil resources in the interspaces. Aside from effects on seedling predation, there was little evidence for facilitation or interference beneath adult plant crowns. Plants in intact stands were still small and clearly juvenile after nine years, showing that blackbrush forms cohorts of suppressed plants similar to the seedling banks of closed forests. Seedling banks function in the absence of a persistent seed bank in replacement after adult plant death (gap formation), which is temporally uncoupled from masting and associated recruitment events. This study demonstrates that the seedling establishment syndrome associated with masting has evolved in desert shrublands as well as in forests.

  15. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20–30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field

  16. Effects of methyl jasmonate on accumulation of flavonoids in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Wiczkowski, W; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Saniewski, M

    2011-09-01

    The jasmonates, which include jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (MJ), play a central role in regulating the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, and also are signaling molecules in environmental stresses. Synthesis of anthocyanins pigments is a final part of flavonoids pathway route. Accumulation of the pigments in young seedlings is stimulated by various environmental stresses, such as high-intensity light, wounding, pathogen attack, drought, sugar and nutrient deficiency. The anthocyanins take part in defense system against excess of light and UV-B light, and therefore it is probably main reason why young plant tissues accumulate enlarged levels of the pigments. The effects of exogenously applied MJ on level of anthocyanins, glycosides of apigenin, luteolin, quercetin and proanthocyanidins in seedlings of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) were studied. MJ decreased contents of all the found cyanidin glycosides and its aglycone in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings. However contents of particular anthocyanins in cotyledons of buckwheat seedlings treated with the plant hormone were not significantly different from the control. Applied doses of MJ did not affect levels of quercetin, apigenin and luteolin glycosides in the analyzed parts of buckwheat seedlings: cotyledons and hypocotyls. On the other hand, treatment of buckwheat seedlings with MJ clearly stimulated of proanthocyanidins biosynthesis in hypocotyls. We suggest that methyl jasmonate induces in hypocotyls of buckwheat seedlings the leucocyanidin reductase or anthocyanidin reductase, possible enzymes in proanthocyanidins synthesis, and/or inhibits anthocyanidin synthase, which transforms leucocyanidin into cyanidin. According to our knowledge this is the first report regarding the effect of methyl jasmonate on enhancing the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in cultivated plants. PMID:21840829

  17. Basal transcription factor 3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya; Jamil, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3 (Ri)) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200 μM GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants. PMID:24971328

  18. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants. PMID:26208645

  19. Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Three Annuals Growing on Desert Sand Dunes in China

    PubMed Central

    TOBE, KAZUO; ZHANG, LIPING; OMASA, KENJI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Information on the initial growth characteristics of annuals found in Chinese deserts is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate seed germination and interactive effects of irrigation and seed burial depth in sand on seedling emergence and seedling survival in three annuals (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Bassia dasyphylla and Aristida adscensionis) commonly growing on sand dunes in these regions. • Methods Effects of temperature, light and polyethylene glycol-6000 on seed germination were examined by irrigating seeds sown on filter paper in Petri dishes. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown on the surface of, or at different depths (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm) in, sand-filled pots, which were irrigated under different regimes. For seeds buried at a depth of 50 mm, seed viability was examined after irrigation of the pots. • Key Results Seeds of three species germinated at most temperatures recorded between spring and autumn in their native habitats. No seed dormancy was found in any species. For all three species, seedling emergence was most favoured when seeds were buried at a depth of 10 mm. When seeds sown on the sand surface were irrigated, seed germination was considerably suppressed due to water deficiency, but many seeds remained viable. For A. squarrosum and B. dasyphylla, many seeds that were deeply buried and irrigated remained ungerminated but viable, while for A. adscensionis deeply buried seeds germinated, but the seedlings did not emerge due to unfavourable seedling growth in deep sand. • Conclusions Precipitation is the most crucial factor in determining the seasonal emergence of seedlings of the three tested species in the field. The vertical distribution of seeds in sand determines the proportion of seeds that germinate after precipitation and acts to maintain seed banks over multiple years. PMID:15644383

  20. Constraints on tree seedling establishment in montane grasslands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coop, Jonathan D; Givnish, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Montane and subalpine grasslands are prominent, but poorly understood, features of the Rocky Mountains. These communities frequently occur below reversed tree lines on valley floors, where nightly cold air accumulation is spatially coupled with fine soil texture. We used field experiments to assess the roles of minimum temperature, soil texture, grass competition, and ungulate browsing on the growth, photosynthetic performance, and survival of transplanted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings at 32 sites straddling such reversed tree lines in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico (USA). Seedling growth increased most strongly with increasing nighttime minimum temperatures away from the valley bottoms; seedlings experiencing the coldest temperatures on the caldera floor exhibited stunted needles and often no measurable height growth. Based on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratios PhiPSII and Fv/Fm, we found that low minimum temperatures, low soil moisture, and fine soil texture all contributed to photoinhibition. Neighboring herbs had only minor negative effects on seedlings. We found no effect of ungulates, but golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) caused substantial seedling mortality. Second-year seedling survival was highest on sandy soils, and third-year survival was highest at sites with higher minimum temperatures. We conclude that differential tree seedling establishment driven by low minimum temperatures in the valley bottoms is the primary factor maintaining montane grasslands of the VCNP, although this process probably operated historically in combination with frequent surface fire to set the position of the tree line ecotone. As at alpine tree lines, reversed tree lines bordering montane and subalpine grasslands can represent temperature-sensitive boundaries of the tree life form. PMID:18481534

  1. Fertility-dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on white spruce seedling nutrition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alistair J H; Potvin, Lynette R; Lilleskov, Erik A

    2015-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) typically colonize nursery seedlings, but nutritional and growth effects of these communities are only partly understood. To examine these effects, Picea glauca seedlings collected from a tree nursery naturally colonized by three dominant EcMF were divided between fertilized and unfertilized treatments. After one growing season seedlings were harvested, ectomycorrhizas identified using DNA sequencing, and seedlings analyzed for leaf nutrient concentration and content, and biomass parameters. EcMF community structure-nutrient interactions were tested using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) combined with vector analysis of foliar nutrients and biomass. We identified three dominant species: Amphinema sp., Atheliaceae sp., and Thelephora terrestris. NMDS + envfit revealed significant community effects on seedling nutrition that differed with fertilization treatment. PERMANOVA and regression analyses uncovered significant species effects on host nutrient concentration, content, and stoichiometry. Amphinema sp. had a significant positive effect on phosphorus (P), calcium and zinc concentration, and P content; in contrast, T. terrestris had a negative effect on P concentration. In the unfertilized treatment, percent abundance of the Amphinema sp. negatively affected foliar nitrogen (N) concentration but not content, and reduced foliar N/P. In fertilized seedlings, Amphinema sp. was positively related to foliar concentrations of N, magnesium, and boron, and both concentration and content of manganese, and Atheliaceae sp. had a negative relationship with P content. Findings shed light on the community and species effects on seedling condition, revealing clear functional differences among dominants. The approach used should be scalable to explore function in more complex communities composed of unculturable EcMF. PMID:25904341

  2. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean

  3. Salt stress-induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamines regulate a variety of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and stress-induced responses in plants. Present investigations report the effect of NaCl stress on endogenous serotonin and melatonin accumulation and their differential spatial distribution in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedling roots and cotyledons using HPLC and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments lead to variable effect on hypocotyl elongation and root growth under NaCl stress. NaCl stress for 48 h increases endogenous serotonin and melatonin content in roots and cotyledons, thus indicating their involvement in salt-induced long distance signaling from roots to cotyledons. Salt stress-induced accumulation of serotonin and melatonin exhibits differential distribution in the vascular bundles and cortex in the differentiating zones of the primary roots, suggesting their compartmentalization in the growing region of roots. Serotonin and melatonin accumulation in oil body rich cells of salt-treated seedling cotyledons correlates with longer retention of oil bodies in the cotyledons. Present investigations indicate the possible role of serotonin and melatonin in regulating root growth during salt stress in sunflower. Effect of exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments (15 μM) on sunflower seedlings grown in the absence or presence of 120 mM NaCl substantiates their role on seedling growth. Auxin and serotonin biosynthesis are coupled to the common precursor tryptophan. Salt stress-induced root growth inhibition, thus pertains to partial impairment of auxin functions caused by increased serotonin biosynthesis. In seedling cotyledons, NaCl stress modulates the activity of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4), the enzyme responsible for melatonin biosynthesis from N-acetylserotonin. PMID:24799301

  4. Growth and mineral accumulation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings irrigated with mixed industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Bhati, M; Singh, G

