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Micropropagation of camphor tree ( Cinnamomum camphora )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were induced from shoot tips and nodal segments of a 12-year-old tree of Cinnamomum camphora on Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with BA and kinetin. The nodal segments from the in vitro developed plantlets could be induced again to produce a large number of harvestable shoots. Harvested shoots were rooted in vitro in WPM supplemented with activated charcoal

K. Nirmal Babu; A. Sajina; D. Minoo; C. Z. John; P. M. Mini; K. V. Tushar; J. Rema; P. N. Ravindran



A micropropagation protocol for Cinnamomum camphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A micropropagation protocol was developed forCinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb., using as initial explants 3–5-mm shoot tips from newly emerged laterals of 2-yr-old trees. Performance of small\\u000a shoot tips was compared with that of 2.0-cm nodal segments during subculture. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented\\u000a with different concentrations of N6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) was used to examine shoot proliferation. In

Li-Chun Huang; Bau-Liang Huang; Toshio Murashige



Leaf Oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation of Cinnamomum camphora(L.) J. Presl. grown in Cuba was investigated by GC\\/MS. Thirty-nine components were identified, of which camphor (71.2%) was the major one.

Jorge A. Pino; Victor Fuentes



Phytochemistry, allelopathy and the capability attributes of camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Ness & Eberm.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The camphor laurel tree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees & Eberm.) was tested for allelopathic influence in studies of seed germination, seedling growth and soil algal populations of species identified in the regeneration assemblages of the Big Scrub region in north-eastern New South Wales. This included an allelopathy glasshouse trial on germinating seed and soil algae, the development of a technique

John Robert Schenk



Headspace Constituents of the Tree Remain of Cinnamomum camphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified.

Mitsuo Miyazawa; Yuya Hashimoto; Yasuo Taniguchi; Kouji Kubota



Ultrastructural Studies on the Natural Leaf Senescence of Cinnamomum Camphora.  


The process of natural leaf senescence of Cinnamomum camphora (C. camphora)-a commercial tree in Asia, was investigated, focusing on changes in cellular ultrastructure, epicuticular wax, and stoma. The changes to mesophyll cells in a senescing leaf predominantly include degradation of the following cellular components: cytoplasm, the central vacuole, small vacuoles, and vesicles with a diameter smaller than 400 nm, which are involved in the degradation of chloroplasts. The sequence of change in epicuticular wax during leaf senescence was different from those in herbaceous plants by atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscopic analysis. Comparing with maturation leaves, senescing leaves develop a wider aperture in their stoma, which would delay the leaf senescence of C. camphora. SCANNING 00: 1-8, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23292543

Cao, Jianbo; Song, Yantun; Wu, Hua; Qin, Lihong; Hu, Lihua; Hao, Rong



The glyceride structure of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) seed fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glyceride structure of a specimen ofCinnamomum camphora seed fat has been studied using oxidation procedure for determining the trisaturated and the gravime tric azelaogly ceride\\u000a analysis technique for determining di- and monosaturated glycerides. The fat contains 93% saturated acids and the molecular\\u000a proportions of tri-, di- and monosaturated and triunsaturated glycerides are found to be 80,17,1 and 2% respectively.

J. M. S. Mathur



In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Cinnamomum camphora extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum camphora Sieb (Lauraceae) has long been prescribed in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases such as rheumatism, sprains, bronchitis and muscle pains. In this study, therefore, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum camphora on various inflammatory phenomena to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms under non-cytotoxic (less than 100?g\\/ml) conditions. The total crude extract (100?g\\/ml)

Hye Ja Lee; Eun-A Hyun; Weon Jong Yoon; Byung Hun Kim; Man Hee Rhee; Hee Kyoung Kang; Jae Youl Cho; Eun Sook Yoo



Yellowing of disease? Or differentiating for adaptation? Study on Cinnamomum camphora ecotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl is an evergreen broad-leaved tree of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in the sub-tropical areas in the\\u000a south of China and used as a virescent tree in urban gardens and streets in Shanghai for its beautiful shape and intensive\\u000a stress-resistance. However, yellowing of C. camphora in recent years casts doubt about its significance. We believe the

Qing Li; Chun-jing Zou; Ying Xu; Shimizu Hideyuki



The Essential Oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera from Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera of Vietnamese origin has been analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC\\/MS. Seventeen components have been identified, of which the major one was found to be linalool (91.1%).

Nguyêñ Xuân Duñg; Pham Van Khiên; Hô Trung Chiên; Piet A. Leclercq



Removal of copper(II) ions by a biosorbent— Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, Cinnamomum camphora leaves powder (CLP) was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorbents before and after adsorption were measured by EDS and FT-IR. Kinetic data and sorption equilibrium isotherms were carried out in batch process. The adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that there are three stages in the whole

Hao Chen; Guoliang Dai; Jie Zhao; Aiguo Zhong; Junyong Wu; Hua Yan



Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of dependable, environmentally benign processes for the synthesis of nanoscale materials is an important aspect\\u000a of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report one-pot biogenic fabrication of palladium nanoparticles by a simple procedure\\u000a using broth of Cinnamomum camphora leaf without extra surfactant, capping agent, and\\/or template. The mean size of palladium nanoparticles, ranging from 3.2\\u000a to 6.0 nm, could

Xin Yang; Qingbiao Li; Huixuan Wang; Jiale Huang; Liqin Lin; Wenta Wang; Daohua Sun; Yuanbo Su; James Berya Opiyo; Luwei Hong; Yuanpeng Wang; Ning He; Lishan Jia



Host-Plant Utilization of Two Luna Moths((((Actias spp.))))on Liquidambar formosana and Cinnamomum camphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of host plants on larval performance were investigated in larvae of the luna moths, Actias selene ningpoana Felder & Felder and Actias heterogyna subaurea Kishida. Neonate larvae were fed leaves of Liquidambar formosana Hance and Cinnamomum camphora Presl. Larval survival, weight, duration, food processing efficiencies, pupal weight, and pupal duration were monitored as indices of food quality. To

Chih-Wei Wang; Li Lin; Jen-Wei Liu; Shaw-Yhi Hwang



Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue



A novel combination of the essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora and Alpinia galanga in checking aflatoxin B 1 production by a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of a toxigenic strain (Saktiman 3Nst) of Aspergillus flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oils from leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and rhizome of Alpinia galanga incorporated into SMKY liquid medium. The oils significantly arrested aflatoxin B1 elaboration by A. flavus. The oil of C. camphora completely checked aflatoxin B1 elaboration at 750 ppm (mg\\/L) while that of A. galanga showed

Bhawana Srivastava; Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla; Nawal Kishore Dubey



Volatile attractants for the common bluebottle, Graphium sarpedon nipponum, from the host, Cinnamomum camphora.  


Floral scent has been shown to elicit behavioral responses by butterflies which forage for flowers after receiving appropriate signals. In comparison with investigations about the role of floral scent, those of foliar odor are, however, very few. In this study, the foliar volatiles of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae), which had been collected by air entrainment, exhibited activities toward Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Papilionidae) in both electrophysiological and behavioral tests. The volatiles were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD). Two electrophysiological active compounds were found which were determined as nonanal and decanal by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Female butterflies generally tend to show a greater EAG response than males to the headspace volatiles and EAG-active aldehydes. Two EAG-active aldehydes were found in attractant tests to be attractive to both sexes of the butterfly when treated individually. Although the difference between the sexes was not significant, the female butterflies' preference tended to be more active than that of the males. PMID:20944433

Li, Jing; Wakui, Ryu; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa



Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils from Artemisia princeps and Cinnamomum camphora and their effect on seed germination of wheat and broad bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Artemisia princeps Pamp and seeds of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl. against storage pests Sitophillus oryzae L. and Bruchus rugimanus Bohem were investigated. Results showed that the two individual oils displayed good, but their mixture (1:1) exhibited much better repellent activities at concentrations from 250 to 1000?gg?1 and insecticidal actions

C. H. Liu; A. K. Mishra; R. X. Tan; C. Tang; H. Yang; Y. F. Shen



Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant.  


The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus was found to be the most dominant genus causing infection to most of the raw materials. Among the 32 isolates of A. flavus tested, 13 isolates were found to be toxigenic elaborating aflatoxin B1. The highest elaboration of aflatoxin B1 was 394.95 ppb by the isolates of A. flavus from G. glabra. The essential oil of Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl showed efficacy in arresting aflatoxin B1 by the toxigenic strain. The growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus decreased progressively with increasing concentration of essential oil from leaves of C. camphora. The oil completely inhibited aflatoxin B1 production even at 750 ppm. Hence, the oil of C. camphora is recommended as herbal fungitoxicant against the fungal contamination of the raw materials. PMID:18322727

Singh, Priyanka; Srivastava, Bhawana; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, N K



Enhancement of somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree ( Cinnamomum camphora L.): osmotic stress and other factors affecting somatic embryo formation on hormone-free medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to improve the direct somatic embryogenesis and initiate embryogenic callus formation in camphor\\u000a tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.) on hormone-free medium. The influence of osmotic stress pretreatment of immature zygotic embryos (0.5 and 1.0 M solution\\u000a of sucrose for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h at 4 or 25°C) before cultured on hormone-free medium,

Xueping Shi; Xigang Dai; Guofeng Liu; Manzhu Bao



Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, is a storage protein in the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora).  


Cinnamomin is a novel type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated in our laboratory from the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper the physiological role it plays in the plant cell was studied. Northern and Western blotting revealed that cinnamomin was expressed specifically in cotyledons. It accumulated in large amounts simultaneously with other proteins at the post-stages of seed development. Cinnamomin degraded rapidly during the early stages of seed germination. Endopeptidase was proved to play an important role in the degradation of cinnamomin. Western blotting of total proteins from the protein body with antibodies against cinnamomin demonstrated that it only existed in this specific cellular organelle as a storage protein. The similar properties of cinnamomin and other seed storage proteins of dicotyledons were compared. We conclude that cinnamomin is a special storage protein in the seed of C. camphora. PMID:11879193

Liu, Ren-shui; Wei, Guo-qing; Yang, Qiang; He, Wen-jun; Liu, Wang-Yi



Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, is a storage protein in the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora).  

PubMed Central

Cinnamomin is a novel type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated in our laboratory from the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper the physiological role it plays in the plant cell was studied. Northern and Western blotting revealed that cinnamomin was expressed specifically in cotyledons. It accumulated in large amounts simultaneously with other proteins at the post-stages of seed development. Cinnamomin degraded rapidly during the early stages of seed germination. Endopeptidase was proved to play an important role in the degradation of cinnamomin. Western blotting of total proteins from the protein body with antibodies against cinnamomin demonstrated that it only existed in this specific cellular organelle as a storage protein. The similar properties of cinnamomin and other seed storage proteins of dicotyledons were compared. We conclude that cinnamomin is a special storage protein in the seed of C. camphora.

Liu, Ren-shui; Wei, Guo-qing; Yang, Qiang; He, Wen-jun; Liu, Wang-Yi



Large-scale preparation of two new ribosome-inactivating proteins--cinnamomin and camphorin from the seeds of Cinnamomum camphora.  


An improved method for large-scale preparation of cinnamomin and camphorin from the seeds of Cinnamomum camphora has been developed. Cinnamomin is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), while camphorin is a type I RIP. Cinnamomin was purified by a single step of acid-treated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography instead of gel filtration. Camphorin was purified by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration successively from the eluant not retained by the affinity column. Using this improved method, 620 mg of cinnamomin and 14.2 mg of camphorin were obtained from 500 g of wet seed, while only 10.6 mg of cinnamomin and 4.7 mg of camphorin were obtained by the previous method. Cinnamomin and camphorin purified by this method were homogeneous in SDS-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These two RIPs are multifunctional proteins. The assay of the enzymatic activities of cinnamomin and camphorin showed that both of them exhibit RNA N-glycosidase and supercoil-dependent endonuclease activities, while camphorin also exhibits superoxide dismutase activity. PMID:9179286

Li, X D; Chen, W F; Liu, W Y; Wang, G H



Large-Scale Preparation of Two New Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins—Cinnamomin and Camphorin from the Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for large-scale preparation of cinnamomin and camphorin from the seeds ofCinnamomum camphorahas been developed. Cinnamomin is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), while camphorin is a type I RIP. Cinnamomin was purified by a single step of acid-treated Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography instead of gel filtration. Camphorin was purified by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration successively from

Xiang-dong Li; Wen-feng Chen; Wang-yi Liu; Gui-hai Wang



Essential Oils of Cinnamomum Species from Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the leaf, bark and wood oils of seven Malaysian Cinnamomum species (C. pubescens, C. javanicum, C. iners, C. impressicostatum, C. mollissimum, C. porrectum and C. camphora) was examined by co-chromatography with authentic samples on three columns of different polarity, capillary GC\\/MS and selective proton NMR. The major components of the leaf, bark and wood oils were

Ibrahim bin Jantan; Swee Hock Goh



Substrate-structure dependence of ribotoxins on cleaving RNA in C. camphora ribosome.  


Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from the seeds of Camphora tree (Cinnamomum camphora), could not inactivate its own (autologous) ribosome. Among five RIPs (Cinnamomin A-chain, ricin A-chain, trichosanthin, gelonin, and soporin-S6) tested, only saporin-S6 could cleave the N-glycosidic bond of RNA in C. camphora ribosome to release a specific RNA fragment (R-fragment) after treatment with aniline, which was shorter than that from rat liver ribosome. The amount of saporin-S6 to inactivate C. camphora ribosome was about 1000 times higher than that required for rat liver ribosome. Extra-ribosomal factors (S-100) in the post-ribosomal supernatant could not promote RNA N-glycosidase activity of cinnamomin and gelonin to C. camphora ribosome. These results indicated that there were some changes in the microenvironments of Sarcin/Ricin domain of C. camphora ribosome that abolished the recognition and catalysis of many RIPs. In addition, the length of C. camphora 5.8S ribosomal RNA was found to be longer than that of rat 5.8S ribosomal RNA. PMID:11405275

Zhang, A H; Tang, S; Liu, W



Clonal propagation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. by tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoot formation was induced directly from seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. and also from seedling explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium containing different concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Individual shoots were excised and induced to root on White's liquid medium. These plantlets were then transferred to pots in the green house and were eventually grown successfully under

V. Ravi Shankar Rai; K. S. Jagadish Chandra



Alkaloids from Cinnamomum philippinense.  


A new pyridine, 2-(4'-hydroxypyridin-3'-yl)-acetic acid (1), along with five known alkaloids, cinnaretamine (2), crykonisine (3), corydaldine (4), glaziovine (5) and zenkerine (6), were isolated from the roots of Cinnamomum philippinense (Lauraceae). Their structures were characterized and identified by spectral analysis. PMID:23413556

Li, Hsing-Tan; Li, Wei-Jen; Wu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yi



Fungal Contamination of Raw Materials of Some Herbal Drugs and Recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora Oil as Herbal Fungitoxicant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores fungal infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination of six medicinal plant samples viz. Adhatoda vasica Nees, Asparagus racemosus Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Terminalia chebula Retz. A total of 858 fungal isolates were detected from the raw materials. Maximum number of fungal isolates was detected\\u000a from A. racemosus (228). The genus Aspergillus

Priyanka Singh; Bhawana Srivastava; Ashok Kumar; N. K. Dubey



Review on pharmacological activities of Cinnamomum subavenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in southern Mainland China, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is recorded as having long been used to treat carcinomatous swelling, stomach ache, chest pain, abdominal pain, hernia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nausea and vomiting. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and

Chien-Hsing Lee; Chien-Neng Kuo; Hsin-Liang Chen; Chung-Yi Chen



Review on pharmacological activities of Cinnamomum subavenium.  


This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in southern Mainland China, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. This plant is recorded as having long been used to treat carcinomatous swelling, stomach ache, chest pain, abdominal pain, hernia, diarrhoea, rheumatism, nausea and vomiting. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration for the necessary development of this potential herb. PMID:22691063

Lee, Chien-Hsing; Kuo, Chien-Neng; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Chen, Chung-Yi



Chemistry, Biogenesis, and Biological Activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile

G. K. Jayaprakasha; L. Jagan Mohan Rao



Flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities from Cinnamomum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum has long been regarded as a food or medicinal plant. Leaves of five species of Cinnamomum, namely C. burmanni, C. cassia, C. pauciflorum, C. tamala and C. zeylanica, were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities in this study. C. zeylanica exhibited the highest total phenolic content while C. burmanni had the highest flavonoid content among the five species. These

K. Nagendra Prasad; Bao Yang; Xinhong Dong; Guoxiang Jiang; Haiyan Zhang; Haihui Xie; Yueming Jiang



Dibenzocycloheptanoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium.  


Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417

Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng



Tree decline in southeastern Australia: Nitrate reductase activity and indications of unbalanced nutrition in Eucalyptus ovata (Labill.) and E. camphora (R.T. Baker) communities at Yellingbo, Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of riparian Eucalyptus camphora\\/E. ovata stands is examined in relation to an increase in nitrogen availability and to rising salinity in low-lying areas. There are several indications that declining stands are abnormally rich in N: (i) Nitrogen availability in declining stands was greater than that recorded in other Australian forests, was dominated by nitrification and was extremely variable.

L. Granger; S. Kasel; M. A. Adams



Leaf photosynthetic capacity and nitrogen content adjustment to canopy openness in tropical forest tree seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum assimilation rate under saturating light level, leaf nitro- gen and chlorophyll content and specific leaf mass were measured in forest plants grown under a range of canopy openness. Seedlings from three tree species co- occurring in damar agroforest (Sumatra) were examined: Shorea javanica, Lansium domesticum and Cinnamomum porrectum. A shrub species, Piper hispidum, growing in a different location was




A novel cytotoxic monoterpenoid from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subamone (1), a novel Cinnamomum monoterpenoid, has been isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium (Lauraceae), and its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Subamone's cytotoxic activities were evaluated against A549 (human lung cancer cell), and DU-145 and LNCaP (human prostate cancer cell lines) and its cytotoxicity was found to be significantly against LNCaP rather than DU-145 and A549 cancer

Rong-Jyh Lin; Wen-Li Lo; Yau-Der Wang; Chung-Yi Chen



Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources.  


Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive ?(15)N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and ??(15)N=?(15)N(upper)-?(15)N(lower)>0, while those near the industrial area had more negative ?(15)N values and ??(15)N<0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO(x) by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of (15)N-depleted NH(y) in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that (15)N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. PMID:21130551

Xiao, Hua-Yun; Wu, Liang-Hong; Zhu, Ren-Guo; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Cong-Qiang



[Gas chromatographic determination of camphora, mentholum, isoborneol and borneol in Guanxingao].  


Guanxingao is a kind of traditional Chinese rubber electuary medicine which is able to either cure or guard against coronary heart disease and angina pectoris. The contents of camphora, mentholum, isoborneol and borneol in Guanxingao are determined by gas chromatography. The purpose of the study is to detect and control the loss of the four volatile components through production and standing and to guarantee the curative effect. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a GC-4004 gas chromatograph(FID). The column was a 3 mm i.d. x 2 m stainless steel tube packed with 7% PEG-1500 on 100-110 mesh 102 non-silanized white support. The column and the FID temperatures were 115 degrees C and 180 degrees C respectively. H2 was the carrier gas, 30 mL/min. Internal standard method was used for the quantitative estimation with naphthalene as the internal standard. The linear ranges were at least within 50-450 mg/L (r = 0.9999, n = 4). The correction factors against naphthalene were 1.262-1.286 and the RSDs were 0.32%-1.5%(n = 12). The recoveries were 98.44%-101.9%. In comparison with the theoretical contents, the average loss percentages are 71.72% (camphora), 65.60% (mentholum) and 66.31% (isoborneol + borneol). The samples were pretreated by means of isothermal (35 degrees C) water-bath extraction with acetone for 6 times with four hours each. PMID:11498920

Yan, Z; Liu, P; Zhang, J; Wang, C; Feng, T; Zhou, W



Cytotoxic lignan esters from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.  


The bark and roots of Cinnamomum osmophloeum are widely used in Taiwan as spice substitutes for C. CASSIA. We have isolated three novel lignan esters, one dibenzylbutane-type ligan ester [9,9'-di-O-feruloyl-(+)-5,5'-dimethoxy secoisolariciresinol (3)] and two cyclolignan esters [(7' S,8' R,8 R) -lyoniresinol-9-O-(E)-feruloyl ester ( 5) and (7' S,8' R,8 R)-lyoniresinol-9,9'-di-O-(E)-feruloyl ester (6)], and several known lignans from the heartwood and roots of C. osmophloeum. We identified these compounds using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxicity assays of these novel lignan esters revealed that compound 6 has strong activities against human liver cancer (HepG2 and Hep3B) and oral cancer (Ca9-22) cells, with IC(50) values of 7.87, 4.31, and 2.51 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:19950049

Chen, Tai-Hung; Huang, Yu-Hao; Lin, Jhih-Jhang; Liau, Bing-Chung; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Wu, Yang-Chang; Jong, Ting-Ting



Allozyme Variation in Four Geographic Areas of Cinnamomum kanehlrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The once dominant endemic broadleaf tree species In Taiwan, CInnamomum kanehlrae Hay., has become a rare and endangered species due to overcutting. A done bank, consisting of at least 220 clones collected istandwide, was established at the Uukuel station, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Genetic diversity wtthln and genetic dif- ferentiation among four geographic areas of C. kanehlrae were Investigated using

T.-P. Lin; Y.-P. Cheng; S.-G. Huang


A novel sesquiterpenoid from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sesquiterpenoid, subamol ((3-methoxy-5H-9,10-dihydroxybenzo[3,4]cyclohepta[1,2-f])inden-7-yl)methanol)) (1), along with six compounds, including one ionone: (+)-abscisic acid (2); and five benzenoids: syringaldehyde (3), trans-coumaric acid (4), cis-coumaric acid (5), vanillic acid (6), and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium Miq (Lauraceae). These compounds were identified and characterized by physical and spectral evidence.

C. Y. Chen; Y. D. Wang



A geraniol-synthase gene from Cinnamomum tenuipilum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geraniol may accumulate up to 86–98% of the leaf essential oils in geraniol chemotypes of the evergreen camphor tree Cinnamomum tenuipilum. A similarity-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone that appeared to encode a terpene synthase and which could be phylogenetically grouped within the angiosperm monoterpene synthase\\/subfamily. After its expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with prenyl diphosphates as

Tao Yang; Jing Li; Hao-Xin Wang; Ying Zeng



The Effect of Butanolides from Cinnamomum tenuifolium on Platelet Aggregation.  


This study investigated the effects of isotenuifolide and tenuifolide B from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced human platelet aggregation. Treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (1 and 2 ?g/?L) and tenuifolide B (1, 2 and 4 ?g/?L) did not have any significant effect on human platelet aggregation in vitro, however, treatment of human platelet-rich plasma with isotenuifolide (4 ?g/?L) resulted in an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, suggesting the potential of this compound as an anti-atherosclerogenic agent in humans. Isotenuifolide is a new butanolide compound, whose structure was characterized by spectral analyses. PMID:24071989

Dong, Huei-Ping; Wu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Sheue-Jiun; Chen, Chung-Yi



Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.



Cytotoxic compounds from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium.  


Three new butanolides, tenuifolide A (1), isotenuifolide A (2), and tenuifolide B (3), a new secobutanolide, secotenuifolide A (4), and one new sesquiterpenoid, tenuifolin (5), along with 16 known compounds were isolated from the stems of Cinnamomum tenuifolium. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 4 was found to induce apoptotic-related DNA damage, increase sub-G1 cells, and inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells, DU145. In addition, treatment with 4 significantly increased intracellular H2O2 and/or peroxide. The results show that 4 induced (a) noticeable reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim); (b) significant increase in the ratio of cytochrome c concentration (cytosol/mitochondria); and (c) subsequent activation of caspase-9/caspase-3. Antiproliferation caused by 4 was found to markedly decrease when pretreated with caspase-9/caspase-3 inhibitor. In ROS scavenging, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase, and NO inhibitor studies, pretreatment of DU145 cells with either DPI, dexamethasone, L-NAME, or mannitol decreased 4-induced intracellular DCF fluorescence of ROS. These results suggest that an increase of H2O2 and/or peroxide by 4 is the initial apoptotic event and 4 has anticancer effects on DU145 cells. PMID:19754130

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Huang, Jin-Cherng; Lo, Wen-Li; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Yen, Chung-Min; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chen, Chung-Yi



Studies on the antioxidant activities of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum) bark extracts, through various in vitro models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum barks (CBE) were evaluated with reference to antioxidant compounds like butylated hydroxyl anisole, trolox and ascorbic acid. By virtue of their hydrogen donating ability, all of the tested compounds and CBE exhibited reducing power. They were found to be potent in free radical scavenging activity especially against DPPH radicals and

Sindhu Mathew; T. Emilia Abraham



Inhibitory Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Bark-Derived Component against Rat Lens Aldose Reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of active compounds isolated from Cinnamomum cassia bark against lens aldose reductase and compare to that of three commercially available compounds (cinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, and eugenol) and quercitrin as aldose reductase inhibitors. The IC50 value of cinnamaldehyde was determined. METHODS. Active compound was purified on repeated silica gel column and HPLC (Waters Delta

Hoi-Seon Lee


In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum leaf (CLE) were studied and compared to antioxidant compounds like trolox, butylated hydroxyl anisole, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The CLE exhibited free radical scavenging activity, especially against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation. They also exhibited reducing power and metal ion chelating activity, along

Sindhu Mathew; T. Emilia Abraham



Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activities of the essential oils from leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B) and their chemical constituents were investigated in this study. The nine strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus, were used in the antibacterial tests. Results

Shang-Tzen Chang; Pin-Fun Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang



Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cinnamic aldehyde purified from Cinnamomum cassia shoot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which causes the hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. Control of the bacterial cells in foods is an important factor to reduce outbreaks of the foodborne diseases. In this study, cinnamic aldehyde possessing antimicrobial activity against the bacterial cells was purified from the extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume)

H.-O. Kim; S.-W. Park; H.-D. Park



Cytotoxic Effect of trans-Cinnamaldehyde from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Leaves on Human Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative determination of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) was conducted by re- versed-phase HPLC from young and mature leaves, and leaf branches of Cinnamomum osmo- phloeum, a Taiwan endemic plant. The results showed that highest yield, 23.79 mg\\/g of TCA (the tree's age was three years) was obtained in the two year old mature leaves. In addition, cytotoxic and inhibitory effects of TCA

Shih-Hua Fang; Yerra Koteswara Rao; Yew-Min Tzeng


??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil was distilled from the leaves of Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. yielded 1.1 % of fresh weight. The analysis of essential oil by GC\\/MS showed the main component (99.8%) could be either iso-safrole or safrole. The oil was further investigated by proton NMR and revealed the main peak as safrole. The activity of the oil against Candida albicans

Chanida Palanuvej; Pornpen Werawatganone; Nijsiri Ruangrungsi


Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the Biological Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

GC-MS analysis on the essential oil (CC-oil) ofCinnamomum cassia stem bark led to the identification of cinnamaldehyde (CNA,1), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (2-CNA), coumarin (2), and cinnamyl acetate. The major volatile flavor in CC-oil was found to be 2-CNA. Coumarin was first isolated from this\\u000a plant by phytochemical isolation and spectroscopic analysis. CNA and CC-oil showed potent cytotoxicity, which was effectively\\u000a prevented by

Jongwon Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee; Hyeon Ka; Won-Tae Jung; Hyun-Ju Jung; Hee-Juhn Park



Toxicity studies in mice of common spices, Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark and Piper longum fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute (24 hours) and chronic (90 days) oral toxicity studies on the ethanolic extracts of common spices Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees bark and Piper longum L. fruits were carried out in mice. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g\\/kg while the chronic dosage was 100 mg\\/kg\\/day. All external morphological, hematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to body weight and vital

A. H. Shah; A. H. Al-Shareef; A. M. Ageel; S. Qureshi



Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of C. osmophloeum were investigated for the first time. The extracts were obtained successively using liquid–liquid partition to yield n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water fractions. The antioxidant activities of C. osmophloeum twig

Meng-Thong Chua; Yu-Tang Tung; Shang-Tzen Chang



Temporal aspects of the fine-scale genetic structure in a population of Cinnamomum insularimontanum (Lauraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata (Lauraceae) is an insect-pollinated, broad-leaved evergreen tree with bird-dispersed seeds. We used allozyme loci, Wright's fixation index, spatial autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I), and coancestry measures to examine changes in genetic structure among four age-classes within a recently founded study population (60×100 m area) in southern Korea. There were no significant differences in expected heterozygosity among age classes.

M Y Chung; J D Nason; B K Epperson; M G Chung



Isolation of new esters from the stems of Cinnamomum reticulatum Hay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stems of Cinnamomum reticulatum Hay (Lauraceae) were extracted with hexane and chloroform successively. A series of new esters, including a mixture of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenethyl derivatives (1–5), along with two butanolides, isoobtusilactone A (6) and obtusilactone A (7), two amides, N-trans-feruloylmethoxytyramine (8) and N-cis-feruloyl-methoxytyramine (9), three benzenoids, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (10), syringic acid (11) and vanillic acid (12), one lignan, (+)-syringaresinol (13)

Iung-Jr Lin; Wen-Li Lo; Yi-Chen Chia; Lee-Yu Huang; Thau-Ming Cham; Wan-Shan Tseng; Yu-Ting Yeh; Hung-Chun Yeh; Yau-Der Wang; Chung-Yi Chen



Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde\\/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC50 values in 24h were 40.8?g\\/ml

Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Chin-Gi Huang; Yen-Ray Hsui; Wei-June Chen; Shang-Tzen Chang



Inhibition of benzo[ a]pyrene- and cyclophoshamide-induced mutagenicity by Cinnamomum cassia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum cassia is used as a flavoring spice with some established medicinal properties. In this study, we evaluated the antimutagenic effect of C. cassia against two mutagens, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cyclophosphamide (CP). The antimutagenic properties of C. cassia were examined by the Ames test. In vivo chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronuclei tests were also employed to assess the antimutagenic

Nidhi Sharma; Prashant Trikha; Mohammad Athar; Sheikh Raisuddin




EPA Science Inventory

Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...


Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil and anti-inflammatory activities from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the twig essential oil were further analyzed by GC–MS and they were found to be l-bornyl acetate (15.89%), caryophyllene oxide (12.98%), ?-eudesmol (8.03%), ?-caryophyllene (6.60%), T-cadinol (5.49%), ?-cadinene (4.79%), trans-?-elemenone (4.25%),

Yu-Tang Tung; Meng-Thong Chua; Sheng-Yang Wang; Shang-Tzen Chang



Inclusion reactions of ?-cyclodextrin and its derivatives with cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum loureirii essential oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusion reactions of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-CD (DM-?-CD), and mono[2-O-(2-hydroxy-propyl)]-?-CD (HP-?-CD) with cinnamaldehyde (CA) in Cinnamomum loureirii essential oil were investigated using spectrofluorimetry. The results revealed that the best inclusion time was 30 min and\\u000a the neutral pH conditions were more advantageous to the process. The stoichiometry of ?-CD including CA complex was 1:1 (molar\\u000a ratio). The inclusion constants decreased

Shan Jiang; Jia-Nuo Li; Zi-Tao Jiang



Phytochemical investigation of Annulohypoxylon ilanense, an endophytic fungus derived from Cinnamomum species.  


Cultivation of the fungal strain Annulohypoxylon ilanense, an endophytic fungus isolated from the wood of medicinal plant Cinnamomum species, resulted in the isolation of one new furanoid derivative, ilanefuranone (1), one new pyrrole alkaloid, ilanepyrrolal (2), and one new biarylpropanoid derivative, ilanenoid (3), together with 22 known compounds, of which one ?-tetralone analog, (-)-(4R)-3,4-dihydro-4,6-dihydroxynaphthalen-1(2H)-one (4) was isolated for the first time from a natural source. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical evidence, in-depth NMR spectroscopic analysis, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, and the antimycobacterial activities were also evaluated. PMID:23495165

Wu, Ming-Der; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Su, Yung-Shun; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yuan, Gwo-Fang



Antifungal activities of essential oils and their constituents from indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves against wood decay fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is one of the hardwood species indigenous to Taiwan that possesses significant antifungal activity. To examine the antifungal activity of leaf essential oils and dominant constituents from C. osmophloeum, the essential oils of leaves from three clones (A, B, and C) collected from Haw-Lin experimental forest were extracted and their components analyzed by gas chromatography. Results from

Sheng-Yang Wang; Pin-Fun Chen; Shang-Tzen Chang



Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. RESULTS: Populations of

Pei-Chun Liao; Dai-Chang Kuo; Chia-Chia Lin; Kuo-Chieh Ho; Tsan-Piao Lin; Shih-Ying Hwang



A re-investigation of Nothofagus muelleri (Ett.) Paterson and Cinnamomum nuytsii Ett. from the Late Eocene of Vegetable Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species described by Ettingshausen (1888) from Vegetable Creek, Nothofagus muelleri and Cinnamomum nuytsii, are re-investigated, including an analysis of the cuticular morphology. It is concluded that four Fagus species proposed by Ettingshausen represent only one valid species. The name selected for this species is Nothofagus muelleri, based on the fact that it is the only species containing specimens with

Robert S. Hill



Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil and its main components against Paenibacillus larvae from Argentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties, composition and antimicrobial activity of cinnamon essential oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) were studied. The bioactivity of this essential oil against Paenibacillus larvae was analyzed by means of a combination of in vitro tech- niques, such as the tube dilution method and bioautography, a method employed to localize antibacterial activity on a chromatogram. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol proved to have

Liesel Brenda GENDE; Ignazio FLORIS; Rosalia FRITZ; Martin Javier EGUARAS


Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally) for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0) and student's ‘t’- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0). The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range. Conclusion: The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.

Bisht, Shradha; Sisodia, S. S.



5.NF Grass Seedlings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The students in Raul�s class were growing grass seedlings in different conditions for a science project. He noticed that Pablo�s seedlings were $1\\frac...


Two new compounds from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia.  


Two new compounds, cinnamic aldehyde cyclic d-galactitol 3'R,4'S-acetal (1) and cinnamomumolide (2), along with six known compounds, syringaresinol (3), lyoniresinol (4), 5,7,3'-trimethoxyl-( - )-epicatechin (5), 5,7-dimethoxyl-3',4'-di-O-methylene-( +/- )-epicatechin (6), 2-methoxyl-4-hydroxy cinnamyl aldehyde (7), and glucosyringic acid (8), have been isolated from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was elucidated as 8-methoxyl-9-hydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-3S,4R-diphenyl butyrolactone, named cinnamomumolide, which exhibited activity in protecting against the injury caused by hydrogen peroxide oxidation on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, with an EC(50) value of 10.7 microM. Compounds 3-8 were isolated from the title plant for the first time. PMID:20183334

Liu, Chao; Zhong, Shao-Min; Chen, Ruo-Yun; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Xue-Jun



Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.  


The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio



Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.  


Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives. PMID:17567030

Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold



Kaempferol glycosides from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their nitric oxide production inhibitory activities.  


In the present study, ethanolic extract of twigs from Cinnamomum osmophloeum led to isolate nine kaempferol glycosides including two new kaempferol triglycosides that were characterized as kaempferol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were assigned by the application of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and other techniques. Among these nine compounds, kaempferol 7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (9) revealed inhibitory effect against LPS-induced production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC(50) value of 41.2 ?M. It also slightly reduced PGE(2) accumulation by 26% at the concentration of 50 ?M. PMID:23174526

Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen



Wilsonols A-L, megastigmane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii.  


Twelve new megastigmane sesquiterpenoids, wilsonols A-L (1-12), were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii, along with seven known analogues (13-19). The structures of compounds 1-12 were established by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu K? irradiation, and the absolute configurations of 6-12 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-9 and 13-19 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480, and compared against the Beas-2B immortalized (noncancerous) human bronchial epithelial cell line. Compound 13 exhibited IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 12 ?M and selectivity indices of >10 against SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were evaluated for in vitro immunomodulatory activity. PMID:23822611

Shu, Penghua; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Li, Weijie; Zhang, Jinwen; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Mengke; Luo, Zengwei; Li, Yan; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui



Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC–MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC–MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes—cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde\\/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and

Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Yen-Ray Hsui; Shang-Tzen Chang



Enantioenriched (3S)-(+)Linalool in the Leaf Oil of Cinnamomum tamala Nees et Eberm. from Kumaon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations and genuineness in constituents of Cinnamomum tamala leaf essential oil are characterized by enantio-GC-FID, capillary GC-FID and GC\\/MS. The oil samples were analyzed for two consecutive years. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, which was the principal component, was higher in the first year oil samples but lower in the second year samples. Similarly, (Z)-cinnamaldehyde was 5.8–7.1% in the first year oils and 1–1.1%

C. S. Chanotiya; A. Yadav



Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and

M. O. Benarroz; A. S. Fonseca; G. S. Rocha; J. N. G. Frydman; V. C. Rocha; M. O. Pereira; M. Bernardo-Filho



Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-?B), and I?B?, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-?B expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong



Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.  


We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru



Space Station Live: Seedling Growth  

NASA Video Gallery

Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the International Space Station.

Gerald T Wright



Parts of a Soybean Seedling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide to a soybean seedling (Glycine max, Dicotyledon) is designed to help students recognize and learn the plant's individual parts. Along with an explanation of dicotyledon embryos, it includes a short description of the labeled parts.


Parts of a Corn Seedling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustrated guide to a corn seedling (Zea mays, Monocotyledon) is designed to help students recognize and learn the plant's individual parts. Along with an explanation of monocotyledon embryos, it includes a short description of the root system and coleoptile.


Inhibitory effects of flavonol glycosides from Cinnamomum osmophloeum on inflammatory mediators in LPS\\/IFN-?-activated murine macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four kaempferol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh, a Taiwan endemic tree. These compounds namely, kaempferitrin (1), kaempferol 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-?-d-apiofuranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-apiofuranosy-(1?4)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (4). The structure of compound 2 was determined by spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. The isolates 1–4 were evaluated as inhibitors of some macrophage functions involved in the inflammatory process.

Shih-Hua Fang; Yerra Koteswara Rao; Yew-Min Tzeng



Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.  


A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao



Beet Rust and Seedling Rust  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beet rust, caused by Uromyces betae, can cause pustules on most beet types, and can be a problem in various beet growing areas. Seedling rust, caused by Puccinia subnitens can cause lesions on young beets, primarily on cotyledons, and does not cause economic damage. This chapter describes the dise...


Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).  


The thermal stability of leaf essential oils from various Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their constituents was investigated for the first time. The results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) content in eugenol-free essential oil from C. osmophloeum was affected by high temperatures. The retention of Cin (RC) decreased to 17.4% after the essential oil was incubated for 8 h at 100 °C. In contrast, essential oils containing eugenol showed greater thermal stability. Seven kinds of antioxidants were added to Cin to improve its thermal stability. Among them, eugenol endowed Cin with the best thermal stability. We also investigated the influence of various amounts of eugenol on the thermal stability of both essential oil and Cin. Both essential oil and Cin showed excellent thermal stability when 0.62 and 2.60% (v/v) eugenol were added. In short, the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin could be effectively improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol. PMID:23738884

Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Luo, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Hsu, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen



The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone.  


Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10(-10). The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

Hoehn, Ashley N; Stockert, Amy L



Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis.  


Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN?) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-? concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN?) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action. PMID:23833722

Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad



Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN?) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-? concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN?) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action.

Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, Prasad



Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of chloroform (1) and methanol (2) from Antrodia camphorata (AC), and chloroform (3) and n-butanol (4) fractions of methanol extract from Cordyceps sinensis (CS), and hexane (5), ethyl acetate (6), and methanol (7) from Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark (CO) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory as well as tumor-cell growth inhibitory activities in vitro. All the tested extracts dose dependently

Yerra Koteswara Rao; Shih-Hua Fang; Yew-Min Tzeng



Hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon bark in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamon bark has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant and insulin-potentiating activities. The water-soluble polyphenolic oligomers found in cinnamon are thought to be responsible for this biological activity. In this study, the hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract from the barks of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees was studied in normal, transiently hyperglycemic,

Q. Jia; X. Liu; X. Wu; R. Wang; X. Hu; Y. Li; C. Huang



Developmental Stages of Cucumber Seedlings  

PubMed Central

The changes in morphology during dark germination and subsequent growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings in the light go through three different phases described as latent, active, and steady-state. This pattern is consistently observed for several related developmental processes. The latent period lasts about 2 days following water imbibition after which the following capabilities appear in concert: (a) root and stem elongation, (b) pigment synthesis including protochlorophyll, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phytochrome, (c) synthesis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, and (d) enhancement of greening by excision. Following the active phase, which lasts for another 2 to 3 days, these processes slow to a steady-state. Inhibition of chlorphyll accumulation by SO2 was only observed for seedlings in the steady-state phase.

Moran, Rami; Vernon, Leo P.; Porath, Dan; Arzee, Tova



Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may result from its ability to increase the production of the endogenous NO and/or to regulate dyslipidemia.



Grass Seed Structure and Seedling Emergence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity discusses both seed structure and seedling emergence in monocots. Through active learning elements, photos and text students will discover the basic anatomy of seeds and the function of each structure. The process of seedling emergence is presented in detail including the difference between emergence in cool-season and warm-season grasses.


Fertilization Tests with Potted Red Oak Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil-pot tests with red oak seedlings indicated that forest soils supplied more N and P and produced better seedling growth than old-field soils. Growth was closely correlated with content of N and P in the foliage. K fertilization did not improve seedlin...

R. E. Phares



Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy that occurs in the epithelium of the nasopharynx. The standard treatment of NPC patients with locoregionally advanced stages is problematic and is often associated with toxicities. Therefore, it is essential to screen for naturally occurring compounds with strong apoptosis-inducing activity and minimal toxicity. This study investigated the effects of the standardized methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark and its main constituent, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), on human NPC cell lines. The content of TCA in C. burmannii methanol extract was standardized to be 13.61% w/w by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NPC cell proliferation was clearly inhibited within 24 h of treatment, with TCA exhibiting greater activity than the methanol extract. TCA was more active against NPC cells compared with cisplatin. There was a pronounced downregulation of the proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the TCA-treated cells; while morphological observation indicated the induction of apoptosis. Caspase activation and prominent DNA damage, which are markers of apoptosis induction were detected. TCA demonstrated the ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The simultaneous combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Collectively, these data indicate the potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC.




Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.

Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying



Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells.  


Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying



Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala.  


Plant—based antimicrobials and antioxidants represent a vast untapped source for medicines and food supplements and hence have enormous therapeutic potential. Present work reports the fungicidal potential of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm (Lauraceae) leaf oil against five food spoilage and pathogenic fungi. In addition antioxidant efficacy of seven different solvent extracts derived from leaf was also evaluated using in vitro models. The oil demonstrated potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium spp. in agar diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition ranged from 17-25 mm. The MFC values of oil against all the test fungi were found to be 230?g/ml. Phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf were extracted in several solvents for assessing their effect in oxidative defense. The extracts exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in ?-carotene bleaching assay and reducing power assay. The antioxidative activities of extracts were compared with the activities of standard antioxidant compounds BHA and ascorbic acid. Petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts exhibited about 30-67% antioxidant activity in ?-carotene bleaching assay. Aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited better reducing power which increased gradually with increasing amount of the extract concentration showing dose dependent response. Results indicated that natural phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf extracts have potential to prevent growth of food spoilage/pathogenic fungi. In addition they also have capability to mitigate the oxidative stress by antioxidant response. PMID:23273204

Pandey, A K; Mishra, A K; Mishra, A



[Study on preparation process and stability of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound in volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves].  


To study the optimum preparation process and stability of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound in volatile oil of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaves. The saturated aqueous solution method was adopted to prepare inclusion compounds for an orthogonal test. The inclusion compound productivity and the inclusion rate were taken as indexes for screening the inclusion processes. The inclusion effect was evaluated with the infrared spectrophotometry and TLC, and the stability under conditions of high temperature, high humidity and strong light was detected. Under optimum preparation conditions for inclusion, the ratio between volatile oil and beta-cyclodextrin was 1: 8 (mL: g), that between beta-cyclodextrin and water was 1: 15, the inclusion temperature was 40 degrees C, and the inclusion time was 3 h. The results of spectrophotometry and TLC showed that the optimum conditions can generate beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound in volatile oil of C. longepaniculatum leaves with certain light resistance, thermo-stability and hygro-stability. Therefore the optimum inclusion process features simple operation and stable inclusion compounds. PMID:24079235

Liu, Yu; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Fan, Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Du, Yong-Hua



Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.  


Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; La?anin, Ines; Pavlovi?, Hrvoje



Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh



Heat damage in tree seedlings and its prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree seedlings start to suffer stem damage or tissue death when the temperature at the soil surface reaches approximately 52°C. Seedling mortality rate accelerates as temperatures increase. Resistance to heat damage increases with size as the ability of a seedling to shade its base increase. Small newly germinated seedlings are at risk in late spring and early summer, while larger

Ole T. Helgerson



Seedling Diversity and the Homologies of Seedling Organs in the Order Poales (Monocotyledons)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Seedlings of monocots are much more diverse than those of other angiosperms, often with very derived character states. This makes morphological interpretation difficult. The morphology of seedlings of most of the 16 families of the Poales alliance are only incompletely known. The present study aims first to develop an unambiguous terminology for the description of monocotyledonous seedlings. This makes possible clear morphological comparisons and the use of homologous terms for organs. Finally, plotting of well defined characters onto a molecular tree allows the polarization of character states. Method Seedlings were grown in Petri dishes on moist filter paper under permanent light conditions and analysed using light and scanning electron microscopy. Only seeds collected at natural habitats or from plants with a well documented source were used. Seedling vouchers are deposited in the alcohol collection of Monocot seedlings in the Botanische Staatssammlung München (M). Key Results Based on an unambiguous terminology, seedlings of a great number of genera are described and presented as figures, representing all families of Poales except Ecdeiocoleaceae. Seedlings of Rapateaceae, Joinvilleaceae and Mayacaceae are described for the first time. Morphological comparisons reveal a plausible interpretation of even very modified organ structures, including those of the grass seedling. Conclusions This study demonstrates that detailed studies of seedling morphology can provide interesting morphological insights and also new facts for phylogenetic analyses. However, the morphological diversity of seedlings in the monocots is as yet incompletely known, and in some, e.g. Alismatales or Zingiberales, the seedling structure is particularly poorly understood in terms of comparative morphology.

Tillich, Hans-Jurgen



Exploration of antimicrobial potential of essential oils of Cinnamomum glanduliferum, Feronia elephantum, Bupleurum hamiltonii and Cyclospermum leptophyllum against foodborne pathogens.  


Abstract Context: Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meissn. (Lauraceae), Feronia elephantum Correa (Rutaceae), Bupleurum hamiltonii Balak (Apiaceae) and Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson (Apiaceae) are common species found in Northwest Himalaya and are widely used as folk medicine. The study became more interesting because hitherto there are no reports on the antimicrobial screening of these species with specific chemical composition. Objective: The antimicrobial potential of the essential oils of C. glanduliferum, F. elephantum, B. hamiltonii and C. leptophyllum against some commonly occurring foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria was explored in this study. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial screening studies of essential oils were performed against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains using broth-dilution methods. Each essential oil was prepared by serial double dilution method to get final concentrations ranging from 0.85--440.0?µg/ml in a 96 microtiter plate. Results: The in vitro studies revealed that C. glanduliferum oil was very active against Gram-negative bacteria, A. salmonicida (MIC 1.72?µg/ml), E. coli (MIC 3.43?µg/ml), and P. aeruginosa (MIC 3.43?µg/ml) as compared to the standards gentamicin and kanamicin. Oil of C. leptophyllum exhibited better inhibitory activity profile against Gram-positive S. aureus (MIC 3.43??g/ml) and Gram-negative E. herbicola (MIC 1.72??g/ml) and P. aeruginosa (MIC 3.43??g/ml) as compared to the standards. Discussion and conclusion: These results reveal that these essential oils may be used in the treatment of diseases caused by the foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Their importance as potential medicinal agents is based on the antimicrobial findings. PMID:24033145

Singh, Charu; Singh, Shalini; Pande, Chitra; Tewari, Geeta; Pande, Veena; Sharma, Pratibha



Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds  

PubMed Central

Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 ?g/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 ?g/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 ?g/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 ?g/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.

Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K



Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats.

Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad



Acid Fog Effects on Conifer Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. One-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were expos...

D. P. Turner D. T. Tingey W. E. Hogsett




EPA Science Inventory

Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosyst...


Design Issues for Evaluating Seedling Exposure Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pol...

C. E. Peterson R. A. Mickler



Hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon bark in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


Cinnamon bark has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant and insulin-potentiating activities. The water-soluble polyphenolic oligomers found in cinnamon are thought to be responsible for this biological activity. In this study, the hypoglycemic activity of a polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract from the barks of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees was studied in normal, transiently hyperglycemic, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the extract at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body wt. caused significant changes in body weight loss and fasting blood glucose levels of normal rats. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, after administration of the extract at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body wt. over 14 days, the blood glucose levels were decreased by 11.1%, 22.5%, and 38.7%, respectively, and the plasma insulin levels were significantly increased over pre-treatment levels. In an oral glucose tolerance test, the extract produced a significant decrease in glycemia 90 min after the glucose pulse. These results suggest that Cinnamomum parthenoxylon polyphenolic oligomer-rich extract could be potentially useful for post-prandial hyperglycemia treatment. PMID:19464860

Jia, Q; Liu, X; Wu, X; Wang, R; Hu, X; Li, Y; Huang, C



Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.  


Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S



Genetically improved ponderosa pine seedlings outgrow nursery-run seedlings with and without competition -- Early findings  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings (nursery-run, wind-pollinated, control-pollinated) were evaluated for stem height and diameter at the USDA Forest Service's Placerville Nursery and the Georgetown Range District in northern California. Pines in all three classes were grown with competing vegetation or maintained in a free-to-grow condition. Control-pollinated seedlings were statistically taller than nursery-run counterparts when outplanted, and after 1 and 2 growing seasons in the field with and without competition. They also had significantly larger diameters when outplanted and after 2 growing seasons in the field when free to grow. Wind-pollinated seedlings grew taller than nursery-run seedlings when free to grow. A large amount of competing vegetation [bearclover (Chamaebatia foliolosa)--29,490 plants per acre; herbaceous vegetation--11,500; hardwood sprouts--233; and whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida) seedlings--100] ensure that future pine development will be tested rigorously.

McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O. (Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Redding, CA (United States)); Kitzmiller, J.H. (Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Chico, CA (United States). Chico Tree Improvement Center)



Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings.  


Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum. PMID:19319287

Ruehle, J L



Influence of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Longleaf Pine Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum.

Ruehle, J. L.



Seedling growth and development on space shuttle.  


Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers. PMID:11540197

Cowles, J; LeMay, R; Jahns, G



Oscillations of acetylcholine in oat seedlings.  


Using gas chromatography it was shown that acetylcholine (ACh) was present in both etiolated and green oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Diadem) seedlings. In etiolated seedlings the ACh level was low, but increased rapidly during exposure to sunlight and red light (RL). The stimulative influence of RL was reversed by far-red light (FRL). The RL- and FRL- changes in ACh level were correlated to changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) localization. Using Karnovsky's method, it was found that in the etiolated coleoptiles the products of enzymatic reaction showing AChE activity accumulated selectively on the external side of plasma membrane. After exposure of seedlings to RL AChE activity disappeared. Subsequent FRL made it reappear on the external side of the plasma membrane. When the plants became green, oscillations of ACh were clearly observable. For plants grown under a LD 16:8 cycle the changes were circadian. PMID:2350987

Tretyn, A; Tretyn, M



EPA Science Inventory

Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...


Synthesis of Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizae on Pecan Seedlings in Fumigated Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Curtis variety of pecan (Carya iknoensis) seedlings were grown for 8 months in fumigated soil infested at sowing with mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus rincrorius. Pisolirhus ectomycorrhizae were formed on all inoculated seedlings and significantly improved...

D. H. Marx



Controlling Herbaceous Competition in Pasture Planted with Loblolly Pine Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after...

J. D. Haywood



Container Tree Nursery Manual. Volume 4. Seedling Nutrition and Irrigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume 4 of The Container Tree Nursery Manual addresses seedling nutrition and irrigation. The chapters are entitled: Essential mineral nutrients; Mineral nutrients and seedling growth; Physical and chemical factors affecting nutrient availability; Charac...

T. D. Landis R. W. Tinus S. E. McDonald J. P. Barnett R. G. Nisley



Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana  


Forest Products Lab ... In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial ... We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery.


Statistical Issues for Seedling Studies in Air Pollution Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since seedlings represent future forests, they are an important population for exposure studies. The experimental conditions for seedling studies cover a wide range of treatment combinations, facilities, and exposure regimes. The experimental utilization ...

C. E. Peterson




EPA Science Inventory

By the very nature that seedlings represent the future forests, they are an important population for exposure studies. he experimental conditions for seedling studies cover a wide range of treatment combinations, facilities, and exposure regimes. he experimental utilization of ex...


Genetic Variation and Relationships among Seedling Vigor Traits in Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

ences in early seedling vigor among and within plant species have not been fully explored. Simple plant char- Seedling vigor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is im- acteristics such as kernel weight, percentage germina- portant for improving stand establishment of the crop, particularly in arid regions and in areas where low soil temperatures prevail at plant- tion, and seedling

N'Diaga Cisse; Gebisa Ejeta



Correlations Between Seed, Seedling and Budling in the Avocado  

Microsoft Academic Search

propagation materials at various stages from the nursery seedling to the orchard tree. In most of these studies significant correlations have been shown to exist between seedling size at time of budding and size of resulting budling. We have not been able to find reports of investigations in which size of seed has been correlated with size of resulting seedling;1



Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with

Y. H. Qu; X. M. Wei; Y. F. Hou; B. Chen; G. Q. Chen; C. Lin



Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub  

PubMed Central

The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment.

Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying



Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...


Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 ?mol/m2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.

Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.



Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica.  


Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential. PMID:22424088

Padmakumari Amma, K P; Rani, M Priya; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M



Can the fatty acid selectivity of plant lipases be predicted from the composition of the seed triglyceride?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the question can the fatty acid selectivity of plant lipases be predicted from the composition of the seed triglyceride, we have characterised the selectivity of lipases from a wide range of oilseeds with diverse fatty acid compositions. For this study, a novel hydrolysis assay using a fully randomised oil, was developed. From some seed sources (e.g. Cinnamomum camphora),

Susan Amanda Hellyer; Ian Christopher Chandler; John Anthony Bosley



Genetically improved ponderosa pine seedlings outgrow nursery-run seedlings with and without competition -- Early findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three classes of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings (nursery-run, wind-pollinated, control-pollinated) were evaluated for stem height and diameter at the USDA Forest Service's Placerville Nursery and the Georgetown Range District in northern California. Pines in all three classes were grown with competing vegetation or maintained in a free-to-grow condition. Control-pollinated seedlings were statistically taller than nursery-run counterparts when outplanted, and

P. M. McDonald; G. O. Fiddler; J. H. Kitzmiller



Conifer seedling nursery worker exposure to glyphosate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the measurements of glyphosate exposure received by 14 workers employed at two tree nurseries. The applicators, weeders, and scouts monitored all wore normal work clothing, which for applicators was a protective suit, rubber gloves and boots. Measurements were made of the glyphosate that was dislodged from conifer seedlings during water rinses taken twice weekly from May through

T. L. Lavy; J. E. Cowell; J. R. Steinmetz; J. H. Massey



Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC:, which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from

Anne-Laure Quettier; Peter J. Eastmond



Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani n sugar beets include post-emergence damping off of seedlings, and crown and root rot of mature plants. Sugar beet varieties show varying degree of susceptibility to R. solani. Project goals include development of a reliable method to screen for Rhizoctonia se...


Seedling recruitment in forests: Calibrating models to predict patterns of tree seedling dispersion  

SciTech Connect

Recruitment, the addition of new individuals into a community, is an important factor that can substantially affect community composition and dynamics. We present a method for calibrating spatial models of plant recruitment that does not require identifying the specific parent of each recruitment. This method calibrates seedling recruitment functions by comparing tree seedling distributions with adult distributions via a maximum likelihood analysis. The models obtained from this method can then be used to predict the spatial distributions of seedlings from adult distributions. We calibrated recruitment functions for 10 tree species characteristic of transition oak-northern hardwood forests. Significant differences were found in recruitment abundances and spatial distributions. Predicted seedling recruitment limitation for test stands varied substantially between species, with little recruitment limitation for some species and strong recruitment limitation for others. Recruitment was limited due to low overall recruit production or to restricted recruit dispersion. When these seedling recruitment parameters were incorporated into a spatial, individual-based model of forest dynamics, called SOR-TIE, alterations of recruitment parameters produced substantial changes in species abundance, providing additional support for the potential importance of seedling recruitment processes in community structure and dynamics. 45 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Ribbens, E.; Silander, J.A. Jr.; Pacala, S.W. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))



Postfire seedling dynamics and performance in Pinus halepensis Mill. populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postfire dynamics of Aleppo pine seedling density, survival and growth were assessed in five burned forests of Attica, Greece (Stamata, Villia, Avlona, Kapandriti and Agios Stefanos) through the establishment of permanent experimental plots. All emerging seedlings were tagged and their survival and growth monitored at regular intervals. Seedling density dynamics show an initial, steep increase (to maximum values 2.9-4.6 seedlings m -2) followed by a gradual decrease that levels off at the second and third postfire year (1.3-3.0 seedlings m -2); similarly, postfire seedling survival more or less stabilised at 30-50%, 2-3 years after fire. On the basis of density and mortality trends as well as relevant bibliographic data, it is predicted that very dense, mature forests (10.000 trees ha -1 or more) will be reinstated within 15-20 years. During the first 5-7 postfire years, seedling/sapling annual height followed linear trends with various yearly rates, ranging mostly between 8 and 15 cm (and 27-30 cm in two exceptional, fast growing cases). Within an individual growth season, seedling height dynamics were found to follow sigmoid curves with growth increment peaks in mid-spring. The time (on a monthly basis) of seedling emergence did not affect seedling growth or survival. On the other hand, for the first time under natural conditions, it has been shown that cotyledon number per seedling, an indirect measure of both seed size and initial photosynthetic capacity, significantly affected seedling survival but not growth. Seedlings bearing a higher number of cotyledons, presumably derived from larger seeds, showed greater survival at the end of the first postfire year than seedlings with fewer cotyledons. A postfire selective pressure, favouring large seed size, is postulated to counteract with a contrasting one, which favours small seed size, expressed during fire-free conditions.

Daskalakou, Evangelia N.; Thanos, Costas A.



Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots.  


Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients. PMID:11540829

Pickard, B G



Soil physical conditions affecting seedling root growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The role of mechanical impedance, poor aeration and water availability in restricting pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling root growth in sandy loam soil at three bulk densities and six matric potentials was studied. Mechanical impedance\\u000a increased both with bulk density and —matric potential. In certain treatments the roots were shorter and thicker as impedance\\u000a increased but in others shorter, thicker

B. W. Eavis



Turnover of Dhurrin in Green Sorghum Seedlings  

PubMed Central

The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with 14C-tyrosine and [14C]shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

Adewusi, Steve R. A.



Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production.  


Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and conversion of the somatic embryos. Cold treatment for 12 weeks was critical for conversion of chestnut somatic embryos to somatic seedlings, raising conversion frequencies for one line to 47%, compared to 7% with no cold treatment. AC improved germination and conversion frequency for one line to 77% and 59%, respectively, and kept roots from darkening. For two lines that produced embryos with one, two or three-plus cotyledons, cotyledon number did not affect germination or conversion frequency. We also established embryogenic American chestnut suspension cultures and adapted a fractionation/plating system that allowed us to produce populations of relatively synchronous somatic embryos for multiple lines. Embryos derived from suspension cultures of two lines tested had higher conversion frequencies (46% and 48%) than those from cultures maintained on semi-solid medium (7% and 30%). The improvements in manipulation of American chestnut embryogenic cultures described in this study have allowed over a 100-fold increase in somatic seedling production efficiency over what we reported previously and thus constitute a substantial advance toward the application of somatic embryogenesis for mass clonal propagation of the tree. PMID:15789206

Andrade, G M; Merkle, S A




EPA Science Inventory

Ponderosa pine seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme either in growth pouches before they were transplanted to root-mycocosms (P seedlings), or at the time of transfer to root-mycocosms (V seedlings). ninoculated seedlings served as controls (U seedlings). he us...


Seedling emergence and survival of Warea carteri (Brassicaceae), an endangered annual herb of the Florida Scrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling emergence and survival to flowering are critical processes in the life history of annual plants. We eval- uated the importance of year and habitat on seedling emergence and the effects of year, habitat, timing of seedling emer- gence, and seedling density on survival of Warea carteri Small, an annual mustard endemic to Florida scrub. We tagged 1329 seedlings in

Carl W. Weekley; Eric S. Menges; Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio



Microhabitat associations and seedling bank dynamics in a neotropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a rigorous test of tropical tree seedling microhabitat differentiation by examining microhabitat associations, survival and growth of established seedlings of ten tropical tree species representing a four-factor gradient in seed size. Eight microhabitat variables describing soil and light conditions were measured directly adjacent to each of 588 seedlings within twelve 10×100 m belt transects at Paracou, French Guiana, and

Christopher Baraloto; Deborah E. Goldberg



Laboratory studies on eelgrass seed and seedling predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species, including crustaceans, molluscs and fish, were examined for predacious activity onZostera marina L. seeds and seedlings. Predation was examined initially by offering seeds or seedlings as a sole food source for a maximum\\u000a period of one week. Species exhibiting predation of 10% or more of the seeds or seedlings were tested further with bits of\\u000a clam or scallop

Cathleen Wigand; A. Coolidge Churchill



Quality Assessment of Temperate Zone Deciduous Hardwood Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research regarding seedling quality issues has been performed for decades and focused primarily on conifer species, which\\u000a comprise the greatest proportion of nursery production worldwide. Demand for hardwood seedlings, particularly for conservation\\u000a purposes, has increased steadily in recent years, emphasizing the need for seedling quality assessment protocols specific\\u000a to these species. Important differences between conifer (gymnosperm) and hardwood (angiosperm) species

Barrett C. Wilson; Douglass F. Jacobs



Temperature-dependent Expression of Betacyanin Synthesis in Amaranthus Seedlings.  


Two phenomena related to temperature effects have been observed during the induction of betacyanin synthesis by a cytokinin (benzyladenine) in Amaranthus tricolor seedlings. One is a total inhibition of betacyanin accumulation at a temperature (39 C) at which seedling growth is unimpaired, and where there is still adequate uptake of benzyladenine. The other is the apparent induction of a higher potential for subsequent betacyanin synthesis following pretreatment of the seedlings at an elevated temperature. PMID:16660712

Elliott, D C



Predicting seedling biomass of radiata pine from allometric variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allometric equations predict tree seedling biomass from non-destructively measured variables such as stem diameter (D), height (H) and seedling silhouette area (A), measured by digital imaging. This study investigates whether one general allometric equation can predict biomass of radiata\\u000a pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) seedlings grown under three levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). It also identifies which commonly\\u000a used

Mark Bloomberg; Euan G. Mason; Peter Jarvis; Richard Sedcole



The induction of heat tolerance in black spruce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat conditioning of black spruce seedlings at 38°C drastically reduced heat-induced damage of seedlings exposed to 49-52°C. The pattern of protein synthesis during heat conditioning and heat stress was studied. Seedlings were in vivo labeled with (³⁵S)-methionine and protein fractions (soluble, mitochonrial and microsomal) were isolated from roots and needles. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by stainign and

M. Colclough; E. Blumwald; S. J. Colombo



Managing successional trajectories in alien-dominated, novel ecosystems by facilitating seedling regeneration: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing novel ecosystems that emerge after strong anthropogenic disturbance and the spread of alien species poses complex problems. As a case example, we discuss efforts on the tropical oceanic island Mahé (Seychelles) to promote the regeneration of native trees in tropical secondary forest dominated by the invasive tree Cinnamomum verum (true cinnamon).We monitored the growth of transplanted and self-sown native

Christoph Kueffer; Eva Schumacher; Hansjörg Dietz; Karl Fleischmann; Peter J. Edwards



Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.  


The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18) were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN. PMID:24013407

Luo, Qi; Wang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Qing; Luo, Jie; Cheng, Yong-Xian



Purification of a new ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Cinnamomum porrectum and characterization of the RNA N-glycosidase activity of the toxic protein.  


Porrectin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), was purified from the seeds of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum porrectum) by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 4B. Porrectin is a glycoprotein (M(r)64,500, sugar content 2.5%) consisting of an A-chain (M(r)30,500) and a B-chain (M(r)33,500) linked by the disulfide bond. The terminal sugar of glycan in porrectin B-chain is determined to be mannose. By non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, porrectin displayed three isoforms that have different pl values with the same molecular weight. Porrectin is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The molecular mechanism of action of porrectin on rat liver ribosomes is demonstrated to be specific for RNA N-glycosidase. The cleavage site is the adenosine at position 4324 (rat liver 28S rRNA) embedded in the highly conserved ricin/alpha-sarcin ('R/S') domain. PMID:8997493

Li, X D; Liu, W Y; Niu, C L



Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level of H+/K+ ATPase messenger RNA expression on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat gastric parietal cells in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro and ex vivo. DLBS2411 also acted as a competitive inhibitor by showing inhibition in gastric H+/K+ ATPase activity at various pHs. In gastric ulcer animal models induced with indomethacin and ethanol, DLBS2411showed a reduction in the number of petechiae, suggesting that the fraction also confers gastroprotective activity. Moreover, DLBS2411 was also found to have potent antioxidant activity. Taken together, DLBS2411 is a promising novel agent for the management of dyspepsia, a condition of hyperacidity and diseases in the stomach requiring gastroprotection.

Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nailufar, Florensia; Arifin, Poppy F



Safety profile assessment and efficacy of chemically characterized Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil against storage fungi, insect, aflatoxin secretion and as antioxidant.  


The study explores the efficacy of Cinnamomum glaucescens essential oil (EO) as insecticidal, antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant agent so as to recommend its application as plant based preservatives for food commodities. The study reports the chemical characterization of C. glaucescens oil and its 100% insecticidal activity against insect pest Callosobruchus chinensis on 12 h exposure and 98.74% oviposition deterrency at 0.15 ?l/ml. The EO significantly inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus LHP-10 at 4.5 and 3.5 ?l/ml respectively. EO also showed appreciable antioxidant activity (IC(50) value=15.1 ?l/ml), non phytotoxic nature on chickpea seed germination and in vivo potential as fumigant in food system providing 71.07% protection of chickpea samples from fungal contamination and 100% antifeedant activity against the insect invasion. The EO exhibited non-mammalian toxicity showing high LD(50) (3971.34 ?l/kg) during oral toxicity on mice. PMID:23220615

Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Shilpee; Singh, S C; Dubey, N K



5-HT(1A) receptor binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus is implicated in the anxiolytic-like effects of Cinnamomum cassia.  


Previously we reported that the 50% EtOH extract of Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) possesses anxiolytic-like activity in the mouse elevated plus maze (EPM) test. This activity was blocked by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, WAY 100635. Therefore, in order to investigate the effect of C. cassia on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding, quantitative autoradiography of 5-HT(1A) receptors was carried out in brains of mice treated acutely and repeatedly with C. cassia. Binding of [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT to the 5-HT(1A) receptor was investigated in the mouse brain. After a single treatment of C. cassia (750 mg/kg, p.o.), [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding showed a significant increase in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). After repeated treatment with C. cassia (100mg/kg, once a day for 5 days, p.o.), [(3)H]8-OH-DPAT binding showed no significant change in any brain region. Taken together, the anxiolytic-like effect of the 50% EtOH extract of C. cassia might be mediated by region specific change of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. PMID:22982739

Jung, Yang-Hee; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Sung-Ok; Kim, Sun-Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon



Subamolide B Isolated from Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum subavenium Induces Cytotoxicity in Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells through Mitochondrial and CHOP-Dependent Cell Death Pathways.  


Subamolide B is a butanolide isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various ailments including carcinomatous swelling. We herein reported for the first time that subamolide B potently induced cytotoxicity against diverse human skin cancer cell lines while sparing nonmalignant cells. Mechanistic studies on human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line SCC12 highlighted the involvement of apoptosis in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by the activation of caspases-8, -9, -4, and -3, the increase in annexin V-positive population, and the partial restoration of cell viability by cotreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Additionally, subamolide B evoked cell death pathways mediated by FasL/Fas, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as supported by subamolide B-induced FasL upregulation, BCL-2 suppression/cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and UPR activation/CHOP upregulation, respectively. Noteworthy, ectopic expression of c-FLIPL or dominant-negative mutant of FADD failed to impair subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity, whereas BCL-2 overexpression or CHOP depletion greatly rescued subamolide B-stimulated cells. Collectively, these results underscored the central role of mitochondrial and CHOP-mediated cell death pathways in subamolide B-induced cytotoxicity. Our findings further implicate the potential of subamolide B for cutaneous SCC therapy or as a lead compound for developing novel chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23573140

Yang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Hui-Min; Wu, Tai-Wen; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Luo, Ren-Jie; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Che



Bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis in mice.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis. The results revealed that post-treatment with 100 ?mol/kg trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or ?-cadinol significantly decreased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in serum. Moreover, both T-cadinol and ?-cadinol treatments decreased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in the liver tissues when compared with the LPS/D-GalN group. Liver histopathology also showed that silymarin, trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or ?-cadinol significantly reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by LPS/D-GalN. These results suggest that the above phytochemicals exhibit potent hepatoprotection against LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage in mice, and their hepatoprotective effects may be due to the modulation of anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21699244

Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Chien-Tsong; Wu, Jyh-Horng



Effects of ethanol on growth of rice seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ethanol, the end product of ethanolic fermentation, on the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings were determined as a means of evaluating growth responses under anoxia. The ethanol concentrations in roots and coleoptiles of the seedlings subjected to 48 h-anoxia, and in their culture medium were 23 and 32 µmol g-1 fresh weight, and 19 µmol ml-1,

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Takayuki Kugimiya




Microsoft Academic Search

discovered among seedlings being grown for experimental use, and suggested that the condition may have arisen from a bud mutation. Horne 3 \\/ mentioned and illustrated such plants and stated that the modified, albino-type leaves were composed of tissues similar to those of the white leaf scales which normally appear at the base of the stem of young avocado seedlings.

J. M. Wallace; R. J. Drake



Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A

B. Momen; P. D. Anderson; J. L. J. Houpis; J. A. Helms



Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...


Creeping Bentgrass Seedling Tolerance to Herbicides and Paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) seedlings to many herbicides has not been evaluated. Three fi eld studies were conducted between fall and spring from 1998 to 2002 to assess creeping bentgrass seedling tolerance to fi ve herbicides and paclobutrazol. The primary objectives of this investigation were to assess bentgrass tolerance to these chemicals when applied at various

John E. Kaminski; Peter H. Dernoeden; Cale A. Bigelow


Physiological and ecological significance of sunflecks for dipterocarp seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiance is highly dynamic in many plant canopies. Photosynthesis during sunflecks provides 10-90% of daily carbon gain. The survivorship of tree seedlings in the deeply shaded understorey of tropical rain forests is limited by their ability to maintain a positive carbon bal- ance. Dipterocarp seedlings from the SE Asian rain forest were used as a model system to test novel

A. D. B. Leakey; J. D. Scholes



Seed Germination and Seedling Survival of Spartina alterniflora Loisel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) is a widespread intertidal salt marsh plant that is frequently used in coastal restoration projects. Seeds collected in 2004 were tested for seed germination and seedling survival after 6 months of cold seed storage to determine differences among collection locations (experiment 1). Seeds collected in 2005, after Hurricane Katrina, were tested for seed germination and seedling

Patrick D. Biber; John D. Caldwell


The influence of ammonium on nitrate reduction in wheat seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium markedly inhibited nitrate absorption by nitrogenstarved wheat seedlings but did not decrease the proportion of absorbed nitrate that was reduced. Seedlings high in nitrate (absorbed prior to the experimental periods) reduced similar amounts of this nitrate regardless of whether or not ammonium was present and being absorbed during the period of measurement. Ammonium or products of ammonium assimilation did

P. L. Minotti; Doris Craig Williams; W. A. Jackson



The Vestigial Root of Dodder ( Cuscuta pentagona ) Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings of dodder are unique among dicotyledonous plants in that they emerge as a leafless, cotyledonless shoot with only a small swollen rootlike structure at the base of the tissue. Although growth of the shoot end of the dodder seedling is dramatic, no change in ''root'' length occurs, and the root tip is withered and senescent within 7 d of

Timothy D. Sherman; Andrew J. Bowling; T. Wayne Barger; Kevin C. Vaughn




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedling emergence is the crucial first step in crop establishment; however, crops frequently must penetrate or lift a thin, dense, soil crust formed during rainstorms. Shaping the soil surface into a small ridge or cap above the seed may promote crust fractures and improve seedling emergence and vi...


Examining salt stress for improvement of seedling vigor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers worldwide. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor, with vigor defined here as the ability of seedlings to tolerate adverse environments. Ongoi...


Controlling loblolly pine seedling growth through carbon metabolism ...  


In almost all cases, seedling height and diameter exceeded planting restrictions. ... growth patterns for loblolly pine seedling tops and roots are quite different. Top growth is active through summer and early fall whereas root growth ... (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.).


Induction of amylase in mustard seedlings by phytochrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cotyledons of mustard seedlings (Sinapis alba L.) amylase activity can be induced by phytochrome. In the dark amylase activity remains low. Gibberellic acid (GA3) does not stimulate an increase of amylase activity in this system. Inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis strongly inhibit the increase of amylase activity mediated by phytochrome. In gel electrophoresis amylase from mustard seedlings

H. Drumm; I. Elchinger; J. Möller; K. Peter; H. Mohr



Simultaneous existence of cinnamomin (a type II RIP) and small amount of its free A- and B-chain in mature seeds of camphor tree.  


Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), was isolated from the mature seeds of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper, small amount of free A- and B-chain of cinnamomin were found to be present in the mature seed cell of C. camphora besides the intact cinnamomin. Our results demonstrated that camphorin, a type I RIP previously reported to coexist with cinnamomin in the seeds of C. camphora, actually was the A-chain of cinnamomin. The percentage of free A- and B-chain in the total cinnamomin was 2.6-2.8% in the seed extract. Of these free A- and B-chain approximate 80% already existed in the seed cell, only about 20% were produced during the purification operation. As the enzymatic activity to reduce disulfide bond of cinnamomin in the seed extract of C. camphora was detected, we proposed that the free A- and B-chain were derived from the enzymatic reduction of the interchain disulfide bond of cinnamomin. It was demonstrated that the endogenous type II RIPs of several plant species, such as Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum bodinieri and Ricinus communis, could be enzymatically reduced into the free A- and B-chain in their respective seed cells. The function of the free A-chain in the seed cell and the possibility that metabolic enzymes might be involved in the reduction of the interchain disulfide bond of type II RIPs in vivo are discussed. PMID:12565707

Hou, Fa-Jian; Xu, Hong; Liu, Wang-Yi



Temperature Requirements for Seed Germination and Seedling Development Determine Timing of Seedling Emergence of Three Monocotyledonous Temperate Forest Spring Geophytes  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The optimal period for seedling emergence depends on factors such as habitat preference, life cycle and geographical distribution. This research was performed to clarify the role of temperature in regulating processes leading to seedling emergence of the European continental Scilla bifolia and the Atlantic Narcissus pseudonarcissus and Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Methods Experiments in natural conditions were performed to examine the phenology of embryo growth, seed germination in the soil and seedling emergence. Effects of temperature conditions on embryo growth, seed germination, seedling growth and leaf formation were studied in temperature-controlled incubators. Key Results In nature, embryo growth of all three species was initiated from the moment the seeds were dispersed in spring and continued during summer. A sequence of high temperature followed by a lower temperature was required to complete embryo growth and initiate germination. Seeds of H. non-scripta and N. pseudonarcissus germinated in autumn once they attained the critical E:S ratio, while seeds of S. bifolia started germinating when temperatures were low in winter. Seedlings developed normally, but slowly, only when placed in low temperature conditions (5 or 10 °C), resulting in a time lag between the moment of radicle protrusion and seedling emergence in the field. Conclusions A continuous development of the embryo and seedlings of the three species was observed from the moment the seeds were dispersed until seedlings emerged. A sequence of high summer temperatures followed by decreasing autumn and winter temperatures was required for all developmental processes to be completed. Although a time lag occurs between radicle protrusion and seedling emergence, the term ‘epicotyl dormancy’ does not apply here, due to the absence of a period of developmental arrest. Timing of first seedling emergence differed between the three species and could be related to differences in geographical distribution.

Vandelook, Filip; Van Assche, Jozef A.



Specific inhibition of phototropism in corn seedlings.  


Geotropism was used as a control for the specificity of potential inhibitors of phototropism by the coleoptiles of corn (Zea mays) seedlings. The compounds tested fall into three categories showing: (a) no inhibition of either phototropism or geotropism (KCl); (b) nonspecific inhibition of both phototropism and geotropism (KCN); and (c) specific inhibition of phototropism (KI, NaN(3), and phenylacetic acid). Simultaneous irradiation of coleoptiles with phototropically inert light in addition to the phototropically active blue light also results in an inhibition of phototropism. Since azide, iodide, and phenylacetic acid are known to interact with flavins while a simultaneous irradiation with a phototropically inert light may depopulate the first triplet state of flavins, these data support the hypothesis that the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism in corn is a flavin. PMID:16660174

Schmidt, W; Hart, J; Filner, P; Poff, K L



Phytochrome-Mediated Phototropism in De-Etiolated Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Phototropic responses to broadband far red (FR) radiation were investigated in fully de-etiolated seedlings of a long-hypocotyl mutant (lh) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is deficient in phytochrome-B, and its near isogenic wild type (WT). Continuous unilateral FR light provided against a background of white light induced negative curvatures (i.e. bending away from the FR light source) in hypocotyls of WT seedlings. This response was fluence-rate dependent and was absent in the lh mutant, even at very high fluence rates of FR. The phototropic effect of FR light on WT seedlings was triggered in the hypocotyls and occurred over a range of fluence rates in which FR was very effective in promoting hypocotyl elongation. FR light had no effect on elongation of lh-mutant hypocotyls. Seedlings grown in the field showed negative phototropic responses to the proximity of neighboring plants that absorbed blue (B) and red light and back-reflected FR radiation. The bending response was significantly larger in WT than in lh seedlings. Responses of WT and lh seedlings to lateral B light were very similar; however, elimination of the lateral B light gradients created by the proximity of plant neighbors abolished the negative curvature only in the case of lh seedlings. More than 40% of the total hypocotyl curvature induced in WT seedlings by the presence of neighboring plants was present after equilibrating the fluence rates of B light received by opposite sides of the hypocotyl. These results suggest that: (a) phytochrome functions as a phototropic sensor in de-etiolated plants, and (b) in patchy canopy environments, young seedlings actively project new leaves into light gaps via stem bending responses elicited by the B-absorbing photoreceptor(s) and phytochrome.

Ballare, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.; Radosevich, Steven R.; Kendrick, Richard E.



Variation in drought response of sal (Shorea robusta) seedlings.  


Plant development and distribution in areas with seasonal rainfall are often related to the ability of plants to postpone desiccation or tolerate low water potentials during drought. Regeneration of Shorea robusta Gaertn. (sal), a commercially valuable, widely distributed tree of the Indian tropical belt, is unsuccessful at the base of the Himalaya. Seedling shoots die back repeatedly during the long drought that follows the monsoon rain. During the course of one year, we monitored changes in plant and soil water potentials (Psi), leaf conductance (gw), osmotic and elastic adjustment, and xylem conductance of sal seedlings of different sizes from three landforms: an alluvial plain at 540 m elevation, a slope at 510 m, and a montane site at 1370 m. Predawn plant Psi and gw were lowest in the smallest seedlings (< 20 cm tall). Across sites and seasons, seedlings > 100 cm tall had higher morning gw than seedlings in the other size classes. In all size classes, plant Psi was lowest during early summer, when leafing begins. Among sites, Psi and gw were lowest in seedlings at the montane site. Osmotic potential was lowest during leaf development and highest during the rainy season, and tissue elasticity was highest during winter. As leaf area increased during leaf development, xylem conductance per unit of xylem cross-sectional area also increased. We conclude that low Psi is unlikely to be a major cause of seedling mortality. Small seedlings, with low Psi, had low leaf conductance. Adjustments of osmotic and elastic properties appear to aid responses of seedlings to drought. PMID:12975126

Garkoti, Satish C; Zobel, Donald B; Singh, Surendra P



Cytokinin, Acting through Ethylene, Restores Gravitropism to Arabidopsis Seedlings Crown under Red Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokinin replaces light in several aspects of the photomorpho- genesis of dicot seedlings. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under red light have been shown to become disoriented, losing the negative hypocotyl gravitropism that has been observed in seedlings grown in darkness or white light. We report here that cytokinin at micromolar concentrations restores gravitropism to seedlings grown under red light. Cytokinin

Amnon Golan; Michal Tepper; Esther Soudry; Benjamin A. Horwitz; Shimon Gepstein


Run for Cover! What's Covering Your Greenhouse and How Is It Affecting Seedling Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of seedling growth characteristics between two greenhouse cover types, old fiberglass and new polycarbonate, shows significant differences in height and sturdiness coeffi- cients in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings. Three rates of nitrogen (N) application (20, 40, and 60 mg) indicate that seedling growth will increase under both cover types, but may cause a reduction in seedling quality attributes

Jeremy R. Pinto; R. Kasten Dumroese; John D. Marshall




PubMed Central

The temperature characteristic for respiratory production of CO2 by young seedlings of Phaseolus aureus (Roxb.) is µ = 16,500 calories, 12–21°C., even when the analyses depend upon the use of many seedlings crowded in a small respiration chamber, provided reasonable precautions are taken to avoid injury and to permit proper thermal adaptation. There is evidence of a definite critical temperature at 20–21°. These findings agree quantitatively with those obtained with other similar seedlings, and contradict the results reported by Kurbatov and Leonov (1930); the reasons for this are analysed.

Crozier, W. J.; Navez, A. E.



Factors influencing seedling emergence and survival in Cercidiphyllum japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercidiphyllum japonicum\\u000a Sieb. etZucc. is found in riparian forests in Japan, but the seedlings rarely regenerate more than coexisting tree species. We investigatedC. japonicum emergence and seedling survival in a nursery for 21 months. Bare soil, soil-with-litter, and gravel treatments and 3.0%,\\u000a 10.9%, 22.7%, 60.1%, and 100% relative photosynthetic photon flux density (RPPFD) light conditions were tested. Seedling emergence\\u000a depended

Masako Kubo; Hitoshi Sakio; Koji Shimano; Keiichi Ohno



Identification of chromosome regions associated with seedling vigor in rice.  


Seedling vigor is important for optimum stand establishment in rice cropping. In this paper,a set of 264 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived by single seed descent from a cross between Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica) was phenotyped for three seedling vigor related traits, including seed germination rate (GR), seedling shoot length and dry weight by the rolled paper towel tests. The phenotype data and a linkage map consisting of 198 DNA markers were combined to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seedling vigor by using a computer program QTLMapper1.0. A total of 13 putative main-effect QTL were detected. All of these QTL had much smaller effects on the traits with a mean R2 of 6.2%, ranging from 2.9% to 12.7%. As for digenic interaction, 18 pairs of epistatic loci with R2 > or = 5% were resolved with a mean R2 of 6.9% ,ranging from 5.1% to 11.8%, which was slightly larger than that of the main-effect QTL identified for the traits. The majority of the main-effect and epistatic loci detected for seedling vigor related traits were clustered in a few chromosome regions. Together, seven such chromosome regions (CRs), each with three or more seedling vigor main-effect and epistatic loci, were found to be highly associated with seedling vigor. These CRs can be classified into three types, i.e. M-CRs, E-CRs and ME-CRs. For some CRs just like CR(SV-6), the QTL within one CR were found to interact simultaneously with QTL within more than one other CRs to affect different seedling vigor related traits. The above results revealed that seedling vigor in rice is controlled by many loci, most of which have relatively small effects. Comparatively, epistasis as a genetic factor would be more important than main-effects of QTL for seedling vigor in rice. Nevertheless, the effects of the QTL are still large enough to be detected and in fact several chromosome regions were found to be highly associated with seedling vigor in very different populations as compared with previous studies. Molecular tagging of favorable alleles and marker-aided selection strategy may, therefore, be a promising approach to the improvement of rice seedling vigor. PMID:15490878

Huang, Zheng; Yu, Ting; Su, Li; Yu, Si-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Zhu, Ying-Guo



Effect of NaCl and Proline on Bean Seedlings Cultured in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of NaCl (150 mM), proline (10 mM) and their combination on growth and contents of chlorophyll, proline and protein of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Kizilhaç) seedlings in vitro were investigated. NaCl decreased seedling growth. Proline added to control seedlings did not change seedling growth but decreased chlorophyll and increased protein contents. When proline added to NaCl-treated seedlings growth was

Y. Demir; I. Kocaçali?kan



Simple methods for raising tree and shrub seedlings in Afghanistan  


Title: Simple methods for raising tree and shrub seedlings in Afghanistan ... In this book, we intend to provide basic biology and simple, effective techniques to grow ... Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for ...


Potential for boom-mounted remote sensing applications in seedling ...  


... is widely used for classification of vegetation structure and health on industrial ... Many nurseries are equipped with overhead irrigation boom systems ... Potential for boom-mounted remote sensing applications in seedling quality monitoring.


Plant compensatory growth in aspen seedlings: the role of frequency ...  


... of simulated defoliation of aspen seedlings, with or without N-enriched media. ... We developed a new predictive model, the Frequency and Intensity of Herbivory ... by discussing the results of this and earlier studies in the context of the FIRA ...


Quaking Aspen--Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although freshly dispersed aspen seeds germinate quickly and nearly completely over a broad range of temperatures, early growth of seedlings is highly sensitive to availability of water, temperature, and physical and chemical conditions of the seedbed.

W. T. McDonough



Influence of four tree shelter types on microclimate and seedling ...  


... for their effects on seedling microenvironment and performance of two tree species. ... Summer mean and daily maximum air temperatures were increased by 0.8 °C and ... Shelter color and shelter venting did not influence air temperatures.


Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle ...  


Title: Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of ... pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management ... wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in ...


Economical and Simple Production of Containerized Hardwood Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic mat-watering system for growing hardwood seedlings in containers was designed and tested. The system has only one moving part, and no electrical requirements. There is no need to calculate different watering schedules for different growth pha...

M. C. Hoyle




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination and seedling establishment are arguably the most critical stages controlling the successful rangeland seedings. These stages are also ecologically complex and under the control of variable biotic and abiotic factors. Species specific germination strategies, dormancy, straitificati...


Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine ...  


On northern slopes, seedling density was highest in newly exposed soils, with 90 ... R. caucasicum was not a significant source of shade for B. litwinowii, as most ... such as soil moisture, more likely account for successful establishment within ...


Locust Sprouts Reduce Growth of Yellow-Popular Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dense thickets of black locust which often appear after clearcutting in the Southern Appalachians and Piedmont, can severely reduce growth of other desirable hardwoods. Released yellow-poplar seedlings were 51 percent taller and 79 percent larger in diame...



Improving salt tolerance of cotton seedlings with 5-aminolevulinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 12 different plant growth regulators (PGRs) tested,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was found to improve the salttolerance of cotton seedlings. Cotton seedlings treated with ALAcould grow in soil containing levels as high as 1.5% (wt\\/wt)NaCl. The analyses of mineral compositions of plant parts revealed that the Naplus concentrations in the roots of the plantstreated with ALA were suppressed to low concentrations.

K. Watanabe; T. Tanaka; Y. Hotta; H. Kuramochi; Y. Takeuchi



Anoxia tolerance and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in lettuce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on anoxiatolerance, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings weresubjected to anoxic stress in the presence of cycloheximide (CHM). Atconcentrations greater than 3 , CHM decreased thesurvivability of the roots and the survivability decreased with increasing CHMdoses. At 100 CHM, the survivability was 41% of thatof non-CHM-treated seedlings. Alcohol dehydrogenase (EC

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi



Wounding stress induces alcohol dehydrogenase in maize and lettuce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the effect of wounding stress on alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH, EC in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, maize(Zea mays L.) and lettuce (Lactucasativa L.) seedlings were subjected to wounding stress and ADHactivity and abscisic acid (ABA) concentration were determined. In response tothe stress, the ADH activity in seedlings of both species increased rapidly asaresult of increased synthesis of the ADH.

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi



Effects of shallow flooding on newly established purple loosestrife seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a nuisance exotic species that displaces native plants and has little value as food or habitat for wildlife. Attempts\\u000a to control adult plants have had limited success. We investigated the effects of shallow flooding (<30 cm) on the growth and\\u000a survival of purple loosestrife seedlings. Pots containing purple loosestrife seedlings were assigned to each of

Margaret J. Haworth-Brockman; Henry R. Murkin; Robert T. Clay



Factors affecting survival of tree seedlings in North Queensland rainforests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seedlings of six species of rainforest trees with widely constrasting ecology and seed morphology were transplanted at 3 weeks\\u000a of age into tree-fall gaps and the shaded understoreys at two rainforest sites (Curtain Fig and Lamins Hill) on the Atherton\\u000a Tableland, North Queensland, Australia. In each forest habitat, half of the transplanted seedlings were protected from vertebrates\\u000a by means of

Olusegun O. Osunkjoya; Julian E. Ash; Mike S. Hopkins; Andrew W. Graham



Streamflow requirements for cottonwood seedling recruitment—An integrative model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ‘recruitment box,’ an integrative model that defines the stream stage patterns that enable successful\\u000a establishment of riparian cottonwood seedlings. In western North America, cottonwood seed dispersal generally occurs after\\u000a annual peak river flows. The receding stream exposes moist sites upon which seeds land after transport by wind and water.\\u000a Germination is rapid, and initial seedling establishment

John M. Mahoney; Stewart B. Rood



Water transfer via ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae to conifer seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about water transfer via mycorrhizal hyphae to plants, despite its potential importance in seedling establishment\\u000a and plant community development, especially in arid environments. Therefore, this process was investigated in the study reported\\u000a in this paper in laboratory-based tripartite mesocosms containing the shrub Arctostaphylos viscida (manzanita) and young seedlings of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).

Agneta H. Plamboeck; Todd E. Dawson; Louise M. Egerton-Warburton; Malcolm North; Thomas D. Bruns; José Ignacio Querejeta



Morphogenesis in cucumber seedlings is negatively controlled by gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Seedlings of most cucurbitaceous plants develop a peg (protuberance caused by cell outgrowth) on the transition zone between\\u000a the hypocotyl and root. The peg is necessary for removing the seed coat after germination. In our spaceflight experiments\\u000a on the STS-95 space shuttle, Discovery, we found that cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings grown under microgravity conditions developed two pegs symmetrically at

Hideyuki Takahashi; Motoshi Kamada; Yutaka Yamazaki; Nobuharu Fujii; Atsushi Higashitani; Sachiko Aizawa; Izumi Yoshizaki; Shigeki Kamigaichi; Chiaki Mukai; Toru Shimazu; Keiji Fukui



Switchgrass Seedling Development as Affected by Seed Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed size has been associated with early seedling vigor (i.e., germination rate, emergence rate, and growth) in grasses. This study was conducted to compare seedling development over a 60-d period in the field as affected by heavy seed (HS) (0.19 to 0.21 g 100 seed-1) and light seed (LS) (0.13 to 0.16 g 100 seed-1) of 'Blackwell' and 'Trailblazer' switchgrass

Alexander J. Smart; Lowell E. Moser



[Critical tidal level for planting Kandelia candel seedlings in Xiamen].  


Plantable tidal flat is one of the most important factors affecting the survival rate of mangroves seedlings in forestation. In this paper, an experiment was conducted in the tidal zones of Umbrette Natural Reserve in the Dayu Island of Xiamen in May 2003 to investigate the critical tidal level for Kandelia candel forestation. The results showed that the tidal level of 0.99 m above the zero tidal level of the Huang Ocean was not suitable for planting K. candel seedlings, because the waterlogging time at this tidal level was longer than 8 h per-tide-cycle, and the survival rate was lower than 50% . At 1.62 m above the zero tidal level of Huang Ocean, K. candel seedlings had the best growth and the highest photosynthetic assimilation, with a survival rate of 90%. At 1.31 m above the zero tidal level of Huang Ocean, K. candel seedlings could still grow well. It could be concluded that the tidal level of 1.62 m was optimal for planting K. candel seedlings, and the critical tidal level of K. candel seedlings in the coastal areas of Xiamen was not lower than 1.31 m above the zero tidal level of Huang Ocean, where the waterlogging time was not longer than 5.6 h per-tide-cycle. PMID:16706033

Chen, Luzhen; Yang, Zhiwei; Wang, Wenqin; Lin, Peng



Considerations for evaluating controlled exposure studies of tree seedlings  

SciTech Connect

Tree seedling exposure studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatments, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have been conducted during the past several years to determine acute effects and relative sensitivity of tree species in response to simulated acid precipitation and gaseous pollutants. Because of the difficulties inherent in conducting controlled exposures with mature trees (e.g., size, variability among experimental units, and costs associated with replication of treatments), seedling exposure studies have been initiated as the quickest way to address these issues. However, sufficient consideration has not been given to either the comparability of seedling studies or to their appropriate inference. The statistical power of any given analysis is rarely discussed when the outcomes are published. Appropriate and documented statistics of experimenter bias are often not reported, and variability in the exposure regime (ie., treatment target levels) and the measurement of experimental variables is assumed to be zero, rather than quantified. FInally, the populations of seedlings for which seedling experiments have inferences the extent to which seedling responses are applicable to mature trees and forest condition, and the limitations in national or regional generalizations are crucial issues often left to an individual reader`s interpretation without the benefit of adequate quantitative information presented by the authors. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Peterson, C.E. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR (United States); Mickler, R.A. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Raleigh, NC (United States)



Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts.  


The extracts of chloroform (1) and methanol (2) from Antrodia camphorata (AC), and chloroform (3) and n-butanol (4) fractions of methanol extract from Cordyceps sinensis (CS), and hexane (5), ethyl acetate (6), and methanol (7) from Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark (CO) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory as well as tumor-cell growth inhibitory activities in vitro. All the tested extracts dose dependently inhibited the enhanced production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) through reducing inducible NO synthase expression, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-12 in LPS/IFN-gamma activated murine peritoneal macrophages. In addition, extracts 1 from AC, and 5 and 6 from CO significantly arrest the mitogen-stimulated spleen cells in G0/G1 stage. On the other hand, all these extracts were also evaluated for their tumor-cell proliferation activities in different type of cancer cell lines such as Jurkat, HepG2, PC 3, Colon 205, and MCF 7 as well as normal PBMCs. Compared to untreated controls, the extracts 1, 2, and 4-7 were most active and inhibited Jurkat cells with IC50 value of 22, 40, 18, 4, 5, and 45 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, the extracts 5, 6, and 7 from CO showed potent growth inhibition of HepG2 and PC 3 with IC50 values of 35, 80, 55 microg/ml; and 42, 125, and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Similarly, the extracts 1 and 5 inhibited the growth of Colon 205 and MCF 7 cells with IC50 values of 65, 33; and 95 and 30 microg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, none of the tested extract has shown cytotoxicity towards normal PBMCs up to the concentration range studies (0-150 microg/ml). Taken together, these data suggest that the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties of AC, CS, and CO might result from the growth inhibition of NO, TNF-alpha and IL-12, and tumor cells proliferation, respectively. PMID:17822865

Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min





The soluble invertase activity in etiolated Avena seedlings was highest at the apex of the coleoptile and much lower in the primary leaf, mesocotyl, and root. The activity in all parts of the seedling consisted of two invertases (I and II) which were separated by chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose. Both enzymes appeared to be acid invertases, but they differed in molecular size, pH optimum, and the kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of their action on sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose. Invertase II had low stability at pH 3.5 and below, and exhibited high sensitivity to Hg(2+), with complete inhibition by 2 micromolar HgCl(2). Segments of coleoptiles incubated in water lost about two-thirds of the total invertase activity after 16 hours. The loss of activity was due primarily to a decrease in the level of invertase II. The loss of invertase was decreased by indoleacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid but not by beta-naphthaleneacetic acid and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Conditions that inhibited auxin-induced growth of the segments (20 millimolar CaCl(2) and 200 millimolar mannitol) also blocked the auxin effect on invertase loss. PMID:16661129

Pressey, R; Avants, J K



Conifer seedling nursery worker exposure to glyphosate.  


This study addresses the measurements of glyphosate exposure received by 14 workers employed at two tree nurseries. The applicators, weeders, and scouts monitored all wore normal work clothing, which for applicators was a protective suit, rubber gloves and boots. Measurements were made of the glyphosate that was dislodged from conifer seedlings during water rinses taken twice weekly from May through August. Only 1 of these 78 dislodgeable residue samples were positive for glyphosate. Nine cotton gauze patches were attached to the clothing of each worker one day per week during this same period. Hand washes were taken on the same day that patches were worn. Most patches and hand washes from applicators and weeders contained measurable amounts of glyphosate. Analyses of individual patches showed that the body portions receiving the highest exposure were ankles and thighs. For scouts only 1 of 23 hand washes contained glyphosate. To provide a measure of the exposure occurring via all exposure routes (dermal, ingestion, and inhalation) an analysis was made of the total urine excreted. For most workers a daily total urine collection was made for 12 consecutive weeks. Urine analysis, the biological monitoring tool used to assess the total amount absorbed via all avenues, did not reveal any positive samples. The lower limit of method validation for glyphosate in the urine samples was 0.01 micrograms/ml. High rainfall, or irrigation as needed, in conjunction with normal field dissipation avenues and worker training were cited as contributing factors for the low amounts of glyphosate exposure found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1554254

Lavy, T L; Cowell, J E; Steinmetz, J R; Massey, J H



Rhizotoxic effects of silver in cowpea seedlings.  