    2003-07-01

    Effects of mixed industrial effluents on growth, dry matter accumulation and mineral nutrient in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings were studied. The objective was to evaluate the adaptability of E. camaldulensis to effluent, tolerance to excess/deficiency of mineral elements and ultimately to determine suitable combinations of industrial/municipal effluent for their use in biomass production in dry areas. Different irrigation treatments were: T(1): good water; T(2): municipal effluent; T(3): textile effluent; T(4): steel effluent; T(5): textile effluent+municipal effluent in 1:1 ratio; T(6): steel effluent+municipal effluent in 1:2 ratio; T(7): steel+textile+municipal effluent in 1:2:2 ratio; and T(8): steel+textile effluent in 1:2 ratio. High concentrations of metal ions and low concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Na, N and P in soil and seedlings of T(4) resulted in mortality of the seedlings within a few days. Addition of the textile/municipal effluent increased the survival time of the seedlings for two to three months in T(6), T(7) and T(8) treatments. Among the remaining treatments, the seedlings of T(2) attained 131 cm height, 1.97 cm collar diameter, 19 total branches and produced 158 g seedling(-1) of dry biomass at the age of 10 months. The seedling of T(3) produced the least growth and biomass. Growth equivalent to that of the seedlings of T(1) treatment was achieved when municipal effluent was mixed with textile effluent (T(5)). There was a decrease in soil pH, EC, SOC, NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, PO(4)-P and basic cations and increase in the concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn with T(4) treatment. The reverse trend was observed in T(3) where a high concentration of Na might have reduced Mg and micronutrient concentration in seedlings potentially affecting root and leaf growth. Mixing of effluents may be useful in tree irrigation to increase biomass productivity, which is evidenced by improved growth in T(5) and survival in T(6), T(7) and T(8) treatments. Further

  5. [Effects of sand burial on growth and physiological process of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings in Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-Lin; Qu, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Lian; Wang, Jin; Li, Jin; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2013-12-01

    In 2010-2011, a sand burial experiment was conducted on the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia to study the growth characteristics and physiological properties of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings under different depths of sand burial. The A. squarrosum seedlings had stronger tolerance against sand burial. The seedling growth could be severely inhibited when the burial depth exceeded seedling height, but some seedlings could still be survived when the burial depth exceeded 1.66 times of seedling height. When the burial depth did not exceed the seedling height, the seedling MDA content and membrane permeability had no significant change, but the lipid peroxidation was aggravated and the cell membrane was damaged with increasing burial depth. Under sand burial stress, the seedling SOD and POD activities and proline content increased significantly, while the seedling CAT activity and soluble sugar content deceased. Sand burial decreased the leaf photosynthetic area and damaged cell membrane, inducing the increase of seedling mortality and the inhibition of seedling growth. The increase of SOD and POD activities and proline content played a definite role in reducing the sand burial damage to A. squarrosum seedlings. PMID:24697053

  6. Proteome analysis of roots of wheat seedlings under aluminum stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Kamal, Abu Hena Mostofa; Cho, Kun; Cho, Seong-Woo; Park, Chul-Soo; Choi, Jong-Soon; Komatsu, Setsuko; Woo, Sun-Hee

    2014-02-01

    The root apex is considered the first sites of aluminum (Al) toxicity and the reduction in root biomass leads to poor uptake of water and nutrients. Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils. Aluminum is a light metal that makes up 7 % of the earth's scab dissolving ionic forms. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. Seeds of wheat cv. Keumkang were germinated on petridish for 5 days and then transferred hydroponic apparatus which was treated without or with 100 and 150 μM AlCl3 for 5 days. The length of roots, shoots and fresh weight of wheat seedlings were decreased under aluminum stress. The concentration of K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were decreased, whereas Al(3+) and P2O5 (-) concentration was increased under aluminum stress. Using confocal microscopy, the fluorescence intensity of aluminum increased with morin staining. A proteome analysis was performed to identify proteins, which are responsible to aluminum stress in wheat roots. Proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-DE. A total of 47 protein spots were changed under Al stress. Nineteen proteins were significantly increased such as sadenosylmethionine, oxalate oxidase, malate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase, ascorbate peroxidase and/or, 28 protein spots were significantly decreased such as heat shock protein 70, O-methytransferase 4, enolase, and amylogenin. Our results highlight the importance and identification of stress and defense responsive proteins with morphological and physiological state under Al stress. PMID:24357239

  7. Water Relation Parameters of Embryogenic Cultures and Seedlings of Larch

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nigel J.; von Aderkas, Patrick; Fuchs, Edgar E.; Reaney, Martin J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the water relations parameters of developing somatic embryogenic and xygotic European larch (Larix decidua) were studied. Water release curves were generated by suspending tissue samples over unsaturated NaCl solutions until they reached vapor equilibration with the surrounding air. Twenty solutions were used whose water potentials ranged from −0.05 to −10 MPa. Water release curves were obtained by plotting paired values of tissue relative water content (RWC) and solution potential. Curves were derived for embryonic larch at various stages of development and for hypocotyls and roots from germinated zygotic and somatic embryos. The ability to resist dehydration increased markedly with development. Stage 1 tissue, which consisted of clusters of loosely associated nonchlorophyllous cells, had extremely low bulk elastic modulus (ε) (1.91 MPa) and apoplastic water content (A) (0.023), relatively high osmotic potential (Ψπ) (−0.53 MPa), and lost turgor at 0.56 RWC. In contrast, mature embryoids with primary roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledons (stage 3) had an almost 4-fold increase in A (0.089), significantly higher ε (3.49 MPa), and lower Ψπ (−0.88 MPa) and lost turgor at 0.66 RWC. Hypocotyl tissue from germinated somatic embryos lost turgor at 0.74 RWC and had higher ε, A, and solute accumulation than pregerminated tissue. Hypocotyl tissue resisted dehydration more strongly than root tissue, and differences between root and hypocotyl water relation parameters were more pronounced in xygotic than in somatic seedlings. Highest dehydration resistance was in zygotic hypocotyls. The characterization of the water relations of tissue cultures should allow the development of more consistent and reliable desiccation protocols to induce maturation of embryos and produce synchronously germinating seed. PMID:16653121

  8. Early seed fall and seedling emergence: precursors to tropical restoration.

    PubMed

    Howe, Henry F; Urincho-Pantaleon, Yuliana; de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    We explore processes of seed immigration and seedling recruitment before an experimental rainforest restoration matures enough to affect either. Twenty-four 30 × 30-m plots were fenced in 12 ha of pasture in 2006. Seeds were collected in ninety-six 1-m(-2) seed traps; recruits were censused in ~12,000 m(2) in which establishment was allowed. We tested effects of distance from forest, living trees, and stumps of trees cut during site preparation on seed rain in 2007 and effects of these and soil depth on recruits through June 2008. Seed fall and recruitment were not correlated with distance to forest 90-400 m away, nor to living shade trees outside the 160 × 485-m experimental grid. Recruitment differed for animal- and wind-dispersed species in a topographically complex landscape. Recruitment of wind-dispersed species was random with respect to soil depth or distance to recent stumps. Recruitment of animal-dispersed species was multimodal; partial correlations with number of stumps within 30 m of plots were significant with soil depth held constant (P < 0.025), as were correlations of recruitment with soil depth with number of stumps held constant (P < 0.01). Animal-dispersed recruits were often not conspecifics of adults that had been cut, indicating a legacy of attraction by fruiting trees of animals bearing seeds from distant sources. Ecological implications are that recruitment in pastures released from grazing reflects a mix of widely scattered wind-dispersed pioneers and, where animal-dispersed trees exist, multi-modal and decidedly non-random recruitment of pioneer and later successional animal-dispersed trees from seed banks. PMID:20559658

  9. Anaerobiosis in Echinochloa crus-galli (Barnyard Grass) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Rumpho, Mary E.; Kennedy, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Tolerance to ethanol and the ability to metabolize key intermediary substrates under anaerobiosis were studied in Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var oryzicola seeds to further characterize the mechanisms which enable it to germinate and grow without O2. Our results indicate that E. crus-galli var oryzicola possesses an inherently high tolerance to ethanol and is able to metabolize low levels of ethanol in the absence of O2. Concentrations of ethanol 45-fold greater than endogenous levels did not prove toxic to germinating seeds. Five-day anaerobically grown seedlings of E. crus-galli var oryzicola metabolized added [14C]sucrose primarily to CO2 and ethanol. Of the soluble compounds labeled, the phosphorylated intermediates of glycolysis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway predominated more under anaerobiosis than in air. In addition, organic acids and lipids were labeled from [14C]sucrose, the latter indicating that metabolism of carbohydrate via acetyl-CoA occurred in the absence of O2. Lipids were also labeled when seeds were supplied with [14C]ethanol or [14C]acetate. Labeling experiments using the above compounds plus [14C]NaHCO3, showed further labeling of organic acids; succinate and citrate being labeled under nitrogen, while fumarate was formed in air. The above metabolic characteristics would allow for the maintenance of an active alcoholic fermentation system which, along with high alcohol dehydrogenase activity, would continue to recycle NAD and result in continued energy production without O2. In addition, Echinochloa's ability to metabolize carbohydrate intermediates and to synthesize lipids indicates that mechanisms exist for providing the carbon intermediates for biosynthesis, particularly membrane synthesis for growth, even in the absence of O2. PMID:16662979