Silver (Ag) is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, including algae, invertebrate animals, and fish, but little information exists on Ag rhizotoxicity in higher plants. In two solution culture experiments with approximately 1,000 microM Ca(NO3)2 and 5 microM H3BO3 (pH 5.4), 20 to 80% of added Ag (< or =2 microM) was lost from solution within approximately 30 min, with a further decrease after 48 h root growth. Using measured Ag concentrations at the start of the experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) for root elongation rate of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. cv. Caloona) was 0.010 microM Ag in the first 4 h of exposure (0.021 microM in the first 8 h). This demonstrates that Ag (as Ag+) is rapidly rhizotoxic to cowpea seedlings at concentrations similar to those that are toxic to freshwater biota. Rupturing of rhizodermal and outer cortical layers was evident after 48 h with 0.13 to 0.57 microM Ag initially in solution, being most severe at 0.13 or 0.25 microM Ag. An additional experiment showed that ruptures were first evident after 20 h exposure to 0.17 microM Ag, with increased severity of rupturing over time. The rhizotoxic effects of Ag are similar to those of some other trace metals (e.g., Cu, Al, La) that bind strongly to hard ligands and weakly to soft ligands. The similarity of rupturing effects, despite the difference in strong binding to soft ligands by Ag and to hard ligands by the other metals, suggests a distinctive metabolic effect of Ag that binds only weakly to hard ligands. PMID:20821665

Blamey, F Pax C; Kopittke, Peter M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Kinraide, Thomas B; Menzies, Neal W



The induction of heat tolerance in black spruce seedlings  

SciTech Connect

Heat conditioning of black spruce seedlings at 38{degree}C drastically reduced heat-induced damage of seedlings exposed to 49-52{degree}C. The pattern of protein synthesis during heat conditioning and heat stress was studied. Seedlings were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)-methionine and protein fractions (soluble, mitochonrial and microsomal) were isolated from roots and needles. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by stainign and autoradiography. Several heat-shock proteins (HSP) were produced during heat conditioning and heat shock, but only few de novo synthesized proteins were specific to the heat conditioning treatments. Experiments used to distinguish between the putative HSP from those proteins specifically associated with the heat conditioning process will be presented and discussed.

Colclough, M.; Blumwald, E. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Colombo, S.J. (OMNR, Maple, Ontario (Canada))



Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth of Defoliated and Undefoliated Red Oak Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fertilization of red oak (Quercus rubra ) seedlings increased their terminal shoot growth. Dry, liquid, and liquid + dry fertilizer was applied to groups of undefoliated, once-defoliated, and twice-defoliated seedlings. Terminal shoot growth was measured ...

J. Parker



Needle Mottle in Eastern White Pine Seedlings: A Selective Parameter for Air Pollution Sensitivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Positive correlations were established between morphological characteristics in eastern white pine seedlings and subsequent tolerance or sensitivity to air pollution 5 and 7 years after outplanting in Ohio plantations. Of 11 seedling variables, needle mot...

L. S. Dochinger S. L. Arner



Carbon Budgets of Quercus Rubra L. Seedlings at Selected Stages of Growth: Influence of Light.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine potential growth responses of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings to various field light environments, carbon budgets of one-, two-, and three-flush seedlings were calculated. Leaf carbon dioxide exchange rate (CER), root respiratio...

P. J. Hanson J. G. Isebrands R. E. Dickson



90SR Uptake by 'Pinus ponderosa' and 'Pinus radiata' Seedlings Inoculated with Ectomycorrhizal Fungi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. ...

J. A. Entry P. T. Rygiewicz W. H. Emmingham



Chloroplastic Regulation of Apoplastic ?-Amylase Activity in Pea Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Photobleaching of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling leaves by treatment with norflurazon (San 9789) and 7 days of continuous white light caused a 76- to 85-fold increase in the activity of the primary ?-amylase, a largely apoplastic enzyme, over normally greening seedlings. Levels of chlorophyll were near zero and levels of plastid marker enzyme activities were very low in norflurazon-treated seedlings, indicating severe photooxidative damage to plastids. As levels of norflurazon or fluence rates were lowered, decreasing photobleaching of tissues, ?-amylase activity decreased. Levels of leaf ?-amylase and starch debranching enzyme changed very little in norflurazon-treated seedlings. Infiltration extraction of leaves of norflurazon-treated and normally greening seedlings indicated that at least 57 and 62%, respectively, of ?-amylase activity was in the apoplast. ?-Amylase activity recovered from the apoplast of photobleached leaves of norflurazon-treated seedlings was 18-fold higher than that for green leaves. Inhibitors of photosynthesis (DCMU and atrazine) and an inhibitor of chlorophyll accumulation that does not cause photooxidation of plastid components (tentoxin) had little effect on levels of ?-amylase activity, indicating norflurazon-caused loss of chlorophyll and lack of photosynthesis did not cause the large induction in ?-amylase activity. An inhibitor of both abscisic acid and gibberellin synthesis (paclobutrazol [PP333]) and an analog of norflurazon which inhibits photosynthesis but not carotenoid synthesis (San 9785) caused only moderate (about five-fold) increases in ?-amylase activity. Lincomycin and chloramphenicol increased ?-amylase activity in light grown seedings to the same magnitude as norflurazon, indicating that the effect of norflurazon is probably through the destruction of plastid ribosomes. It is proposed that chloroplasts produce a negative signal for the regulation of the apoplastic ?-amylase in pea. Images Figure 6 Figure 7

Saeed, Muhammad; Duke, Stanley H.



Influence of Lanthanides on the Antioxidative Defense System in Maize Seedlings Under Cold Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 on the antioxidative defense system in maize seedlings under cold stress was investigated. It was found that maize seedlings\\u000a cultivated in cold stress developed distinct cold symptoms, and the plant growth was significantly inhibited as expected,\\u000a while Ln-treated seedling growth was improved. Cold stress in maize seedlings also increased the permeability of plasma

Ying Wang; Min Zhou; Xiaolan Gong; Chao Liu; Mengmeng Hong; Ling Wang; Fashui Hong


Early gains from planting large-diameter seedlings and intensive management are additive for loblolly pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seedling size\\/intensive management study with Pinustaeda L. was established in 1993 on two sites in the CoastalPlain of Georgia and South Carolina. Each site contained a 2 × 2split-plot study involving two seedling sizes and two levels ofestablishment intensity. Ideotype ``B'' seedlings averaged 5.0 mmin diameter (at the root collar) and were 43 cm tall. Ideotype``A'' seedlings averaged 8.5

David B. South; James L. Rakestraw; George A. Lowerts



Mapping urban forest tree species using IKONOS imagery: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stepwise masking system with high-resolution IKONOS imagery was developed to identify and map urban forest tree species\\/groups\\u000a in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. The eight species\\/groups consist of sand live oak (Quercus geminata), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), live oak (Quercus virginiana), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), pine (species group), palm (species group), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), and red maple (Acer rubrum).

Ruiliang Pu



Study of the antifungal activity of Acinetobacter baumannii LCH001 in vitro and identification of its antifungal components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Acinetobacter strain, given the code name LCH001 and having the potential to be an endophytic antagonist, has been isolated from healthy\\u000a stems of the plant Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, guided by an in vitro screening technique. The bacterium inhibited the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi\\u000a such as Cryphonectria parasitica, Glomerella glycines, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium graminearum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizoctonia

C. H. Liu; X. Chen; T. T. Liu; B. Lian; Yucheng Gu; V. Caer; Y. R. Xue; B. T. Wang



90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and

J. A. Entry; P. T. Rygiewicz; W. H. Emmingham




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Retention forestry places seedlings in proximity to residual trees, exposing seedlings to additional sources of ectomycorrhizal fungus (EMF) inoculum. To investigate this, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were planted near (2-6 m) and far (16-30 m) from 44- to 72-year-ol...


Chromosome doubling of haploid maize seedlings by various in vitro treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A two-year study was conducted on methods for doubling haploid maize plants with elite temperate backgrounds following various seed treatments. Seedlings were treated with colchicine or other chemicals by 1) injecting plants and 2) a soak method using various seedling treatments. Treated seedlings...


Seedling Root and Coleoptile Length as Selection Criteria for Field Emergence in Pearl Millet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) production in semi-arid regions is limited by poor seedling emergence that results in poor stand establishment and, low yield. Six pearl millet populations were created by divergent selection within the Tift #2 S-1 (TIFT2) pearl millet population for seedling root length in sand in the greenhouse or seedling root or coleoptile length in

L. R. F. MRagwa; C. E. Watson Jr; L. M. Gourley



Rooting depth and soil moisture control Mediterranean woody seedling survival during drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Seedling survival is one of the most critical stages in a plant's life history, and is often reduced by drought and soil desiccation. It has been hypothesized that root systems accessing moist soil layers are critical for establishment, but very little is known about seedling root growth and traits in the field. 2. We related seedling mortality to




Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978January 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt




Double-stocking for overcoming damage to conifer seedlings by pocket gophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 5-yr study was conducted on national forests in Idaho and Oregon to evaluate how doubling the seedling stocking rate of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) would relate to 5-year survival and the uniformity of distribution of seedlings in the presence of northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) damage. Either 4 or 8 seedlings were planted in 40-m2 subplots (1000 or 2000

Richard M. Engeman; Richard M. Anthony; Victor G. Barnes; Heather W. Krupa; James Evans



Spatial pattern of seedlings 1 year after fire in a Mediterranean pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distribution of seedlings of the dominant perennial plant species (Pinus halepensis, Cistus salviifolius, Rhus coriaria) and may annual species was studied after a wild fire in an eastern Mediterranean pine forest. The spatial distribution of all seedlings is affected by the location of the old burned pine trees. Seedling density of Pinus and Cistus is higher at a

G. Ne'eman; H. Lahav; I. Izhaki



Callus culture from hypocotyls of Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that callus established from Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Presl. (Malvaceae) can grow in salinities higher than 200 mM NaCl if previously accomodated stepwise. Callus lines developed from seedlings of different harvests or of the same harvest at different times, all showed the same pattern of growth and sensitiviy to salinity. The absorption of Na+ into the callus increased

E. Hasson; A. Poljakoff-Mayber



Seedling vigor in Beta vulgaris: The artistry of germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor in order to overcome beet’s inherent disadvantages of small seed size and encapsulation in a corky fru...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) causes damping'off at the seedling stage and crown and root rot in the adult plant. Managing damping-off by azoxystrobin fungicides is promising but genetic resistance is being sought. Phenotypic and microscopic analysis of disease progress pattern...


Cotton seedling abrasion and recovery from wind blown sand  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Millions of hectares of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be severe enough to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings...


Insulin Accelerates Seedling Growth of Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin is a 6 kDa peptide hormone that activates several metabolic processes and cellular growth. Germination studies showed that insulin, vanadyl sulphate (an insulin mimetic compound), tyrphostin (an inhibitor of insulin receptor kinase activity), pinitol (a chiro inositol analogue) and glucose were able to accelerate Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) seedling radicle and epicotyl development. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed that proteins

Antônia E. A. Oliveira; Elane S. Ribeiro; Maura da Cunha; Valdirene M. Gomes; Kátia V. S. Fernandes; José Xavier-Filho




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pre-emergence phase of cotton seedling disease, incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, is very effectively controlled with biocontrol strains of Trichoderma virens. However, they are much less efficient in the control of the post-emergence phase of the disease that is incited by Rhizoctoni...


Tagetitoxin affects plastid development in seedling leaves of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the mode of action of tagetitoxin, a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Hellmers) Young, Dye and Wilkie, which causes chlorosis in developing — but not mature — leaves. Tagetitoxin has no effect on the growth rate or morphology of developing leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Its cytological

J. H. Lukens; R. D. Durbin




Microsoft Academic Search

Shumard oak seedlings (Quercus shumardii) were grown in bottomless, square containers placed on a wire ben- ch. The dominant tap root grew downward and was 'air pruned', producing a fibrous root system. Three heights of containers were cut from quart milk carton stock giving three volumes of media with the same surface area and three dif- ferent drainage columns. Five

Robert D. Hathaway; Carl E. Whitcomb


MARVIN : high speed 3D imaging for seedling classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of automated sorting machines for seedlings demands 3D models of the plants to be made at high speed and with high accuracy. In our system the 3D plant model is created based on the information of 24 RGB cameras. Our contribution is an image acquisition technique based on volumetric intersection which is capable of the required order

N. J. J. P. Koenderink; M. L. I. Wigham; F. B. T. F. Golbach; G. W. Otten; R. J. H. Gerlich; Zedde van de H. J



Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.  

PubMed Central

Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor.

Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM



Soil Temperature Dependent Growth of Cotton Seedlings Before Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil temperature is an important variable governing plant growth and development. Studies were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the effect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth of cotton during emergence. Cotton seedlings were grown for 192 h at 20, 32 and 38 °C in soil packed in 300 mm long and 50 mm diameter cylinders. The data




Symptoms of Nutrient Deficiency in Yellow-Popular Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual symptoms are described for leaves of yellow-poplar seedlings supplied N, P. and K in varying concentrations ranging from minimal ,to excessive. Probability of growth responses to added N is high when tissue levels are below 2 percent; no response i...



Role of carotenoids in the phototropic response of corn seedlings.  


The herbicide, 4 chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(alpha,alpha,alpha,-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3 (2H)-pyridazinone (SAN 9789), which blocks the synthesis in higher plants of colored carotenoids but not of flavins, was used to examine the involvement of carotenoids in corn seedling phototropism. It was concluded that "bulk" carotenoids are not the photoreceptor pigment based on the results that increasing concentrations of SAN 9789 (up to 100 micromolar) did not alter the phototropic sensitivity to 380 nanometers light (using geotropism as a control) and did not increase the threshold intensities of fluence response curves for both 380 and 450 nanometers light even though carotenoid content was reduced to 1 to 2% of normal. SAN 9789 treatment, however, did reduce seedling sensitivity toward 450 nanometers light indicating that carotenoids are involved in phototropism. Carotenoids, which are located mainly in the primary leaves, may act in phototropism as an internal screen, enhancing the light intensity gradient across the seedling and thus contributing to the ability of the seedling to perceive light direction. These results indicate that the action spectra for phototropic responses can be significantly affected by the absorbance of screening pigments in vivo thus altering its shape from the in vitro absorption spectrum of the photoreceptor pigment. PMID:16662001

Vierstra, R D; Poff, K L



Cadaverine formation by specific lysine decarboxylation in Pisum sativum seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadaverine was found to be formed in Pisum sativum seedlings via a specific lysine decarboxylation pathway as revealed by specific inhibitor studies. Lysine decarboxylation activity was recorded in the meristems and non-meristematic tissue of the shoots and the roots. In the shoot elongation zone, the specific activity was double that in the other tissues and cadaverine level was 90-fold higher.

Mary Bakhanashvili; Isaac Icekson; Akiva Apelbaum



The vestigial root of dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) seedlings.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedlings of dodder have no leaves nor cotyledons and the terminal root-like structure lasts only a few days before death. Structural and biochemical studies indicate that the terminal appendage of the dodder, although differentiated from the shoot, has few characteristics of root tissue. The root...


Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and sis screens explained earlier in this chapter. Both common mutants and dissimilar mutants were identified in the different

S. J. W. Dekkers



Seedbed Surface Geometry Effects on Soil Crusting and Seedling Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

straw intercepted drop impact energy or surface applied powdered phospho-gypsum reduced aggregate disper- Seedling emergence is the crucial first step in crop establishment; sion the infiltration rate decreased more gradually, re- however, crops frequently must penetrate or lift a thin, dense, soil quiring approximately 45 min to reach 10 mm h 1 , com- layer called a crust, which is

R. L. Baumhardt; P. W. Unger; T. H. Dao



Carlactone-independent seedling morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.  


Strigolactone hormones are derived from carotenoids via carlactone, and act through the ?/?-hydrolase D14 and the F-box protein D3/MAX2 to repress plant shoot branching. While MAX2 is also necessary for normal seedling development, D14 and the known strigolactone biosynthesis genes are not, raising the question of whether endogenous, canonical strigolactones derived from carlactone have a role in seedling morphogenesis. Here, we report the chemical synthesis of the strigolactone precursor carlactone, and show that it represses Arabidopsis shoot branching and influences leaf morphogenesis via a mechanism that is dependent on the cytochrome P450 MAX1. In contrast, both physiologically active Z-carlactone and the non-physiological E isomer exhibit similar weak activity in seedlings, and predominantly signal through D14 rather than its paralogue KAI2, in a MAX2-dependent but MAX1-independent manner. KAI2 is essential for seedling morphogenesis, and hence this early-stage development employs carlactone-independent morphogens for which karrikins from wildfire smoke are specific surrogates. While the commonly employed synthetic strigolactone GR24 acts non-specifically through both D14 and KAI2, carlactone is a specific effector of strigolactone signalling that acts through MAX1 and D14. PMID:23773129

Scaffidi, Adrian; Waters, Mark T; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Dixon, Kingsley W; Flematti, Gavin R; Smith, Steven M



Validation of a metabolic cotton seedling emergence model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A seedling emergence model based on thermal dependence of enzyme activity in germinating cotton was developed. The model was validated under both laboratory and field conditions with several cotton lines under diverse temperature regimes. Four commercial lines were planted on four dates in Lubbock T...


Seedling Vigor in Beta vulgaris: The Artistry of Germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seedling vigor and stand establishment are two problems that growers have struggled with for decades. The initial conditions that a germinating seed encounters, and its ability to deal with them, affect the rate at which germination occurs, the rate of mobilization of stored energy reserves that the...


Considerations for evaluating controlled exposure studies of tree seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree seedling exposure studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatments, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have been conducted during the past several years to determine acute effects and relative sensitivity of tree species in response to simulated acid precipitation and gaseous pollutants. Because of the difficulties inherent in conducting controlled exposures with mature trees (e.g., size,

Charles E. Peterson; Robert A. Mickler



Biological Control of Fusarium Diseases of Conifer Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative to soil fumigation with methyl bromide is needed for control of Fusariurn root rot and damping-off of conifer seedlings. Studies with eastern white pine (Pinus strobus, L.) and red pine (P. resinosa, Ait.) are underway to develop biological control microorganisms for application to conifer seed. Preliminary results show an ectomycorrhizal fungus, as well as bacteria derived from the

Cynthia A. Buschena; Cynthia M. Ocamb; Joseph O'Brien


Heavy-metal nutrition and iron chlorosis of citrus seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were made on the responses to differential supplies of copper, zinc, manganese, and iron shown by sweet orange and mandarin seedlings grown in vermiculite and solution cultures with the pH maintained near 4. The first three metallic ions were all found to interfere with Fe metabolism in such a way as to induce chlorosis under certain conditions. Relatively low

P. F. Smith; A. W. Specht



Gibberellins and early growth in seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Amounts of gibberellin extractable from young bean seedlings using phosphate buffer, and following acid hydrolysis, or protease treatment, have been examined and compared with those obtained using methanol extraction. 2. Considerable differences in the amounts of gibberellins extractable are found for different batches of material. The level of extracted gibberellin is less for dry seeds and for 1-day old

J. E. Dale



Evaluation of three root growth potential techniques with tree seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three growing systems commonly used to evaluate root growth potential (RGP) are soil, hydroponic, and aeroponic culture. Aeroponic RGP testing is a relatively new technique that has not been adequately compared to conventional methods. This paper reports the results of an experiment designed to compare the amount and variability of root growth of jack pine seedlings in soil, hydroponic, and




Naturally seeded versus planted ponderosa pine seedlings in group ...  


... study, the natural pine seedlings originated from the 1988 seed crop and the 1- 0 ... The plant community consisted of many species of shrubs, Iorbs, and ... edge had little effect on pine height or diameter growth regardless of openingsize. ... appeared to increase in height and diameter growth with both opening size and ...


Isokotomolide A, a new butanolide extracted from the leaves of Cinnamomum kotoense, arrests cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis through the induction of p53\\/p21 and the initiation of mitochondrial system in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first to investigate isokotomolide A (IKA), a butanolide compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum kotoense Kanehira & Sasaki (Lauraceaee), which exhibits an anti-proliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The results show that IKA inhibits the proliferation of A549 by blocking cell cycle progression in the G0\\/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis. Blockade

Chung-Yi Chen; Ya-Ling Hsu; Yin-Yi Chen; Jen-Yu Hung; Ming-Shyan Huang; Po-Lin Kuo



The Influence of Glomus mosseae on Tylenchulus semipenetrans-Infected and Uninfected Citrus limon Seedlings.  


Greenhouse studies have shown that when rough lemon (Citrus limon) seedlings infected with TyIenchulus semipenetrans were transplanted into soil infested with Glomus mosseae, the mycorrhizal fungus infection increased seedling growth compared to nonntycorrhizal seedlings. Tylenchulus semipenetrans significantly suppressed seedling growth below that of mycorrhizal seedlings. Histological observations of nematode-free mycorrhizal roots showed that hyphae penetrated the epidermis and invaded the cortex, giving rise to arbuscules and vesicles. Nematode infection sites in T. semipenetrans-infected roots grown in soil infested with G. mosseae did not show evidence of vesicle development in the cortex but did show arbuscule development. PMID:19300642

O'Bannon, J H; Inserra, R N; Nemec, S; Vovlas, N



Orientation of wheat seedling organs in relation to gravity.  


Seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in special holders that permitted the coleoptile and early roots to develop in moist air. The orientation of the organs of seedlings erect to gravity was compared with that of organs produced on a horizontal clinostat. Orientation was described by the angular position of each organ tip with reference to the axis of the embryo. Comparative tests were also made with barley, rye, and oat seedlings.The coleoptile of all species developed curvatures in 3 dimensions when geotropic responses were eliminated. The primary root was not precise in its positive geotropism. Seedlings grew on clinostats with much greater variations in the lateral orientation of the central root and with a tendency for it to curve away from the endosperm to a greater degree than in erect seedlings.The symmetry of root system in wheat was found to depend on a specific mechanism. Under the influence of gravity the earliest lateral roots were oriented in a plane at characteristic angles of about 57.5 degrees with the ideal primary root. The corresponding angles for lateral roots growing on clinostats were greater by about 47.5 degrees as a result of epinasty not previously reported in roots. This force also appeared to be active in the seminal roots of barley and rye but not of oats.The curvatures in coleoptiles grown without the directional effects of gravity correspond to the results of growth imbalance in Coleus stems in the absence of lateral transport of their auxin by gravity. Root epinasty appears to be based on auxin imbalance. Curvatures in the primary root are also interpreted as results of asymmetrical distribution of growth hormone. PMID:16656349

Lyon, C J; Yokoyama, K



Pathogenicity of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings.  


Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi, seedlings was tested with inoculation experiments under nursery conditions. Water suspensions of nematodes (mixed stages cultured on Botrytis cinerea or dispersal fourth-stage juveniles (DJ4) extracted from the adult Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus) were injected into the stems of 2- and 3-year-old Japanese larch and Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, seedlings growing in a nursery. In another treatment, Japanese pine sawyer adults holding DJ4 were released under a net that covered the upper half of the seedlings. Regardless of nematode inoculation method, Japanese larch seedlings were as susceptible as Japanese black pine seedlings to B. xylophilus under nursery conditions. The rate of disease development was similar on larch and pine seedlings. Nematode population densities were lower in the stems of dead larch seedlings than in the stems of dead pine seedlings. Histopathological observations revealed that the distribution of nematodes in the stems of dead larch seedlings was mostly limited to the cortex, phloem and cambial zone. Traumatic resin canal formation was one of the most characteristic symptoms in larch seedlings which was dissimilar to that in pine seedlings. PMID:22661789

Mamiya, Y; Shoji, T



Pairwise competition-trials amongst seedlings of ten dipterocarp species; the role of initial height, growth rate and leaf attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether seedlings of ten dipterocarp species differed significantly in terms of growth and mortality or whether species were not significantly different and could be considered ecologically similar, seedlings were grown, two per pot, in two experiments: (1) where the two seedlings were of equal height (30 cm); and (2) where one seedling was 10 cm shorter than the

E. V. J. Tanner; V. K. Teo; D. A. Coomes; J. J. Midgley



In vitro interspecific fertilization, embryo development and formation of hybrid seedlings between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro hybridization between ? Gossypium hirsutum, and ? G. arboreum was carried out. Hybrid seedlings were obtained after successive use of the following five kinds of media: 1) pollen grain germination medium, 2) double-fertilization medium, 3) embryo development medium, 4) seedlings formation medium, 5) green seedlings growth medium. The factors affecting in vitro interspecific fertilization, embryogenesis and seedling formation

Chengzhi Liu; Jizhong Shun; Jinglan Liu



Effect of GA3, kinetin and indole acetic acid on carbohydrate metabolism in chickpea seedlings germinating under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced amylase activity was observed during a 7-day-growth period in the cotyledons of PEG imposed water stressed chickpea seedlings grown in the presence of GA3 and kinetin, when compared with stressed seedlings. During the first 5 days of seedling growth, the seedlings growing under water deficit conditions as well as those growing in the presence of PGRs had a higher

Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur



[Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the seedling growth of grafted watermelon and the defensive enzyme activities in the seedling roots].  


A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme on the seedling growth and root membrane permeability, malondiadehyde (MDA) content, and defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon growing on the continuously cropped soil. Inoculation with G. versiforme increased the seedling biomass and root activity significantly, and decreased the root membrane permeability and MDA content. The seedling shoot fresh mass, shoot dry mass, and root activity of non-grafted watermelon increased by 57.6%, 60.0% and 142.1%, and those of grafted watermelon increased by 26.7%, 28.0% and 11.0%, respectively, compared with no G. versiforme inoculation. The root membrane permeability of non-grafted seedlings (C), grafted seedlings (G), non-grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (C+M), and grafted seedlings inoculated with G. versiforme (G+M) was in the order of C >G>C+M>G+M, and the root MDA content was in the sequence of C>G>G+M>C+M. G. versiforme inoculation increased the root phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), beta-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities of grafted and non-grafted seedlings significantly, and the peaks of the POD, PAL and beta-1,3-glucanase activities in the mycorrhizal roots appeared about two weeks earlier than those in the non-inoculated roots. These results indicated that inoculating arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus G. versiforme could activate the defensive enzyme activities of non-grafted and grafted watermelon seedlings, enable the seedling roots to produce rapid response to adversity, and thus, improve the capability of watermelon seedling against continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:23718001

Chen, Ke; Sun, Ji-Qing; Liu, Run-Jin; Li, Min



Effects of invasive rats and burrowing seabirds on seeds and seedlings on New Zealand islands.  


Rats (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans) are important invaders on islands. They alter vegetation indirectly by preying on burrowing seabirds. These seabirds affect vegetation through nutrient inputs from sea to land and physical disturbance through trampling and burrowing. Rats also directly affect vegetation though consumption of seeds and seedlings. Seedling communities on northern New Zealand islands differ in composition and densities among islands which have never been invaded by rats, are currently invaded by rats, or from which rats have been eradicated. We conducted experimental investigations to determine the mechanisms driving these patterns. When the physical disturbance of seabirds was removed, in soils collected from islands and inside exclosures, seedling densities increased with seabird burrow density. For example, seedling densities inside exclosures were 10 times greater than those outside. Thus the negative effects of seabirds on seedlings, by trampling and uprooting, overwhelm the potentially beneficial effects of high levels of seed germination, seedling emergence, and possibly seed production, which result from seed burial and nutrient additions. Potential seedling density was reduced on an island where rats were present, germination of seeds from soils of this island was approximately half that found on other islands, but on this island seedling density inside exclosures was 7 times the density outside. Although the total negative effects of seabirds and rats on seedling densities are similar (reduced seedling density), the differences in mechanisms and life stages affected result in very different filters on the plant community. PMID:19921273

Grant-Hoffman, Madeline N; Mulder, Christa P H; Bellingham, Peter J



The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory.  


This study investigated the genetic and chemical basis of resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings to herbivory by a generalist mollusc, Arion ater. Using feeding trials with captive animals, we examined selective herbivory by A. ater of young P. sylvestris seedlings of different genotypes and correlated preferences with seedling monoterpene levels. We also investigated the feeding responses of A. ater to artificial diets laced with two monoterpenes, Delta(3)-carene and alpha-pinene. Logistic regression indicated that two factors were the best predictors of whether seedlings in the trial would be consumed. Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also representing beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and total monoterpenes due to multicollinearity) of needles was also a significant factor. While A. ater did not select seedlings on the basis of family, seedlings not eaten were significantly higher in levels of alpha-pinene compared to seedlings that were consumed. We also demonstrated significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings between different families of P. sylvestris. Nitrogen and three morphological seedling characteristics (stem length, needle length and stem diameter) also showed significant genetic variation between P. sylvestris families. Artificial diets laced with high (5 mg g(-1) dry matter) quantities of either Delta(3)-carene or alpha-pinene, were eaten significantly less than control diets with no added monoterpenes, supporting the results of the seedling feeding trial. This study demonstrates that A. ater selectively feed on P. sylvestris seedlings and that this selection is based, in part, on the monoterpene concentration of seedlings. These results, coupled with significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings and evidence that slug herbivory is detrimental to P. sylvestris fitness, are discussed as possible evidence for A. ater as a selective force on the evolution of defensive chemistry in P. sylvestris. PMID:17180371

O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Iason, Glenn R; Thoss, Vera



Invasive rats alter woody seedling composition on seabird-dominated islands in New Zealand.  


Invasive rats (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, R. exulans) have large impacts on island habitats through both direct and indirect effects on plants. Rats affect vegetation by extirpating burrowing seabirds through consumption of eggs, chicks, and adults. These seabirds serve as ecosystem engineers, affecting plant communities by burying and trampling seeds and seedlings, and by altering microclimate. Rats also directly affect plant communities by consuming seeds and seedlings. We studied the direct and indirect impacts of rats on the seedlings of woody plants on 21 islands in northern New Zealand. We compared seedling densities and richness on islands which differed in status with respect to rats: nine islands where rats never invaded, seven islands where rats were present at the time of our study, and five islands where rats were either eradicated or where populations were likely to be small as a result of repeated eradications and re-invasions. In addition, we compared plots from a subset of the 21 islands with different burrow densities to examine the effects of burrowing seabirds on plants while controlling for other factors that differ between islands. We categorized plant communities by species composition and seedling density in a cluster analysis. We found that burrow densities explained more variation in seedling communities than rat status. In areas with high seabird burrow density seedling densities were low, especially for the smallest seedlings. Species richness and diversity of seedlings, but not seedling density, were most influenced by changes in microclimate induced by seabirds. Islands where rats had been eradicated or that had low rat populations had the lowest diversity and richness of seedlings (and adults), but the highest seedling density. Seedling communities on these islands were dominated by Pseudopanax lessonii and Coprosma macrocarpa. This indicates lasting effects of rats that may prevent islands from returning to pre-invasion states. PMID:20033216

Grant-Hoffman, Madeline N; Mulder, Christa P; Bellingham, Peter J



Leaf elemental analysis in mycorrhizal post oak seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth and element assimilation was investigated in the leaves of post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration was analyzed via particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). PIXE detected 10 of the 13 essential macro and micronutrients: P, S, Mg, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cl. Mean growth and dry weight was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as the mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on nutrient uptake. This study is the first to analyze element concentration in post oak and to investigate the potential benefits of mycorrhizal symbiosis in post oak seedlings in terms of nutrient uptake.

Boling, B. C.; Naab, F. U.; Smith, D.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.



Seedling response to sulfur, nitrogen, and associated pollutants  

SciTech Connect

In 1986, the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) established the Forest Response Program (FRP) to assess the effects of acidic deposition and associated pollutants on forests. Seedling exposure studies were initiated to determine acute effects of simulated acid deposition, ozone, and sulfur dioxide, and to identify hypothesized mechanisms be which these effects might alter tree condition and hence result in forest decline. From data available as of December 1988, altered post-exposure growth and imbalance in above- and below-ground responses to sulfur dioxide indicated changes in carbon allocation patterns. Simulated acid precipitation reduced frost hardiness of red spruce seedlings at pH 3.0 and led to higher rates of foliar tissue mortality during extreme cold. Loblolly pine showed root and stem growth decreases at ozone levels 80 ppb and higher. Of western conifers, only ponderosa pine showed consistent growth decreases due to ozone.

Peterson, C.E.; Mattson, K.G.; Mickler, R.A.



Growth distribution during phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings  

SciTech Connect

The elongation rates of two opposite sides of hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were measured during phototropism by using an infrared imaging system. In first positive phototropism, second positive phototropism, and red light-enhanced first positive phototropism, curvature toward the light source was the result of an increase in the rate of elongation of the shaded side and a decrease in the rate of elongation of the lighted side of the seedlings. The phase of straightening that followed maximum curvature resulted from a decrease in the elongation rate of the shaded side and an increase in the elongation rate of the lighted side. These data for the three types of blue light-induced phototropism tested in this study and for the phase of straightening are all clearly consistent with the growth rate changes predicted by the Cholodny-Went theory. 31 refs., 7 figs.

Orbovic, V.; Poff, K.L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States))



Incorporation of cytokinins into DNA of wheat seedlings  

SciTech Connect

After incubation of wheat seedlings with (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine or (8-/sup 3/H)zeathin appreciable radioactivity was found in the purine bases of DNA, mainly in adenine. Moreover, as a result of acid hydrolysis labeled cytokinins were isolated from labeled highly purified preparations of the total DNA of wheat seedlings. Their radioactivity constituted 5-10% of the radioactivity of the adenine bases in the DNA. After mild acid hydrolysis (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine and (/sup 3/H)zeathin were found in the deoxyribonucleoside fraction obtained from cytokinin-labeled DNA. Thus, different cytokinins (N/sup 6/-substituted adenine derivatives) are covalently incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of plants.

Kudryashova, I.B.; Vanyushin, B.F.



A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings.  


Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation. PMID:11540099

Hanson, S D; Cohen, J D



Induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by plant hormones in alfalfa seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings were treated with auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinin and gibberellin to determine the effect of these plant hormones on induction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ADH activity was increased at concentrations greater than 1 µM for auxin and ABA and 3 µM for cytokinin, respectively, and all increases were found within 6 h after

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi



Ultrastructure changes of seedlings of Kosteletzkya virginica under waterlogging conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in ultrastructure of leaf cell in waterlogged Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings were observed by transmission electron microscope. During waterlogging, the chloroplasts turned into a round shape\\u000a and their volume was gradually reduced. Furthermore, the lamellae of thylakoids swelled, and the inclusions in chloroplast\\u000a decreased. The shape of starch grains slightly changed, but their number and volume decreased, and they

J. Zhou; S. W. Wan; G. Li; P. Qin


Ultrastructure changes of seedlings of Kosteletzkya virginica under waterlogging conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in ultrastructure of leaf cell in waterlogged Kosteletzkya virginica seedlings were observed by transmission electron microscope. During waterlogging, the chloroplasts turned into a round shape\\u000a and their volume was gradually reduced. Furthermore, the lamellae of thylakoids swelled, and the inclusions in chloroplast\\u000a decreased. The shape of starch grains slightly changed, but their number and volume decreased, and they

J. Zhou; S. W. Wan; G. Li; P. Qin



Fungi Isolated from Diseased Nursery Seedlings in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal endophytes in container-grown seedlings in forest nurseries located in the North Plateau of Spain have been studied.\\u000a Influences of nursery, season (spring and autumn), host genus and plant part on those fungal assemblages have been also evaluated.\\u000a Four nurseries were sampled in spring and three in autumn. Analysed material consisted of stems, roots and rhizosphere from\\u000a five host species,

Pablo Martín Pinto; Juan Alberto Pajares Alonso; Valentín Pando Fernández; Julio Javier Díez Casero



Rodent seed predation and seedling recruitment in mesic grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling recruitment of two grasses (Arrhenatherum elatius and Festuca rubra) and two herbs (Centaurea nigra and Rumex acetosa) was measured in areas with and without rodents to which seeds of each species were sown at three seed densities (1000, 10,000\\u000a and 50,000 seeds m?2) in two seasons (spring and autumn 1995). Seed removal was measured for 10-day periods and the

G. R. Edwards; M. J. Crawley



Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible involvement of activated oxygen species in the mechanism of damage by NaCl stress was studied in leaves of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) exhibiting different sensitivities to NaCl. The 3-week-old rice seedlings were subjected to 0, 6 and 12 dS m?1 salinity levels for 1-week after which differences in antioxidant capacities and possible correlation, growth rate

Maribel L Dionisio-Sese; Satoshi Tobita



Effect of Anoxia on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of carbohydrates was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa 1.) seedlings grown under anoxia. Two phases can be recog- nized in the utilization of carbohydrates: during the first days of germination under anoxia, the metabolism of sugars is mainly deg- radative, whereas after the induction of a-amylase (EC has taken place, the increased presence of glucose and sucrose

Lorenzo Cuglielminetti; Pierdomenico Perata; Amedeo Alpi


Growth-promoting Effect of Ethanol on Oat Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE effects of carbon dioxide on the growth of etiolated oat seedlings1-promotion of the mesocotyl and depression of the coleoptile-have been under investigation for some time2,3 and the observed behaviour has been attributed to a prolongation of the activity of the nodal meristem2. Attempts have recently been made to correlate these growth phenomena with auxin metabolism by supplying indoleacetic acid

C. L. Mer



Light-induced auxin-inhibiting substance from sunflower seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant growth-inhibiting substance was isolated from de-etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. Its structure was identified as 8-epixanthatin from IR, 1H NMR and EI mass spectra. 8-Epixanthatin was detected in sunflower and burweed shoots, but not in lettuce, radish, oat and corn. 8-Epixanthatin inhibited auxin-induced growth of sunflower hypocotyl and oat coleoptile sections at concentrations higher than 100 ?M and

Kaori Yokotani-Tomita; Jun Kato; Seiji Kosemura; Shosuke Yamamura; Midori Kushima; Hideo Kakuta; Koji Hasegawa



Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]˜0.1% of total phytochrome, established by

P. Schopfer; K.-H. Fidelak; E. Schäfer



Plant regeneration from seedling explants of Juncus effusus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro plant regeneration method for Juncuseffusus L. was established. Six to eight day old in vitro grown seedlings, cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), or kinetin, showed multiple shoot regeneration within 4 weeks. Among the three cytokinins, BA and 2iP induced the highest (88 and 86%, respectively) regeneration frequency, while no significant

K. S Sarma; S. M. D Rogers



Polyamines in rice seedlings under oxygen-deficit stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation of 3-d-old seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv Arborio under anaerobic conditions, leads to a large increase in the titer of free putrescine while aerobic incubation causes a slight decrease. After 2 days, the putrescine level is about 2.5 times greater without oxygen than in air. The rice coleoptile also accumulates a large amount of bound putrescine and, to

R. Reggiani; A. Hochkoeppler; A. Bertani



Amelioration of chilling stress by paclobutrazol in watermelon seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a member of the triazole plant-growth inhibitor group that is responsible for inducing tolerance to number of biotic and abiotic stresses. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether PBZ application at various concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 75mgL?1) through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Thirty-five-day old

Bahram Baninasab



Ethylene-Induced Leaf Abscission in Cotton Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The speed of ethylene-induced leaf abscission in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv LG-102) seedlings is dependent on leaf position (i.e. physiological age). Fumigation of intact seedlings for 18 hours with 10 microliters per liter of ethylene resulted in 40% abscission of the still-expanding third true (3°) leaves but had no effect on the fully expanded first true (1°) leaves. After 42 hours of fumigation with 50 microliters per liter of ethylene, total abscission of the 3° leaves occurred while <50% abscission of the 1° leaves was observed. On a leaf basis, endogenous levels of free IAA in 1° leaves were approximately twice those of 3° leaves. Free IAA levels were reduced equally (approximately 55%) in both leaf types after 18 hours of ethylene (10 microliters per liter) treatment. Ethylene treatment of intact seedlings inhibited the basipetal movement of [14C]IAA in petiole segments isolated from both leaf types in a dose-dependent manner. The auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the rate and extent of ethylene-induced leaf abscission at both leaf positions but did not alter the relative pattern of abscission. Abscission-zone explants prepared from 3° leaves abscised faster than 1° leaf explants when exposed to ethylene. Ethyleneinduced abscission of 3° explants was not appreciably inhibited by exogenous IAA while 1° explants exhibited a pronounced and protracted inhibition. The synthetic auxins 2,4-D and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid completely inhibited ethylene-induced abscission of both 1° and 3° explants for 40 hours. It is proposed that the differential abscission response of cotton seedling leaves is primarily a result of the limited abscission-inhibiting effects of IAA in the abscission zone of the younger leaves.

Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Hultstrand, Julie F.



Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor  

SciTech Connect

The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

Adewusi, S.R.A. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))



Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.  


Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability. PMID:22476669

Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M



A Chitosan Induced 9-Lipoxygenase in Adelostemma gracillimum Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Oxylipins generated by the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway play an important role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. In chitosan-treated Adelostemma gracillimum seedlings, obvious accumulation of 9-LOX-derived oxylipins, namely 9,10,11-trihydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid, was detected. Using degenerate primers, a LOX-specific fragment putatively encoding LOX was obtained by RT-PCR, and a 2.9-kb full-length cDNA named AgLOX1 was isolated by RACE from chitosan-induced A. gracillimum seedlings. Genomic Southern analysis implied that there was only one copy of AgLOX1 in the A. gracillimum genome. AgLOX1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was partially purified. The enzyme converted linoleic and linolenic acids almost exclusively to their 9-hydroperoxides. AgLOX1 encoded a 9-lipoxygenase. Northern blot analysis indicated that chitosan-induced AgLOX1 transcript accumulation peaked at 8 h after initiation of treatment, whereas trihydroxy derivatives accumulation was highest at 24 h after elicitation. Results showed that chitosan-induced AgLOX1 encoded a 9-lipoxygenase potentially involved in the defense response through 9-LOX pathway leading to biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds in A. gracillimum seedlings.

Li, Jing; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Ma, Chang-Le; Zeng, Ying



Rhythmical changes in the sensitivity of cotton seedlings to herbicides.  


Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings that were grown under a photoperiod of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light showed oscillations in their sensitivity to the herbicides sodium 5-(2-chloro-4-trifluoromethyl)-phenoxy)-2-nitrobenzoate (acifluorfen), butyl 2-(4-((5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenoxy)propanoate (fluazifop) and 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon). Sensitivity was expressed in appearance of necrotic areas on the cotyledons and in decreased growth of the shoot. The seedlings were least sensitive in the beginning and middle of the light period, then the sensitivity increased and reached its maximum during the beginning and middle of the dark period and then declined. Seedlings grown from germination under continuous light exhibited very small or no oscillations in sensitivity. The oscillations in sensitivity were entrained by one cycle of darkness and light. A cycle of 12 hours darkness and 12 hours light triggered the greatest oscillations while either increasing or decreasing the duration of the dark period resulted in smaller oscillations. Apparently, these oscillations in sensitivity to herbicides were endogenously controlled since after entrainment they continued irrespective of the light conditions. PMID:16663835

Rikin, A; John, J B; Wergin, W P; Anderson, J D



Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.



Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.

Sim, Mi-Yeong



Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings  

PubMed Central

White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduction decreased in SAR-treated white pine seedlings inoculated with VPSt-1. SAR-treated Austrian pine seedlings were resistant to VPSt-1, but SAR-treated Scots pine seedlings lost tolerance to VPSt-1 and wilted 50-60 days after inoculation.

Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.



H1 Histone in Developing and Aging Coleoptiles of Etiolated Wheat Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been established that the DNA and H1 histone contents in aged coleoptile of 8-day-old etiolated wheat seedling are about 40 and 30%, respectively, lower than those in young seedlings. H1 histone in wheat seedlings is represented as six electrophoretically different subfractions. The ratios of H1 histone subfractions in wheat coleoptile and initial leaf are similar. In contrast to

T. A. Smirnova; A. N. Prusov; G. Ya. Kolomijtseva; B. F. Vanyushin



Effect of soil temperature on nutrient allocation and mycorrhizas in Scots pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of soil temperature on nutrient allocation and mycorrhizal development in seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during the first 9 weeks of the growing season. One-year-old seedlings were grown in Carex-peat from a drained and forested peatland at soil temperatures of 5, 9, 13 and 17 °C under controlled environmental conditions. Fourteen seedlings from each

Timo Domisch; Leena Finér; Tarja Lehto; Aino Smolander



Effect of bryophytes on survival of conifer seedlings in subalpine forests of central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryophytes form the major seedbed for coniferous trees in the subalpine forests of central Japan. Field experiments were conducted\\u000a on the floor of a closed stand dominated byTsuga on Mt Fuji to examine the seedling survival ofAbies veitchii andTsuga diversifolia in seven substrate types in relation to the morphological characteristics of the seeds and seedlings. NeitherAbies norTsuga seedlings could survive

Toshihiko Nakamura



Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note  

SciTech Connect

Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

Haywood, J.D.



Physiological Performance in Full-Sun Vs. Shaded Post-Fire Malosma laurina Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-fire Malosma laurina regenerates both by resprouting and by disseminating seeds. The objective of this study is to assess seedling performance either in full-sunlight or in artificially shaded treatments. By identifying under which conditions Malosma laurina seedlings grow more effectively, one can predict where post-fire M. laurina seedling communities will thrive. The methodology employed throughout this experiment began by covering

Lindsey A Murphy; David C Valencia; Catherine D Drummond



Effects of ammonium and nitrate on growth and nitrogen uptake by mycorrhizal Douglas-fir seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a greenhouse pot study, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Douglas-fir seedling were grown in a forest soil amended with clays and ammonium or nitrate fertilizer. Mycorrhizal seedlings grew taller, increased root and shoot dry weight more, and accumulated more nitrogen and phosphorus than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal effects were most pronounced in the nitrate treatment. Ammonium enhancement of phosphorus uptake was

Caroline S. Bledsoe; R. J. Zasoski



Transport of magnesium ions in the phloem of Ricinus communis L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During growth of Ricinus communis seedlings, magnesium ions are mobilized in the endosperm, taken up by and accumulated to very high levels (150 µmol·g FW-1) in the cotyledons, and translocated to hypocotyl and roots. The magnesium gain from days 6 to 7 in the cotyledons and the seedling axis necessitates a total up-take rate of 600 nmol·h-1-seedling-1 and the phloem

Wenjun Zhong; Christian Schobert; Ewald Komor



Analysis of the relationship between photosynthetic photon flux density and natural Taxus baccata seedlings occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationship of seedlings and saplings of Taxus baccata to the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) reaching the forest floor under natural conditions. Two permanent plots, subdivided into 1 × 1 m square plots, were established in a naturally regenerating population of T. baccata formed during last decades in the Kórnik Arboretum, Poland. All seedlings in every 1 × 1 m plots were counted. Relative PPFD was measured for every plot at the canopy height of the yew seedlings. The dependence of seedling density upon PPFD was examined. We found, that the frequency of the smallest seedlings (to 6.0 cm tall) was highest in the most shaded plots and decreased in plots with increasing PPFD. Thus, the youngest yew seedlings can germinate and grow in very shady conditions. However, the older seedlings (6.1-25.0 and 25.1-100.0 classes) were observed most frequently in 2-7% PPFD. The small numbers of older, taller seedlings in deep shade likely indicate a higher mortality rate of seedlings less than 6 cm in height without promotion to the next height class. Probably the low value of PPFD under the canopy of the stand significantly reduces the competition of other plants with the youngest yew seedlings. At higher light levels they may not be able to compete with more light-demanding plants, such as herbs and seedlings of broad-leaved trees. The seedlings of the second (6.1-25.0 cm) and third (25.1-100.0 cm) height classes were observed most frequently in the plots with 2-7% PPFD ( Fig. 1b and c).

Iszku?o, Grzegorz; Boraty?ski, Adam



A comparative proteomic analysis of rice seedlings under various high-temperature stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the responses of rice seedlings to different high-temperature stresses, seven-day-old rice seedlings were exposed to different high temperatures for 48 h, and the maximal quantum yield of PS II photochemistry measurements, ascorbate peroxidase activity assays and proteomic analyses in leaf tissue were performed. The results showed that when rice seedlings were exposed to high temperatures at 35 °C, 40 °C and

Feng Han; Hui Chen; Xiao-Juan Li; Ming-Feng Yang; Gong-She Liu; Shi-Hua Shen



Effect of Radiation Quality on Growth and Photosynthesis of Acacia mangium Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation quality was an important environmental cue to stimulate seed germination in Acacia mangium. The photo-synthetic CO2 assimilation rate, dark respiration rate, total biomass, and relative growth rate of seedlings grown under monochromatic radiation were significantly lower than those of seedlings grown under full spectrum radiation. Blue and red radiation induced shade-avoidance and shade-tolerant responses of A. mangium seedlings, respectively.

Hua Yu; Bee-Lian Ong



Inter organ comparison of amylases and starch content in mungbean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During seedling growth of mungbean in dark, depletion of cotyledonary starch is reflected by an increase in starch content\\u000a of root and shoot. With progress of seedling growth, amylolytic activity increases in all organs i.e. cotyledons, shoots and roots. A rapid turnover of starch in shoots and roots has been proposed. Amylase activity of seedlings\\u000a was in the order of

Narinder Kaur; Prabhdeep Kaur; Anil K. Gupta



Temperature-dependent Expression of Betacyanin Synthesis in Amaranthus Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Two phenomena related to temperature effects have been observed during the induction of betacyanin synthesis by a cytokinin (benzyladenine) in Amaranthus tricolor seedlings. One is a total inhibition of betacyanin accumulation at a temperature (39 C) at which seedling growth is unimpaired, and where there is still adequate uptake of benzyladenine. The other is the apparent induction of a higher potential for subsequent betacyanin synthesis following pretreatment of the seedlings at an elevated temperature.

Elliott, Daphne C.



Allelopathic effects of interrupted fern on northern red oak seedlings: Amelioration by Suillus luteus L.: Fr  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The allelopathic effects of interrupted fern frond leachates on ectomycorrhizal (inoculated) and nonmycorrhizal (noninoculated)\\u000a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were investigated. Container-grown northern red oak was inoculated with vegetative mycelium ofSuillus luteus L. Fr. following acorn germination. Noninoculated control seedlings were also maintained. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse\\u000a under full sunlight or shaded (25% of full sunlight)

P. J. Hanson; R. K. Dixon



Large mulches and manual release enhance growth of ponderosa pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody and herbaceous vegetation that captures scarce soil moisture often kills or stunts the growth of conifer seedlings in young plantations in the Sierra Nevada of California. Two methods for excluding this vegetation are to apply large (3-m×3-m), long-lasting (at least 5 years) mulches around the seedlings soon after planting, or to repeatedly grub seedlings of competing vegetation in study

Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler; W. Thomas Henry



Effects of sand burial disturbance on seedling growth of Nitraria sphaerocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   \\u000a Nitraria sphaerocarpa Maxim. (Zygophyllaceae) is a desert shrub, emerged seedlings may easily be covered by sand, thus the influence of sand burial\\u000a on seedling survival and growth was studied. The experiment was conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. Seeds were\\u000a sorted into three size-classes and buried at 2 cm depths in plastic pots filled with sand. Two weeks after seedling

W. Z. Zhao; Q. Y. Li; H. Y. Fang



Effects of cryopreservation of recalcitrant Amaryllis belladonna zygotic embryos on vigor of recovered seedlings: a case of stress 'hangover'?  


Cryopreservation is the most promising long-term storage option for recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation-sensitive) seed germplasm; however, its effects on the vigor of recovered seedlings are unclear. This study looked at the vigor of seedlings recovered from partially dried (D) and cryopreserved (C) recalcitrant zygotic embryos (ZEs) of Amaryllis belladonna. Seedlings recovered from fresh (F), D- and C-embryos were regenerated in vitro, hardened-off ex vitro and then exposed to 12 days of watering (W) or 8 days of water deficit (S), followed by 3 days of re-watering. Seedling vigor was assessed in terms of physiological and growth responses to the imposed water stress. Compared with F-embryos, partial dehydration and cryopreservation reduced the number of embryos that produced seedlings, as well as the subsequent in vitro biomass of these seedlings. DW- and CW-seedlings (i.e. seedlings recovered from dried and cryopreserved ZEs that were watered for 12 days) exhibited lower CO(2)-assimilation rates and abnormal root growth. Stomatal density was also lower in C-seedlings. DS- and CS-seedlings were exposed to persistent low leaf water and pressure potentials and unlike FS-seedlings, displayed signs of having incurred damage to their photosynthetic machinery. CS-seedlings were less efficient at adjusting leaf water potential to meet transpirational demands and more susceptible to persistent turgor loss than DS- and FS-seedlings. DS-seedlings performed slightly better than CS-seedlings but drought-induced seedling mortality in both these treatments was higher than FS-seedlings. These results suggest that seedlings recovered from partially dried and cryopreserved embryos were less vigorous and more susceptible to hydraulic failure than those from fresh ZEs. PMID:20113434

Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W



Seasonal Pattern of Tomato Mosaic Tobamovirus Infection and Concentration in Red Spruce Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) infects red spruce (Picea rubens) and causes significant changes in its growth and physiology. The mechanism of infection and the pattern of virus concentration in seedling roots and needles were investigated. One-year-old red spruce seedlings were obtained from the nursery in April and June 1995 and August 1996 and tested for ToMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus-free seedlings were divided into three treatments: control, root inoculated, and needle inoculated. Two control, five root-inoculated, and five needle-inoculated seedlings were sampled destructively at biweekly intervals for 3 months and then tested for ToMV by ELISA. ToMV was transmitted to seedlings by root but not by needle inoculation. The virus was detected in 67 to 100% of roots but in less than 7% of needles of root-inoculated seedlings. The percent infection of root-inoculated seedlings differed significantly between the April and June and between the April and August inoculation periods. Virus concentration in infected seedling roots increased initially, peaked within 4 weeks postinoculation, and steadily declined thereafter. Significant differences in ToMV concentrations in roots also were detected among inoculation periods and sampling dates. Early spring may represent the optimal time for infection of seedlings, as well as for assaying roots for ToMV.

Bachand, George D.; Castello, John D.



Synthesis of ectomycorrhizae on northern red oak seedlings in a Michigan nursery  

SciTech Connect

Vegetative inoculum of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus was thoroughly mixed into fumigated nursery soil, and northern red oak seedlings of four families were evaluated one and two years after sowing for ectomycorrhizal development, growth, and nutrition. At the end of year one, treated seedlings were successfully inoculated with S. luteus, but the percentage varied significantly with family. Suillus luteus persisted on lateral roots two years following sowing. Two of four seedling families inoculated with S. luteus were significantly larger in size than control plants. These results suggest that the fungal symbiont S. luteus can be successfully introduced into nurseries and that early ectomycorrhizal development improves the growth of northern red oak seedlings.

Dixon, R.K.; Johnson, P.S.



Differences in vole preference, secondary chemistry and nutrient levels between naturally regenerated and planted norway spruce seedlings.  


Field voles (Microtus agrestis) cause severe damage to young Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations during wintertime in Fennoscandia. We experimentally investigated vole preference for winter-dormant, naturally regenerated seedlings; spring-planted seedlings; or autumn-planted seedlings; and how preference corresponds with seedling chemistry. Voles showed the highest preference for autumn-planted seedlings and the second highest for spring-planted seedlings, while naturally regenerated seedlings were avoided. The stems of the autumn-planted seedlings contained higher concentrations of nitrogen and piperidine alkaloids and lower concentrations of stilbenes than did the other groups. In addition to differences between naturally regenerated and planted seedlings, we investigated seasonal differences in naturally regenerated P. abies needle and bark secondary chemistry. While piperidine alkaloid concentrations did not vary with season, the soluble non-tannin phenolics of needles and the condensed tannins of bark were lower in May than in November or January. At the time of planting, the concentration of bark piperidine alkaloids was higher in autumn-planted than in spring-planted seedlings. We detected two alkaloids not previously found in P. abies, 2-methyl-6-propyl-1,6-piperideine and a tentatively identified pinidine-isomer. Our results demonstrate that vole choice of spruce seedlings is promoted by high nitrogen and low stilbene content, both associated with seedlings planted late in the season. As vole damage is linked to seedling chemistry, damage potentially could be mitigated by advancing planting or by manipulating plant chemistry in nurseries. PMID:24105602

Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Henttonen, Heikki; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Karjalainen, Reijo; Korhonen, Juhani; Huitu, Otso



Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of mechanical loss of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius or naturally occurring fungi encountered during lifting of nursery seedlings to the capacity of these seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow. Seedlings were planted in January 1981. Seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae formed in the nursery can tolerate more removal of ectomycorrhizae than routine nursery seedlings with natural ectomycorrhizae. However, seedlings in both ectomycorrhizal condition groups were severely impacted by removal of ectomycorrhizae. 1 table.

Marx, D.H.



Respiratory Properties of Mitochondria from Rice Seedlings Germinated under Water and Their Changes during Air Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Respiratory activities were compared among rice seedlings germinated in air for 6 days (aerobic seedlings), those germinated under water for 5 days (submerged seedlings), and those grown in air for 1 day after 5 days' submerged germination (air-adapted seedlings). The respiratory activity of the submerged seedlings increased rapidly on transfer to air and reached a plateau at 16 hours in air. Respiration of the submerged seedlings was as sensitive to cyanide as those of aerobic and air-adapted seedlings. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the respiration of the submerged seedlings, but stimulated those of the other two types of seedlings. Mitochondria from three types of seedlings did not differ in the ADP/O ratio and the respiratory control ratio (RCR) when succinate was oxidized. However, mitochondria from submerged seedlings (submerged mitochondria) showed poor RCR of about unity when malate was oxidized. Both the rate of succinate oxidation and succinate dehydrogenase activity were low in submerged mitochondria, but increased during air adaptation. Although submerged mitochondria oxidized malate very slowly, this activity increased after exposure to air without any increase in malate dehydrogenase activity. When NAD+ was added to submerged mitochondria, oxidation of malate was restored to the level of the aerobic controls. Addition of NAD+ enhanced the state 3 rate in submerged mitochondria, and RCR recovered to nearly the same value as that of the aerobic controls. Similar effects of NAD+ on 2-oxoglutarate oxidation were observed. All these defects in submerged mitochondria were repaired during air adaptation. These results suggest that NAD+-linked substrate oxidation was low in submerged mitochondria because of NAD+ deficiency, and that the oxidation increased with an increasing level of NAD+ during air adaptation.

Shibasaka, Mineo; Tsuji, Hideo



[Regeneration characteristics of woody plant seedlings in typical secondary forests in Qinling Mountains].  


By using sampling plot method, an investigation was conducted on the regeneration characteristics of woody plant seedlings in five kinds of typical secondary forests (Pinus tabulaeformis, Quercus valiena var. acuteserrata, Betula albo-sinensis, Picea asperata, and Pinus armandii) in Qinling Mountains. There was an obvious species differentiation of woody plant seedlings and saplings in the forests. Except for Q. valiena var. acuteserrata and P. armandii forests, the similarity coefficient of the seedlings and saplings species in the forests was lower. The seedlings and saplings quantity, species richness index, Simpson dominance index, and evenness index were higher in P. tabulaeformis and Q. valiena var. acuteserrata forests, the lowest in B. albo-sinensis forest, and basically the same in P. asperata and P. armandii forests. The percentages of the seedlings and saplings in the five forests had significant differences (P < 0.05). Except in B. albo-sinensis forest where the percentage of the saplings was higher, the percentage of the seedlings in the other stands was larger, and in the order of P. asperata forest > P. tabulaeformis forest > Q. valiena var. acuteserrata forest > P. armandii forest, respectively. The sprouting percentage of the seedlings in different forests had significant difference (P < 0.05), and was in the sequence of P. armandii forest > P. asperata forest > B. albo-sinensis forest > Q. valiena var. acuteserrata forest > P. tabulaeformis forest. In Q. valiena var. acuteserrata and P. tabulaeformis forests, the percentage of tree seedlings was the highest, occupying 68% and 51.4% of the total number of woody seedlings, respectively, and their communities were in the medium succession period, with a stronger persistent regeneration capability; in P. asperata and P. armandii forests, the percentage of tree seedlings was 40% and 15%, respectively, and their communities were in the late succession period, with a rather poor regeneration capability; while in B. albo-sinensis forest, the seedlings were difficult to develop into saplings, and thus, its continuous persistent regeneration capability was lack. PMID:22384577

Kang, Bing; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, De-Xiang; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Hong-Ru; Du, Yan-Ling



Fuel reduction at a Spanish heathland by prescribed fire and mechanical shredding: Effects on seedling emergence.  


Traditional heathland burning has declined in Spain, leading to fuel accumulation and fuel reduction treatments have become common for severe wildfire hazard reduction. These methods need to maintain the botanical composition of those shrub communities. Prescribed fire has been widely used in the past, but we need to compare mechanical fuel reduction with prescribed fire because it is easier and safer to carry out in a wide range of weather conditions. This information could be particularly useful in flammable ecosystems all over the world where traditional anthropogenic burning has declined. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning and mechanical shredding on the seedling emergence and its relation to the mature vegetation in a fire-prone heathland dominated by Erica australis L. and Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., in Galicia (NW Spain). We combined a greenhouse experiment with periodic field inventories of seedling emergence. In the greenhouse study, the seedling emergence was significantly higher in the soil samples after burning (383 seedlings m(-2)) than in samples before burning (242 seedlings m(-2)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in seedling density before and after mechanical shredding (243 compared with 261 seedlings m(-2)). Also, the number of seedlings that emerged after burning was significantly higher than that emerged after mechanical shredding. The maximum temperatures at the soil organic layer surface during burning were significantly and positively related to the density of Halimium lasianthum ssp. alyssoides and P. tridentatum seedlings. In the field study, the observed seedling density was very low both after prescribed burning and mechanical shredding. There was a high degree of similarity between emerged seedlings and mature vegetation in both the treated and in the untreated soils, which was probably a consequence of the dominance of resprouting species. Some consequences for the management of these shrublands are also discussed. PMID:24036096

Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa



Amino Acid Transport in Germinating Castor Bean Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

During germination and early growth of the castor bean (Ricinus communis) nitrogenous constituents from the endosperm are transferred via the cotyledons to the growing embryo. Exudate collected from the cut hypocotyl of 4-day seedlings contained 120 millimolar soluble amino nitrogen and glutamine was the predominant amino acid present, comprising 35 to 40% of the total amino nitrogen. To determine the nature of nitrogen transfer, the endosperm and hypocotyl were removed and glutamine uptake by the excised cotyledons was investigated. Uptake was linear for at least 2 hours and the cotyledons actively accumulated glutamine against a concentration gradient. The uptake was sensitive to respiratory inhibitors and uncouplers and efflux of glutamine from the excised cotyledons was negligible. Transport was specific for the l-isomer. Other neutral amino acids were transported at similar rates to glutamine. Except for histidine, the acidic and basic amino acids were transported at lower rates than the neutral amino acids. For glutamine transport, the Km was 11 to 12 millimolar and the Vmax was 60 to 70 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour. Glutamine uptake was diminished in the presence of other amino acids and the extent of inhibition was greatest for those amino acids which were themselves rapidly transported into the cotyledons. The transport of amino acids, on a per seedling basis, was greatest for cotyledons from 4-to 6-day seedlings, when transfer of nitrogen from the endosperm is also maximal. It is concluded that the castor bean cotyledons are highly active absorptive organs transporting both sucrose and amino acids from the surrounding endosperm at high rates.

Robinson, Simon P.; Beevers, Harry



Proteomic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with ethylene.  


Ethylene (ET) is a volatile hormone that modulates fruit ripening, plant growth, development and stress responses. Key components of the ET-signaling pathway identified by genetic dissection in Arabidopsis thaliana include five ET receptors, the negative regulator CTR1 and the positive regulator EIN2, all of which localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mechanisms of signaling among these proteins are still unresolved and targets of ET responses are not fully known. So, we used mass spectrometry to identify proteins in microsomal membrane preparations from etiolated A. thaliana seedlings maintained in ambient air or treated with ET for 3 h. We compared 3814 proteins from ET-exposed seedlings and controls and identified 304 proteins with significant accumulation changes. The proteins with increased accumulation were involved in ET biosynthesis, cell morphogenesis, oxidative stress and vesicle secretion while those with decreased accumulation were ribosomal proteins and proteins positively regulated by brassinosteroid, another hormone involved in cell elongation. Several proteins, including EIN2, appeared to be differentially phosphorylated upon ET treatment, which suggests that the activity or stability of these proteins may be controlled by phosphorylation. TUA3, a component of microtubules that contributes to cellular morphological change, exhibited both increased accumulation and differential phosphorylation upon ET treatment. To verify the role of TUA3 in the ET response, tua3 mutants were evaluated. Mutant seedlings had altered ET-associated growth movements. The data indicate that ET perception leads to rapid proteomic change and that these changes are an important part of signaling and development. The data serve as a foundation for exploring ET signaling through systems biology. PMID:21713283

Chen, Ruiqiang; Binder, Brad M; Garrett, Wesley M; Tucker, Mark L; Chang, Caren; Cooper, Bret



Water transfer via ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae to conifer seedlings.  