  10. Size effects of chitooligomers on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-15

    In this study, nine chitooligomers (COSs) including seven single COSs (chitobiose to chitooctaose) and two COS fractions with narrow degrees of polymerization (DPs) (DP8-10, DP10-12) were prepared and applied to wheat seedlings to investigate the size effects of COSs on the growth and photosynthesis parameters of wheat seedlings. The results showed that the activities of COS were closely related to their DPs, and DP>3 was necessary to insure a significant promotion effect on the growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, chitoheptaose exhibited the optimal activity compared with other COS samples. After 7 days of chitoheptaose treatment, the growth parameters of wheat seedlings could be significantly improved and the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein and chlorophyll were increased by 59.4%, 22.0% and 20.3%, respectively. In addition, chitoheptaose could significantly enhance the net photosynthetic rate of wheat seedlings with the values of Fv/Fo, qP and Rfd increased by 11.0%, 18.6% and 14.7%, respectively, while NPQ was decreased obviously, which might resulted in the promotion of light utilization efficiency and the growth of wheat seedlings. PMID:26794734

  11. Comparative analysis of different methods for evaluating quality of Quercus ilex seedlings inoculated with Tuber melanosporum.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Alpuente, Antonio; Sánchez, Sergio; Martín, María; Aguirre, Angel Javier; Barriuso, Juan J

    2014-04-01

    The quality of seedlings colonized by Tuber melanosporum is one of the main factors that contributes to the success or failure of a truffle crop. Truffle cultivation has quickly grown in European countries and elsewhere, so a commonly shared seedling evaluation method is needed. Five evaluation methods are currently published in the literature: three are used in Spain and two in France and Italy. Although all estimate the percentage colonization by T. melanosporum mycorrhizae, they do it in different ways. Two methods also estimate total number of mycorrhizae per seedling. Most are destructive. In this work, ten batches of holm oak seedlings inoculated with T. melanosporum from two different nurseries were evaluated by means of the five methods noted above. Some similarity was detected between the percentages of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae estimated by each method but not in their ability to assess the suitability of each batch. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each method and suggest approaches to reach consensus within the truffle culture industry for certifying mycorrhizal colonization by T. melanosporum and seedling quality. PMID:24522843

  12. The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Tuber melanosporum on the quality of Pinus halepensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, J A; Martin, A; Anriquez, A; Albanesi, A

    2012-08-01

    The ecological, economic and social values of the ectomycorrhizal fungi of the black truffle found in the rural Mediterranean are well known. The inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the regeneration of arid regions and the reintroduction of inocula of mycorrhizal fungi into these areas. Some rhizobacteria can improve the establishment and functioning of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. In this study, seedlings of P. halepensis were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 under non-limiting greenhouse conditions. Five months after inoculation, we analysed the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at saturation, osmotic potential at turgor loss and modulus of elasticity), concentrations of mycorrhizal colonies, nutrient concentration and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) in roots and aerial parts of the seedlings. Subsequently, tests were performed to estimate the root growth potentials. None of the treatments changed the water parameters or growth potentials of the roots. The inoculations improved the growth and nutrient uptake of the seedlings, although the combination of P. fluorescens CECT 844 and T. melanosporum did not generally lead to a significant improvement over the positive effects of a simple inoculation of T. melanosporum; however, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did double the rate of the mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. These results may be promising for enhancing the cultivation of truffles. PMID:22068563

  13. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  14. Diversity of endophytic bacteria from Eucalyptus species seeds and colonization of seedlings by Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Anderson; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Oda, Shinitiro; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2008-10-01

    The diversity and beneficial characteristics of endophytic microorganisms have been studied in several host plants. However, information regarding naturally occurring seed-associated endophytes and vertical transmission among different life-history stages of hosts is limited. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from seeds and seedlings of 10 Eucalyptus species and two hybrids. The results showed that endophytic bacteria, such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, Paenibacillus and Methylobacterium, are vertically transferred from seeds to seedlings. In addition, the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was tagged with the gfp gene, inoculated into seeds and further reisolated from seedlings. These results suggested a novel approach to change the profile of the plants, where the bacterium is a delivery vehicle for desired traits. This is the first report of an endophytic bacterial community residing in Eucalyptus seeds and the transmission of these bacteria from seeds to seedlings. The bacterial species reported in this work have been described as providing benefits to host plants. Therefore, we suggest that endophytic bacteria can be transmitted vertically from seeds to seedlings, assuring the support of the bacterial community in the host plant. PMID:18710397

  15. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, P. N.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation.

  16. Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Marcus; Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    For germination and establishment, orchids depend on carbon (C) and nutrients supplied by mycorrhizal fungi. As adults, the majority of orchids then appear to become autotrophic. To compare the proportional C and nitrogen (N) gain from fungi in mycoheterotrophic seedlings and in adults, here we examined in the field C and N stable isotope compositions in seedlings and adults of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Using a new highly sensitive approach, we measured the isotope compositions of seedlings and adults of four orchid species belonging to different functional groups: fully and partially mycoheterotrophic orchids associated with narrow or broad sets of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and two adult putatively autotrophic orchids associated exclusively with saprotrophic fungi. Seedlings of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi were enriched in (13) C and (15) N similarly to fully mycoheterotrophic adults. Seedlings of saprotroph-associated orchids were also enriched in (13) C and (15) N, but unexpectedly their enrichment was significantly lower, making them hardly distinguishable from their respective adult stages and neighbouring autotrophic plants. We conclude that partial mycoheterotrophy among saprotroph-associated orchids cannot be identified unequivocally based on C and N isotope compositions alone. Thus, partial mycoheterotrophy may be much more widely distributed among orchids than hitherto assumed. PMID:24444001

  17. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  18. Femtosecond laser-fabricated biochip for studying symbiosis between Phormidium and seedling root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuaki; Hanada, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Ikuko; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-06-01

    We present the fabrication of a waveguide-like structure in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer substrate using a femtosecond laser to study the mechanism of symbiosis between filamentous cyanobacteria, Phormidium, and a seedling root. While symbiosis occurring underground promotes the growth of vegetable seedlings, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of Phormidium gliding to the seedling root will facilitate improving the mat formation of Phormidium, which will lead to increased vegetable production. We assumed a symbiosis mechanism in which sunlight propagates through the seedling root and is scattered underground to guide the Phormidium gliding. Once attached to the root, Phormidium uses the scattered light for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic products, in turn, promote an increase in Phormidium mat formation and vegetable growth. To verify this assumption, the optical characteristics of the seedling root were investigated. A waveguide-like structure with the same optical characteristics of the root was subsequently fabricated by femtosecond laser in PDMS polymer to assess the light illumination effect on Phormidium behavior.

  19. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately. PMID:27399708

  20. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  1. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    PubMed

    Larson, Julie E; Sheley, Roger L; Hardegree, Stuart P; Doescher, Paul S; James, Jeremy J

    2016-05-01

    Seedling recruitment is a critical driver of population dynamics and community assembly, yet we know little about functional traits that define different recruitment strategies. For the first time, we examined whether trait relatedness across germination and seedling stages allows the identification of general recruitment strategies which share core functional attributes and also correspond to recruitment outcomes in applied settings. We measured six seed and eight seedling traits (lab- and field-collected, respectively) for 47 varieties of dryland grasses and used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis to identify major dimensions of trait variation and to isolate trait-based recruitment groups, respectively. PCA highlighted some links between seed and seedling traits, suggesting that relative growth rate and root elongation rate are simultaneously but independently associated with seed mass and initial root mass (first axis), and with leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, coleoptile tissue density and germination rate (second axis). Third and fourth axes captured separate tradeoffs between hydrothermal time and base water potential for germination, and between specific root length and root mass ratio, respectively. Cluster analysis separated six recruitment types along dimensions of germination and growth rates, but classifications did not correspond to patterns of germination, emergence or recruitment in the field under either of two watering treatments. Thus, while we have begun to identify major threads of functional variation across seed and seedling stages, our understanding of how this variation influences demographic processes-particularly germination and emergence-remains a key gap in functional ecology. PMID:26337610

  2. Seedling development and evaluation of genetic stability of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds.

    PubMed

    Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; de Faria, Ricardo Tadeu; Vendrame, Wagner Aparecido

    2014-03-01

    Vitrification, a simple, fast, and recommended cryopreservation method for orchid germplasm conservation, was evaluated for Dendrobium hybrid "Dong Yai" mature seeds. The genetic stability of regenerated seedlings was also evaluated using flow cytometry. Mature seeds from this hybrid were submitted to plant vitrification solution (PVS2) for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 h at 0 °C. Subsequently, they were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196 °C for 1 h and recovered in half-strength Murashige and Skoog culture medium (1/2 MS), and seed germination was evaluated after 30 days. Seeds directly submitted to LN did not germinate after cryopreservation. Seeds treated with PVS2 between 1 and 3 h presented the best germination (between 51 and 58%), although longer exposure to PVS2 returned moderated germination (39%). Germinated seeds were further subcultured in P-723 culture medium and developed whole seedlings in vitro after 180 days, with no abnormal characteristics, diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Seedlings were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with over 80% survival. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no chromosomal changes on vitrified seedlings, as well as seedlings germinated from the control treatment (direct exposure to LN). These findings indicate that vitrification is a feasible and safe germplasm cryopreservation method for commercial Dendrobium orchid hybrid conservation. PMID:24402568

  3. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  4. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at <0.2 mg kg(-1), while >800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index. PMID:27337433

  5. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noorullah; Kazmi, Rashid H; Willems, Leo A J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  6. Damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in Noshahr and Kelardasht.