Little is known about water transfer via mycorrhizal hyphae to plants, despite its potential importance in seedling establishment and plant community development, especially in arid environments. Therefore, this process was investigated in the study reported in this paper in laboratory-based tripartite mesocosms containing the shrub Arctostaphylos viscida (manzanita) and young seedlings of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The objectives were to determine whether water could be transported through mycorrhizal symbionts shared by establishing conifers and A. viscida and to compare the results obtained using two tracers: the stable isotope deuterium and the dye lucifer yellow carbohydrazide. Water containing the tracers was added to the central compartment containing single manzanita shrubs. The fungal hyphae were then collected as well as plant roots from coniferous seedlings in the other two compartments to determine whether water was transferred via fungal hyphae. In addition, the length of the hyphae and degree of mycorrhizal colonisation were determined. Internal transcribed spacer-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis was used to identify the fungal species involved in dye (water) transfer. Results of the stable isotope analysis showed that water is transferred via mycorrhizal hyphae, but isotopically labelled water was only detected in Douglas-fir roots, not in sugar pine roots. In contrast, the fluorescent dye was transported via mycorrhizal hyphae to both Douglas-fir and sugar pine seedlings. Only 1 of 15 fungal morphotypes (identified as Atheliaceae) growing in the mesocosms transferred the dye. Differences were detected in the water transfer patterns indicated by the deuterium and fluorescent dye tracers, suggesting that the two labels are transported by different mechanisms in the same hyphae and/or that different fungal taxa transfer them via different routes to host plants. We conclude that both tracers can provide information on resource transfer between fungi and plants, but we cannot be sure that the dye transfer data provide accurate indications of water transfer rates and patterns. The isotopic tracer provides more direct indications of water movement and is therefore more suitable than the dye for studying water relations of plants and their associated mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:17333298

Plamboeck, Agneta H; Dawson, Todd E; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M; North, Malcolm; Bruns, Thomas D; Querejeta, José Ignacio



Effect of CCC on the morphology and growth potential of containerised silver birch seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the experiment described here was to assess the effect of the synthetic growth regulator CCC on the quality of containerised silver birch seedlings. The time course of stem elongation during the growing season, the morphology and size of the seedlings at the end of the growing season, and the growth potential after winter storage were measured and

P. J. Aphalo; R. Rikala; R. A. Sánchez



Nicotinate riboside salvage in plants: Presence of nicotinate riboside kinase in mungbean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvage of nicotinate riboside for NAD synthesis was investigated in mungbean seedlings. Nicotinate riboside kinase activity was detected in extracts from cotyledons. Exogenously supplied [carboxyl-14C]nicotinate riboside was readily converted into pyridine nucleotides in cotyledons of mungbean seedlings. This conversion was also found in embryonic axes, but the rate was lower than in cotyledons. These results suggest that, in addition to

Ayu Matsui; Hiroshi Ashihara



Influence of paclobutrazol on water consumption and plant performance of Arbutus unedo seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of paclobutrazol on the water consumption, plant water relations, gas exchange and development of strawberry tree seedlings (Arbutus unedo L.), to evaluate water resource management. Seedlings (8cm in height) were subjected to a single drench of 60 or 100mg of paclobutrazol and pot-grown in a greenhouse for 4 months. Untreated

Alejandra Navarro; M Sánchez-Blanco; Sebastián Bañon



Seed and seedling ecology research as the foundation for enhancing restoration outcomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The success of restoration in arid and semiarid rangelands is severely limited by deficiencies in our understanding of seedling ecology and seedling recruitment. This is significant because rangelands provide sustenance for roughly one-third of the global population, and evolving challenges such as...


Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...


Cotton Seedling Injury and Recovery from Wind Blown Sand Abrasion: I. Duration of Exposure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of...


Heat shock tolerance and antioxidant activity in moth bean seedlings treated with tetcyclacis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal cv. Jaadia) seeds were germinated in the presence of 0, 18, or 36 µM solutions of the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, tetcyclacis. After 72 h, seedlings were exposed to 22 or 48°C for 90 min. The 48°C temperature dramatically increased total electrolyte and sugar leakage from the seedlings, particularly in the controls. Tetcyclacis reduced electrolyte

Abha Upadhyaya; Tim D. Davis; Narendra Sankhla



Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Three Annuals Growing on Desert Sand Dunes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Information on the initial growth characteristics of annuals found in Chinese deserts is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate seed germination and interactive effects of irrigation and seed burial depth in sand on seedling emergence and seedling survival in three annuals (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Bassia dasyphylla and Aristida adscensionis) commonly growing on sand



Seed Germination and Seedling Emergence of Three Annuals Growing on Desert Sand Dunes in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Information on the initial growth characteristics of annuals found in Chinese deserts is very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate seed germination and interactive effects of irrigation and seed burial depth in sand on seedling emergence and seedling survival in three annuals (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Bassia dasyphylla and Aristida adscensionis) commonly growing on sand




Comparative transcription profiling analyses of maize reveals candidate defensive genes for seedling resistance against corn earworm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As maize seedlings germinate into the soil, they encounter an environment teaming with insects seeking rich sources of nutrition. Maize presumably has developed a number of molecular mechanisms to ensure survival at the beginning of its life cycle. Bioassays indicated maize seedlings were more toxic...


Application of artificial neural network for detecting Phalaenopsis seedling diseases using color and texture features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present an application of neural network and image processing techniques for detecting and classifying Phalaenopsis seedling diseases, including bacterial soft rot (BSR), bacterial brown spot (BBS), and Phytophthora black rot (PBR). The lesion areas with BSR, PBR, and BBS of Phalaenopsis seedlings were segmented by an exponential transform with an adjustable parameter and image processing techniques.

Kuo-Yi Huang



Effects of seed-caching desert rodents on seedling survival of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In addition to consuming seeds, many small mammals also cache seeds in shallowly buried scatterhoards, and seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from these caches. Scatterhoards made by desert heteromyid rodents provide the primary source of seedling re...


Root growth of subalpine and montane Eucalyptus seedlings at low soil temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of different soil temperatures on root growth in seedlings of Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieber ex Sprengel subsp. pauciflora and Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse in pots containing soil. Pots were held in water baths maintained\\u000a at 3, 7 or 13C, whilst shoots were exposed to ambient glasshouse temperatures. The

Reese Halter; Roger Sands; David H. Ashton; E. K. S. Nambiar



Calcium and bicarbonate effects on the growth and nutrient uptake of burley tobacco seedlings: Float system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of bicarbonate (HCO3 ) alkalinity have been shown to affect the growth and nutrient uptake of tobacco seedlings in solution culture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HCO3 on the nutrient uptake of burley tobacco seedlings grown in a float system. Float bays of a size to accommodate individual float trays were filled

Robert C. Pearce; Yongmei Li; Lowell P. Bush



Experiments on tree and shrub establishment in temperate grassy woodlands: Seedling survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies of the emergence of shrubs and trees in grassy woodlands on the New England Tablelands, New South Wales, Australia, showed that emergence of seedlings was determined by seed supply, seed predators and seed burial. The survival of these seedlings was then observed in an experiment to test the effects of previous land use, grazing by stock and grazing

Peter J. Clarke



Growth, metabolic profiling and enzymes activities of Catharanthus roseus seedlings treated with plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different growth regulators on growth and the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids as well as some enzymes involved in the biosynthesis were studied in Catharanthus roseus seedlings. The seedlings were grown on MS solid medium containing different concentrations of each growth regulator for a period of one month. Extracted alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC for determination of

Magdi El-Sayed; Rob Verpoorte



Growth response and nutrient utilization of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings inoculated with bioinoculants under tropical nursery conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of tetrapartite associations between an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus geosporum), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Paenibacillus polymyxa), Frankia and Casuarina equisetifolia on growth, nutrient acquisition, nutrient utilization and seedling quality of C. equisetifolia. Seedlings of C. equisetifolia were grown in an Alfisol soil and inoculated with G. geosporum, P. polymyxa and Frankia either individually or in combinations.

Thangavelu Muthukumar; Karuthamuthu Udaiyan




Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of contributing to the conservation of P. australis woodlands we began a reforestation project in the Sierras Grandes (Cordoba province, Argentina), and are developing the appropriate techniques to optimize the reforestation process. The objectives of this study were to determine, in terms of seedling survival and growth, (1) the best date for transplanting the seedlings to the

Daniel Renison; Ana M. Cingolani; Duilio Schinner



Genetic dissection of height in maritime pine seedlings raised under accelerated growth conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to investigate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to height growth on 126 F2 seedlings of maritime pine (Pinuspinaster Ait). The haploid megagametophyte was used to determine the maternal genotype of each F2 individual. The seedlings were raised for 2 years in a greenhouse under accelerated growth conditions consisting of intense fertilization

C. Plomion; C.-E. Durel; D. M. O'Malley



Gel observation chamber for rapid screening of root traits in cereal seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple gel chamber is described for measurement of seedling root traits. Seedlings are located between two closely spaced flat layers of transparent gel, on plastic plates (at least one of which is transparent). Root system traits can be non-destructively recorded in two-dimensions using a flatbed scanner. Easily measured rooting traits include root length, elongation rate, longest root, deepest root,

A. G. Bengough; D. C. Gordon; H. Al-Menaie; R. P. Ellis; D. Allan; R. Keith; W. T. B. Thomas; B. P. Forster



The role of germination microsite in the establishment of sugar pine and Jeffrey pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature shrubs can provide microhabitats that are beneficial to tree seedling growth and development. Sugar pine trees (Pinus lambertiana) grow in a narrow zone on the eastern slope of the Carson Range in extreme western Nevada, whereas Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) is the dominant tree species in the region, an area extensively disturbed by wild fire. This study compares seedling

Elaine C. Legras; Stephen B. Vander Wall; David I. Board



NADH: nitrate reductase and NAD(P)H: nitrate reductase activities in mustard seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern and Coss cv. Pusa Jai Kisan) seedlings were grown for 10 days in nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of nitrate (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM). Nitrate reductase activity was determined in the presence of either NADH or NADPH as electron donor. NADH- and NADPH-supported nitrate reductase activity varied significantly in the seedlings grown

Altaf Ahmad; M. Z. Abdin



Ecotoxicological Effects of Tonalide on Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding about the toxicity of AHTN, the influences of AHTN on seed germination and the antioxidant enzymes in the growth of early seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated. The results showed that AHTN had inhibition effects on the shoot elongation of wheat seedlings. And lower concentrations of AHTN (50-100 mg\\/kg) would promote

Su Chen; Lina Sun; Lei Chao; Tieheng Sun; Jing An



Effects of abscisic acid on ozone tolerance of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone is one of the major gaseous pollutants detrimental to crop growthand metabolism. The objective of this research was to study how ABA amelioratesthe effects of ozone on rice seedlings. Seedlings of two rice cultivars withdifferent sensitivities to ozone (Tainung 67, tolerant; and Taichung Native 1,sensitive) were treated with 400 ppb of ozone or ABA and 400ppb of ozone to

Dai-Ing Lin; Huu-Sheng Lur; Chun Chu



Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Lib; Yoav Bashan



Microsoft Academic Search

Planting koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) in Hawai‘i, USA aids in restoration of disturbed sites essential to conservation of endemic species. Survival and growth of planted seedlings under vegetative competition typically increases with initial plant size. Increasing container size and fertilizer rate may produce larger seedlings, but high fertilization can lead to surface and groundwater pollution and relatively low fertilizer

R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs



Needle mottle in eastern white pine seedlings: a selective parameter for air pollution sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive correlations were established between morphological characteristics in eastern white pine seedlings and subsequent tolerance or sensitivity to air pollution 5 and 7 years after outplanting in Ohio plantations. Of 11 seedling variables, needle mottling was an accurate indicator of sensitivity or tolerance to air pollution. This characteristic, which may be genetically controlled, should allow for the detection and removal

L. S. Dochinger; S. L. Arner



Light differentially regulates lateral and longitudinal auxin transport in the mesocotyl of etiolated maize seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of IAA into excised mesocotyls of non-irradiated maize seedlings was linear up to a concentration of about 4×M and in this range there was a tight coupling between the IAA in the stele and the cortex. Prior irradiation with white light of intact seedlings unbalanced this coupling. Lateral and longitudinal transport were affected differently. In the stele, the

Bernard L. Epel; Michael A. Erlanger



Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of seedling establishment to the position ofalpine-treeline is recognized, yet little is known about factorsaffecting the survival of seedlings of treeline conifers during their initialyears of growth and establishment. This establishment period may have thegreatest mortality of all life stages until death of mature trees by disease orfire. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and survival ofseedlings

Matthew J. Germino; William K. Smith; A. Catherine Resor



Anatomical adaptive strategies to flooding and rhizosphere oxidation in mangrove seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited information exists on the relation between the capacity of mangrove seedlings to oxidise the rhizosphere and their differential waterlogging tolerance. Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate radial oxygen loss (ROL) by the entire root, the area of oxidising sites (AOS) on the root surface, root porosity (POR), and the internal diffusive resistance in the ground tissue of seedlings of

Tarek Youssef; Peter Saenger



sup 32 P uptake and partitioning by Pinus serotina seedlings under hypoxic growth conditions  

SciTech Connect

We have recently postulated that the increased retention of seedling P observed in hypoxic roots of Pinus serotina Michx. partially reflects a rapid assimilation of available Pi into organic P, rendering P (temporarily) unavailable for transport to the shoot. Pond pine seedlings were grown in 100 {mu}M P under hypoxic or aerobic solution conditions for 30 days. Both short- and long-term {sup 32}P uptake experiments were then conducted with 11-week-old intact seedlings to determine rates of {sup 32}P acquisition and transport to the shoot, and partitioning of root {sup 32}P into organic and inorganic fractions. After 2.5 h, {sup 32}P uptake rates of hypoxic seedlings were twice those of their aerobic counterparts, with a higher percentage of seedling label in their shoots. After an initial 4-h lag, shoots of aerobic seedlings began accumulating {sup 32}P at a faster rate than hypoxic seedlings. Within 48 h, 50% of the label in aerobic seedlings was in the shoot vs. 8% for hypoxic shoots. Our results suggested that increased retention of P in hypoxic roots was due to increased assimilation of Pi by the root, and a direct interference in the transport process.

Topa, M.A.; Chesseman, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))



Microsites play an important role for seedling survival in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of recruitment to local population dynamics of plants is limited by production of seeds or availability of suitable sites for establishment of seedlings. Viviparous seedlings of the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica have been observed in great numbers within gaps in meadows of other seagrass species. We conducted a field experiment to assess the extent to which production of viviparous

David O. Rivers; Gary A. Kendrick; Diana I. Walker



A morphological index of Quercus seedling ontogeny for use in studies of physiology and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Attempts to relate plant metabolic activity with developmental stage are often hindered by lack of an appropriate developmental index. Existing indices of morphological development are unsuitable for use with plants having a semideterminate, recurrently flushing pattern of growth as displayed by Quercus seedlings. We propose the following morphological index (QMI) to define the stages of Quercus seedling ontogeny: (1)




Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978-January 1980  

SciTech Connect

The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt to establish baseline survival rates for seedlings grown in totally controlled environments. Studies to determine the optimum container for tree seedling production have been run and will continue as other containers are identified and made available. The most significant of the research results has been in the maximization of seedling growth. Seedling production times have been decreased in some species by as much as 50% under the baseline production times. Controlled environment production techniques provide for plant densities as high as 144 seedlings per square foot of growing space. Investigations of growing media indicate a significant species specific responses. Preliminary results of outplanting indicate survival rates as high as 90% plus.

Foote, K.R.



Salt stress limitation of seedling recruitment in a salt marsh plant community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling recruitment in salt marsh plant communities is generally precluded in dense vegetation by competition from adults, but is also relatively rare in disturbance-generated bare space. We examined the constraints on seedling recruitment in New England salt marsh bare patches. Under typical bare patch conditions seed germination is severely limited by high substrate salinities. We examined the germination requirements of

Scott W. Shumway; Mark D. Bertness



Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with damping-off and crown rot of rooibos seedlings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia species were reported to be an important component of the complex involved in damping-off of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) seedlings and cause severe crown rot of seedlings in nurseries. However, no information is available on the anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia associated with d...


Soil temperature effects on emergence and survival of Iris lactea seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iris lactea is a perennial herbaceous plant that is rapidly gaining popularity in gardens and for vegetation regeneration in its native northern China. However, its seeds have a high level of apparent dormancy with seedling emergence percentages being <5% under natural field conditions. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of soil temperature on seedling emergence. Treatments involved three

D. Huang; J. G. Han; W. L. Wu; J. Y. Wu



Mechanisms Coordinating Wheat Seedling Growth Response as Affected by Shoot\\/Root Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excision of four out of five roots in 7-day-old wheat seedlings (Triticum durum Desf.) rapidly suppressed shoot growth promoted biomass accumulation by the remained root largely due to its expanded branching. Next, the rate of shoot growth increased although was not completely recovered. After the reduction of the root system, the rate of photosynthesis in the leaves of seedlings did

L. B. Vysotskaya



Hydration effect on seedling emergence strength of watermelon seeds differing in ploidy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hydration may improve the germination ability of polyploid watermelon seed, the impact of this factor on seedling emergence force has not been critically examined. Three watermelon seedlots (4.7% seed moisture level on fresh weight basis) differing in ploidy were used to study the influence of hydration on seedling emergence performance. Hydration was achieved by mixing the seeds with moist

Jih Min Sung; Kai Ying Chiu



The effects of Vexar@ seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexat@ tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and

Richard M. Engemant; R. Michael Anthony; Heather W. Krupa; James Evans


The effects of Vexar ® seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexar® tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and

Richard M. Engeman; R. Michael Anthony; Heather W. Krupa; James Evans



Growth and biomass distribution of cherrybark oak ( Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings as influenced by light availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings were established and raised in the field under four light levels (100%, 53%, 27% or 8% of full sunlight) to study the effects of light availability on their shoot growth, biomass accumulation, and biomass distribution. After two growing seasons, greatest stem growth was observed on seedlings which received intermediate light levels, and this growth

Emile S. Gardiner; John D. Hodges



Hormonal Correlates of Seedling Growth of Two Vallisneria Species Grown at Different Current Velocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedling survival and growth of two common Vallisneria species in China, Vallisneria natans and Vallisneria spinulosa were quantified experimentally for current velocities from 0 to 40 mm\\/s. At the same time, changes in the concentrations of three hormones (IAA, ZR, and GA3) in the leaves were compared to identify how current velocity influenced the two Vallisneria seedlings growth discrepantly. All plants

Xuesha Ke; Wei Li



Do mature shade leaves of tropical tree seedlings acclimate to high sunlight and UV radiation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings of neotropical forest trees grown in low light were exposed to 0.5-9 h d~' direct sunlight, for up to 3 months, to test the capability of mature shade leaves to acclimate to full solar visible and UV radiation. Photosynthetic pigments and the antioxidant, ascorbate, were analysed in leaves of two pioneer and two late- succession species. Seedlings of one

G. Heinrich Krause; Esther Grube; Olga Y. Koroleva; Carina Barth; Klaus Winter



Developmental constraints limit the response of Canary Island pine seedlings to combined shade and drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to test the existence of constraints in the ability of Pinus canariensis seedlings to withstand water stress under low irradiance, we carried out a greenhouse trial combining two highly contrasted light environments (90 and 5% of full sunlight) and two levels of water availability (42 and 10% in volume). Shaded seedlings displayed an extremely low dry weight, 2% of

J. M. Climent; I. Aranda; J. Alonso; J. A. Pardos; L. Gil



Leaf heteroblasty is not an adaptation to shade: seedling anatomical and physiological responses to light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heteroblastic plants produce markedly different leaf morphologies between juvenile and adult stages, while homoblastic plants exhibit little or gradual changes. We tested the hypothesis that the leaf morphology of the seedling stage of New Zealand heteroblastic species is advantageous in dealing with low light levels found in forest understorey. We used four independent contrasts of heteroblastic and homoblastic seedlings from

Harshi K. Gamage; Linley Jesson




Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern Appalachian mountains a subcanopy species, Rhododendron maximum , inhibits the establishment and survival of canopy tree seedlings. One of the mechanisms by which seedlings could be inhibited is an allelopathic effect of decomposing litter or leachate from the canopy of R. maximum (R.m.)on seed germination, root elongation, or mycorrhizal colonization. The potential for allelopathy by R.m. was



Seedling growth of Mora gonggrijpii, a large seeded climax species, under different soil and light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mora gonggrijpii seedlings were harvested on two soil types in small gaps and in the forest understorey. The seedlings appear to be intolerant of lateritic soil with poor drainage either as a result of poor aeration or reduction of the soil which is rich in iron and aluminium. Biomass allocation is not greatly affected on the lateritic soil as compared

Hans Steege



(Not) Keeping the stem straight: a proteomic analysis of maritime pine seedlings undergoing phototropism and gravitropism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plants are subjected to continuous stimuli from the environment and have evolved an ability to respond through various growth and development processes. Phototropism and gravitropism responses enable the plant to reorient with regard to light and gravity. RESULTS: We quantified the speed of maritime pine seedlings to reorient with regard to light and gravity over 22 days. Seedlings were

Raul Herrera; Catherine Krier; Celine Lalanne; El ElHadji Maodo Ba; Alexia Stokes; Franck Salin; Thierry Fourcaud; Stéphane Claverol; Christophe Plomion



Arrested succession in logging gaps: is tree seedling growth and survival limiting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty years after selective timber harvest in the Kibale National Park, Uganda, many abandoned logging gaps are dominated by Acanthus pubescens, and show little forest recovery. To examine if this arrested successional state was caused by limited tree seedling growth and survival, we planted seedlings of four forest tree species (Albizia gran- dibracteata, Mimusops bagshawei, Prunus africana and Uvariopsis congensis

John R. Paul; April M. Randle; Colin A. Chapman; Lauren J. Chapman




Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and translocation of SO4 sulfate in intact tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Solairo) incubated in nutrient solutions containing four concentrations of sulfate were investigated. The S fractions were measured in roots, stem, old leaves, and young leaves over a 24-hour period. At deficient and excessive sulfate levels, the instantaneous sulfate uptake (?oc) in tomato seedlings was strongly influenced by

Javier Lopez; Christopher I. Bell; Nicolas Tremblay; Martine Dorais; André Gosselin



Effects of seed hydropriming in presence of exogenous proline on chilling injury limitation in Vigna radiata L. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-day-old seedlings (t\\u000a 0 stage) of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek obtained from seeds hydroprimed (H) and hydroprimed with proline (HPro) were examined. H and HPro slightly improved\\u000a mung bean seed germination and seedlings growth at 5°C. The best growth was observed in the seedlings obtain from HPro5 (5 mM)\\u000a seeds in comparison with the seedlings obtained from the control-non-primed seeds and

M. M. Posmyk; K. M. Janas



Colonization with Hebeloma crustuliniforme increases water conductance and limits shoot sodium uptake in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and treated with 25 mM NaCl to examine the effects of salinized soil and mycorrhizae on root hydraulic conductance and growth. Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly greater shoot and root dry weights, number of lateral branches and chlorophyll content than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Salt treatment reduced seedling growth in both

Tawfik M. Muhsin; Janusz J. Zwiazek



Why is it better to produce coffee seedlings in full sunlight than in the shade? A morphophysiological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coffee plant is native to shaded environments and its seedlings are often produced in shaded nurseries. However, some\\u000a nursery managers, in an effort to improve the acclimation of seedlings to field conditions after transplantation, produce\\u000a seedlings in full sun exposure. In this study, the morphological and physiological parameters of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) seedlings produced in full sun (T1)

G. A. B. K. Moraes; A. R. M. Chaves; S. C. V. Martins; R. S. Barros; F. M. DaMatta



Macro and micro nutrient contents of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) and eggplant ( Solatium melongena var. Esculentum ) seedlings and their effects on seedling growth in relation to humic acid application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant performance mainly depends on characteristics of photosynthetically active organs. Many of these characteristics such\\u000a as growth performance and quality of seedlings are modified by ecological conditions and growing techniques. Production of\\u000a vegetable crops from seedlings is commonly practiced by vegetable growers. This study was conducted to determine macro and\\u000a micro nutrient contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and eggplant (Solanum

A. Dursun; I. Guven; M. Turan


Cytokinin, acting through ethylene, restores gravitropism to Arabidopsis seedlings grown under red light.  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin replaces light in several aspects of the photomorphogenesis of dicot seedlings. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown under red light have been shown to become disoriented, losing the negative hypocotyl gravitropism that has been observed in seedlings grown in darkness or white light. We report here that cytokinin at micromolar concentrations restores gravitropism to seedlings grown under red light. Cytokinin cancels the effect of red light on the gravity-sensing system and at the same time replaces light in the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid acts similarly to cytokinin. Cytokinin cannot restore gravitropism under red light to an ethylene-insensitive mutant that is defective at the EIN2 locus. Stimulation of ethylene production, therefore, can explain the action of cytokinin in restoring negative gravitropism to the hypocotyls of Arabidopsis seedlings grown under continuous red light.

Golan, A; Tepper, M; Soudry, E; Horwitz, B A; Gepstein, S



Effects of Kinetin, IAA, and Gibberellin on Ethylene Production, and Their Interactions in Growth of Seedlings.  


Kinetin in concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4)m, stimulated ethylene production in 3 and 4-day old etiolated seedlings of Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Alaska). Seedlings of other species responded similarly. The response to kinetin depended on the age of the seedlings.Kinetin alone did not influence ethylene production in 6-day old stem sections, but it greatly increased the enhancing effect of IAA.Gibberellic acid had no effect on ethylene production by pea seedlings during the first 6 days of growth. Ethylene and gibberellic acid are antagonistic in their effects on growth of the seedlings; ethylene interfered severely with the action of gibberellic acid but did not completely suppress it.The inhibitors cycloheximide, cupferron, and N-ethylmaleimide, caused considerable inhibition of kinetin-induced ethylene production but were much less effective in the endogenous ethylene-forming system. PMID:16657004

Fuchs, Y; Lieberman, M



Watermelon seedling growth and mortality as affected by Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae).  


Adult squash bugs, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were confined on seedling watermelon plants at densities of zero, one, two, and four per plant. Squash bugs were allowed to feed on the plants until plants died or reached 30 cm in height. Number of leaves and length of plant vine were recorded at 2- or 3-d intervals. Seedling foliage, stems, and roots were harvested and dried after plants reached 30 cm in height. Growth of seedlings was regressed on number of squash bugs and results indicated that an increasing density of squash bugs feeding on seedlings resulted in a significant reduction in plant growth. Additionally, increased density of squash bugs resulted in reduced weight of foliage and root dry biomass. Seedling mortality increased as the density of squash bugs increased. PMID:12076005

Edelson, J V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W



Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Lyase in Germinating Watermelon Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenase (EC was found in seedlings of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (watermelon). The enzyme has pH optima of 4.4 and 5.5 and is inhibited by 0.2 mM nordihydroguaiaretic acid. It is present in two functional units with estimated molecular weights of 120,000 and 240,000, respectively. A new enzyme, tentatively termed hydroperoxide lyase, has been partially purified from watermelon seedlings. The enzyme, located principally in the region of the hypocotyl-root junction, catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9-trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid and hexanal. The hydroperoxide lyase enzyme from watermelon has a molecular weight in excess of 250,000, a pH optimum in the range of 6 to 6.5, and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. Its presence has also been demonstrated in other cucurbits. The maximum activity of both enzymes occurs on the 6th day of germination. The identification of the products of the hydroperoxide lyase reaction suggests that lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase may be involved in the conversion of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids to traumatic acid (trans-2-dodecenedioic acid).

Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.



Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae).  


Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30 degrees C and 20-30 degrees C) and light (presence/ absence), and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30 degrees C in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%), independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%). After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovate-elliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics. PMID:22458242

Martins, Aline Redondo; Soares, Anielca Nascimento; Bombo, Aline Bertolosi; Fidelis, Alessandra; Novembre, Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho; da Glória, Beatriz Appezzato



PICKLE is a repressor in seedling de-etiolation pathway.  


Light plays a vital role in seedling de-etiolation during which it remarkably inhibits hypocotyl growth and promotes cotyledon opening and the synthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. After light perception, photoreceptors act to repress two main branches of the light signaling, PIFs and COP1-HY5. We recently identified PKL/EPP1, a chromatin remodeling factor, as a new component in regulating light-mediated hypocotyl growth. In this study, we found that EPP1 acts additively with SPA1 to repress seedling de-etiolation. Moreover, the expression of EPP1 is downregulated specifically in the hypocotyl region of the cop1 mutant compared with that of the wild type. We further found that EPP1 drastically inhibits both the protein and transcript levels of HY5, but not vice versa, indicating that HY5 acts downstream of EPP1. We thus propose a model in which EPP1 defines a new repressor and mediates a distinct signaling pathway of photomorphogenesis. PMID:23733056

Jing, Yanjun; Lin, Rongcheng



Transformation of natural and synthetic estrogens by maize seedlings.  


In agricultural fields, crop plants may transform or degrade hormonally active compounds in manure used as fertilizer and thereby affect the overall endocrine-disrupting activity of agricultural runoff. This study examined the transformation of two natural steroid estrogens [17?-estradiol (17?-E2) and estrone (E1)] and two synthetic estrogen mimics [zeranol (?-ZAL) and zearalanone (ZAN)] by maize seedlings. Growing whole maize seedlings in hydroponic solutions of target estrogens resulted in both oxidative (i.e., 17?-E2 to E1 and ?-ZAL to ZAN) and reductive (i.e., E1 to 17?-E2 and ZAN to ?-ZAL) transformations. Although all four estrogens accumulated in maize roots as both parents and products, the shoots contained only 17?-E2 and ?-ZAL, regardless of whether they were the parent or the product. Crude plant enzyme extracts led to substantial reductive transformations but created only trace amounts of oxidation products. In contrast, only oxidative transformations occurred in solutions exposed to plant-associated microbes. Thus, the combined effects of plant enzymes and plant-associated microbes account for the reversible transformations observed with whole plants. These effects are expected to generally decrease the overall estrogenicity of runoff from manure-fertilized fields. PMID:23488817

Card, Marcella L; Schnoor, Jerald L; Chin, Yu-Ping



Effects of aflatoxin on seedling growth and ultrastructure in plants.  


Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B(1) on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 mug of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 mug of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B(1) exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. PMID:4767301

Crisan, E V



Fungal communities influence root exudation rates in pine seedlings.  


Root exudates are hypothesized to play a central role in belowground food webs, nutrient turnover, and soil C dynamics in forests, but little is known about the extent to which root-associated microbial communities influence exudation rates in trees. We used a novel experimental technique to inoculate loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings with indigenous forest fungi to examine how diverse fungal communities influence exudation. Surface-sterilized seeds were sown in intact, unsieved soil cores for 14 weeks to promote root colonization by fungi. After 14 weeks, we transferred seedlings and root-associated fungi into cuvettes and measured exudate accumulation in trap solutions. Both the abundance and identity of root-associated fungi influenced exudation. Exudation rates were greatest in root systems least colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and most colonized by putative pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. However, the ECM community composition was not a strong determinant of exudation rates. These results suggest that environmental conditions that influence the degree to which tree roots are colonized by pathogenic and saprotrophic vs. mutualistic fungi are likely to mediate fluxes of labile C in forest soils, with consequences for soil biogeochemistry and ecosystem processes. PMID:23013386

Meier, Ina C; Avis, Peter G; Phillips, Richard P



Developmental Reaction Norms for Water Stressed Seedlings of Succulent Cacti  

PubMed Central

Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity.

Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W.; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita



Regulation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) arginase in developing seedling tissue during germination and post-germinative growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

After seed germination, hydrolysis of storage proteins provides a nitrogen source for the developing seedling. In conifers the majority of these reserves are located in the living haploid megagametophyte tissue. In the developing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling an influx of free amino acids from the megagametophyte accompanies germination and early seedling growth. The major component of this amino

Christopher D. Todd; Janice E. K. Cooke; Robert T. Mullen; David J. Gifford




Microsoft Academic Search

The recruitment of Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae), a bird-dispersed tree of Mediterranean forest, is described. Fruit removal by birds, seed rain, post-dispersal seed predation, seed germination, and seedling emergence, survival, and establishment were studied. The main objective was testing whether seed dispersal by birds produced a pre- dictable seedling shadow as a result of coupled patterns of seed rain, seedling




Survival of tree seedlings on different species of decaying wood maintains tree distribution in Michigan hemlock-hardwood forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Seedlings of some tree species are strongly associated with decaying wood in the germination or establishment period. Despite recognition of this pattern in forests around the world, few studies have compared the ability of different species of decaying wood to support seedlings. 2. We measured the abundance, survival, and age distribution of seedlings of Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock),

Laura Marx; Michael B. Walters



Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous authors have reported on the importance of the number of first- order lateral roots (FOLR) when evaluating the morphological quality of nursery hardwood seedlings. Studies have shown that seedlings with a greater quantity of FOLR outperform seedlings with a lesser quantity of FOLR in the field. However, the FOLR measure may be limited in its ability to quantify root

Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert


Root dipping of conifer seedlings shows little benefit in the northern Rocky Mountains. Forest Service research paper  

SciTech Connect

In the growth chamber, in the greenhouse, and in field studies, root dipping of bareroot lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and Engelmann spruce seedlings did not improve seedling survival, shoot growth, or root growth under dry soil conditions. Seedling root growth varied with tree species, soil type, and type of rood dip.

Sloan, J.P.



Effects of soil and stem base heating on survival, resprouting and gas exchange of Acer and Quercus seedlings.  


Acer rubrum L., A. saccharum Marsh., Quercus alba L. and Q. rubra L. seedlings subjected to soil and stem base heat treatments showed rapid declines in rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Reductions in photosynthetic rate were partly attributable to mesophyll inhibition. Quercus seedlings were less able to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis after heat treatment than Acer seedlings. Declines in rates of transpiration and photosynthesis of Quercus seedlings were observed 1 h after heat treatment and became more pronounced over time. In contrast, rates of transpiration and photosynthesis of Acer seedlings initially declined in response to heat treatment, partially recovered after one or two days, but then declined again six to eight days after the heat treatment. Observed changes in leaf water potential after heating were small, suggesting that hydraulic factors were not the primary signal eliciting the gas exchange response to soil and stem heating. Ultimately, the heat treatments caused stem die-back of most seedlings. For all species, seedlings that resprouted had a greater chance of surviving heat stress than seedlings that did not resprout. Despite the rapid loss of photosynthetic capacity in response to heat treatment in Quercus seedlings, survival was higher in Quercus seedlings than in Acer seedlings, and was associated with a greater capacity for resprouting. We suggest that the reduced allocation of resources toward recovery of photosynthesis in existing Quercus stems after heat stress is a physiological mechanism that facilitates resprouting and hence survival of Quercus seedlings after fire. PMID:14871712

Huddle, J A; Pallardy, S G



Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants  

PubMed Central

The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness.

Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari



A proposed mechanism for nitrogen acquisition by grass seedlings through oxidation of symbiotic bacteria.  


In this paper we propose and provide evidence for a mechanism, oxidative nitrogen scavenging (ONS), whereby seedlings of some grass species may extract nitrogen from symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria through oxidation by plant-secreted reactive oxygen species (ROS). Experiments on this proposed mechanism employ tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) seedlings to elucidate features of the oxidative mechanism. We employed 15N(2) gas assimilation experiments to demonstrate nitrogen fixation, direct microscopic visualization of bacteria on seedling surfaces to visualize the bacterial oxidation process, reactive oxygen probes to test for the presence of H(2)O(2) and cultural experiments to assess conditions under which H(2)O(2) is secreted by seedlings. We also made surveys of the seedlings of several grass species to assess the distribution of the phenomenon of microbial oxidation in the Poaceae. Key elements of the proposed mechanism for nitrogen acquisition in seedlings include: 1) diazotrophic bacteria are vectored on or within seeds; 2) at seed germination bacteria colonize seedling roots and shoots; 3) seedling tissues secrete ROS onto bacteria; 4) bacterial cell walls, membranes, nucleic acids, proteins and other biological molecules are oxidized; 5) nitrates and/or smaller fragments of organic nitrogen-containing molecules resulting from oxidation may be absorbed by seedling tissues and larger peptide fragments may be further processed by secreted or cell wall plant proteases until they are small enough for transport into cells. Hydrogen peroxide secretion from seedling roots and bacterial oxidation was observed in several species in subfamily Pooideae where seeds possessed adherent paleas and lemmas, but was not seen in grasses that lacked this feature or long-cultivated crop species. PMID:23087539

White, James F; Crawford, Holly; Torres, Mónica S; Mattera, Robert; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall



Influence of litter and weather on seedling recruitment in a mixed oak-pine woodland.  


The effects of regular litter removal and annual variation in temperature and precipitation on seedling recruitment of species differing in their seed size and mode of dispersal were studied in a 16-year (1984-1999) experiment in a mixed oak-pine wood in southern Poland. Litter was the most important factor in determining spatial variability in seedling recruitment, whereas differences in climatic conditions among years, especially temperature fluctuations in late winter and early spring, determined the temporal variability in seedling recruitment. Compared with control plots, significantly more new individuals of bryophytes and seedlings as well as a number of new species of vascular plants were noted in the litter-removal plots over the 16-year study. Litter strongly impeded seedling emergence of small-seeded species. The negative effect of litter on seedling recruitment of large-seeded species and the recruitment of new shoots in species growing clonally was much weaker. There was a significant positive correlation between the numbers of seedlings in the litter-removal and control plots and temperatures in January to March. In the litter-removal plots this mainly affected small-seeded species. Seedling recruitment was less consistently related to variation in precipitation. Positive relationships were found only between the number of seedlings of large-seeded species in the litter-removal plots and precipitation in July of the current year and in September of the previous year, and between the number of seedlings in the control plots and precipitation in September and November of the previous year. PMID:12197522

Dzwonko, Zbigniew; Gawro?ski, Stefan



Differential seed and seedling predation by crabs: impacts on tropical coastal forest composition.  


Recently, the importance of seed predation by crabs on mangrove species distributions and densities has been established by several studies. In a tropical coastal terrestrial forest in Costa Rica, we investigated the relative importance of predation by land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus, and hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus, on measured forest composition through a series of seed removal and seedling establishment experiments. We also used natural light-gaps and adjacent non-gap sites to test how canopy cover affects crab predation (seed removal) and seedling establishment. We found fewer tree species (S=18) and lower densities (seedlings, saplings, and adults) in the coastal zone within 100 m of coastline, than in the inland zone (S=59). Land crab densities were higher in the coastal zone (3.03+/-1.44 crabs m(-2)) than in the inland zone (0.76+/-0.78 crabs m(-2)), and hermit crabs were not present in the inland zone. Seed removal and seedling mortality also were higher in the coastal zone than in the inland zone, and in the open controls than in the crab exclosures. Mortality of seeds and seedlings was two to six times higher in the controls than exclosures for four of the five experiments. Crabs preferred seeds and younger seedlings over older seedlings but showed no species preferences in the seed (Anacardium excelsum, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, and Terminalia oblonga) and seedling (Pachira quinata and E. cyclocarpum) stages. We conclude that the observed differences in tree densities were caused by differential crab predation pressure along the coastal gradient, while the differences in species composition were due to predator escape (satiation) by seed quantity. Canopy cover did not affect seed removal rates, but did affect seedling survival with higher mortality in the non-gap versus gap environments. In summary, crab predation of seeds and seedlings, and secondarily canopy cover, are important factors affecting tree establishment in terrestrial coastal forests. PMID:15349766

Lindquist, Erin Stewart; Carroll, C Ronald



Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?  


Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses. PMID:20033737

Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos



N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.  


We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher



Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph



90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi  

SciTech Connect

In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.



Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Seedling Development in Some Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Cultivars  

PubMed Central

In Clark and Shelby soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings, hypocotyl elongation was inhibited and hypocotyl swelling and root dry weight were increased by a temperature of 25 C. At 20 and 30 C, development was normal, as was development of Hawkeye and Mandarin soybean seedlings at all three temperatures. Dry matter distribution at 9 days indicates that inhibition of hypocotyl elongation is not due to a lack of translocation from cotyledons, but to a diversion of dry matter from hypocotyl to root. Ethylene evolution by Clark seedlings at 25 C exceeds that at 20 and 30 C. At all three temperatures, Mandarin seedlings' ethylene evolution is at the same low rates as those of Clark at 20 and 30 C. Clark's enhanced rate at 25 C precedes the deceleration of hypocotyl elongation occurring at 5 days. The abnormal effects of a temperature of 25 C on Clark seedlings' development is partially reversed by CO2 and GA3 and can be duplicated in Mandarin by applying ethylene. In Clark, effects of the temperature can be further accentuated by indoleacetic acid, which stimulates ethylene evolution, and by applying ethylene to the seedlings. It is concluded that the temperature-induced symptoms, similar in most respects to the well known “triple response” of legume seedlings, are caused by abnormally high levels of ethylene in tissues of the anomalous cultivars. Images

Samimy, Cyrus; Lamotte, Clifford E.



Specific Inhibition of Phototropism in Corn Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Geotropism was used as a control for the specificity of potential inhibitors of phototropism by the coleoptiles of corn (Zea mays) seedlings. The compounds tested fall into three categories showing: (a) no inhibition of either phototropism or geotropism (KCl); (b) nonspecific inhibition of both phototropism and geotropism (KCN); and (c) specific inhibition of phototropism (KI, NaN3, and phenylacetic acid). Simultaneous irradiation of coleoptiles with phototropically inert light in addition to the phototropically active blue light also results in an inhibition of phototropism. Since azide, iodide, and phenylacetic acid are known to interact with flavins while a simultaneous irradiation with a phototropically inert light may depopulate the first triplet state of flavins, these data support the hypothesis that the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism in corn is a flavin.

Schmidt, Werner; Hart, James; Filner, Philip; Poff, Kenneth L.



Rapid Metabolism of Propylene by Pea Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Propylene uptake by intact pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) was easily detected using standard gas chromatographic techniques suggesting rapid metabolism. Comparative studies with highly purified 14C3H6 and 14C2H4 under aseptic conditions verified that propylene was rapidly metabolized and indicated that some aspects of its metabolism were similar to that of ethylene since 14C3H6, like 14C2H4 (Beyer, Nature 1975, 255: 144-147), was oxidized to 14CO2 and incorporated into water-soluble tissue metabolites. However, 14C2H6 was metabolized at a substantially faster rate and unlike 14C2H4 the rate of 14C3H6 tissue incorporation exceeded its rate of oxidation to 14CO2. In addition the neutral 14C-metabolites derived from 14C3H6 were chromatographically distinct from those formed from 14C2H4.

Beyer, Elmo M.



Partial mechanical impedance can increase the turgor of seedling pea roots.  


Roots of 3-d-old pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) were mechanically impeded using a sand core apparatus, which allowed mechanical impedance to be varied independently of aeration and water status. Turgor of root cortical cells was then measured using a pressure probe. In seedlings grown in sand cores for 1 d, impedance had little effect on turgor, but in seedlings grown in the sand cores for 2 d, impedance increased turgor by 0.18 MPa in the apical 6 mm. PMID:11181726

Clark, L J; Whalley, W R; Barraclough, P B



Vertebrate herbivory impacts seedling recruitment more than niche partitioning or density-dependent mortality.  


In tropical forests, resource-based niches and density-dependent mortality are mutually compatible mechanisms that can act simultaneously to limit seedling populations. Differences in the strengths of these mechanisms will determine their roles in maintaining species coexistence. In the first assessment of these mechanisms in a Congo Basin forest, we quantified their relative strengths and tested the extent to which density-dependent mortality is driven by the distance-dependent behavior of seed and seedling predators predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. We conducted a large-scale seed addition experiment for five randomly selected tropical tree species, caging a subset of seed addition quadrats against vertebrate predators. We then developed models to assess the mechanisms that determine seedling emergence (three months after seed addition) and survival (two years after seed addition). As predicted, both niche differentiation and density-dependent mortality limited seedling recruitment, but predation had the strongest effects on seedling emergence and survival. Seedling species responded differently to naturally occurring environmental variation among sites, including variation in light levels and soil characteristics, supporting predictions of niche-based theories of tropical tree species coexistence. The addition of higher densities of seeds into quadrats initially led to greater seedling emergence, but survival to two years decreased with seed density. Seed and seedling predation reduced recruitment below levels maintained by density-dependent mortality, an indication that predators largely determine the population size of tree seedlings. Seedling recruitment was unrelated to the distance to or density of conspecific adult trees, suggesting that recruitment patterns are generated by generalist vertebrate herbivores rather than the specialized predators predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. If the role of seed and seedling predation in limiting seedling recruitment is a general phenomenon, then the relative abundances of tree species might largely depend on species-specific adaptations to avoid, survive, and recover from damage induced by vertebrate herbivores. Likewise, population declines of herbivorous vertebrate species (many of which are large and hunted) may trigger shifts in species composition of tropical forests. PMID:22624210

Clark, C J; Poulsen, J R; Levey, D J



Vegetation management for reducing mortality of ponderosa pine seedlings from Thomomys spp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of vegetation management on Mazama pocket gopher activity and damage to ponderosa pine seedlings were studied using atrazine herbicide to alter the habitat. Atrazine treatments were applied to a large treatment unit and observed effects were compared to an untreated control unit. The greatly reduced forb and grass cover on the treated unit was associated with a corresponding decrease in pocket gopher activity. Times until seedlings first incurred gopher damage and overall survival of two cohorts of seedlings were greatly increased on the treated unit.

Barnes, V. G., Jr.; Anthony, M.; et al



Effects of Watering and Fertilization on Carbohydrate Reserves in Sugar Maple Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sugar maple seedlings, grown under three nutrient and three moisture levels, were analyzed after three growing seasons for starch and ethanol-soluble sugars. Fertilization did not affect carbohydrate levels in stems or roots. Water stress caused a signifi...

C. M. Carl J. R. Donnelly B. W. Post



Use of TREGRO to simulate the effects of ozone on the growth of red spruce seedlings  

SciTech Connect

TREGRO, a model developed to simulate the growth of sapling red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), was parameterized to grow 2- to 3-yr-old seedlings. Results of the simulation compared favorably to actual growth of seedlings used in a field study of the effects of ozone and acidic precipitation on tree physiology and development. Furthermore, a 10-yr simulation produced a modeled tree that corresponded to saplings used in another field experiment. Additional simulations were conducted to compare predicted effects of ozone on seedling growth to those measured in controlled experiments. Based on the performance of the model, we believe TREGRO can be used effectively to simulate both seedling and sapling red spruce growth, and the potential effects of ozone on the development of the trees. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Laurence, J.A.; Kohut, R.J.; Amundson, R.G. (Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY (United States))



Factors Limiting Post-logging Seedling Regeneration by Big-leaf ...  


Dry season winds blew most seeds west-northwest of parent trees, with median ... Nine months after seedling establishment—midway through the first logging ... and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in  ...


Energy Biomass Tree Seedling Production Study. Progress Report, January 1980-May 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two lamp evaluation studies were conducted in the Geniponics system to determine the effect, if any, of various light treatments on tree seedling growth. A sixteen hour photoperiod followed by an uninterrupted eight hour dark period was utilized for this ...

K. R. Foote



Germination and Seedling Response of Atlantic and Gulf Coasts Populations of 'Spartina alterniflora'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Germination response to thermoperiod and seedling response to photoperiod-thermoperiod treatments and to uniform field conditions were compared for 12 populations of Spartina alterniflora Loisel from along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Germination above 5...

E. D. Seneca



Effects of salicylic acid on growth, biochemical constituents in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings.  


In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid which is an endogenous organic acid in plants and which is commonly cited as a hormone, on the growth and some other parameters of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv.) seedlings was investigated. The solutions were applied to the roots of seedlings using hydroponic method. In general, 1.5 mM concentration of salicylic acid had a stimulating effect while 5 and 10 mM concentrations had varying degrees of inhibitive effects on the seedlings. Although 0.3 mM SA application produced prominent results in the case of all parameters, the difference was not found statistically significant. The inhibitive effect produced by high SA was found much more dominant than the stimulating effect of low SA concentrations. Thus, it was established that SA had a bidirectional physiological effect on the seedlings in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:21870633

Canakci, S




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the influence of herbivory by two introduced biocontrol insects on survival and performance of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae) seedlings, an invasive tree native to eastern Australia. In November 2002, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Psyllidae) nymphs and Oxyops vitiosa (Curculionid...


Rapid Kinetic Analysis of Ethylene Growth Responses in Seedlings: New Insights into Ethylene Signal Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene is a phytohormone that influences diverse processes in plants. Ethylene causes various changes in etiolated seedlings\\u000a that differ between species and include reduced growth of shoots and roots, increased diameter of shoots, agravitropic growth,\\u000a initiation of root hairs, and increased curvature of the apical hook. The inhibition of growth in etiolated seedlings has\\u000a become widely used to screen for

Brad M. Binder



Significant contribution of boron stored in seeds to initial growth of rice seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice plants are relatively insensitive to low boron environment. We examined the role of boron stored in seeds in growth of\\u000a rice seedlings in regard to its insensitivity to low boron condition. In experiments using seeds without the removal of the\\u000a endosperm, the effect of low boron treatments (0.18 and 0.03 ?M B) was not evident on growth of seedlings until

Shimpei Uraguchi; Toru Fujiwara



Effect of TMS (nanostructured silicon dioxide) on growth of Changbai larch seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots of 200 one-year-old Changbai Larch (Larix olgensis) seedlings were soaked for 6 hours at the TMS concentrations of 2000, 1000, 500, 250, 125, and 62 ?L·L?1. Mean seedling height, root collar diameter, main root length and number of lateral roots were measured every 15 days during\\u000a growing season from May 30 to Oct. 20. Experimental results showed that

Lin Bao-shan; Diao shao-qi; Li Chun-hui; Fang Li-jun; Qiao Shu-chun; Yu Min



Induction by thidiazuron of somatic embryogenesis in intact seedlings of peanut  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planta differentiation of somatic embryos was induced in seedlings of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) obtained from mature seeds germinated on a medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ: N-phenyl-N1- (1,2,3 thiadiazol-yl)urea). At optimum levels of TDZ (10 µM), all germinating seeds produced embryogenic seedlings, and somatic embryos developed in the apical region and on the surface of cotyledons and hypocotyls. These

Praveen K. Saxena; Kamal A. Malik; R. Gill



Effect of hydropriming and acclimation treatments on Quercus rugosa acorns and seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

To facilitate restoration of the lava field forests surrounding Mexico City, we developed methods to improve the germination\\u000a and field seedling performance of Quercus rugosa using hydropriming (regulated hydration of seeds in water), and we used special watering regimes to improve seedling acclimation.\\u000a The size, dry mass, fresh mass and water content of seeds were measured, and curves were generated

Libertad Castro-Colina; Miguel Martínez-Ramos; Maria Esther Sánchez-Coronado; Pilar Huante; Ana Mendoza; Alma Orozco-Segovia


Hydrogen sulfide counteracts chlorophyll loss in sweetpotato seedling leaves and alleviates oxidative damage against osmotic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, effect of NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor on chlorophyll and antioxidant metabolism in seedling leaves of sweetpotato under osmotic stress was investigated.\\u000a With the enhancement of osmotic stress, which was mimicked by PEG-6000, chlorophyll in seedling leaves of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) decreased dramatically. At 15% PEG (w\\/v), chlorophyll concentration reached only 50% compared with that of

Hua Zhang; Yong-Kang Ye; Song-Hua Wang; Jian-Ping Luo; Jun Tang; Dai-Fu Ma



The inhibition of mitochondrial metabolic activity in etiolated pea seedlings under water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we studied the influence of water (osmotic) stress on mitochondrial metabolic activity in etiolated pea\\u000a (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. Three-day-old pea seedlings were subjected to stress by placing their roots in 0.6 M mannitol for 48 h. Epicotyl\\u000a growth was severely suppressed, and tissue water content was decreased. We revealed the negative influence of the water

I. P. Generozova; S. N. Maevskaya; A. G. Shugaev



Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate ¹³⁷Cs and ⁹°Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings

James A. Entry; Paul T. Rygiewicz; William H. Emmingham



Response of mycorrhizal Norway spruce seedlings to various nitrogen loads and sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway spruce seedlings were grown under greenhouse conditions in Rootrainers with a vermiculite-peat moss mixture under various N-regimes for 6 months. Either ammonium or nitrate was applied in loads of 100 or 800 kg N ha?1 year?1 to seedlings which were either non-mycorrhizal or inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungi Hebeloma crustuliniforme or Laccaria bicolor. The use of increasing N loads

I. Brunner; S. Brodbeck



Positive effect of smoke-derived butenolide priming on melon seedling emergence and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smoke-derived butenolide, 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, has previously been shown to improve seedling vigour. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of hydropriming and butenolide priming treatments on seedling emergence and growth under different sowing depths at 20 and 25°C in two melon (Cucumis melo L.) seed lots of high and low quality. Seeds are subjected to hydropriming (21

K. Mavi; ME Light; I. Demir; J. van Staden; F. Yasar



Chilling stress suppresses chloroplast development and nuclear gene expression in leaves of mung bean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Etiolated leaves of 28°C-dark-grown mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. 2937) seedlings fail to turn green after being shifted to a light and cold environment. At the visible phenotypic level, incapability of leaf greening is the only failure event for the de-etiolation of mung bean seedlings at low temperature. Ultrastructural studies revealed that chloroplast development was completely suppressed by chilling

Ming-Tzong Yang; Shu-Ling Chen; Chu-Yung Lin; Yih-Ming Chen



Nitrogen nutrition and the development and senescence of nodules on cowpea seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp cv. Vita 3) seedlings inoculated with Rhizobium strain CB756 were cultured with their root systems maintained in air or in Ar: O2 (80:20, v\\/v) during early nodule development (up to 24 d after sowing). Compared with those in air, seedlings in Ar:O2 showed progressive N deficiency with inhibited shoot growth, reduced ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and total

C. A. Atkins; B. J. Shelp; J. Kuo; M. B. Peoples; J. S. Pate



A life cycle assessment case study for walnut tree ( Juglans regia L.) seedlings production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  High-quality wood production is based on both natural forestry populations and dedicated tree plantations, also mentioned\\u000a as industrial plantations. The establishment of dedicated plantations needs high-quality seedlings, often grown in a nursery,\\u000a having specific genetic and morphological features. From seed gathering to final selling, the growth of the seedlings needs\\u000a human interventions and specific inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, substrates,

Daniele Cambria; Domenico Pierangeli


Early detection of the effects of warm storage on conifer seedlings using physiological tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of conifer seedlings were more tolerant of pre-planting within-package warm storage than suggested by the literature and physiological tests were highly predictive of incipient damage and growth potential. Bareroot white pine (Pinus strobus L.), red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss), and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) seedlings in sealed polyethylene bags were

Douglas S. Maki; Stephen J. Colombo



Acute Health Effects on Planters of Conifer Seedlings Treated with Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess acute health effects on planters caused by plant- ing conifer seedlings treated with two insecticides, with active ingredients imidacloprid and cypermethrin, in comparison with untreated seedlings. Methods: The investigation was a double-blind crossover study, which included a follow-up of 19 planters over a 3-week period. During Week 1, the 19 planters




Antioxidant responses to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition in birch seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured the responses of different anti-oxidants in 2-year-old birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings subjected to simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) and heavy metals (CuNi), applied alone or in combination for 2 months. The applied concentrations of pollutants did not significantly affect seedling biomass or total glutathione levels. Acid rain alone increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity both in leaves

Julia Koricheva; Sashwati Roy; John A. Vranjic; Erkki Haukioja; Patrick R. Hughes; Osmo Hänninen



Simulated Low-gravity Environments and Respiratory Metabolism in Avena Seedlings.  


Using horizontal and vertical axis clinostats and sand-grown oat seedlings (Avena sativa), it was found that horizontal clinostat rotation at 2 rpm increased respiration and inorganic and organic phosphorus content of seedlings. Increased coleoptile geotropism and root growth are attributed to rotational nullification of the directional component of the gravitational stimulus. These growth modifications are mechanistically explicable by the relationship between plant metabolism and auxin concentration in these organs. PMID:16656433

Dedolph, R R; Wilson, B R; Chorney, W; Breen, J J



New Plant Growth Regulators Protect Photosynthesis and Enhance Growth Under Drought of Jack Pine Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To determine whether natural plant growth regulators (PGRs) can enhance drought tolerance and the competitive ability of\\u000a transplanted seedlings, 1.5-year-old jack pine (Pinus banksana Lamb.) seedlings were treated with homobrassinolide, salicylic acid, and two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, triacontanol,\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA), and the synthetic antioxidant, Ambiol. PGRs were fed into the xylem for 7 days and plants were

L. R. Rajasekaran; T. J. Blake



Changes in hydrogen peroxide content and activities of antioxidant enzymes in tomato seedlings exposed to mercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-day-old seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were treated with various Hg concentrations (0, 10, and 50 ?M) for up to 20 days, and the hypothesis that Hg induces\\u000a oxidative stress leading to the reduction of biomass and chlorophyll content in leaves was examined. The accumulation of Hg\\u000a in seedlings increased with external Hg concentration and exposure time, and Hg

Un-Haing Cho; Jung-O Park



Effect of fluridone on free sugar level in heat stressed mungbean seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germination per cent and growth of ML 267 and ML 131 cvs of mungbean (Vigna radiata Wilzec) seedlings was adversely affected by high temperature stress (42°C). Pre-sowing seed soaking in fluridone (flu) significantly increased germination per cent and seedling growth at both normal and high temperatures. Total free sugar accumulation was significantly increased under stress and Flu pre-treatment significantly increased

S. K. Thind; Chanpreet; Mridula



Variable effects of emergence-promoting rhizobacteria on conifer seedling growth under nursery conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of white spruce (Picea glauca Voss.) seed with Bacillus polymyxa strain L5 under nursery conditions significantly increased the number of seedlings that emerged after sowing. No significant effects on seedling emergence were detected when white spruce seed was inoculated with Bacillus polymyxa strain L6, or when Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] seed was inoculated with either strain L5 or

G. A. O'Neill; R. A. Radley; C. P. Chanway



Eect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus Strains on Pine and Spruce Seedling Growth and Mycorrhizal Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rifamycin-resistant derivatives of plant growth promoting Bacillus polymyxa strains L6, Pw-2, and S20 were used to evaluate the interaction of bacterial-mycorrhizal co-inoculation on pine and spruce seedling growth. We were particularly interested in determining if the mechanism by which bacteria stimulated seedling growth depended on the presence of ectomycorrhizae. Mycorrhizal inoculum was introduced by adding 2 ml of one of




Seedling age and cytokinin effects on glutamate dehydrogenase activity and nitrogen assimilation in maize leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity, protein and total nitrogen contents in the secondary leaves of maize(Zea mays L. cv. Ganga Safed-2) seedlings increased during early seedling growth and then declined after reaching a peak level at either\\u000a 10 d (GDH) or 12 d (metabolites). While the effect of kinetin on enzyme activity was statistically insignificant, benzyladenine\\u000a supplied with nutrient solution increased

S. Garg; H. S. Srivastava



Impacts of seedling herbivory on plant competition and implications for species coexistence  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory for plant community composition are well understood, the mechanisms by which herbivores influence plant species recruitment to the established phase remain less clear. The aim was to examine how variation in the intensity of seedling herbivory interacts with growth-defence trade-offs and herbivore feeding preferences to affect plant community development. Methods Using 14-d-old seedlings of Trifolium pratense and T. repens, relative growth and susceptibility to herbivory by the snail Helix aspersa was quantified to elucidate putative growth-defence trade-offs for these species. Then mixed assemblages of 14-d-old Trifolium seedlings were exposed to herbivory by zero, two, five or ten snails and determined how variation in the intensity of herbivory affected competitive interactions into the mature phase (as measured by total plant biomass at 120 d old). Key Results In the absence of herbivory, communities were dominated by T. pratense; a result expected on the basis that it yielded larger and presumably more competitive seedlings. However, when seedlings were exposed to herbivory, the balance of competition shifted. At low levels of herbivory (two snails), both Trifolium species contributed equally to total plant biomass. More intense herbivory (five snails) resulted in almost total mortality of T. pratense and dominance of the mature community by T. repens. The most intense herbivory (ten snails) effectively removed all seedlings from the experimental community. Conclusions The study illustrates a mechanism whereby spatio-temporal fluctuations in seedling herbivory, when coupled with species-specific variation in competitive ability and sensitivity to herbivore attack, can differentially influence plant recruitment into the mature phase. This mechanism may be a key element in our attempts to understand plant species coexistence, since fluctuations in plant recruitment are fundamental to the many theories that view coexistence as a consequence of a spatio-temporal lottery for dominance over regeneration micro-sites.

Hanley, M. E.; Sykes, R. J.



The growth of Larix gmelinii seedlings as affected by charcoal produced at two different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires burn forest with spatially heterogeneous intensity and charcoals generated at various temperatures during fires exhibit\\u000a variable physical and chemical characteristics. These variable properties of charcoal may, in turn, influence germination\\u000a and growth of tree seedlings. To examine the effects of different charcoal properties on the growth of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii) seedlings, we conducted an experiment with larch-branch-derived charcoals

Kobayashi Makoto; Dongsu Choi; Yasuyuki Hashidoko; Takayoshi Koike



Competition for soil water between annual plants and blue oak ( Quercus douglasii ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the competitive effects of two annual species on soil water potential and blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook & Arn.) seedling growth and water relations. Two densities of the annual grass Bromus diandrus (Roth.) (100\\/dm2, 3.6\\/dm2) and one density of the annual forb Erodium botrys (Cav.) (3.6\\/dm2) comprised plant neighborhoods around the oak seedlings grown in 1 m deep

D. R. Gordon; J. M. Menke; K. J. Rice



Effect of salinity stress on growth, peroxidase and IAA oxidase activities in vigna seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was carried out with the aim of studying the effect of salinity stress on growth and IAA oxidizing system\\u000a (i.e. peroxidase and IAA oxidase) in vigna (Vigna unguiculata L.) seedlings. The seedlings were treated with two concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.1 M and 0.25 M. Length, fresh\\u000a and dry weight were the parameters considered for growth.

D. S. Pujari; S. V. Chanda




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of heat shock (40ºC, 3 h) on the photosynthetic activity of 4-, 7- and 11-day-old barley seedlings was studied. The rate of CO2 gas exchange in young leaves was not changed under heat shock while in 11-day- old seedlings the high temperature affected both the average quantum yield and the shape of light response curves of photosynthesis.

N. L. Pshybytko; L. N. Kalituho; L. F. Kabashnikova


Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce\\u000a (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci\\u000a (QTL) resulting from three seed production

Jason Argyris; María José Truco; Oswaldo Ochoa; Steven J. Knapp; David W. Still; Ger M. Lenssen; Johan W. Schut; Richard W. Michelmore; Kent J. Bradford



Evaluating Chemical Indices of Growing Media for Nursery Production of Quercus rubra Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated suitability of chemical indices of three media formulations or substrates (A, B, and C) consisting of composted pine bark, coconut coir pith, sphagnum peatmoss,processedbarkash,andperliteinvariedproportionsforgrowingnorthernred oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings. These substrates were ranked according to their ability to promote seedling growth. The low-yielding substrate (A) was devoid of pine bark and perlite and the medium-yielding substrate (B) contained

K. Francis Salifu; Michael A. Nicodemus; Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis



Effects of nitrate on nitrogen fixation and growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. ) seedlings  

SciTech Connect

N fertilization may affect the growth of black locust via effects on N fixation (NF) and N metabolism energy costs. This work examined the effects of nitrate (n) on NF and growth of black locust seedlings (BLS). Two experiments examined the effects of n on acetylene reduction, nodule biomass (NB), and n reductase activity of families using nodulated seedlings. Two additional experiments examined the effects of n using functional growth analysis. Nitrate was enriched with [sup 15]N and seedling N was partitioned into n and atmospheric N sources. Nitrate fertilization affected both NF and growth of BLS. High concentrations of n decreased both NB and activity. Nitrate additions generally increase total plant growth. Adjustments for seedling size via allometric principles are necessary to correctly interpret treatment effects on NF. Without such adjustments, n fertilization and family effects on general seedling growth confound analysis. Nitrate fertilization decreased NF primarily by decreasing dry matter partitioning to nodules. Low concentrations of n resulted in higher total seedling NB. Once, it was thought that low levels of soil N are needed to stimulate nodule growth and NF. Allometric analysis clearly indicated that low concentrations of n did not affect nodule growth directly but did so by increasing general seedling growth. Growth analyses were conducted to correct for confounding effects of differential plant size and internal N concentration resulting from different rates of n fertilization. These analyses showed that n fertilization increased BLS growth both by increasing seedling internal N concentrations and by increasing N productivity. The latter indicates that n utilization is more energy efficient than NF. High levels of n reductase activity were observed in leaves of BLS given n. Differences in energy costs might be partly attributable to photo-reduction of n and/or nitrite in the leaves.

Johnsen, K.H.