    PubMed

    Zad, S J; Koshnevice, M

    2001-01-01

    To study the damping-off of conifer seedlings, we have collected samples from the roots of conifer seedlings (Pinus nigra, Picea excelsa, Abieces spp, Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens) from nurseries in the south of Iran (Noshahr and Kelardasht). After disinfecting the samples, we have used standard media like PDA, MA and CLA. The following fungi were identified: Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium sambucinum, Clamydosporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon spp., Alternaria spp, Macrophomina phaseoli. Amongst the above mentioned fungi, Fusarium spp. were the commonest ones. Pathogenecity tests of Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on seedlings were done. Isolated fungal colonies were purified using single mycelium and single spore methods. Fungal isolates were identified after subculturing on PDA and CLA media by Nelson method. These isolates were Fusarium solani, F. oxysporium, F. sambucinum and F. clamydosporum. Other fungal isolates were Rhizoctonia spp. In order to determine the infectivity of Fusarium on their hosts, seeds of Pinus nigra, Cupressus arizonica and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis were cultured in four repetitions each containing 2 seedlings. After a seasonal growth, seedlings were inoculated with a suspension of Fusarium spores (4.5 +/- 0.3 x 1016 spore/ml). Infection of P. nigra, Cupressus arizonica and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis with F. solani and Pinus nigra and Cupressus semperivirens var. horizontalis with F. oxysporum was high whereas that of Cupressus arizonica with F. sambucinum, F. mondiforme and F. clamydosporum was moderate. PMID:12425024

  7. Protection of the Photosynthetic Apparatus from Extreme Dehydration and Oxidative Stress in Seedlings of Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Personat, José-María; Tejedor-Cano, Javier; Lindahl, Marika; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Jordano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9) has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII) maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI) membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation. PMID:23227265

  8. Second year effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Potted native and phyton-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed for a second growing season to ozone and/or acid deposition in open-top field chambers on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1,680 m). Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient ozone (COE), (2) ozone with clouds excluded (CE), and (3) exposure to clouds and ozone, as control chambers (CO), and (4) open plots (AA). No differences were detected among treatments for biomass accumulation or for chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phyton seedlings in AA and CO treatments maintained high photosynthetic rates through October, whereas rates in CE and COE decreased, suggesting that dormancy and winter hardiness were delayed in AA and CO, possibly making seedlings susceptible to early frosts. Respiration of both seedling types was higher for AA and CO throughout most of the growing season, which could lead to depletion of carbohydrates, and eventually to a reduction in growth and vigor of the seedlings over time due to air pollution.

  9. Expression of stress-related genes in zebrawood (Astronium fraxinifolium, Anacardiaceae) seedlings following germination in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Peter W; Ciampi, Ana Y; Salomão, Antonieta N; Costa, Tânia da S A; Azevedo, Vânia C R

    2014-03-01

    Seeds of a tropical tree species from Brazil, Astronium fraxinifolium, or zebrawood, were germinated, for the first time in microgravity, aboard the International Space Station for nine days. Following three days of subsequent growth under normal terrestrial gravitational conditions, greater root length and numbers of secondary roots was observed in the microgravity-treated seedlings compared to terrestrially germinated controls. Suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNA and EST analysis were used to detect differential gene expression in the microgravity-treated seedlings in comparison to those initially grown in normal gravity (forward subtraction). Despite their return to, and growth in normal gravity, the subtracted library derived from microgravity-treated seedlings was enriched in known microgravity stress-related ESTs, corresponding to large and small heat shock proteins, 14-3-3-like protein, polyubiquitin, and proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. In contrast, the reverse-subtracted library contained a comparatively greater variety of general metabolism-related ESTs, but was also enriched for peroxidase, possibly indicating the suppression of this protein in the microgravity-treated seedlings. Following continued growth for 30 days, higher concentrations of total chlorophyll were detected in the microgravity-exposed seedlings. PMID:24688295

  10. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings. PMID:25069575

  11. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  12. [Eco-physiological response of Quercus variabilis seedlings to increased atmospheric CO2 and N supply].

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Ran; Lei, Jing-Pin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Pan, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CO2 enhancement, nitrogen deposition and their interaction on the northern boundary (Zhuanghe in Liaoning Province) of Quercus variabilis seedlings was studied by controlling the CO2 concentration (700 micromol x mol(-1); 400 micromol x mol(-1)) and nitrogen level (non nitrogen fertilizer: CK; nitrogen fertilizer: 120 kg N x hm(-2)). The results showed that under elevated CO2 the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology, photosynthetic pigments and leaf nitrogen content tended to decrease, and the dark respiration rate decreased 63. 3% and soluble sugar increased 2.6%. Nitrogen deposition significantly promoted the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic pigments, leading to increased leaf nitrogen content, decreased potassium content, and 26.7% of increase in nitrogen to potassium ratio. CO2 and N interaction played a significant role on promoting the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic. The maximum net photosynthetic and light saturation point were 1.4 and 2.6 times of the control, while dark respiration and light compensation point decreased 65.9% and 50.0%, respectively. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition had a positive effect on Q. variabilis seedlings to some degree, which might result in the movement of distribution boundary of Q. variabilis to north. PMID:24765838

  13. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Myers, P N; Mitchell, C A

    1998-11-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation. PMID:11542673

  14. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately. PMID:27399708

  15. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

  16. Effects of tropospheric ozone on loblolly pine seedlings inoculated with root infecting ophiostomatoid fungi.

    PubMed

    Chieppa, Jeff; Chappelka, Art; Eckhardt, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Seedlings from four loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) families were exposed in open-top chambers to charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) or air amended with ozone to 2 times ambient (2×). Two of the families used were selected for their tolerance to fungi associated with Southern Pine Decline while two were selected for their susceptibility. Seedlings were treated with five inoculation treatments: no wound (NW), wound only (W), wound + media (WM), Grosmannia huntii (GH) and Leptographium terebrantis (LT). After 118 days of exposure (AOT40 = 31 ppm-hr(-1) for 2× ozone) seedling volume, dry matter, chlorophyll content, water potential and lesions were measured and analyzed using ANOVA procedures. Our results indicate that seedlings selected for their susceptibility to root infecting ophiostomatoid fungi were also more sensitive to ozone. Overall lesion length was greater on seedlings exposed to elevated ozone concentrations but was not specific to either root infecting ophiostomatoid fungi. PMID:26367706

  17. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  18. Pasture trees in tropical México: the effect of soil nutrients on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sáanchez, José Luis

    2006-06-01

    Environment and seedling community under isolated trees in pastures are different from those in the open pasture. The effect of the pasture trees on the soil nutrients and on the seedling growth were investigated. Seven isolated trees and eight plots were selected in two pastures of 12-yr and 32-yr old derived from a lowland rain forest with nutrient-rich soil at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The soil concentrations of total N, P Bray, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, plus others physical and chemical characteristics, were compared between the pasture trees and the open-pasture. An experiment was done to test the hypothesis that soil from under the pasture trees was better for seedling growth than soil from the open pasture. Seedlings of two native tree species and two domesticated species were grown in soil from the two different sites in a shade-house. The dry weight of the shoot and root/shoot ratio were compared. Only total N, P and Na+ differed slightly in concentrations between the sites, but did not promote more seedling biomass. It seems that the soil at this location is sufficiently nutrient-rich even in the open pastures and over-ride any effect of the pasture trees on nutrient availability. PMID:18494306

  19. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  20. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  1. Evaluation of growth potential of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) seedlings for the first growing season under Tekir forest nursery conditions in Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Mahmut D; Tonguc, Fatih

    2003-04-01

    In this study, growth potential of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) seedlings for the first growing season under Tekir Forest Nursery conditions in Kahramanmaras was evaluated. The height growth of Crimean juniper seedlings was relatively close to that of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) seedlings produced in the same nursery, but their root collar diameters were fairly lower than that of Lebanon cedar seedlings. According to coniferous seedling standards of Turkish Standards Institute, the height growth of Crimean juniper seedlings was fairly good, but their root collar diameters were slightly small. In this respect, that 2+0 or 1+1 Crimean juniper seedlings are used in reforestation activities in the region would be more useful than 1+0 seedlings. PMID:12974456

  2. Mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity action: induction of reactive oxygen species and cell death in lettuce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Dan; Ding, Lan; Cui, Hai-Yan; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jian-She; Qin, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Artemisinin has been recognized as an allelochemical that inhibits growth of several plant species. However, its mode of action is not well clarified. In this study, the mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity on lettuce seedlings was investigated. Root and shoot elongation of lettuce seedlings were inhibited by artemisinin in a concentration-dependent manner. The compound effectively arrested cell division and caused loss of cell viability in root tips of lettuce. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by artemisinin. Lipid peroxidation, proline overproduction and reduction of chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings were found after treatments. These results suggested that artemisinin could induce ROS overproduction, which caused membrane lipids peroxidation and cell death, and impacted mitosis and physiological processes, resulting in growth inhibition of receptor plants. PMID:25658194

  3. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  4. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on water relations and photosynthesis in White Pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, K.J.; Zwiazek, J.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Transpiration, photosynthesis, water potential components and tissue fluoride concentrations were determined in mildly drought stressed 9-week-old seedlings fumigated with HF. Only those seedlings which showed no visible signs of fluoride injury were selected for the measurements. Photosynthesis decreased after 1 and 7 days of fumigation with 2, 4 and 20 ppb HF. A decrease in the transpiration rates has been observed after 2, 7 and 22 days of 0.5 ppb HF treatment and after 2 days of 2 ppb HF treatment. The same treatments which reduced transpiration rates resulted in an increase in osmotic potentials and water potentials. Possible mechanism of HF-induced alterations in seedling water relations by altering stomatal movements is discussed.

  5. Phytotoxicity of zinc and manganese to seedlings grown in soil contaminated by zinc smelting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Green, C.E.; Beyer, M.; Chaney, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Historic emissions from two zinc smelters have injured the forest on Blue Mountain near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, USA. Seedlings of soybeans and five tree species were grown in a greenhouse in a series of mixtures of smelter-contaminated and reference soils and then phytotoxic thresholds were calculated. As little as 10% Palmerton soil mixed with reference soil killed or greatly stunted seedlings of most species. Zinc was the principal cause of the phytotoxicity to the tree seedlings, although Mn and Cd may also have been phytotoxic in the most contaminated soil mixtures. Calcium deficiency seemed to play a role in the observed phytotoxicity. Exposed soybeans showed symptoms of Mn toxicity. A test of the effect of liming on remediation of the Zn and Mn phytotoxicity caused a striking decrease in Sr-nitrate extractable metals in soils and demonstrated that liming was critical to remediation and restoration.

  6. Phytotoxicity of zinc and manganese to seedlings grown in soil contaminated by zinc smelting.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Green, C E; Beyer, M; Chaney, R L

    2013-08-01

    Historic emissions from two zinc smelters have injured the forest on Blue Mountain near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, USA. Seedlings of soybeans and five tree species were grown in a greenhouse in a series of mixtures of smelter-contaminated and reference soils and then phytotoxic thresholds were calculated. As little as 10% Palmerton soil mixed with reference soil killed or greatly stunted seedlings of most species. Zinc was the principal cause of the phytotoxicity to the tree seedlings, although Mn and Cd may also have been phytotoxic in the most contaminated soil mixtures. Calcium deficiency seemed to play a role in the observed phytotoxicity. Exposed soybeans showed symptoms of Mn toxicity. A test of the effect of liming on remediation of the Zn and Mn phytotoxicity caused a striking decrease in Sr-nitrate extractable metals in soils and demonstrated that liming was critical to remediation and restoration. PMID:23685629

  7. Evaluation of Parkia pendula lectin mRNA differentially expressed in seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, M J B M; Santos, P B; Carvalho-Junior, L B; Stirling, J; Beltrão, E I C

    2014-05-01

    Parkia pendula (Willd.) Walp. (Fabaceae) is a neotropical species of the genus Parkia more abundantly distributed in Central to South America. From the seeds of P. pendula a glucose/mannose specific lectin (PpeL) was isolated that has been characterised and used as a biotechnological tool but until now this is the first manuscript to analyse P. pendula mRNA expression in seedlings. For this porpoise a Differential display reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of P. pendula lectin mRNAs in non-rooted seedlings. No bands were observed in the agarose gel, indicating the absence of mRNA of PpeL seedlings. our findings confirm that lectins mRNAs are differently regulated among species even if they are grouped in the same class. PMID:25166336

  8. Photosynthetic Independence of Light-induced Anthocyanin Formation in Zea Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Fox, Sue B.; Naylor, Aubrey W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported which support the view that the photosynthetic photosystems are not involved in the high irradiance response (HIR) phenomenon of light-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis in dark-grown Zea mays L. seedlings. A negative correlation between change in greening rates and change in light-dependent anthocyanin accumulation rates with age was demonstrated. Lack of chlorophyll synthesis in a strain of maize possessing a temperature-sensitive lesion for chlorophyll synthesis could not be correlated with light-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, seedlings totally lacking photosynthetic capabilities, either due to a genetic lesion or to excision of all photosynthetic tissue, had an enhanced rate of photoinduced anthocyanin formation. This evidence indicates that the HIR results in the initiation of processes that are in competition with chloroplast development for substrate in normal, intact seedlings. PMID:16659449

  9. Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to volatile semiochemicals from corn seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    1988-06-01

    Corn seedling volatiles collected cryogenically are highly attractive to western corn rootworm larvae,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in a laboratory bioassay. Carbon dioxide is known as an attractant for western corn rootworm larvae, and the amount of carbon dioxide in the cryogenic collections was measured with an infrared gas analyzer. In a choice test between a source containing carbon dioxide alone and a source containing corn seedling volatiles with an equal amount of carbon dioxide (verified by infrared gas analysis), western corn rootworm larvae chose the corn volatile source significantly more often than the side with carbon dioxide alone. This indicates that carbon dioxide is only one of the volatiles from corn seedlings that is behaviorally important and that other compounds of behavioral importance are present as well. PMID:24276403

  10. Exogenously added copper does not increase the production of copper amine oxidase in lentil seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Maccarrone, M; Buganza, M; Agrò, A F

    1995-03-10

    The effect of copper ions, the inorganic cofactor of amine oxidase (AO; EC 1.4.3.6), on the production of this enzyme in lentil (Lens culinaris) seedlings was studied. The addition of CuSO4 to the imbibition water during the germination of lentils increased the AO activity. However, the amounts of specific mRNA and protein were not affected by the presence of Cu2+. Furthermore, the addition of Cu2+ to homogenates of lentil seedlings grown in the absence of the metal substantially increased the AO activity. Therefore, it appears that exogenously added Cu2+ does not increase the production of AO in lentil seedlings which are still able to synthesize the copper-free enzyme. The addition of Cu2+ seems to reconstitute the enzymatically active holoprotein. PMID:7890159

  11. A comparative field study of growth and survival of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This study is a comparison of seedling growth and survival of seven species of conifers that make up the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest--Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. The field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the study species` relatively shade and drought tolerances. Six discrete treatments were created in the first experiment by using three elevations (1,600 m, 1,900, m, and 2,200 m) and two natural light levels (closed canopy shade and open gap sun) at each elevation. One or two-year old seedlings were planted in the ground in replicate plots in each treatment and followed for two growing seasons. Four responses were analyzed--survival, height growth, diameter growth, and mass growth (total mass as well as root mass and shoot mass separately).

  12. Phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles exposure on germinating wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Candida; Domingo, Guido; Onelli, Elisabetta; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bruni, Ilaria; Marsoni, Milena; Bracale, Marcella

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the effects of 1 and 10 mg L(-1) AgNPs on germinating Triticum aestivum L. seedlings. The exposure to 10 mg L(-1) AgNPs adversely affected the seedling growth and induced morphological modifications in root tip cells. TEM analysis suggests that the observed effects were due primarily to the release of Ag ions from AgNPs. To gain an increased understanding of the molecular response to AgNP exposure, we analyzed the genomic and proteomic changes induced by AgNPs in wheat seedlings. At the DNA level, we applied the AFLP technique and we found that both treatments did not induce any significant DNA polymorphisms. 2DE profiling of roots and shoots treated with 10 mg L(-1) of AgNPs revealed an altered expression of several proteins mainly involved in primary metabolism and cell defense. PMID:24973586

  13. Climate Change Alters Seedling Emergence and Establishment in an Old-Field Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J; Campany, Courtney E; Sides, Katherine E; Weltzin, Jake

    2010-01-01

    In shaping how ecosystems respond to climatic change, ecosystem structure can dominate over physiological responses of individuals, especially under conditions of multiple, simultaneous changes in environmental factors. Ecological succession drives large-scale changes in ecosystem structure over time, but the mechanisms whereby climatic change alters succession remain unresolved. Here, we investigate effects of atmospheric and climatic change on seedling establishment, recognizing that small shifts in seedling establishment of different species may have long-term repercussions on the transition of fields to forests in the future. Our 4-year experiment in an old-field ecosystem revealed that response of seedling emergence to different combinations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature, and soil moisture depends on seed phenology, the timing of seed arrival into an ecosystem. We conclude that seed phenology is an important plant trait that can shape, and help predict, the trajectories of ecosystems under climatic change.

  14. Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Céline; Heuret, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition along the axes of Acacia mangium seedlings. The study area was located in North Lampung (South Sumatra, Indonesia), where these trees belong to a naturally regenerated stand. A total of 173 seedlings, less than three months old, were described node by node. Leaf shape and leaf length were recorded and the way in which one leaf type succeeded another was modelled using a hidden semi-Markov chain composed of seven states. The phyllotactical pattern was studied using another sample of forty 6-month-old seedlings. The results indicate (i) the existence of successive zones characterised by one or a combination of leaf types, and (ii) that phyllode acquisition seems to be accompanied by a change in the phyllotactical pattern. The concepts of juvenility and heteroblasty, as well as potential applications for taxonomy are discussed. PMID:18241805

  15. Nitrogen deficiency system is helpful in characterizing regulation mechanisms of ectopic triacylglycerol accumulation in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yu, Xiangchun; Song, Lianfen; An, Chengcai

    2011-12-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is the major storage component accumulated in seed. However the regulatory mechanism of TAG synthesis and accumulation in non-seed tissues remains unknown. Recently, we found that nitrogen (N) deficiency (0.1mM N) caused an inducement of TAG biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) was essential for the activation of Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase1(DGAT1) expression during N deficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings. In this addendum, we further discussed the approaches to provide a net increase in total oil production in higher plants by using the low N platform. First, the N-deficient seedlings can be used to determine the key factors that regulate the ectopic expression of key genes in TAG metabolism. Second, the research on the relationship between TAG homeostasis and cell division will be helpful to find the key factors that specifically regulate TAG accumulation under the nutrient-limited condition. PMID:22112453

  16. Nitrogen Assimilation and Protein Synthesis in Wheat Seedlings As Affected by Mineral Nutrition. I. Macronutrients 1

    PubMed Central

    Harper, James E.; Paulsen, Gary M.

    1969-01-01

    Deficiencies of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca. Mg, S, and Fe) decreased the specific activity of nitrate reductase from Triticum aestivum L. seedlings. Nitrate content was decreased by N, P, K, Ca, and Mg deficiencies and unaffected by S and Fe deficiencies. Glutamic acid dehydrogenase activity was decreased by N, P, and S deficiencies, unchanged by K deficiency, and increased by Ca, Mg, and Fe deficiencies. Glutamine synthetase activity closely paralleled nitrate reductase activity and was decreased by deficiencies of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was not sensitive to macronutrient deficiencies. High 14C-leucine incorporation into tissue sections of N-, P-, K-, Ca-, and S-deficient seedlings did not appear indicative of protein synthesis rates in intact seedlings. Nutritional deficiencies apparently depleted endogenous amino acid pools and caused less inhibition of exogenous 14C-leucine incorporation into protein. PMID:16657034

  17. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na+/K+ Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na+ influx and K+ efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na+ influx and K+ leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  18. The Window of Desiccation Tolerance Shown by Early-Stage Germinating Seedlings Remains Open in the Resurrection Plant, Xerophyta viscosa

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Rafe; Ingle, Robert A.; Illing, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Resurrection plants are renowned for their vegetative desiccation tolerance (DT). While DT in vegetative tissues is rare in angiosperms, it is ubiquitous in mature orthodox seeds. During germination, seedlings gradually lose DT until they pass a point of no return, after which they can no longer survive dehydration. Here we investigate whether seedlings of the resurrection plant Xerophyta viscosa ever lose the capacity to establish DT. Seedlings from different stages of germination were dehydrated for 48 hours and assessed for their ability to recover upon rehydration. While a transient decline in the ability of X. viscosa seedlings to survive dehydration was observed, at no point during germination was the ability to re-establish DT completely lost in all seedlings. Pre-treatment of seedlings with PEG or sucrose reduced this transient decline, and improved the survival rate at all stages of germination. Additionally, we observed that the trait of poikilochlorophylly (or loss of chlorophyll) observed in adult X. viscosa leaves can be induced throughout seedling development. These results suggest that the window of DT seen in germinating orthodox seeds remains open in X. viscosa seedlings and that vegetative DT in Xerophyta species may have evolved from the ability to retain this program through to adulthood. PMID:24667896

  19. Influence of Tylenchorhynchus ewingi on growth of loblolly pine seedlings, and host suitability of legumes and small grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tylenchorhynchus ewingi, a stunt nematode, causes stunting of slash pine seedlings and has been recently associated with stunting of loblolly pine seedlings at some forest tree nurseries in the southern USA. Experiments confirmed that loblolly pine is a host for T. ewingi and that the nematode is ca...

  20. Seed-caching by heteromyid rodents enhances seedling survival of a desert grass, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from shallowly buried seed caches (i.e., scatterhoards) made by granivorous animals. Scatterhoarding by desert heteromyid rodents facilitates the vast majority of seedling recruitment in Indian ricegrass (Achnatheru...

  1. Calcium Supplementation Improves Na(+)/K(+) Ratio, Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems in Salt-Stressed Rice Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the regulatory role of exogenous calcium (Ca) in developing salt stress tolerance in rice seedlings. Hydroponically grown 13-day-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan47) seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl alone and combined with 2 mM CaCl2 and 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, a Ca scavenger) for 3 days. The salt stress caused growth inhibition, chlorosis and water shortage in the rice seedlings. The salt-induced stress disrupted ion homeostasis through Na(+) influx and K(+) efflux, and decreased other mineral nutrient uptake. Salt stress caused oxidative stress in seedlings through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methylglyoxal (MG) formation. The salt-stressed seedlings supplemented with exogenous Ca recovered from water loss, chlorosis and growth inhibition. Calcium supplementation in the salt-stressed rice seedlings improved ion homeostasis by inhibition of Na(+) influx and K(+) leakage. Exogenous Ca also improved ROS and MG detoxification by improving the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems, respectively. On the other hand, applying EGTA along with salt and Ca again negatively affected the seedlings as EGTA negated Ca activity. It confirms that, the positive responses in salt-stressed rice seedlings to exogenous Ca were for Ca mediated improvement of ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. PMID:27242816

  2. Effects of Roads on Castanopsis carlesii Seedlings and Their Leaf Herbivory in a Subtropical Forest in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Jia-Sheng; Cai, Lu-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a forest road on Castanopsis carlesii (Hemsley) Hayata (Fagales: Fagaceae) seedlings and their leaf herbivory were investigated in a subtropical forest at Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China. A total of 1124 seedlings, 33949 leaves, 468 leaf mines, and 205 leaf galls were found. Generally, individual numbers, tree heights, and leaf numbers of C. carlesii seedlings became lower with increasing distances from the road. These results might indicate that old seedlings were fewer and survival rate of seedlings was lower in forest interiors. Leaf miners preferred the seedlings close to the forest road, while leaf gallers preferred the seedlings about 2 m from the road. Species diversity of leaf miners was higher in the forest interior area, while species diversity of leaf gallers was higher near the road. However, both leaf miners and leaf gallers decreased in general from the road to the interior forest. There were interspecific differences in the effects of roads on leaf miner species and leaf galler species. The effects of the road on seedlings and insects could be explained by varying microhabitat conditions and different ecological strategies. PMID:25373164

  3. Fine mapping of the qCTS4 locus associated with seedling cold tolerance in rice (Orysa Sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures ('15°C) and under prolonged or repeated exposure, yellowing and stunting are commonly observed. Damage to seedlings results in poor stand establishment and delayed maturation, which can cause significant reductions in yield. In general, japonica rice ...

  4. GENETIC MAPPING OF THE QCTS12 AND QCTS4 LOCI CONTROLLING M202 RICE SEEDLING RESPONSE TO LOW TEMPERATURES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California variety M202 exhibits good tolerance to low temperatures during the seedling stage of development. We have identified two major genetic loci, qCTS12 and qCTS4, which are involved in the low temperature tolerance of M202 seedlings. The qCTS12 locus, provides tolerance to cold-induced w...

  5. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  6. Phytochrome signaling in green Arabidopsis seedlings: impact assessment of a mutually-negative phyB-PIF feedback loop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reversibly red (R)-far-red (FR)-light-responsive phytochrome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light, and the shade-avoidance process in fully-deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade. The intra...

  7. Maize seed coatings and seedling sprayings with chitosan and hydrogen peroxide: their influence on some phenological and biochemical behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lizárraga-Paulín, Eva-Guadalupe; Miranda-Castro, Susana-Patricia; Moreno-Martínez, Ernesto; Lara-Sagahón, Alma-Virginia; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chitosan (CH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) seed coatings and seedling sprinklings on two different maize varieties by measuring their phenology, the H2O2 presence, the catalase (CAT) activity, and the protein quantity. Methods: Seven groups of ten seeds for each maize variety were treated with CH (2% (20 g/L) and 0.2% (2 g/L)) or H2O2 (8 mmol/L) by coating, sprinkling, or both. Germination and seedling growth were measured. One month after germination, the presence of H2O2 in seedlings in the coated seed treatments was evaluated. Protein content and CAT activity were determined under all treatments. Results: H2O2 seed coating enhanced the germination rate and increased seedling and stem length in the quality protein maize (QPM) variety. Seedlings had a higher emergence velocity under this treatment in both varieties. CH and H2O2 sprinklings did not have an effect on seedling phenology. Exogenous application of H2O2 promoted an increase of endogenous H2O2. CH and H2O2 seedling sprinkling increased the protein content in both maize varieties, while there was no significant effect on the CAT activity of treated seeds and seedlings. Conclusions: CH and H2O2 enhance some phenological and biochemical features of maize depending on their method of application. PMID:23365007

  8. Mycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhiza associated bacteria isolated from an industrial desert soil protect pine seedlings against Cd(II) impact.

    PubMed

    Kozdrój, Jacek; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Krupa, Piotr

    2007-08-01

    Effects of mycorrhization with Amanita rubescens or Hebeloma sinapizans and dual inoculation with the fungi and ectomycorrhiza associated bacteria (EMAB) Pseudomonas putida or Bacillus cereus on seedling growth and accumulation of Cd(II) in Pinus sylvestris were studied. Both fungal and bacterial species were isolated from roots of pines growing in an industrial area polluted with high concentrations of heavy metals. During mycorrhization, A. rubescens colonized higher number of pine seedlings than H. sinapizans, especially when EMAB were co-inoculated. In addition, the seedling biometric characteristics (i.e. root and shoot lengths and biomass) were stimulated by treatment with the fungal species alone and dual inoculation with the fungi and EMAB. Amanita rubescens was more efficient in this stimulation than H. sinapizans. The increased growth of pine seedlings was especially seen for co-inoculation with P. putida. Furthermore, elevated accumulation of Cd(II), ranging from 56 microg g(-1) to 72 microg g(-1) dry weight, in underground parts of the inoculated seedlings was found. The seedlings treated with A. rubescens accumulated higher concentrations of the metal than those inoculated with H. sinapizans. Additional treatment of pine seedlings with P. putida resulted in the higher accumulation of Cd(II) in the roots as compared with those inoculated with B. cereus. The results suggest that the growth of pine seedlings in Cd(II)-polluted soil may depend on fungal species forming ectomycorrhizae, species-specific co-inoculation with EMAB and specificity of fungal-EMAB interactions. PMID:17541824

  9. Evaluation of seedling cold tolerance in rice cultivars: a comparison of visual ratings and quantitative indicators of physiological changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is sensitive to prolonged exposure to low temperature, which at the seedling stage can result in significant chilling injury and mortality. The objective of this study was to quantify physiological and biochemical changes in rice seedlings undergoing chilling stress and compar...

  10. Does shrub invasion indirectly limit grass establishment via seedling herbivory? A test at grassland-shrubland ecotones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Does shrub invasion at ecotones indirectly limit grass establishment by increasing mammalian seedling herbivory, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico? We tested the hypothesis that herbivore-related mortality of seedlings of the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda would be highest in shrub-dominate...

  11. [Effects of exogenous NO on the growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of cucumber seedlings under NO3- stress].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juan; Wang, Xiu-feng; Yang, Feng-juan; Sun, Jia-zheng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Wang, Xiu-hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, cucumber seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution added with different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol x L(-1)) sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor to study the effects of exogenous NO on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in cucumber leaves under NO3- stress. Under the stress of 140 mmol x L(-1) NO3-, treating with 0.1 mmol x L(-1) of SNP for 1 d or 7 d increased the leaf soluble protein content and superoxidase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) activities, and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly, suggesting that exogenous NO could enhance the capacity of cucumber seedlings in scavenging active oxygen species, protect the seedlings from the peroxidation of membrane lipids, and promote the seedlings growth and increase their resistance to high concentration NO3- stress. After the cucumber seedlings grew in 0.3 mmol x L(-1) of SNP for 7 d, the activities of leaf SOD, POD, and CAT decreased, and the MDA content increased, resulting in the injury of cucumber seedlings. It was indicated that certain concentration (0.1-0.2 mmol x L(-1)) exogenous NO could alleviate the NO3- stress to cucumber seedlings. PMID:20353070

  12. Persistence of fipronil residues in Eucalyptus seedlings and its concentration in the insecticide solution after treatment in the nursery.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre; Zanetti, Ronald; dos Santos, Juliana Cristina; Biagiotti, Gabriel; Evangelista, André Luís; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-05-01

    Eucalyptus seedlings are normally protected from underground termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) by immersing them in insecticide solutions. Fipronil (phenylpyrazole) is the most frequently used product to protect seedlings in the field for up to 6 months after application. This is performed just prior to planting. However, the persistence of this product in seedlings that are treated and subjected to irrigation several days prior to planting has not yet been evaluated. This study aims to quantify the fipronil concentration in the substratum and roots of the seedlings treated and subjected to irrigation for up to 56 days prior to planting and to quantify this insecticide concentration in the solutions, without continuous stirring, for 120 min. The quantitative determination of fipronil in the seedlings and in the insecticide solution was done by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet (UV) detector. It was found that irrigation up to 56 days, performed in the nurseries, did not decrease the fipronil concentration in the seedlings. The absence of stirring reduced the fipronil concentration in the insecticide solution, necessitating a homogenization system to maintain the recommended concentration of this product, to effectively treat the eucalyptus seedlings. The seedling treatment with fipronil can be conducted strictly in the nursery, reducing cost and environmental risks. PMID:27126439

  13. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa. PMID:23636582

  14. Effects of soil enrichment, watering and seedling age on establishment of Mediterranean woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Gemma; Rey, Pedro J.; Alcántara, Julio M.; Bastida, Jesús M.; Herreros, Jose L.

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation restoration in strongly degraded lands has inherent limitations. Among the most relevant limitations in Mediterranean Mountains are severe drought and stressful levels of irradiance during summer. Thus, it is common that seedlings planted in open ground incur high rates of early mortality. In the context of a project of restoration of a burned area in Southern Spain, we evaluate the efficiency of watering and enrichment with native soil, and the influence of seedling age on survival and growth of 9 late-successional tall shrubs and trees planted in open ground. We also explore how small-scale variation in environmental variables relates to establishment success. Our results show an overall positive effect of watering on the survival of planted seedlings, while the effects of enrichment with native soil and age of planted seedlings were species-specific. Seedling establishment varied markedly with the presence of ravines, which duplicated seedling survival. This suggests that ravines may be more easily restored, improving their role as corridors in landscape designs of restoration. Independently of the treatment applied, Rosa sp. and Crataegus monogyna, both fleshy-fruited species, had the highest rates of establishment. In conclusion, this study shows the viability of low aggressive restoration techniques to assist vegetation recovery in fire-degraded environments. Specifically, watering and planting in ravines should be considered where restoration practices are applied in areas lacking vegetation cover. Some species highly attractive for animal dispersers and of easy establishment ( Rosa sp. and Crataegus sp.) could be used to enhance spontaneous regeneration within and beyond corridors through increasing seed attraction and dissemination.

  15. [Effects of light intensity on Quercus liaotungensis seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Li-biao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (55.4%, 18.9%, 5.5%, 2.2%, 0.5% , and 0.3% natural sunlight) on the seed germination and seedling growth of Quercus liaotungensis. The seed germination rate and germination index were the highest (72.5% and 0.22, respectively) at 55.4% natural sunlight, declined with decreasing light intensity, and were the lowest (42.5% and 0.11, respectively) at 0.3% natural sunlight. Strong light had definite delaying effect on the germination. The index of germination vigor increased with decreasing light intensity, being the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight. The delay of seed germination under strong light could be the selective tradeoff on varied seed fates. Strong light benefited the basal stem diameter and root system growth and dry mass accumulation of Q. liaotunensis seedling, but resulted in the minimum seedlings height (6.06 cm). Greater morphological plasticity was observed for the seedlings under different shading, which lent support to the higher adaptability of the seedlings to light environment. For example, the specific leaf area, specific shoot length, specific root length, and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents were the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight, being 142.57 cm2 x g(-1), 156.86 cm x g(-1), 271.87 cm x g(-1), 0.07 g x cm(-2), and 0.24 g x cm(-2), respectively, and the minimum at 55.4% natural sunlight, being 44.89 cm2 x g(-1), 52.84 cm x g(-1), 101.98 cm x g(-1), 0.04 g x cm(-2), and 0.15 g x cm(-2), respectively. The variation of the root/shoot ratio of Q. liaotungensis seedlings under different shading could be the effects of the combination of light intensity and water availability. PMID:22007441

  16. Temperature and saline stress on seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Siddiqur; Akter, S; Al-Amin, M

    2013-12-01

    Physical responses of plants to change in climatic factors like temperature, precipitation and abiotic factors like salinity intrusion may lead positive or negative effects. Some factor may promulgate growth while other may stunts their vigour. Present study seeks growth of a plantation species at its early stage of life towards elevated temperature and saline water stresses. Growth records of Swietenia macrophylla seedlings were enumerated by measuring height, collar diameter and leaf number development of the replicates growing at an environment-controlled plant growth chamber. One experimented with merely elevated temperature while other tries to find results of combined effect of elevated temperature (30, 32 and 34 degrees C) and saline (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g L(-1) NaCl) to said species seedlings. Seedling replicates showed diverse response to elevated temperature and saline irrigation at height, collar diameter and leaf number development. Results depict that elevated temperature alone might be positive for S. macrophylla seedlings, rather most favourable for its growth in height, however, collar diameter and leaf number may remain unaffected. Saline treatment along with higher temperature stresses may lead seedlings toward stunted or very low growth. As saline intensity increases, species growth tends to decrease proportionally. Elevated temperature aided with higher salinity may direct further under development of S. macrophylla seedlings which is distressing to plantation establishment of this species in sites which are vulnerable to salinity intrusion due to climate change. However, S. macrophylla may be a promising plantation species in drier part of the globe in near future. PMID:24506045

  17. Organ-coordinated response of early post-germination mahogany seedlings to drought.

    PubMed

    Horta, Lívia P; Braga, Márcia R; Lemos-Filho, José P; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-04-01

    Water deficit tolerance during post-germination stages is critical for seedling recruitment. In this work, we studied the effect of water deficit on morphological and biochemical responses in different organs of newly germinated mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings, a woody species that occurs in the Amazon rainforest. The root : shoot ratio increased under water deficit. The leaf number and water potential were not altered, although reductions in leaf area and stomatal conductance were observed. Osmotic potential became more negative in leaves of seedlings under severe stress. Water deficit increased fructose, glucose, sucrose and myo-inositol levels in leaves. Stems accumulated fructose, glucose and l-proline. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the vascular cylinder of roots under severe stress while superoxide anion levels decreased due to augmented superoxide dismutase activity in this organ. Water deficit induced glutathione reductase activity in both roots and stems. Upon moderate or severe stress, catalase activity decreased in leaves and remained unaffected in the other seedling organs, allowing for an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in leaves. Overall, the increase of signaling molecules in distinct organs-NO in roots, l-proline in stems and H2O2 and myo-inositol in leaves-contributed to the response of mahogany seedlings to water deficit by triggering biochemical processes that resulted in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the establishment of osmotic adjustment. Therefore, this body of evidence reveals that the development of newly germinated mahogany seedlings may occur in both natural habitats and crop fields even when water availability is greatly limited. PMID:24690672

  18. Enhancement of Seedling Emergence in Sweet Corn by Marker-Assisted Backcrossing of Beneficial QTL.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gad G.; Juvik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Seedling emergence is an important trait that can limit commercialization of sweet corn hybrids. This study was designed to test what effect beneficial QTL alleles that enhance seedling emergence exert when introgressed, using marker-assisted backcrossing, into sweet corn commercial germplasm. Three RFLP marker alleles linked to QTL that enhanced seedling emergence were identified in an F(2:3) sweet corn mapping population. A recombinant inbred line (RIL, F(8)) derived from this population was used as a donor parent to backcross the marker-QTL alleles into three elite commercial sweet corn inbreds. Plants in the three segregating BC(2) populations were crossed to the non-recurrent commercial inbreds to produce three BC(2)F(1) populations with families either segregating or lacking the marker donor allele(s). These three populations were evaluated for seedling emergence under field conditions in two successive years. Across the three populations, BC(2)F(1) families segregating for the donor QTL allele linked to the marker umc139 (on chromosome 2), bnl9.08 (on chromosome 8), or php200689 (on chromosome 1) displayed 40.8, 30.2, and 28.2% increases in seedling emergence, respectively, over the unmodified F(1)s. The introgressed QTL alleles were observed to enhance seedling emergence in the BC(2)F(1) generation as was observed in the original F(2:3) mapping population. Marker-QTL associated effects were reproducible across generations and populations indicating that QTL identified in one population can exert similar effects in different genetic backgrounds. Results suggest that using DNA marker technology can help to identify and introgress beneficial QTL alleles, shortening the time and resources required to develop improved germplasm. PMID:11756259

  19. Morphometric analyses of petioles of seedlings grown in a spaceflight experiment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christina M; Subramanian, Aswati; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z

    2015-11-01

    Gravity is a constant unidirectional stimulus on Earth, and gravitropism in plants involves three phases: perception, transduction, and response. In shoots, perception takes place within the endodermis. To investigate the cellular machinery of perception in microgravity, we conducted a spaceflight study with Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, which were grown in microgravity in darkness using the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware during space shuttle mission STS-131. In the 14-day-old etiolated plants, we studied seedling development and the morphological parameters of the endodermal cells in the petiole. Seedlings from the spaceflight experiment (FL) were compared to a ground control (GC), which both were in the BRIC flight hardware. In addition, to assay any potential effects from growth in spaceflight hardware, we performed another control by growing seedlings in Petri dishes in standard laboratory conditions (termed the hardware control, HC). Seed germination was significantly lower in samples grown in flight hardware (FL, GC) compared to the HC. In terms of cellular parameters of endodermal cells, the greatest differences also were between seedlings grown in spaceflight hardware (FL, GC) compared to those grown outside of this hardware (HC). Specifically, the endodermal cells were significantly smaller in seedlings grown in the BRIC system compared to those in the HC. However, a change in the shape of the cell, suggesting alterations in the cell wall, was one parameter that appears to be a true microgravity effect. Taken together, our results suggest that caution must be taken when interpreting results from the increasingly utilized BRIC spaceflight hardware system and that it is important to perform additional ground controls to aid in the analysis of spaceflight experiments. PMID:26376793

  20. [Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on photosynthetic characteristics of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Yan, Fei; Hu, Li-Pan; Zhou, Xiao-Ting; Zou, Zhi-Rong

    2014-10-01

    In this research, the possibility of exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on photosynthetic characteristics of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress was investigated. Five leaves seedlings of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Jinpeng No. 1) were used as starting materials, applied with 50 mg · L(-1) ALA by foliage spray or 10 mg · L(-1) ALA by root soaking to study the changes in their photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters under 100 mmol · L(-1) NaCl. The result showed that, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rate P,, stomata conductance g(s), intercellular CO2 concentration Ci, transpiration Tr) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv'/Fm', Fm', ΦPS II, ETR, qP, Pc) were severely reduced under NaCl treatment and ALA application by foliage spray or root soaking with proper concentrations exerted positive influences on tomato seedlings under salt stress, while there were some differences between foliage spray and root soaking in the influence on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. Both foliage spray with 50 mg · L(-1) ALA and root soaking with 10 mg L(-1) ALA significantly increased Pn, Ci, g(s) and Tr of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress, alleviated photosynthetic inhibition. Root application of ALA had a better effect on the chlorophyll content than foliage application. However, the photosynthetic parameters showed that foliage application of ALA had a better effect than root application, and both treatments had no difference in the influence on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of tomato seedlings. It could be deduced that the regulating effect of ALA on enhancing salt tolerance of tomato seedlings is attributed to its effect on improving chlorophyll biosynthesis and metabolism, increasing stomatal conductance and reducing stomatal limitation, thus, enhancing the photosynthetic capacity and PS II photochemical efficiency of tomato leaves under NaCl stress. PMID:25796901