Loss or retention of chloroplast DNA in maize seedlings is affected by both light and genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from plastids obtained from wild type maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings grown under different light conditions and from photosynthetic mutants grown under white light. The cpDNA was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR, quantitative DNA fluorescence, and blot-hybridization following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amount of DNA per plastid in light-grown seedlings declines greatly from stalk

Delene J. Oldenburg; Beth A. Rowan; Lei Zhao; Cristina L. Walcher; Marc Schleh; Arnold J. Bendich



The effect of Cu 2+ on uptake and assimilation of ammonium by cucumber seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ammonium uptake by cucumber seedlings was estimated from ammonium ions depletion in an uptake solution. The uptake of\\u000a NH\\u000a 4\\u000a +\\u000a was decreased by about 60 % after one hour and by about 90 % after two hours of 100 µM Cu2+ treatment. On the contrary the accumulation of ammonium in roots of Cu2+-treated seedlings at the same time

Marek Burzyñski; Józef Buczek



Simulated Low-gravity Environments andRespiratory Metabolism inAvenaSeedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.Usinghorizontal andvertical axisclinostats andsand-grown oat seedlings (Azvena sativa), itwasfoundthathorizontal clinostat rotation at2 rpm increased respiration andinorganic andorganic phosphorus content of seedlings. Increased coleoptile geotropism androotgrowthareattributed torotational nulli- fication of-tlte directionar component ofthegravitational stimulus. Thesegrowth modifications aremechanistically explicable bytherelationship betweenplant metab- olismandatixin concentration intheseorgans. Bothgeotropic cuirvatureofcoleoptiles androot growth are enhanced byhorizontal clinostat rotation andconcomitant nullification ofthedirectional com- ponentofthegravitational stimulus (3).Thouigh coleoptile

R. R. Dedolph; B. R. Wilson; W. Chorney; J. Breen


Impact of soil pressure and compaction on tracheids in Norway spruce seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of soil compaction on Norway spruce seedlings in terms of the size and theoretical volume flow rate of\\u000a the tracheids. The results show that soil pressure limits growth in the diameter of the lumens of tracheids in all parts of\\u000a seedlings studied. The tracheids of the roots with primary xylem had larger lumens than those of

Roman Gebauer; Daniel Vola?ík; Milena Martinková



Leaf display and photosynthesis of tree seedlings in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest understorey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine a possible convergence in leaf photosynthetic characteristics and leaf display responses to light environment in seedlings of three canopy and two shrub tree species in understorey of cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, relationships between light environment, leaf orientation and leaf light-photosynthetic response were measured. Light capture of the seedlings (17-24 individuals with 2-12 leaves for each species) was assessed

Hiroyuki Muraoka; Hiroshi Koizumi; Robert W. Pearcy



Light-enhanced perception of gravity in stems of intact pea seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dark-grown, 6-d-old pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) do not respond gravitropically to brief (approx. 3 min) horizontal presentations, but seedlings given a pulse of red light (R) 16–24 h earlier respond to such stimuli by vigorous curvature of the epicotyl. With continuous horizontal stimulation (approx. 100 min), the kinetics and extent of the gravitropic response are almost identical

Stevela J. Britz; Arthur W. Galston



Studies on salt tolerance of pigeon pea cultivars 1. Germination, seedling growth and some physiological changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve germplasm cultivars of pigeon pea were screened for their tolerance to salinity during germination and early seedling\\u000a growth. Germination, seedling growth and studies on proteins, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and free proline accumulation indicated\\u000a that the cultivars ICP 7035 and 7065 showed high degree of tolerance to 0·4% salinity. These two tolerant cultivars showed\\u000a lowered derangements in their

G Gururaja Rao; K V Ramana Rao; G Rajeswara Rao



Use of seedlings for predicting field resistance of wheat to Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seedlings can be used to predict field resistance, if any, of wheat varieties and experimental lines to wheat powdery mildew\\u000a fungus,Erysiphe graminis f. sp.tritici. First leaves of 8-day-old seedlings of a field-resistant wheat showed a greater frequency of primary infections in subsidiary\\u000a cells of stomata than those in a susceptible wheat. This method of predicting field resistance of experimental lines

M. S. Ghemawat



Gene expression in the soybean seed axis during germination and early seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy-DNA clones have been obtained that distinguish eight messenger mRNAs, moderately abundant in the axes of the germinating soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedling. These clones have been used to characterize the size of the mRNAs and to anlyze the accumulation of the mRNAs at different time points and in different parts of the axis during germination and early seedling

K. Datta; H. Parker; V. Averyhart-Fullard; A. Schmidt; A. Marcus



Effects of Seed-borne Fungi on Germination and Seedling Growth of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus nigricans inocula (1 & 0.1 g L -1 distilled water) and a seed dressing fungicide Seedplus® (1.25 g 500 g-1 seeds) on germination and seedling growth of watermelon (cv. Chaliston gray) was investigated. It was confirmed that the combined inocula with higher density caused significantly poor germination and seedling growth (P ? 0.05)



Analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of Brassica carinata seedlings after lithium chloride exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of B. carinata seedlings to increasing concentrations of a non-physiological ion, lithium, showed significant effects on the germination rate, root length, chlorophyll content and fresh weight in brown-seeded and yellow-seeded near-isogenic lines. Metal content analysis and phytochemical profiling indicated that lithium hyper-accumulated and the lipid and phenolic composition dramatically changed in brown-seeded seedlings. Here, sinapic acid esters and chloroplast

Xiang Li; Peng Gao; Branimir Gjetvaj; Neil Westcott; Margaret Y. Gruber



Expression analysis of a sucrose carrier in the germinating seedling of Ricinus communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the expression of a sucrose carrier at various developmental stages in Ricinus communis. A partial-length cDNA clone, RcSUT1, was isolated by RT-PCR from Ricinus seedling RNA. This is almost identical to a sucrose carrier cDNA, Rscr1, which has previously been isolated by library screening. However, we have observed a very different expression pattern in the seedling to

Julie-Ann Bick; Anil Neelam; Esther Smith; S. J. Nelson; J. L. Hall; Loraine E. Williams



A Spaceflight Experiment for the Study of Gravimorphogenesis and Hydrotropism in Cucumber Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

peg  , on the transition zone between hypocotyl and root. Our spaceflight experiment verified that the lateral positioning of a\\u000a peg in cucumber seedlings is modified by gravity. It has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in the gravity-controlled\\u000a positioning of a peg on the ground. Furthermore, cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a number of the lateral\\u000a roots

Hideyuki Takahashi; Hidetoshi Mizuno; Motoshi Kamada; Nobuharu Fujii; Atsushi Higashitani; Shigeki Kamigaichi; Sachiko Aizawa; Chiaki Mukai; Toru Shimazu; Keiji Fukui; Masamichi Yamashita



Effects of Flooding Regime and Seedling Treatment on Early Survival and Growth of Nuttall Oak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three differ- ent types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two ele- vations on

Virginia R. Burkett; Rassa O. Draugelis-Dale; Hans M. Williams; Stephen H. Schoenholtz



Herbivory by Introduced Insects Reduces Growth and Survival of Melaleuca quinquenervia Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the inßuence of herbivory by two introduced insect herbivores on the survival and performance of seedlings of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae), an invasive tree that threatens the Florida Everglades ecosystem. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Moore) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) nymphs and Oxyops vitiosa (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae were transferred ontoMelaleuca seedlings within replicated 0.25-m2 caged plots in Palm Beach County, FL.

Steven J. Franks; Andrea M. Kral; Paul D. Pratt



Growth and proline accumulation in mungbean seedlings as affected by sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek cv. Sujata and cv. K851) seedlings were grown in paper towelins in dark under 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 % (m\\/v) NaCl\\u000a salinity. Germination percentage, shoot and root length, fresh mass of both cultivars decreased with salinity. Total soluble\\u000a saccharides and proline accumulated in the root and shoot of salt stressed seedlings. The proline

A. N. Misra; B. Murmu; P. Singh; M. Misra




Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated performance trade-offs among seedlings of nine tropical tree species during a five-year field experiment. Seedlings were grown in eight microhabitat types composed of paired gap and shaded understory sites in each of four soil types. We defined performance trade-offs relevant to coexistence as significant pairwise rank reversals for species performance between contrasting situations, of which we characterize three

Christopher Baraloto; Deborah E. Goldberg; Damien Bonal



Proteomic analysis of de-etiolated rice seedlings upon exposure to light.  


Two-week-old dark-grown rice seedlings were de-etiolated upon exposure to light. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the dark-grown control and the rice seedlings illuminated respectively for 6, 12 and 24 h revealed 52 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots. Of these changed spots, the identity of 51 protein spots was determined by MALDI-TOF MS. Of these identified proteins, 13 proteins were related to light reactions of photosynthesis, photosynthetic carbon assimilation and chlorophyll biosynthesis, indicating the complex process of biogenesis of photosynthetic apparatus was correlated to the transition from a dark-grown (etiolated) to a light-grown (de-etiolated) morphology. In addition, three proteins related to antioxidation and detoxification decreased in de-etiolated rice seedlings implied, that the etiolated rice seedlings possibly be under an oxidative stress which could be released during their early stages of de-etiolation. The increase of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase that is involved in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone ethylene might contribute to the phenotypic development of the apical hook in the de-etiolated rice seedlings. These results yield a comprehensive picture of the post-transcriptional response for de-etiolation of rice seedlings and serve as a basic platform for further characterization of gene function and regulation in light-induced development of plants. PMID:17570521

Yang, Pingfang; Chen, Hui; Liang, Yu; Shen, Shihua



Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice (Oryza sativa), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), maize (Zeamays), soybean (Glycine max), red bean (Phaseolus angularis), mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea (Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng



Cotyledon damage at the seedling stage affects growth and flowering potential in mature plants.  


Seedling herbivory is an important selective filter influencing patterns of plant community composition. Nevertheless, while many of the mechanisms governing seedling selection by herbivores are well established, the effects of tissue loss at the seedling stage on subsequent plant development are poorly understood. Here we examined how the removal of 50 or approximately 100% of cotyledon area from 7-d-old chalk grassland seedlings affected subsequent plant growth and flowering over a 100-d period. Cotyledon damage had a significant effect on growth during the establishment phase for six of the nine species. For two species, significant effects on plant growth were manifest in 100-d-old plants. Of the five species that flowered, three developed fewer inflorescences or flowered later as a consequence of cotyledon damage suffered as a seedling. Our results show that, in addition to the direct effect of herbivory on seedling mortality, more subtle sublethal effects may also influence plant establishment. Reduced growth as a result of cotyledon damage may have implications for plant competition during the establishment phase, and on subsequent reproductive success at maturity. PMID:16411928

Hanley, M E; May, O C



Bird predation enhances tree seedling resistance to insect herbivores in contrasting forest habitats.  


According to the associational resistance hypothesis, neighbouring plants are expected to influence both the insect herbivore communities and their natural enemies. However, this has rarely been tested for the effects of canopy trees on herbivory of seedlings. One possible mechanism responsible for associational resistance is the indirect impact of natural enemies on insect herbivory, such as insectivorous birds. But it remains unclear to what extent such trophic cascades are influenced by the composition of plant associations (i.e. identity of 'associated' plants). Here, we compared the effect of bird exclusion on insect leaf damage for seedlings of three broadleaved tree species in three different forest habitats. Exclusion of insectivorous birds affected insect herbivory in a species-specific manner: leaf damage increased on Betula pendula seedlings whereas bird exclusion had no effect for two oaks (Quercus robur and Q. ilex). Forest habitat influenced both the extent of insect herbivory and the effect of bird exclusion. Broadleaved seedlings had lower overall leaf damage within pine plantations than within broadleaved stands, consistent with the resource concentration hypothesis. The indirect effect of bird exclusion on leaf damage was only significant in pine plantations, but not in exotic and native broadleaved woodlands. Our results support the enemies hypothesis, which predicts that the effects of insectivorous birds on insect herbivory on seedlings are greater beneath non-congeneric canopy trees. Although bird species richness and abundance were greater in broadleaved woodlands, birds were unable to regulate insect herbivory on seedlings in forests of more closely related tree species. PMID:21811874

Giffard, Brice; Corcket, Emmanuel; Barbaro, Luc; Jactel, Hervé



Influence of microhabitat on seedling survival and growth of the mediterranean seagrass posidonia oceanica (l.) Delile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early life history phases are crucial stages limiting species distribution and abundance, thus influencing assemblage composition in marine benthic environments. In seagrass systems the period between seed germination and establishment is one of the most vulnerable phases for plant development. This study analyzes the influence of microhabitat structure, in terms of substrate nature and algal canopy, on the persistence and growth over two years of seedlings of Posidonia oceanica, the dominant Mediterranean seagrass. Long time persistence of seedlings only occurred on microhabitats providing vegetated rocky substrates, with a maximum value of 81% on rock covered by Cystoseira spp. No seedling was found on unvegetated sand and gravel after the first year. Seedling growth resulted increased on rock covered by Halopteris spp. and Dilophus spp. than on rock covered by Cystoseira spp. Results suggest that high canopy onto a stable substrate enhances seedling persistence, probably because these allow the best anchorage by roots while hampering water flow. In contrast, turf algal cover promotes better seedling growth, possibly through higher light irradiance and nutrient availability. Our findings support the view that the understanding of the factors controlling early life processes is a necessary prerequisite for the comprehension of seagrass species distribution patterns, colonization and recovery potentials, which, in turn, can guide sound strategies for seagrass management and restoration.

Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Terlizzi, Antonio; Badalamenti, Fabio



Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.



Properties of Plasma Membrane from Pea Root Seedlings under Altered Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plasma membrane were examined to determine how the membrane structure and functions are regulated in response to clinorotation (2 rev/min) conditions. Membrane preparations enriched by plasma membrane vesicles were obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from 6-day seedling roots. The specific characteristics of H^+-ATPase, lípid composition and peroxidation intensity as well as fluidity of lipid bilayer were analysed. ATP hydrolytic activity was inhibited by ortovanadate and was insensitive to aside and nitrate in sealed plasma membrane vesicles isolated from both clinorotated and control seedlings. Plasma membrane vesicles from clinorotated seedlings in comparison to controls were characterised by increase in the total lipid/protein ratio, ATP hydrolytic activity and intensifying of lipid peroxidation. Sitosterol and campesterol were the predominant free sterol species. Clinorotated seedlings contained a slightly higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than controls. Plasma membrane vesicles were labelled with pyrene and fluorescence originating from monomeric (I_M) molecules and excimeric (I_E) aggregates were measured. The calculated I_E/I_M values were higher in clinorotated seedlings compared with controls reflecting the reduction in membrane microviscosity. The involvement of the changes in plasma membrane lipid content and composition, fluidity and H^+-ATPase activity in response of pea seedlings to altered gravity is discussed.

Klymchuk, D.; Baranenko, V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Kurylenko, I.; Chyzhykova, O.; Dubovoy, V.


Root architecture and hydraulic conductance in nutrient deprived Pistacia lentiscus L. seedlings.  


Plants respond to low nutrient availability by modifying root morphology and root system topology. Root responses to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) limitation may affect plant capacity to withstand water stress. But studies on the effect of nutrient availability on plant ability to uptake and transport water are scarce. In this study, we assess the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation on root morphology and root system topology in Pistacia lentiscus L seedlings, a common Mediterranean shrub, and relate these changes to hydraulic conductivity of the whole root system. Nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation had no effect on root biomass, but root systems were more branched in nutrient limited seedlings. Total root length was higher in seedlings subjected to phosphorus deprivation. Root hydraulic conductance decreased in nutrient-deprived seedlings, and was related to the number of root junctions but not to other architectural traits. Our study shows that changes in nutrient availability affect seedling water use by modifying root architecture. Changes in nutrient availability should be taken into account when evaluating seedling response to drought. PMID:22717626

Trubat, Roman; Cortina, Jordi; Vilagrosa, Alberto



Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity.  


Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings. PMID:11539752

Cowles, J R; Scheld, H W; Lemay, R; Peterson, C



The effects of host defence elicitors on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings.  


The effect of elicitors associated with host defence on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings was investigated. Under the conditions of the experiments, betacyanin accumulation was generally enhanced by light. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment increased betacyanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent response. Seedlings treated with ethylene as 5mM Ethephon also had elevated levels of betacyanin. In contrast, salicylic acid (SA) and H(2)O(2) treatments had no influence on betacyanin contents in light or dark. Combined MeJA with Ethephon or H(2)O(2) had an additive effect on betacyanin accumulation in dark-grown seedlings. However, a decline was recorded in light-grown seedlings. Moreover, an antagonistic effect on betacyanin synthesis was found when MeJA and SA were added simultaneously. Our results indicate that betacyanin content in A. mangostanus seedlings can be upregulated by MeJA and ethylene. Both additive and antagonistic effects in regulating betacyanin synthesis in A. mangostanus seedlings were observed between MeJA and other elicitors. PMID:23442611

Cao, Shifeng; Liu, Ting; Jiang, Yueming; He, Shenggen; Harrison, Dion K; Joyce, Daryl C



Physiology and morphology of Douglas-fir rooted cuttings compared to seedlings and transplants.  


Cuttings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) from three open-pollinated families were rooted in two types of tray, and then grown for 1.5 years in a bareroot nursery. During their second winter they were sampled periodically and tested for cold hardiness, dormancy status, root growth potential and various morphological characteristics. Two-year-old seedlings and transplants were tested concurrently for comparison. Rooted cuttings, seedlings and transplants cold hardened at similar rates during early winter, achieving the same level of midwinter hardiness (LT(50) = -18 degrees C) in early January. However, rooted cuttings remained hardier later into the spring than did seedlings or transplants. Rooted cuttings exhibited deeper dormancy in early winter than seedlings or transplants but these differences disappeared after January. Root growth potentials of all three stock types remained above threshold values established for transplants throughout winter. Rooted cuttings had greater stem diameter, higher stem diameter to height ratio, and greater root weight than either seedlings or transplants. This may reflect lower growing densities for the rooted cuttings. Root/shoot ratios of rooted cuttings were greater than for seedlings and similar to those of transplants. Rooted cuttings also had deeper and coarser root systems, which probably reflects lack of wrenching at the nursery. PMID:14969868

Ritchie, G A; Tanaka, Y; Duke, S D



Litter mixture effects on tropical tree seedling growth--a greenhouse experiment.  


Decomposing litter provides critical nutrients for plants, particularly in nutrient-poor ecosystems such as tropical forests. We hypothesised that decomposing litter improves the performance of a variety of tropical tree seedlings, and that this litter effect varies depending on the species of litter present in litter mixtures. We addressed these hypotheses with a large pot experiment manipulating a range of different litter mixtures of contrasting quality and using seedlings of four tree species from the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. In contrast to our initial hypothesis, decomposing litter had either neutral or negative impacts on seedling growth, despite strongly different growth rates, biomass allocation patterns and leaf and root traits among tree species. Tree species varied in their responses to litter additions, which were further modified by species identity of the added litter. Our data show litter species-specific effects on growth, biomass allocation and leaf and root traits of tropical tree seedlings. These results suggest that a net nutrient release from decomposing litter does not necessarily improve tree seedling growth, even under nutrient-limiting conditions. In conclusion, litter layer composition may affect seedling establishment and recruitment success beyond litter-derived plant nutrient availability, which may contribute to tree species composition and dynamics in the studied tropical forest. PMID:22289089

Coq, S; Weigel, J; Bonal, D; Hättenschwiler, S



Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The molecular structure of these new loci is being investigated. Furthermore, a proteomic approach is being developed to characterize root-tip proteins that are differentially expressed, modified or targeted in response to gravity stimulation. We acknowledge funding by NASA and NSF.

Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.


Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg{sup +2} or Ca{sup +2} for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn{sup +2}, and Hg{sup +2} were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg{sup +2} was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn{sup +2} about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as ({sup 32}P) phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine.

Cheng, H.F.



Polyamines in rice seedlings under oxygen-deficit stress  

SciTech Connect

Incubation of 3-d-old seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv Arborio under anaerobic conditions, leads to a large increase in the titer of free putrescine while aerobic incubation causes a slight decrease. After 2 days, the putrescine level is about 2.5 times greater without oxygen than in air. The rice coleoptile also accumulates a large amount of bound putrescine and, to a lesser extent, spermidine and spermine (mainly as acid-soluble conjugates). Accumulation of conjugates in the roots is severely inhibited by the anaerobic treatment. Feeding experiments with labeled amino acids showed that anoxia stimulates the release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from tissues fed with ({sup 14}C)arginine and that arginine is the precursor in putrescine biosynthesis. After 2 d of anoxia, the activity of arginine decarboxylase was 42% and 89% greater in coleoptile and root, respectively, than in the aerobic condition. The causes of the differences in polyamine metabolism in anoxic coleoptiles and roots are discussed.

Reggiani, R.; Hochkoeppler, A.; Bertani, A. (A.N.R., Milano (Italy))



Rhizobacteria of Cotton and Their Repression of Seedling Disease Pathogens  

PubMed Central

During the 1983 field season, the rhizobacteria (including organisms from rhizosphere soil and the root rhizoplane) of cotton plants at one location in Mississippi were inventoried at different plant growth stages. Isolates (1,000) were identified to the genus level and characterized for repression of Pythium ultimum and Rhizoctonia solani. Cotton seedlings were initially colonized by bacteria of many different genera, and populations quickly reached 108 CFU/g of root tissue. As the season progressed, the bacterial populations declined as root mass increased and the roots became more woodlike in consistency. Fluorescent pseudomonads were the most numerous gram-negative rhizobacterial isolates of those that were randomly collected and identified, and they provided the largest number of isolates with fungal repressive activity. Several other gram-negative bacterial genera were recovered throughout the growing season, and some gram-positive bacteria were also isolated routinely, but at lower numbers. There was no correlation between the proportion of rhizobacterial isolates that possessed fungal repressive activity and the plant growth stage from which the isolates were obtained. Approximately twice as many bacterial isolates demonstrated fungal repression in the agar assay compared with the inplanta assay, and isolates were found more frequently with fungal repressive activity against P. ultimum than against R. solai.

Hagedorn, C.; Gould, W. D.; Bardinelli, T. R.




PubMed Central

Particles having ribosome-like characteristics are described in proplastids of dark-grown wheat seedlings as the membranes of the prolamellar body become transformed, under the influence of light, into grana and fret membranes. Three arrangements of particles were noted: (1) a random distribution of discrete particles; (2) particles occurring in helices or parallel rows; and (3) particles arranged in rough squares with six to eight particles per side. It is possible that the third type of particle is a cross-section of long parallel rods. A particle ranges in size from 170 to 220 A, those of group three being somewhat smaller. The particulates vary from diamond shaped with smooth surfaces to circular with irregular surfaces. These particles have the characteristics of ribosomes as visualized by the electron microscope: they are preserved by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide, they stain intensely with uranyl acetate, and are digested by RNase. Their properties do not coincide with those of viruses, smog-induced particles, stromacenter particles, or phytoferritin. They are frequently adjacent to membranes but never attached to membranes. The involvement of ribosomes in membrane development is discussed.

Bartels, Paul G.; Weier, T. Elliot



Seedling Discrimination with Shape Features Derived from a Distance Transform  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research is an improvement of plant seedling recognition by two new approaches of shape feature generation based on plant silhouettes. Experiments show that the proposed feature sets possess value in plant recognition when compared with other feature sets. Both methods approximate a distance distribution of an object, either by resampling or by approximation of the distribution with a high degree Legendre polynomial. In the latter case, the polynomial coefficients constitute a feature set. The methods have been tested through a discrimination process where two similar plant species are to be distinguished into their respective classes. The used performance assessment is based on the classification accuracy of 4 different classifiers (a k-Nearest Neighbor, Naive-Bayes, Linear Support Vector Machine, Nonlinear Support Vector Machine). Another set of 21 well-known shape features described in the literature is used for comparison. The used data consisted of 139 samples of cornflower (Centaura cyanus L.) and 63 samples of nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). The highest discrimination accuracy was achieved with the Legendre Polynomial feature set and amounted to 97.5%. This feature set consisted of 10 numerical values. Another feature set consisting of 21 common features achieved an accuracy of 92.5%. The results suggest that the Legendre Polynomial feature set can compete with or outperform the commonly used feature sets.

Giselsson, Thomas Mosgaard; Midtiby, Henrik Skov; J?rgensen, Rasmus Nyholm



Photomorphogenic Responses in Maize Seedling Development1[w  

PubMed Central

As an emerging maize (Zea mays) seedling senses light, there is a decrease in the rate of mesocotyl elongation, an induction of root growth, and an expansion of leaves. In leaf tissues, mesophyll and bundle sheath cell fate is determined, and the proplastids of each differentiate into the dimorphic chloroplasts typical of each cell type. Although it has been inferred from recent studies in several model plant species that multiple photoreceptor systems mediate this process, surprisingly little is known of light signal transduction in maize. Here, we examine two photomorphogenic responses in maize: inhibition of mesocotyl elongation and C4 photosynthetic differentiation. Through an extensive survey of white, red, far-red, and blue light responses among a diverse collection of germplasm, including a phytochrome-deficient mutant elm1, we show that light response is a highly variable trait in maize. Although all inbreds examined appear to have a functional phytochrome signal transduction pathway, several lines showed reduced sensitivity to blue light. A significant correlation was observed between light response and subpopulation, suggesting that light responsiveness may be a target of artificial selection. An examination of C4 gene expression patterns under various light regimes in the standard W22 inbred and elm1 indicate that cell-specific patterns of C4 gene expression are maintained in fully differentiated tissues independent of light quality. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first comprehensive survey of light response in maize and are discussed in relation to maize breeding strategies.

Markelz, Nicole H.; Costich, Denise E.; Brutnell, Thomas P.



Urban environment of New York City promotes growth in northern red oak seedlings.  


Urbanization is accelerating across the globe, elevating the importance of studying urban ecology. Urban environments exhibit several factors affecting plant growth and function, including high temperatures (particularly at night), CO(2) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We investigated the effects of urban environments on growth in Quercus rubra L. seedlings. We grew seedlings from acorns for one season at four sites along an urban-rural transect from Central Park in New York City to the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York (difference in average maximum temperatures of 2.4 °C; difference in minimum temperatures of 4.6 °C). In addition, we grew Q. rubra seedlings in growth cabinets (GCs) mimicking the seasonal differential between the city and rural sites (based on a 5-year average). In the field experiment, we found an eightfold increase in biomass in urban-grown seedlings relative to those grown at rural sites. This difference was primarily related to changes in growth allocation. Urban-grown seedlings and seedlings grown at urban temperatures in the GCs exhibited a lower root: shoot ratio (urban ~0.8, rural/remote ~1.5), reducing below-ground carbon costs associated with construction and maintenance. These urban seedlings instead allocated more growth to leaves than did rural-grown seedlings, resulting in 10-fold greater photosynthetic area but no difference in photosynthetic capacity of foliage per unit area. Seedlings grown at urban temperatures in both the field and GC experiments had higher leaf nitrogen concentrations per unit area than those grown at cooler temperatures (increases of 23% in field, 32% in GC). Lastly, we measured threefold greater (13)C enrichment of respired CO(2) (relative to substrate) in urban-grown leaves than at other sites, which may suggest greater allocation of respiratory function to growth over maintenance. It also shows that lack of differences in total R flux in response to environmental conditions may mask dramatic shifts in respiratory functioning. Overall, our findings indicating greater seedling growth and establishment at a critical regeneration phase of forest development may have important implications for the ecology of urban forests as well as the predicted growth of the terrestrial biosphere in temperate regions in response to climate change. PMID:22491523

Searle, Stephanie Y; Turnbull, Matthew H; Boelman, Natalie T; Schuster, William S F; Yakir, Dan; Griffin, Kevin L



Water relations and gas exchange of Acer saccharum seedlings in contrasting natural light and water regimes.  


Field measurements were made of leaf photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g) and leaf water relations for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings growing in a forest understory, small gap or large clearing habitat in southwestern Wisconsin, USA. Predawn water status, leaf gas exchange and plasticity in field and laboratory water relations characteristics were compared among contrasting light environments in a wet year (1987) and a dry year (1988) to evaluate possible interactions between light and water availability in these habitats. Leaf water potentials (Psi(leaf)) at predawn and midday were lower for clearing than gap or understory seedlings. Acclimation of tissue osmotic potentials to light environment was observed among habitats but did not occur within any of the habitats in response to prolonged drought. During a summer drought in 1988, decreases in daily maximum g (g(max)) and maximum A (A(max)) in clearing seedlings were correlated with predawn Psi(leaf), which reached a seasonal minimum of -2.0 MPa. Under well-watered conditions, diurnal fluctuations in Psi(leaf) of up to 2.0 MPa in clearing seedlings occurred along with large midday depressions of A and g. In a wet year, strong stomatal responses to leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) in sunny habitats were observed over nine diurnal courses of gas exchange measurements on seedlings in a gap and a clearing. Increasing stomatal limitations to photosynthesis appeared to be responsible for the reduction in A at high VPD for clearing seedlings. In understory seedlings, however, low water-use efficiency and development of leaf water deficits in sunflecks was related to reduced stomatal limitations to photosynthesis relative to seedlings in sunny habitats. Predawn Psi(leaf) and VPD appear to be important factors limiting carbon assimilation in sugar maple seedlings in light-saturating irradiances, primarily through stomatal closure. The overall results are consistent with the idea that sugar maple seedlings exhibit "conservative" water use patterns and have low drought tolerance. Leaf water relations and patterns of water use should be considered in studies of acclimation and species photosynthetic performance in contrasting light environments. PMID:14969871

Ellsworth, D S; Reich, P B



Conservation and Divergence of Light-Regulated Genome Expression Patterns during Seedling Development in Rice and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays of rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana were used to profile genome expression changes during light-regulated seedling development. We estimate that the expression of ;20% of the genome in both rice and Arabidopsis seedlings is regulated by white light. Qualitatively similar expression profiles from seedlings grown under different light qualities were observed in both species; however,

Yuling Jiao; Ligeng Ma; Elizabeth Strickland; Xing Wang Denga



Advantage of early seedling emergence in Fagus crenata : importance of cotyledon stage for predator escape and pathogen avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how early-emerging seedlings take advantage of establishment in a deciduous forest, we explored the relationships\\u000a among the emergence date, growth stage and major causes of mortality (damping-off by fungi and predation by rodents) in seedlings\\u000a of Fagus crenata. The emergence of current-year seedlings and their survival and damage were followed at short (3–7 days in early spring)\\u000a intervals for

Midori Abe; Ayako Honda; Kazuhiko Hoshizaki; Hideo Miguchi



Effects of dispersal, shrubs, and density-dependent mortality on seed and seedling distributions in temperate forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes limiting recruitment of trees may have large impacts on forest dynamics. In this paper, we deter- mined the effects of dispersal, shrubs (Rhododendron maximum), and density-dependent mortality on seed and seedling distributions of Southern Appalachian trees. We quantified the spatial distribution of seed rain, seed bank densities, first-year seedlings, and older than first-year seedlings in five vegetation plots. We

Janneke Hille Ris Lambers; James S. Clark



Frost tolerance of two-year-old Picea glauca seedlings grown under different irrigation regimes in a forest nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of increased irrigation efficiency on the hardening and frost tolerance of 2-year-old containerized white spruce seedlings in the context of groundwater protection, irrigation management and the maintenance of seedling quality in northern climates. The seedlings were grown under three different irrigation regimes (IR ? 30%, 40% and 55% v\\/v; cm3 H2O\\/cm 3 substrate) and were




Influence of Exogenous Application of Hydrogen Peroxide on Root and Seedling Growth on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide (90 mM H2O2) was studied on initial roots and seedling growth in wheat. Fresh weight was significantly higher (p<0.05) in stressed seedlings (124% of the control) on 8th day. Mean weight gain per day from 5th to 8th day was significantly (p<0.01) higher in stressed roots and whole seedlings. Number of roots was



A Critical Overview of Forestry Seedling Production Policies and Practices in Relation to Smallholder Forestry in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews forestry seedling production systems in South-east and East Asia and identifies problems with respect to\\u000a seedling quality, seedling distribution and financial sustainability, and measures which have been adopted or advocated to\\u000a improve performance in this sector. The paper draws in particular on experience in a series of research projects on smallholder\\u000a forestry in the Philippines. Some observations

Steve Harrison; Nestor Gregorio; John Herbohn



Cowpea ribonuclease: properties and effect of NaCl-salinity on its activation during seed germination and seedling establishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitiúba cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] seeds were germinated in distilled water (control treatment) or in 100 mM NaCl solution (salt treatment), and\\u000a RNase was purified from different parts of the seedlings. Seedling growth was reduced by the NaCl treatment. RNase activity\\u000a was low in cotyledons of quiescent seeds, but the enzyme was activated during germination and seedling establishment. Salinity\\u000a reduced

Enéas Gomes-Filho; Carmen Rogélia Farias Machado Lima; José Hélio Costa; Ana Cláudia Marinho da Silva; Maria da Guia Silva Lima; Claudivan Feitosa de Lacerda; José Tarquinio Prisco



Effect of osmo- and hydropriming of chickpea seeds on seedling growth and carbohydrate metabolism under water deficit stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven-day-old seedlings obtained from seeds primed with mannitol (4%)and water showed three to four fold more growth with respect to root and shootlength in comparison with seedlings obtained from non-primed seeds. Seedlingswere grown under water deficit stress conditions created by 15% polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 6000 in the medium. Priming of chickpea seeds with NaCl and PEGwasnot effective in increasing seedling growth

Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur