Sample records for cinnamomum camphora seedlings

  1. Effects of 60-day NO2 fumigation on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidative response in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo-mei; Chen, Ying-xu; Du, Guo-jian; Wu, Xi-lin; Li, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the oxidative stress and antioxidative response of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumigation. Methods: Measurements were made up of the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation of one-year-old C. camphora seedlings exposed to NO2 (0.1, 0.5, and 4 ?l/L) fumigation in open top chambers over a period of 60 d. Results: After the first 30 d, 0.5 and 4.0 ?l/L NO2 showed insignificant effects on the growth of C. camphora seedlings. However, exposure to 0.5 and 4.0 ?l/L NO2 for 15 d significantly reduced their chlorophyll content (P<0.05), enhanced their malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05), and also significantly reduced the maximal quantum yield of PSII in the dark [the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F v/F m)] (P<0.05). In the latter 30 d, 0.5 ?l/L NO2 showed a positive effect on the vitality of the seedlings, which was reflected by a recovery in the ratio of F v/F m and chlorophyll content, and obviously enhanced growth, SOD activity, ascorbate (AsA) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P<0.05); 4.0 ?l/L NO2 then showed a negative effect, indicated by significant reductions in chlorophyll content and the ratio of F v/F m, and inhibited growth (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest adaptation of C. camphora seedlings to 60-d exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ?l/L NO2, but not to 60-d exposure to 4.0 ?l/L NO2. C. camphora seedlings may protect themselves from injury by strengthening their antioxidant system in response to NO2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20205305

  2. Extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jian-Ren; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Feng, Fong-Long; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-12-01

    83 acres of rice paddy fields in Taoyuan county, Taiwan, were polluted by cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) through a nearby irrigation channel, and rice plantation was ceased in 1987. Camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora) have been planted in 2 acre of the above fields since 1991. Heavy metal accumulation of roots, leaves, branches and heartwood of camphor trees were analyzed during 20-year afforestation. Averaged Cd contents of the roots were found larger than the ones of the branches, leaves, sapwood and heartwood of camphor trees growing in three polluted plots. Averaged diameters at breast height (DBH) of the planted camphor trees were 13-15 cm. Cd pollution did not significantly impact the growth of camphor trees, as similar DBH's were found from both polluted and control sites. Annual growths of DBH were from 0.63 to 0.77 cm year(-1). Planting camphor trees sequestered 68.8 ton biomass per acre. During 20-year period, 0.69-1.98 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) were sequestered on three polluted plots. The above numbers exceeded IPCC LULUCF reference values 0.31-0.53 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) for activities at forest lands. PMID:25204813

  3. [Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangmei; Wu, Yanfang; Xiao, Fuming; Xiong, Zhenyu; Xu, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) is a representative species in Lauraceae family, and can be subdivided into five types: linalool, camphor, cineol, iso-nerolidol and borneol. In this paper, the leaves transcriptomes of Cinnamomum camphora were sequenced with the platform of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. Based on the GO (Gene Ontology), COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, the function classification, pathway annotation, and the coding sequence prediction of all-Unigenes were carried out. 156 278 Unigenes with an average length of 584 bp and N50 (N50 value is defined as the Unigene length where half the assembly is represented by Unigenes of this size or longer) of 1 023 bp were generated by de novo assembly. A total of 5 5955 Unigenes (35.80%) were annotated through similarity comparison, in which 24 717 and 21 806 Unigenes were assigned into GO and COG, respectively. By searching KEGG database, 3 350 Unigenes were involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in which 424 Unigenes were involved in monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The analysis of monoterpenoids biosynthesis pathway showed that 9 Unigenes likely encode (+)-linalool synthase, and their expression levels were higher in linalool type but lower in cineole type. This study provides a foundation for further characterizing the functional genes in C. camphora. PMID:24846919

  4. Non-Stomatal Limitation to Photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora Seedings Exposed to Elevated O3

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv?/Fm?) was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (?PSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may have important consequences for forest carbon and water budget. PMID:24892748

  5. Bioactivities and compositional analyses of Cinnamomum essential oils from Nepal: C. camphora, C. tamala, and C. glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Poudel, Ambika; Dosoky, Noura S; Pokharel, Kiran Kumar; Setzer, William N

    2013-12-01

    This work examines the biological activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora leaves, C. glaucescens fruit, and C. tamala root from Nepal. The oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against lettuce and perennial ryegrass, brine shrimp lethality, and antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. C. camphora leaf essential oil was phytotoxic to lettuce, antifungal to Aspergillus niger, and insecticidal, particularly toward midge and butterfly larvae, fruit flies, and fire ants. C. camphora oil was also toxic to brine shrimp and human breast tumor cells. C. glaucescens fruit essential oil showed notable nematicidal activity, as well as termiticidal and mosquito larvicidal activity. The root essential oil of C. tamala was toxic to mosquito larvae and fire ants. PMID:24555298

  6. Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, is a storage protein in the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora).

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ren-shui; Wei, Guo-qing; Yang, Qiang; He, Wen-jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2002-01-01

    Cinnamomin is a novel type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated in our laboratory from the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper the physiological role it plays in the plant cell was studied. Northern and Western blotting revealed that cinnamomin was expressed specifically in cotyledons. It accumulated in large amounts simultaneously with other proteins at the post-stages of seed development. Cinnamomin degraded rapidly during the early stages of seed germination. Endopeptidase was proved to play an important role in the degradation of cinnamomin. Western blotting of total proteins from the protein body with antibodies against cinnamomin demonstrated that it only existed in this specific cellular organelle as a storage protein. The similar properties of cinnamomin and other seed storage proteins of dicotyledons were compared. We conclude that cinnamomin is a special storage protein in the seed of C. camphora. PMID:11879193

  7. Phenylalanine derived cyanogenic diglucosides from Eucalyptus camphora and their abundances in relation to ontogeny and tissue type.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Elizabeth H; Goodger, Jason Q D; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Frisch, Tina; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Woodrow, Ian E

    2011-12-01

    The cyanogenic glucoside profile of Eucalyptus camphora was investigated in the course of plant ontogeny. In addition to amygdalin, three phenylalanine-derived cyanogenic diglucosides characterized by unique linkage positions between the two glucose moieties were identified in E. camphora tissues. This is the first time that multiple cyanogenic diglucosides have been shown to co-occur in any plant species. Two of these cyanogenic glucosides have not previously been reported and are named eucalyptosin B and eucalyptosin C. Quantitative and qualitative differences in total cyanogenic glucoside content were observed across different stages of whole plant and tissue ontogeny, as well as within different tissue types. Seedlings of E. camphora produce only the cyanogenic monoglucoside prunasin, and genetically based variation was observed in the age at which seedlings initiate prunasin biosynthesis. Once initiated, total cyanogenic glucoside concentration increased throughout plant ontogeny with cyanogenic diglucoside production initiated in saplings and reaching a maximum in flower buds of adult trees. The role of multiple cyanogenic glucosides in E. camphora is unknown, but may include enhanced plant defense and/or a primary role in nitrogen storage and transport. PMID:21945721

  8. Cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis and efficient plant regeneration in camphor tree ( Cinnamomum camphora L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueping Shi; Xigang Dai; Guofeng Liu; Junwei Zhang; Guogui Ning; Manzhu Bao

    2010-01-01

    An efficient protocol for secondary somatic embryogenesis in camphor tree is reported. Secondary somatic embryos (SSEs), initially\\u000a obtained from the primary embryos of a nascent embryogenic culture in 2002, were proliferated and maintained for more than\\u000a 4 yr via cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Throughout this period, the embryo populations retained a high level of competence\\u000a for plant regeneration. SSEs were produced

  9. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The ?15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. PMID:24480428

  10. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  11. Dibenzocycloheptanoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2012-10-26

    Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417

  12. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis.

  13. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  14. Allozyme Variation in Four Geographic Areas of Cinnamomum kanehlrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-P. Lin; Y.-P. Cheng; S.-G. Huang

    The once dominant endemic broadleaf tree species In Taiwan, CInnamomum kanehlrae Hay., has become a rare and endangered species due to overcutting. A done bank, consisting of at least 220 clones collected istandwide, was established at the Uukuel station, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Genetic diversity wtthln and genetic dif- ferentiation among four geographic areas of C. kanehlrae were Investigated using

  15. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute. PMID:24475880

  16. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed. PMID:24236996

  17. Chemical variability in the essential oil of Cinnamomum tamala L. leaves from India.

    PubMed

    Rana, Virendra S; Langoljam, Reena D; Verdeguer, Mercedes; Blázquez, Maria Amparo

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves of Cinnamomum tamala Nees et Eberm. was determined by GC and GC-MS. The yield of the oil on a dry weight basis ranged from 1.2% to 3.9% (w/w). Phenyl propanoids constitute the major portion (88.9-95.0%) of the oils. Fifty-four compounds were identified from the oils. Eugenol (91.4-41.8%) was the main compound, followed by eugenyl acetate (0.0-47.1%) and ?-phellandrene (0.6-2.5%) in the analysed oils. PMID:22007840

  18. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Pulong; Yang, Yifu; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s) in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s) that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F) and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1), parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-? and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases. PMID:25530780

  19. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

  20. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

  1. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...articles: (1) Nursery stock, decorative trees without roots, unprocessed wood and wood...Evergreen maple Arbutus unedo Strawberry tree Arctostaphylos columbiana Manzanita...Blueblossom Cinnamomum camphora Camphor tree Clintonia andrewsiana Andrew's...

  2. 4-H SEEDLING TREE PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    , erosion control, wind and sound barriers, wild- life habitats, and other conservation purposes. Jefferson2013 4-H SEEDLING TREE PROGRAM Seedling trees for conservation planting in the spring of 2013

  3. Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

  4. Essential oil alloaromadendrene from mixed-type Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves prolongs the lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chan-Wei; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. The present study investigates phytochemical characteristics, antioxidant activities, and longevity of the essential oils from the leaves of the mixed-type C. osmophloeum tree. We demonstrate that the essential oils from leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum exerted in vivo antioxidant activities on Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, minor (alloaromadendrene, 5.0%) but not major chemical components from the leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum have a key role against juglone-induced oxidative stress in C. elegans. Additionally, alloaromadendrene not only acts protective against oxidative stress but also prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans. Moreover, mechanistic studies show that DAF-16 is required for alloaromadendrene-mediated oxidative stress resistance and longevity in C. elegans. The results in the present study indicate that the leaves of mixed-type C. osmophloeum and essential oil alloaromadendrene have the potential for use as a source for antioxidants or treatments to delay aging. PMID:24918691

  5. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  6. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done.

  7. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  8. Germination and seedling development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed germination and seedling development are highly sensitive to the environment at planting and for several weeks after that. Major factors that affect germination and development are temperature, water availability, soil conditions such as compaction, rhizosphere gases, and seed and seedlin...

  9. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except ?-terpinene. The MIC values of ?-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of ?-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, ?-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity. PMID:25126170

  10. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except ?-terpinene. The MIC values of ?-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of ?-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, ?-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity. PMID:25126170

  11. Antifungal Activity of the Bark and Leaf Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. Alone and in Combination against Variou s Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BUSHRA ABDULKARIM MOHARM; IBRAHIM JANTAN; JACINTA SANTHANAM; JAMIA AZDINA JAMAL

    The leaf and bark oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Pre sl. were examined for their antifungal activity against 6 dermatophytes (Tricho phyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and M. aud ouini), one filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus) and 5 strains of yeasts (Ca ndida albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. tropicalis, Ca. parapsilosis and Crytococcus neofor mans) by using

  12. Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Padmakumari Amma; M. Priya Rani; Indu Sasidharan; M. M. Sreekumar

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were

  13. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 ?g/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 ?g/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy observed in this study is attributed to both major and minor compounds of the essential oils. PMID:24885613

  14. 4-H SEEDLING TREE PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    for refor- estation, erosion control, wind and sound barriers, wild- life habitats, and other conservation2014 4-H SEEDLING TREE PROGRAM Seedling trees for conservation planting in the spring of 2014 Forest Service, are available to anyone, but must be used for conservation purposes. They may be planted

  15. Methods for thermal stability enhancement of leaf essential oils and their main constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsin-Fu; Luo, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Ya; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Hsu, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2013-07-01

    The thermal stability of leaf essential oils from various Cinnamomum osmophloeum and their constituents was investigated for the first time. The results indicated that trans-cinnamaldehyde (Cin) content in eugenol-free essential oil from C. osmophloeum was affected by high temperatures. The retention of Cin (RC) decreased to 17.4% after the essential oil was incubated for 8 h at 100 °C. In contrast, essential oils containing eugenol showed greater thermal stability. Seven kinds of antioxidants were added to Cin to improve its thermal stability. Among them, eugenol endowed Cin with the best thermal stability. We also investigated the influence of various amounts of eugenol on the thermal stability of both essential oil and Cin. Both essential oil and Cin showed excellent thermal stability when 0.62 and 2.60% (v/v) eugenol were added. In short, the thermal stability of essential oil and Cin could be effectively improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol. PMID:23738884

  16. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan; Iqbal Ahmad

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S.

  17. Parts of a Soybean Seedling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide to a soybean seedling (Glycine max, Dicotyledon) is designed to help students recognize and learn the plant's individual parts. Along with an explanation of dicotyledon embryos, it includes a short description of the labeled parts.

  18. Parts of a Corn Seedling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This illustrated guide to a corn seedling (Zea mays, Monocotyledon) is designed to help students recognize and learn the plant's individual parts. Along with an explanation of monocotyledon embryos, it includes a short description of the root system and coleoptile.

  19. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may result from its ability to increase the production of the endogenous NO and/or to regulate dyslipidemia. PMID:23368533

  20. Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; La?anin, Ines; Pavlovi?, Hrvoje

    2013-05-01

    Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

  1. Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    DAKER, MAELINDA; LIN, VOON YEE; AKOWUAH, GABRIEL AKYIREM; YAM, MUN FEI; AHMAD, MARIAM

    2013-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy that occurs in the epithelium of the nasopharynx. The standard treatment of NPC patients with locoregionally advanced stages is problematic and is often associated with toxicities. Therefore, it is essential to screen for naturally occurring compounds with strong apoptosis-inducing activity and minimal toxicity. This study investigated the effects of the standardized methanol extract of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark and its main constituent, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), on human NPC cell lines. The content of TCA in C. burmannii methanol extract was standardized to be 13.61% w/w by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NPC cell proliferation was clearly inhibited within 24 h of treatment, with TCA exhibiting greater activity than the methanol extract. TCA was more active against NPC cells compared with cisplatin. There was a pronounced downregulation of the proliferation markers, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the TCA-treated cells; while morphological observation indicated the induction of apoptosis. Caspase activation and prominent DNA damage, which are markers of apoptosis induction were detected. TCA demonstrated the ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The simultaneous combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Collectively, these data indicate the potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC. PMID:23837058

  2. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  3. Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Mishra, A K; Mishra, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant—based antimicrobials and antioxidants represent a vast untapped source for medicines and food supplements and hence have enormous therapeutic potential. Present work reports the fungicidal potential of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm (Lauraceae) leaf oil against five food spoilage and pathogenic fungi. In addition antioxidant efficacy of seven different solvent extracts derived from leaf was also evaluated using in vitro models. The oil demonstrated potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium spp. in agar diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition ranged from 17-25 mm. The MFC values of oil against all the test fungi were found to be 230?g/ml. Phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf were extracted in several solvents for assessing their effect in oxidative defense. The extracts exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in ?-carotene bleaching assay and reducing power assay. The antioxidative activities of extracts were compared with the activities of standard antioxidant compounds BHA and ascorbic acid. Petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts exhibited about 30-67% antioxidant activity in ?-carotene bleaching assay. Aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited better reducing power which increased gradually with increasing amount of the extract concentration showing dose dependent response. Results indicated that natural phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf extracts have potential to prevent growth of food spoilage/pathogenic fungi. In addition they also have capability to mitigate the oxidative stress by antioxidant response. PMID:23273204

  4. In vivo antioxidant activities of essential oils and their constituents from leaves of the Taiwanese Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Lan; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Yu, Chan-Wei; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Yang, Ying-Fei; Liu, Jui-Tung; Shih, Justin; Chu, Yu-Ju; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2012-03-28

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and key constituents from the leaves of two C. osmophloeum clones were investigated. The two trees possess two chemotypes, which were classified as the cinnamaldehyde type and camphor type. We demonstrated that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves exerted in vivo antioxidant activities in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor, which respectively represent the major compounds in the cinnamaldehyde-type and camphor-type trees, exerted significant in vivo antioxidant activities against juglone-induced oxidative stress in C. elegans. Moreover, expressions of antioxidative-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were significantly induced by trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor from C. osmophloeum leaves. Our results showed that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves and their major compounds might have good potential for further development as nutraceuticals or antioxidant remedies. PMID:22380926

  5. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  6. Identifying melanogenesis inhibitors from Cinnamomum subavenium with in vitro and in vivo screening systems by targeting the human tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Tyrosinase is known to be the first two and rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of melanin pigments responsible for colouring skin, hair and eyes. Tyrosinase inhibition is one major strategy used to treat hyperpigmentation. In human skin melanocytes, the cellular tyrosinase inhibition was examined by the conversion of l-tyrosine and oxidation of l-DOPA to dopaquinone. We evaluated the skin pigmentation inhibitor effects with both in vitro and in vivo systems to find skin-whitening agents without cytotoxic concerns. First, linderanolide B and subamolide A were isolated from the stems of Cinnamomum subavenium and exhibited mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. Then, these two herbal compounds were proved to have good pigmentation inhibitory abilities at low doses and demonstrated free cytotoxicities to normal human skin cells and zebrafish system. With molecular docking, in a virtual model of human tyrosinase, linderanolide B and subamolide A displayed meta(l) -coordinating interactions with Cu(2+) ions. The results obtained from biological assays showed that linderanolide B and subamolide A possessed anti-tyrosinase properties, which exhibited potential for application in medical cosmetology. PMID:21054558

  7. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits ?-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  8. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  9. Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant physiology Growth of white lupin seedlings during the rosette stage as affected by seed size on the early growth of seedlings in numerous species. In white lupin (Lupinus albus L), it affected time had an exponential effect on the dry weight of the leaf and root parts of the lupin seedlings

  10. Original article Water relations of spruce seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Water relations of spruce seedlings sprayed with a surfactant M Borghetti Istituto whether the water relations of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst) seedlings are affected by repeated treatments with ABS (sodium dodecylbenzensulphonate). Begin- ning in August 1987 4-yr-old spruce seedlings

  11. Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

  12. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (A?)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  13. Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Amita; Kehri, HK; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Abhay K

    2009-01-01

    Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 ?g/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 ?g/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 ?g/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 ?g/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata. PMID:19267932

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ?70 % inhibition at 25 ?g/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ?70 % inhibition at 25 ?g/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 ?g/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 ?g/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 ?g/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 ?g/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 ?g/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 ?g/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4?,5?-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 ?M) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 ?M) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 ?M), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 ?M), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 ?M) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  15. ESTABLISHMENT AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BIG BLUESTEM AND SWITCHGRASS POPULATIONS DIVERGENTLY SELECTED FOR SEEDLING TILLER NUMBER.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection at the seedling stage in grass breeding would be extremely useful if seedling traits are correlated to desired agronomic traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate seedling morphological development, plant growth, and field establishment of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitma...

  16. Planting frozen conifer seedlings: Warming trends and effects on seedling performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Kooistra; J. D. Bakker

    2002-01-01

    In temperate climates, conifer seedlings are often held in frozen storage (-2 °C) for extended periods and then placed in cool storage (+2 °C) so the root plug can thaw prior to outplanting. Two plug temperature treatments were used to test the hypothesis that thawing seedlings prior to outplanting may be unnecessary: seedlings were planted with frozen root plugs (‘frozen

  17. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) on blood glucose and lipids in a diabetic and healthy rat model

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Sanja; Gunatilake, Mangala; Abeywardene, Eranga; Gunapala, Nuwan; Premakumara, Sirimal; Perera, Kamal; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Katulanda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on food consumption, body weight, glycemic control, and lipids in healthy and diabetes-induced rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), using Sprague-Dawley rats in four groups. Phase I evaluated acute effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) (Groups 1 and 2) and on post-oral glucose (Groups 3 and 4) blood glucose. Groups 1 and 3 received distilled-water and Groups 2 and 4 received cinnamon-extracts. Phase II evaluated effects on food consumption, body weight, blood glucose, and lipids over 1 month. Group A (n = 8, distilled-water) and Group B (n = 8, cinnamon-extracts) were healthy rats, while Group C (n = 5, distilled-water) and Group D (n = 5, cinnamon-extracts) were diabetes-induced rats. Serum lipid profile and HbA1c were measured on D-0 and D-30. FBG, 2-h post-prandial blood glucose, body weight, and food consumption were measured on every fifth day. Results: Phase I: There was no significant difference in serial blood glucose values in cinnamon-treated group from time 0 (P > 0.05). Following oral glucose, the cinnamon group demonstrated a faster decline in blood glucose compared to controls (P < 0.05). Phase II: Between D0 and D30, the difference in food consumption was shown only in diabetes-induced rats (P < 0.001). Similarly, the significant difference following cinnamon-extracts in FBG and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose from D0 to D30 was shown only in diabetes-induced rats. In cinnamon-extracts administered groups, total and LDL cholesterol levels were lower on D30 in both healthy and diabetes-induced animals (P < 0.001). Conclusions: C. zeylanicum lowered blood glucose, reduced food intake, and improved lipid parameters in diabetes-induced rats. PMID:22518078

  18. Hordeum vulgare Seedlings Amine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cogoni, Antonina; Piras, Carla; Farci, Raffaele; Melis, Antonello; Floris, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Although no amine oxidase could be detected in crude extracts, the enzyme has been purified to apparent homogeneity from Hordeum vulgare seedlings using ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE cellulose, Hydroxylapatite, and Sephadex G200 columns. Gel filtration experiments indicate a molecular weight of about 150,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 7.5 in potassium phosphate buffer. The spectrum of ultraviolet and visible regions were similar to Cuamine oxidase from Leguminosae. PMID:16667542

  19. Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Padmakumari Amma, K P; Rani, M Priya; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential. PMID:22424088

  20. Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol K. Augspurger; Colleen K. Kelly

    1984-01-01

    We present results of two experiments designed to identify the relative importance of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions on pathogen-caused mortality of tropical tree seedlings. The field experiment on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, demonstrated that both an increase in dispersal distance and a decrease in seedling density reduce levels of damping-off disease among seedlings of Platypodium elegans, and

  1. Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qaseem Fatima; Maryam Zahin; Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan; Iqbal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition

  2. Host-Plant Chemistry Influences Oviposition Choice of the Spicebush Swallowtail Butterfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen Carter; Paul Feeny

    1999-01-01

    The spicebush swallowtail, Papilio troilus (L.), lays its eggs on plants in the family Lauraceae. Sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees], spicebush [Lindera benzoin (L.) Spreng.], redbay (Persea borbonia (L.)] and camphortree [Cinnamomum camphora (Nees) Eberm.] are four of its known host plants. In one-choice tests, free-flying spicebush swallowtail females laid eggs on chemical extracts of the leaves of each of

  3. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

  4. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, Emmanuel; Guikema, James A.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight, and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat, and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and 02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiments with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of the assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and the morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the Biological Research In Canister (BRIC) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-3) flown on STS-63 (February 3-11, 1995).

  5. Genetically improved ponderosa pine seedlings outgrow nursery-run seedlings with and without competition -- Early findings

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O. (Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Redding, CA (United States)); Kitzmiller, J.H. (Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Chico, CA (United States). Chico Tree Improvement Center)

    1994-04-01

    Three classes of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings (nursery-run, wind-pollinated, control-pollinated) were evaluated for stem height and diameter at the USDA Forest Service's Placerville Nursery and the Georgetown Range District in northern California. Pines in all three classes were grown with competing vegetation or maintained in a free-to-grow condition. Control-pollinated seedlings were statistically taller than nursery-run counterparts when outplanted, and after 1 and 2 growing seasons in the field with and without competition. They also had significantly larger diameters when outplanted and after 2 growing seasons in the field when free to grow. Wind-pollinated seedlings grew taller than nursery-run seedlings when free to grow. A large amount of competing vegetation [bearclover (Chamaebatia foliolosa)--29,490 plants per acre; herbaceous vegetation--11,500; hardwood sprouts--233; and whiteleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida) seedlings--100] ensure that future pine development will be tested rigorously.

  6. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  7. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J; LeMay, R; Jahns, G

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers. PMID:11540197

  8. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-01-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  9. The standardized BHH10 extract, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, reverses bone mass and metabolism in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17?-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. PMID:25230217

  10. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (? = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0?µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  11. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following mechanical site preparation to improve growth conditions of planted black spruce seedlings in boreal forested peatlands where closed thick organic layers. Keywords Black spruce . Forest floor disturbance . Mechanical site preparation

  13. Changes of nucleic acids of wheat seedlings under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytnyk, K. M.; Musatenko, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the growth of wheat seedlings and their nucleic acid content were studied. It was shown that both space and ground seedlings have almost the same appearance, dry weight and nucleic acid content in the root, coleoptile and leaves. The only difference found is in the RNA and DNA content, which is twice as much in the ground seedling apices as in the space-grown seedlings.

  14. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  15. Analysis for an environmental friendly seedling breeding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Y. H.; Wei, X. M.; Hou, Y. F.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.; Lin, C.

    2009-04-01

    Most seedlings of crops are produced in solar greenhouse or nursery, from which some problems about energy waste and environment pollution arise. This study aims at investigating the characteristics and effect of an environmental friendly type seedling breeding system. The results demonstrate that crops can grow with a short period and little pollution in the new seedling breeding system with total manpower controllable environment that is not influenced by geography, climate and other natural conditions. By multilayer, nonplanar seedling breeding and annual batches arrangement, utilization ratio of unit area land and seedlings yield can be improved for several times and even more than 10 times. Conclusions can be obtained from the tomato seedling breeding experiments: (1) each growth index of tomato seedlings that are under the conditions of 291 ?mol/m 2 s artificial illumination intensity is remarkably better than those produced in greenhouse with natural lights. (2) The environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled. The segmented temperature changed management can be applied according to the photosynthetic characteristics of plants, and not affected by the outside environment, which makes each growth index of tomato seedling constant in different seasons. The seedlings thus grow strong and can achieve the level of commodity seedlings after 20-30 days. (3) The temperature and humidity environment of the seedling breeding system can be accurately controlled according to plants growth demands.

  16. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  17. Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cytokinin activity in Citrus seedlings colonized by mycorrhizal fungi R.K. Dixon* School of cytokinins in leaves of Citrus jambhiri Lush. seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal seedlings were non- mycorrhizal. Inoculation of Citrus seed- lings with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhi- zal

  18. Perennial ryegrass seedling resistance to Argentine stem weevil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Stewart

    1985-01-01

    The presence of the Lolium endophyte fungus (Acremonium loliae Latch, Christensen and Samuels) in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed confers resistance to adult Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis Kuschel) feeding in seedlings. Seeds with non-viable endophyte develop into resistant seedlings, but become susceptible mature plants. Possibly this is caused by the translocation in the seedling of a remnant chemical,

  19. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  20. Plant pathology Characterization and pathogenicity on seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology Characterization and pathogenicity on seedlings of Pythium species isolated from plants growing near Toulouse (SW France). Approximately half of all isolates were pathogenic on soybean root growth and caused no visible symptoms. P ultimum was only isolated from young plants; P irregulare

  1. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF APHANOMYCES SEEDLING RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphanomyces seedling disease is one of the causal agents preventing good stand persistence in sugarbeet. Aphanomyces generally becomes more of a problem for growers when plants are four to six weeks old, especially after a heavy rain and in flooded areas of the field. There has been no reliable seed...

  2. Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Andrade; S. A. Merkle

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis holds promise for mass propagation of American chestnut trees bred or genetically engineered for resistance to chestnut blight. However, low germination frequency of chestnut somatic embryos has limited somatic seedling production for this forest tree. We tested the effects of culture regime (semi-solid versus liquid), cold treatment, AC and somatic embryo morphology (i.e., cotyledon number) on germination and

  3. Nursery performance of peach seedling rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nursery performance of a cross-section of both historically important and current commercial peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] seedling type rootstocks was studied over three growing seasons at six nurseries serving the southeastern US peach industry. Rootstock lines differed significantly in ...

  4. Photocontrol of anthocyanin synthesis in turnip seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Grill

    1967-01-01

    Separation of hypocotyls and cotyledons of turnip seedlings (Brassica rapa) reduced the yield of anthocyanin from the former. Feeding with a combination of phenylalanine, acetate and glucose (PAG) considerably increased anthocyanin synthesis in these excised hypocotyls. In blue light the yield equalled that of the controls with cotyledons attached but, in far-red, the maximum obtained was never more than 55%

  5. Alkaloid metabolism in wounded Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Vázquez-Flota; Mildred Carrillo-Pech; Yereni Minero-García; María de Lourdes Miranda-Ham

    2004-01-01

    The effect of mechanical wounding on alkaloid metabolism was analyzed in Catharanthus roseus seedlings. Wounding induced an increase in ajmalicine accumulation, whereas catharanthine remained unaffected. A positive dual effect on vindoline was noticed. Short and mid-term effects were detected between 12 and 24 h after mechanical damage was inflicted, and apparently resulted from the accelerated transformation of the tabersonine intermediaries to vindoline.

  6. Can Seedling Ionomics Predict Rice Grain Ionomics?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study investigated the possibility of using the mineral (ionomic) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict cultivars that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their grains. This information will be used for genetically improving the nutritional value of rice gr...

  7. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm (Tejpat) oil (CTO) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%). CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (20?mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6?mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28?days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity. PMID:22882757

  8. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. PMID:21893402

  9. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17?-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  10. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales: Part 1. Experimental observations, Advances in Water Resources 39 (2012) 85-96. - K. Edmaier, P. Burlando and P. Perona, Mechanisms of vegetation uprooting by flow in alluvial non-cohesive sediment. Hydrology And Earth System Sciences, vol. 15, p. 1615-1627, 2011. - K. Edmaier, B. Crouzy, P. Perona, Experimental characterization of root anchoring in non-cohesive sediment, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (under revision).

  11. TEMPORAL ALLOCATION OF 14C TO EXTRAMATRICAL HYPHAE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponderosa pine seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme either in growth pouches before they were transplanted to root-mycocosms (P seedlings), or at the time of transfer to root-mycocosms (V seedlings). ninoculated seedlings served as controls (U seedlings). he us...

  12. Early events in geotropism of seedling shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments during the first ten minutes of geotropic stimulation in plant seedling shoots are reviewed. Topics include induction and curvature; early processes; the relationship between auxin, electric field, calcium, and differential growth; gravity reception leading to Went-Cholodny transport; and comparison of root and shoot. Early processes reviewed are sedimentation of amyloplasts, release of ethylene, rise of electrical and auxin asymmetry, redistribution of calcium, asymmetric vascular transport, increase in tendency to deposit callose, and simulation of putative exocytotic voltage transients.

  13. Photocontrol of anthocyanin formation in turnip seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Grill

    1965-01-01

    The participation of the red\\/far-red reversible reaction of phytochrome in the control of anthocyanin formation in turnip seedlings has been demonstrated. A brief exposure to red light following a preliminary irradiation period in blue, increased anthocyanin content compared with blue alone; this effect was reversed by a subsequent short exposure to far-red. The sensitivity to red light was largely restricted

  14. Mineral Nutrient Requirements of Cucumber Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Ingestad, Torsten

    1973-01-01

    Mineral nutrient requirements for maximum growth rate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings are estimated on the basis of three criteria. 1. The optimal weight proportions among the nutrients present in the seedlings. In relation to N = 100, close to 75 K, 13 P, 9 Ca, and 9 Mg are required. 2. The optimal ratio between the nitrogen sources NH4 and NO3 in the solution. The best growth is recorded with about equivalent amounts. Nitrate alone is also highly productive. Cucumber prefers nitrate and is sensitive to high ammonium concentrations. 3. The optimal total concentration in the solution corresponds to 200 to 300 milligrams of nitrogen per liter, with the proportions of the nutrients according to criterion 1. Simple growth methods are suggested in which the three criteria are fulfilled. Calcium, especially, is found to accumulate in older leaves. It is proposed that this is not an expression for a physiological requirement for calcium but a mechanism for deposition of excess uptake important in adaptation to calcareous soils. This mechanism also operates at low calcium uptake rates, causing deficiency in the young parts, despite relatively high contents in the old leaves. Cucumber is therefore interpreted to be an obligate calcicole. The results are discussed in relation to similar experiments with birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) seedlings, a species able to grow on very acid soils. PMID:16658558

  15. Quality Assessment of Temperate Zone Deciduous Hardwood Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barrett C. Wilson; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2006-01-01

    Research regarding seedling quality issues has been performed for decades and focused primarily on conifer species, which\\u000a comprise the greatest proportion of nursery production worldwide. Demand for hardwood seedlings, particularly for conservation\\u000a purposes, has increased steadily in recent years, emphasizing the need for seedling quality assessment protocols specific\\u000a to these species. Important differences between conifer (gymnosperm) and hardwood (angiosperm) species

  16. Sod cutting and soil biota effects on seedling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtmans, Kim; Jongejans, Eelke; van Ruijven, Jasper

    2009-09-01

    Sod cutting (i.e. top soil removal) is a restoration management option for enhancing seedling establishment and for lowering the nutrient concentration in eutrophicated soils of nutrient-poor species-rich grasslands. Removal of the upper soil changes not only abiotic soil properties but may also affect the resident soil community. We investigated the effects of sod cutting on the establishment and performance of two endangered plant species ( Cirsium dissectum and Succisa pratensis) while simultaneously manipulating the interaction between seedlings and soil biota. In intact grassland and sod-cut areas at two localities, seedlings were grown in plastic tubes. Half of the tubes had a filter that excluded roots but allowed entry of fungal hyphae and soil microorganisms. The other tubes were closed (i.e. no contact with the surrounding soil). In a greenhouse experiment we studied the effect of soil solutions (with or without fungal tissue) from three grasslands and three sod-cut areas on seedling growth. Sod cutting had a positive net effect on seedling growth for S. pratensis. Access to (mycorrhizal) fungi and other soil biota resulted in a negative impact on seedling growth of both plant species, both in grassland and sod-cut areas. The greenhouse experiment confirmed that the soil biota in these meadows reduced seedling growth. Although sod cutting did not mitigate negative plant-soil feedback, it enhanced seedling growth, presumably by decreasing competition for light. Sod cutting is therefore very useful when seedling establishment needs to be stimulated.

  17. Evaluation of Tree Seedling Mortality and Protective Strategies in Riparian Forest Restoration

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    Evaluation of Tree Seedling Mortality and Protective Strategies in Riparian Forest Restoration William S. Keeton Riparian forest restoration can be severely constrained by tree seedling mortality. I. Keywords: riparian restoration, seedling mortality, herbivory, tree shelters, northern hardwoods R

  18. Seedlings Finally Get Their Due: Book Review of Seedling Ecology and Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Book Review of: Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Ed. Leck, Mary Allessio, Parker, V. Thomas and Simpson, Robert L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2008. Many plant demographers find themselves, at some point, staring at a dataset full of detailed information on juvenile and adult plants,...

  19. Establishment and Seedling Growth of Big Bluestem and Switchgrass Populations Divergently Selected for Seedling Tiller Number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander J. Smart; Lowell E. Moser; Kenneth P. Vogel

    2003-01-01

    development, plant growth, and field establishment of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum tional stage, that period of flux between the two stages, is L.) populations that were developed by divergent selection for seed- when seedling failure is most likely. A selection criterion ling tiller number while selecting for high shoot weight. Six populations that theoretically integrates

  20. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...

  1. Response of Eucalyptus nitens seedlings to gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Williams; J. J. Ross; J. B. Reid; B. M. Potts

    1999-01-01

    The plant growth regulators (PGRs) paclobutrazol, chlormequat chloride and prohexadione where applied to 11 month old seedling of Eucalyptus nitens to examine their relative effects on precocious flowering, growth and levels of GA20 and GA1 in the shoot apex. Paclobutrazol was most effective in reducing growth and levels of GA20 and GA1 in the seedlings followed by chlormequat chloride with

  2. Examining salt stress for improvement of seedling vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers worldwide. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor, with vigor defined here as the ability of seedlings to tolerate adverse environments. Ongoi...

  3. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. McWilliams; Daniel A. Devlin; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is con- ducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling meth- ods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture variability in seedling abundance. The findings

  4. Adequacy of Advance Tree-Seedling Regeneration in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. McWilliams; Susan L. Stout; Todd W. Bowersox; Larry H. McCormick

    Measurement of tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation from 499 sample locations across Pennsylvania revealed that advance tree-seedling regeneration is inadequate for new stand establishment across most of the State. The samples were located in stands from 40% to 75% stocked to focus on stands with ample light and growing space for establishment of abundant advance regeneration. A range of regeneration

  5. Effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Pier; F. C. Thornton; C. Jr. McDuffie

    1989-01-01

    Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were placed in open-top field chambers constructed on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1680 m) to evaluate the effect of ozone and acid cloud deposition on seedling growth and metabolism. Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and an approximate 50% reduction in ambient ozone, (2) ambient ozone with clouds excluded, and

  6. SEEDBED SURFACE GEOMETRY EFFECTS ON SOIL CRUSTING AND SEEDLING EMERGENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling emergence is the crucial first step in crop establishment; however, crops frequently must penetrate or lift a thin, dense, soil crust formed during rainstorms. Shaping the soil surface into a small ridge or cap above the seed may promote crust fractures and improve seedling emergence and vi...

  7. Induction of precocious flowering in grapevine seedlings by growth regulators

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Induction of precocious flowering in grapevine seedlings by growth regulators C. SRINIVASAN M. G ABSTRACT Grapevine, Induction to flower, Growth substances, CCC, Accelerating generations. Seedlings of Vitis vinifera, cvs Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscat Hamburg were induced to flower within 4 weeks

  8. Competition between Eucalyptus victrix seedlings and grass species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Singarayer K. Florentine; John E. D. Fox

    2003-01-01

    Competition in a natural system may be interspecific or intraspecific. In semiarid ecosystems, competition for resources between established neighboring grass species and newly recruited seedlings is very high. To examine the effects of grass species density, growing space and time of establishment on Eucalyptus victrix seedlings (interspecific competition), and the effect of density and growing space within E.?victrix (intraspecific competition)

  9. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Momen; P. D. Anderson; J. L. J. Houpis; J. A. Helms

    2002-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A

  10. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

  11. Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Osmotic adjustment in sessile oak seedlings in response to drought C Collet JM Guehl 1 �quipe-year-old sessile oak seedlings were submitted to drought developed at two different rates (0.050 and 0.013 MPa·day-1).Drought was controlled by combining levels of irrigation and grass competition. At the end

  12. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of ...

  13. Symptoms of Calcium and Phosphorus Deficiency in Oil Palm Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bull

    1958-01-01

    PREVIOUS attempts1,2 to induce symptoms of calcium and phosphorus deficiency in oil palm seedlings grown in water-washed quartz sand have failed. Symptoms have now been induced by growing oil palm seedlings in quartz sand purified by treatment with hot 1 per cent sodium carbonate and hot, constant-boiling hydrochloric acid.

  14. Agglomerating seeds to enhance native seedling emergence and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Restoration in rangelands is constrained by low establishment of seeded species. Non-biotic soil-surface crust is one of the major factors limiting reseeding success by acting as a barrier to seedling emergence. 2. The objective of this study was to determine if seedling emergence of Pseudoroegn...

  15. Chilling stress response of post-emergent cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to post-emergent 13-d-old cotton seedlings. • Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. Fo...

  16. Neighbor Effects in Mast Year Seedlings of Acer saccharum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Taylor; L. W. Aarssen

    1989-01-01

    The size and age distributions of Acer saccharum Marsh. seedlings were studied in a mature hardwood forest in southeastern Ontario between 26 June and 26 September 1986. Ninety-one percent of the seedlings surveyed were produced in 1984 which was a mast year for this population of sugar maple. Mean height within quadrats was negatively correlated with the density of two-

  17. Accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Lycium seedling.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ming; Lu, Chang; Wei, Kexiang

    2014-06-01

    Lycium seedling was subjected to varying doses of V for 40-45 days to examine the effects on uptake, accumulation, and speciation of V in Lycium seedling by differential centrifugation and enzymolysis. V concentrations in Lycium seedling organs were in sequence as follows: root>leaf>stem. V uptake into stem and leaf were primarily combined with acid-soluble polar compounds, polysaccharide, and immobile materials on the cell walls. There were different speciations of V in root with different V stress levels. Enzymolysis results suggest that about 60% of the V in Lycium seedling root was combined with pectin and cellulose. It is the antidotal effect of pectin and cellulose in the cell wall that reduced the V damage to Lycium seedling. PMID:24859852

  18. Effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were placed in open-top field chambers constructed on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1680 m) to evaluate the effect of ozone and acid cloud deposition on seedling growth and metabolism. Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and an approximate 50% reduction in ambient ozone, (2) ambient ozone with clouds excluded, and (3) exposure to clouds and ambient ozone (control). No differences were detected between chamber treatments for diameter growth, total chlorophyll, chl a and b, chl a/b ratio, and carotenoids. No enhancement of photosynthesis and respiration was seen in exclusion chambers for current and previous year's growth of native seedlings during the growing season. Photosynthesis of Phyton-grown seedlings was consistently higher in exclusion chambers compared to control chambers over the course of the growing season, although differences were not statistically significant. After one growing season, neither pollutant had significant effects on seedling growth and metabolism.

  19. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  20. Effects of flooding regime and seedling treatment on early survival and growth of nuttall oak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Draugelis-Dale, R.O.; Williams, H.M.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three different types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two elevations on floodprone, former cropland in Sharkey clay soil. The lower of the two planting elevations was inundated for 21 days during the first growing season, whereas the higher elevation did not flood during the 5-year period of this study. The three types of 1-0 seedlings were bareroot seedlings, seedlings grown in containers (3.8 ?? 21a??cm plastic seedling cones), and container-grown seedlings inoculated with vegetative mycelia of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker. Survival of all the three seedling types was greatest at the lower, intermittently flooded elevation, indicating that drought and related effects on plant competition were more limiting to seedling survival than flooding. At the lower elevation, survival of mycorrhizal-inoculated container seedlings was greater than that of noninoculated container seedlings. Survival among bareroot seedlings and inoculated container seedlings was not significantly different at either elevation. At the higher, nonflooded elevation, however, bareroot seedling survival was greater than the survival of container seedlings without inoculation. Differences were significant among the inoculated and the noninoculated container seedlings, with higher survival of inoculated seedlings at both elevations, though differences were only significant in year 3. At the end of the fifth year, height of bareroot seedlings was significantly greater than the heights of both types of container-grown seedlings at both planting elevations. Because seedlings grown in the plastic seedlings cones did not survive better than the bareroot seedlings at either planting elevation, the bareroot stock appear to be the economically superior choice for regeneration in Sharkey soil.

  1. Combined Potentiating Action of Phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their Anti-diabetic and Insulinomimetic Effect Using In Vivo Rat and In Vitro NIH/3T3 Cell Culture System.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineeta; Singh, S P; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to analyze the ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimitic effect by determining the levels of blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) after daily administration of each alone and in combined at 250 mg/kg in alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with the extracts restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The anti-diabetic effect further potentiated the insulin signaling pathway by co-administration of both extracts. The molecular mechanisms of modulating gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor were also evaluated on specific targets of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), AKT, and the glucose transporter (GLUT4) on NIH/3T3 cell line by western blotting, ELISA, semiquantitative RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. The active principle of both extracts revealed insulin mimicking effect as indicated by increased expression of pIRS1 and pAKT in time-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in PI3-K content between unchallenged and challenged groups. Enhanced expression of GLUT-4 transcript further suggested that the Cinnamomum and Aloe phytochemicals could serve as a good adjuvant in the present armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs by either mimicking or improving insulin action. This study reveals that ethanolic extracts of C. tamala and A. vera have potent therapeutic efficacy and prospect for the development of phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus. PMID:25536877

  2. Effects of "short" photoperiods on seedling growth of Pinus brutia.

    PubMed

    Iakovoglou, V; Radoglou, K; Kostopoulou, P; Dini-Papanastasi, O

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated how nurseries could benefit by inducing "short" photoperiods as low as 4 hr to produce "better" seedlings characterized by more vigorous roots; a substantial feature to overcome transplanting stress. The carryover effect of the photoperiod was also investigated on seedlings that grew for 30 days more underthe consistent 14 hr photoperiod. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were subjected to 4, 6, 8 and 14 hr photoperiod for 3 week. Fifteen seedlings were used to evaluate the leaf area, the root and shoot dry weight and their ratio. Six and sixteen seedlings were used to evaluate the shoot electrolyte leakage and the root growth potential, respectively. Based on the results, the 6 and 8 hr photoperiod indicated greater root allocation (4.8 and 4.9 mg, respectively) and chlorophyll content (3.7 and 4.4, respectively). They also indicated greater leaf area values (3.3 and 3.5 cm2, respectively) along with the 14 hr (3.4 cm2). The photoperiod effect continued even after seedlings were subjected at consistent photoperiod. Overall, "short" photoperiods could provide "better" P. brutia seedlings to accommodate immediate massive reforestation and afforestation needs. PMID:23033672

  3. DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR SEEDLING TILLER NUMBER IN BIG BLUESTEM AND SWITCHGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass seedling tiller number and shoot weight are traits associated with seedling vigor. The response to selection for high shoot weight and divergent selection for seedling tiller number in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) seedlings and realized herit...

  4. Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not

  5. Phytochrome-Mediated Phototropism in De-Etiolated Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Ballaré, Carlos L.; Scopel, Ana L.; Radosevich, Steven R.; Kendrick, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Phototropic responses to broadband far red (FR) radiation were investigated in fully de-etiolated seedlings of a long-hypocotyl mutant (lh) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which is deficient in phytochrome-B, and its near isogenic wild type (WT). Continuous unilateral FR light provided against a background of white light induced negative curvatures (i.e. bending away from the FR light source) in hypocotyls of WT seedlings. This response was fluence-rate dependent and was absent in the lh mutant, even at very high fluence rates of FR. The phototropic effect of FR light on WT seedlings was triggered in the hypocotyls and occurred over a range of fluence rates in which FR was very effective in promoting hypocotyl elongation. FR light had no effect on elongation of lh-mutant hypocotyls. Seedlings grown in the field showed negative phototropic responses to the proximity of neighboring plants that absorbed blue (B) and red light and back-reflected FR radiation. The bending response was significantly larger in WT than in lh seedlings. Responses of WT and lh seedlings to lateral B light were very similar; however, elimination of the lateral B light gradients created by the proximity of plant neighbors abolished the negative curvature only in the case of lh seedlings. More than 40% of the total hypocotyl curvature induced in WT seedlings by the presence of neighboring plants was present after equilibrating the fluence rates of B light received by opposite sides of the hypocotyl. These results suggest that: (a) phytochrome functions as a phototropic sensor in de-etiolated plants, and (b) in patchy canopy environments, young seedlings actively project new leaves into light gaps via stem bending responses elicited by the B-absorbing photoreceptor(s) and phytochrome. PMID:16652942

  6. Variation in drought response of sal (Shorea robusta) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Garkoti, Satish C; Zobel, Donald B; Singh, Surendra P

    2003-10-01

    Plant development and distribution in areas with seasonal rainfall are often related to the ability of plants to postpone desiccation or tolerate low water potentials during drought. Regeneration of Shorea robusta Gaertn. (sal), a commercially valuable, widely distributed tree of the Indian tropical belt, is unsuccessful at the base of the Himalaya. Seedling shoots die back repeatedly during the long drought that follows the monsoon rain. During the course of one year, we monitored changes in plant and soil water potentials (Psi), leaf conductance (gw), osmotic and elastic adjustment, and xylem conductance of sal seedlings of different sizes from three landforms: an alluvial plain at 540 m elevation, a slope at 510 m, and a montane site at 1370 m. Predawn plant Psi and gw were lowest in the smallest seedlings (< 20 cm tall). Across sites and seasons, seedlings > 100 cm tall had higher morning gw than seedlings in the other size classes. In all size classes, plant Psi was lowest during early summer, when leafing begins. Among sites, Psi and gw were lowest in seedlings at the montane site. Osmotic potential was lowest during leaf development and highest during the rainy season, and tissue elasticity was highest during winter. As leaf area increased during leaf development, xylem conductance per unit of xylem cross-sectional area also increased. We conclude that low Psi is unlikely to be a major cause of seedling mortality. Small seedlings, with low Psi, had low leaf conductance. Adjustments of osmotic and elastic properties appear to aid responses of seedlings to drought. PMID:12975126

  7. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  8. Flower induction in seedlings of Aster novi-belgii and selection before and after vegetative propagation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kell Kristiansen; Conny Wang Hansen; Kirsten Brandt

    1997-01-01

    Bolting and flowering of Aster novi-belgii seedlings as well as correlations between characteristics within seedling populations\\u000a and between seedlings and their vegetatively propagated offspring were investigated in order to improve breeding efficiency.\\u000a In seedlings of A. novi-belgii, flower induction was observed without vernalization. Seedlings initially formed a rosette,\\u000a but bolting was a prerequisite for development of a normal flowering shoot.

  9. Biology of spermoplane and seedling rhizoplane in relation to disease resistance in cotton

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Hung-Yien Liu

    1974-01-01

    of characters influencing the frequency of R. solani on seedlings. 49 4. A path diagram of characters influencing the frequency of Fusarium sp. on seedlings. 51 5. A path diagram of characters influencing the frequency of nematodes on seedlings. 52 6. A... Leachate-Rhizosphere-Disease Resistance 2 3 4 5 MATERIALS AND METHODS Seed Leachate Root Leachate Rhizoplane I'lors of seedlings Germinator Performance Performance in Soil and Frequency of Organisms on Seedlings Additional Disease Performance...

  10. Space Station Live: Seedling Growth - Duration: 5 minutes, 54 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the Inte...

  11. ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING SEEDBED AND SEEDLING ESTABLISHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination and seedling establishment are arguably the most critical stages controlling the successful rangeland seedings. These stages are also ecologically complex and under the control of variable biotic and abiotic factors. Species specific germination strategies, dormancy, straitificati...

  12. Valley Oak Seedling Growth Associated with Selected Grass Species1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    and ultimately death. This paper reports on a greenhouse experiment designed to determine if valley oak seedlings of Los Angeles, CA. The experiments were conducted in the green- house of California State University, Los Angel

  13. Plant pathology Specific resistance factors to yellow rust in seedlings

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in Triticum aestivum L seedlings induced by 9 French races of Puccinia striiformis Westend were used to assess others (41 E136, 109E141, and 109E173) were also important. Triticum aestivum L / Puccinia striiformis

  14. Actin of Beta vulgaris seedlings under the clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L. Ye.

    We study the influence of altered gravity on actin expression in roots of Beta vulguris seedlings grown on the horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) from seed germination for three days. It is shown that the total actin quantity was not influenced. Three actin isoforms are revealed; a relative protein quantity of these isoforms was similar both in clinorotated seedlings and in ones grown in norm. This point to stable expression of actin under the altered gravity conditions.

  15. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Stella; John J. Battles

    2010-01-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that\\u000a follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental\\u000a water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day?1), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California’s San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed\\u000a growth and

  16. The effect of paclobutrazol on mineral nutrition of apple seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Swietlik; Stephen S. Miller

    1985-01-01

    Greenhouse grown ‘Golden Delicious’ apple seedlings were treated with soil drenches of paclobutrazol (PP333) at rates equivalent to 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 kg of active ingredient (a.i.) ha. Eleven weeks after treatment initiation, seedlings were harvested, divided into leaves, stems, and roots, weighed and analyzed for the content of macro?and microelements. Shoot growth rate, leaf area, and total

  17. Seed and seedling morphology of two species of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose K Mangaly; K Swarupanandan; P V Madhusoodan

    1979-01-01

    Morphology of the seeds and seedlings ofEuphorbia hirta andE. thymifolia are described. In both the species, the seeds are endospermous, exotegmic, more or less oblong and obtusely tetragonal. The\\u000a testa is only two-layer thick, collapsing when dry; the tegmen is made up of a single layer of macrosclereids with occluded\\u000a lumen. The early developmental pattern of the seedlings in both

  18. Limitations to seedling establishment in a mesic Hawaiian forest.

    PubMed

    Denslow, Julie S; Uowolo, Amanda L; Hughes, R Flint

    2006-05-01

    While invasive species may be visible indicators of plant community degradation, they may not constitute the only, or even the primary, limitation to stand regeneration. We used seed-augmentation and grass-removal experiments under different canopy conditions to assess the relative importance of dispersal limitation, resource availability, and competition on seedling establishment in the understory shrubs Sophora chrysophilla, Dodonea viscosa, and Pipturus albidus in a montane mesic forest in Hawaii. The study location was an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest at 1000-1500 m elevation on the leeward side of Hawaii Island; it is a closed-canopy forest historically subject to logging and grazing by cattle and sheep and currently dominated by the exotic grass, Ehrharta stipoides, in the herb layer. Seedling establishment after 1 and 2 years was strongly dispersal limited in Sophora and Dodonea, but not in Acacia, a non-augmented species in which abundant seedlings established, nor in Pipterus, in which only one seedling established in 2 years. Grass cover reduced seedling establishment in Acacia, Sophora, and Dodonea and, for the latter two species, seedling establishment was substantially greater in the warmer, more moist forest at the lowest elevation. Light, moisture, and resin-captured N and P were more strongly affected by elevation and canopy composition than by grass cover, but in most cases seedling establishment was not positively correlated with resource availability. Limitations to the establishment of woody seedlings in this forest-grassland mixture vary among species; however, both dispersal limitation and competition from a shade-tolerant grass are important deterrents to regeneration in these forests. PMID:16450179

  19. Improving salt tolerance of cotton seedlings with 5-aminolevulinic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Watanabe; T. Tanaka; Y. Hotta; H. Kuramochi; Y. Takeuchi

    2000-01-01

    Of 12 different plant growth regulators (PGRs) tested,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was found to improve the salttolerance of cotton seedlings. Cotton seedlings treated with ALAcould grow in soil containing levels as high as 1.5% (wt\\/wt)NaCl. The analyses of mineral compositions of plant parts revealed that the Naplus concentrations in the roots of the plantstreated with ALA were suppressed to low concentrations.

  20. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  1. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  2. Interactions between birds, fruit bats and exotic plants in urban Hong Kong, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Corlett

    2005-01-01

    I observed the use of exotic plant species by native birds and bats in 8 km2 of urban Hong Kong. Twenty-nine plant taxa were used repeatedly. Five species accounted for most interactions with birds:\\u000a Cinnamomum camphora (10 bird species), Ficus religiosa (6), Livistona chinensis (7) and Pyracantha crenulata (6) provided fruits, while Bombax ceiba (6) supplied nectar. Panicum maximum (2)

  3. Chemical composition and the insecticidal activity of certain plants applied as powders and essential oils against two stored-products coleopteran beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gomah E. NenaahSahar; Sahar I. A. Ibrahim

    Powders and essential oils were prepared from the aerial parts of Cinnamomum camphora, Ocimum basilicum, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and seeds of Pimpinella anisum. Their adulticidal activities and effects on the F1 progeny of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were evaluated. The chemical composition of the plant oils were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC\\/mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS). All of

  4. Mapping urban forest tree species using IKONOS imagery: preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiliang Pu

    2011-01-01

    A stepwise masking system with high-resolution IKONOS imagery was developed to identify and map urban forest tree species\\/groups\\u000a in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. The eight species\\/groups consist of sand live oak (Quercus geminata), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), live oak (Quercus virginiana), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), pine (species group), palm (species group), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), and red maple (Acer rubrum).

  5. Study of the antifungal activity of Acinetobacter baumannii LCH001 in vitro and identification of its antifungal components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Liu; X. Chen; T. T. Liu; B. Lian; Yucheng Gu; V. Caer; Y. R. Xue; B. T. Wang

    2007-01-01

    An Acinetobacter strain, given the code name LCH001 and having the potential to be an endophytic antagonist, has been isolated from healthy\\u000a stems of the plant Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, guided by an in vitro screening technique. The bacterium inhibited the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi\\u000a such as Cryphonectria parasitica, Glomerella glycines, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium graminearum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizoctonia

  6. Lignification in young plant seedlings grown on earth and aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.; Scheld, W. H.; Peterson, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle era has provided an opportunity for investigators to conduct experiments in a microgravity environment. Two Shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, each contained an experiment designed principally to determine whether young plant seedlings exposed to microgravity had reduced lignin content in comparison to seedlings grown at one gravity. Three different plant species, pine, oats, and mung beans, were exposed for eight days to the microgravity environment of the Shuttle. The lignin content of in-flight seedlings was less than the control seedlings in all seven sets of seedlings included in these two experiments. In five sets of seedlings, the reduction in lignin content in flight seedlings ranged from 6 to 24 percent and was statistically significant. In addition, the activity of two enzymes involved in lignin synthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase, were significantly reduced in pine seedlings. It was therefore concluded that microgravity, as perceived by young plant seedlings, results in reduced lignin synthesis.

  7. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  8. Hydroxamic Acid Glucosyltransferases from Maize Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Bryan A.; Larson, Russell L.

    1989-01-01

    Hydroxamic acids occur in several forms in maize (Zea mays L.) with 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) being the predominant form and others including 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) being found at lower concentrations. Two enzymes capable of glucosylating hydroxamic acids were identified in maize protein extracts and partially purified and characterized. The total enzyme activity per seedling increased during the first 4 days of germination and was concurrent with the accumulation of DIMBOA. Purification of the enzymes by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-200 and Q-Sepharose gel chromatography resulted in a 13-fold increase in specific activity. The enzymes are initially separated into two peaks (peak 1 and peak 2) of activity by Q-Sepharose gel chromatography. The peak 1 glucosyltransferase had 3.6% of the DIMBOA glucosylating activity when DIBOA was used as substrate, whereas this percentage increased to 57% for the peak 2 enzyme. The enzyme in peak 2 has a Km of 174 micromolar for DIMBOA and a Km of 638 micromolar for DIBOA; the enzyme in peak 1 has a Km of 217 micromolar for DIMBOA and its activity on DIBOA was too low to determine a Km. The identification of two glucosyltransferases capable of glucosylating hydroxamic acids in vitro serves as an initial step in the characterization of the enzymes involved in production of hydroxamic acids in maize. PMID:16666853

  9. Gene Expression in Plant Lipid Metabolism in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Haslam, Richard P.; Michaelson, Louise V.; Liao, Pan; Napier, Johnathan A.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, ?-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS) was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6) in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX) lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25264899

  10. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  11. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  12. Rhizotoxic effects of silver in cowpea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Blamey, F Pax C; Kopittke, Peter M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Kinraide, Thomas B; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-09-01

    Silver (Ag) is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, including algae, invertebrate animals, and fish, but little information exists on Ag rhizotoxicity in higher plants. In two solution culture experiments with approximately 1,000 microM Ca(NO3)2 and 5 microM H3BO3 (pH 5.4), 20 to 80% of added Ag (< or =2 microM) was lost from solution within approximately 30 min, with a further decrease after 48 h root growth. Using measured Ag concentrations at the start of the experiments, the median effective concentration (EC50) for root elongation rate of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. cv. Caloona) was 0.010 microM Ag in the first 4 h of exposure (0.021 microM in the first 8 h). This demonstrates that Ag (as Ag+) is rapidly rhizotoxic to cowpea seedlings at concentrations similar to those that are toxic to freshwater biota. Rupturing of rhizodermal and outer cortical layers was evident after 48 h with 0.13 to 0.57 microM Ag initially in solution, being most severe at 0.13 or 0.25 microM Ag. An additional experiment showed that ruptures were first evident after 20 h exposure to 0.17 microM Ag, with increased severity of rupturing over time. The rhizotoxic effects of Ag are similar to those of some other trace metals (e.g., Cu, Al, La) that bind strongly to hard ligands and weakly to soft ligands. The similarity of rupturing effects, despite the difference in strong binding to soft ligands by Ag and to hard ligands by the other metals, suggests a distinctive metabolic effect of Ag that binds only weakly to hard ligands. PMID:20821665

  13. Nitrate Translocation by Detopped Corn Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Ezeta, Fernando N.; Jackson, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Five-day-old seedlings of corn (Ze? mays L.) grown without nitrate were decapitated and exposed to 0.5 mm KNO3 or 0.5 mm KCl in aerated solutions at 30 C. Uptake of nitrate, chloride, and potassium was determined by replacing solutions hourly and measuring their depletion. Translocation of these ions and of organic nitrogen was determined by hourly analysis of the vascular exudate. Nitrate reduction was estimated by the difference between nitrate uptake and nitrate recovered in the tissue and exudate. Nitrate uptake exhibited its usual pattern of apparent induction resulting in the development of an accelerated uptake phase. Chloride uptake remained fairly constant throughout the experimental period. Translocation of nitrate increased progressively for at least 7 hours whereas chloride translocation reached a maximum about the 3d hour and then declined to a lower rate than nitrate translocation. Nitrate uptake and translocation were restricted by anaerobiosis, by 20 and 40 C relative to 30 C, and by 0.05 mm 6-methylpurine, an RNA-synthesis inhibitor. Accumulation, reduction and translocation of nitrate had different sensitivities to all these factors. The effect of 0.05 mm 6-methylpurine was more detrimental to nitrate translocation and nitrate reduction than to nitrate uptake. Ambient nitrate, relative to chloride, enhanced the exudation volume and the translocation of organic nitrogen within 4 hours from initiation of the experiments. Translocation of nitrate and organic nitrogen decreased shortly after removal of external nitrate. The higher rates of organic nitrogen translocation which occurred during nitrate uptake indicates either (a) rapid translocation of amino acids synthesized from the entering nitrate, or (b) an accelerated rate of protein turnover and a resulting enhancement in translocation of endogenous amino acids. PMID:16659246

  14. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Amara, Chedia Ben; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 ?g·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells. PMID:25728340

  15. Protective Effect of Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on Endotoxin-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice Associated with Suppressed Local Expression of Molecules in the Signaling Pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, interferon-?, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-?B, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  16. Selection on Seedling Emergence Timing and Size in an Annual Plant (common sunflower, Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae))

    E-print Network

    Kristen, Mercer L.; Alexander, Helen M.; Snow, Allison A.

    2011-06-01

    • Premise: Variation in seedling emergence timing is considered adaptive over the long term in wild populations, but early emergence can result in a fitness advantage. To explore the adaptive significance of seedling ...

  17. Effect of sorghum seedlings and previous crop, on soil fluorescent pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The hypotheses that sorghum seedlings [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varying in sorgoleone production will differentially modify soil microorganisms and will effect subsequent planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were tested. Methods: Wheat cultivar Lewjain, and sorghum genotypes ...

  18. Active Ground Optical Remote Sensing for Improved Monitoring of Seedling Stress in Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active ground optical remote sensing (AGORS) devices mounted on overhead irrigation booms could help to improve seedling quality by autonomously monitoring seedling stress. In contrast to traditionally used passive optical sensors, AGORS devices operate independently of ambient light conditions and ...

  19. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  20. Ultraweak, spontaneous photon emission in seedlings: toxicological and chronobiological applications.

    PubMed

    de Mello Gallep, Cristiano

    2014-12-01

    The detection of ultraweak light emission in seedlings has been explored in toxicological and chronobiological studies. The main studies in this area are reviewed briefly, including a report on applied tests held in the last 7 years at LaFA--UNICAMP (Brazil). In general, results indicate that a linear relation for total light emission versus germination performance is found if only strong stress situations are considered, when external factors depress a seedling's development, even when considering a sequential series of tests. Light emitted by a single seedling was detected in a compact apparatus, and data are presented here for the first time showing pronounced circadian cycles are evident, with similar time and frequency profiles as those of the local gravimetric tide. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24687546

  1. Sulfometuron methyl influences seedling growth and leaf function of three conifer species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan D. Robertson; Anthony S. Davis

    Seedling growth and gas exchange responses were measured for two potted seedling trials testing herbicide phytotoxicity to\\u000a three important tree species of the Inland Northwest, USA. Media-filled pots were treated with sulfometuron methyl (Oust®) in varying concentrations and planted with seedlings of Larix occidentalis Nutt., Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco, and Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don. Seedlings were

  2. The impact of ‘available area’ onArtemisia tridentata seedling dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Owens; B. E. Norton

    1989-01-01

    Seedling survival ofArtemisia tridentata ssp.tridentata (basin big sagebrush) was studied during 1984 and 1986 on a semi-arid rangeland in central Utah, USA. Seedlings were mapped in ungrazed pastures and observed on a 10 day interval for survival. Available resource area around individual seedlings was calculated using Theissen polygons. Over 90% of the naturally-occurring seedlings occurred in polygons of 150 mm2

  3. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  4. Effect of soil bulk density on forest tree seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormanek, Mariusz; Banach, Jacek; Sowa, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of the influence of soil bulk density in a forest nursery plot on the growth and quality parameters of Scots pine and European beech seedlings. Particular density variants were obtained using a tractor device exerting controlled pressure on the soil, while field examinations were performed on an area of `K?aj' forest nursery in Niepo?omice Forest District. Three series of plots were prepared for each species, applying a unit pressure of the values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kPa, corresponding to the dry bulk density in the range of 1.03-1.19 g cm-3, and control plots without the pressure. Seeds of the examined species were sown on the prepared plots, and after 6 months of growth the seedlings were subjected to biometric analysis determining differentiation in root neck diameter, length of the above-ground part and root system, as well as dry mass of particular parts of the plant. The quality of the seedlings was also determined using the method of Schmidt-Vogt. The results obtained show that the change in dry bulk density soil significantly affected most of the growth parameters of the examined seedlings. Especially high negative correlations were obtained for the length and dry mass of the root system. A significant influence of dry bulk density variant on all growth parameters of Scots pine seedlings, and on some parameters of European beech was demonstrated. An increase in soil bulk density clearly caused also a deterioration of European beech seedlings quality

  5. Growth retardant activity of paclobutrazol enantiomers in wheat seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Lenton; N. E. J. Appleford; K. E. Temple-Smith

    1994-01-01

    The resolved enantiomers of paclobutrazol appeared to have different primary modes of action as plant growth retardants in rht3 (tall) wheat seedlings. 2S,3S-Paclobutrazol reduced shoot growth more effectively than root growth, whereas the opposite was the case with the 2R,3R-enantiomer. Low concentrations (0.03–1.0 µM) of 2S,3S-paclobutrazol specifically inhibited gibberellin A1 (GA1) production in Rht3 (dwarf) seedlings without affecting shoot growth,

  6. OIKOS 98: 385392, 2002 Herbivory on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna

    E-print Network

    OIKOS 98: 385­392, 2002 Herbivory on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna Margaret T. Shaw on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna. ­ Oikos 98: 385­392. Trees critically affect the functioning of Acacia seedlings in an African savanna, we conducted two experiments in which we exposed Acacia

  7. Statistical Modeling of Seedling Mortality Michael LAVINE, Brian BECKAGE, and James S. CLARK

    E-print Network

    Beckage, Brian

    Seedling mortality in tree populations limits population growth rates and controls the diversity of forests agged data are uninformative about age-speci c mortality rates. Our methods categorize seedlings as either rst year (new) or older (old) seedlings and provide age-speci c mortality rates only for those two

  8. Differences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Differences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species Rozdíly., Jarosík V. & Pysek P. (2009): Differences in germi- nation and seedling establishment of alien and native design. In this study seed and seedling traits of three congeneric alien species in Europe, differing

  9. Seedling Growth and Survival of Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata), Six Years Later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor F. Colahan; Eric Weinbender

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, western red cedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings were planted in Forest Park in Portland, Oregon to ascertain whether mammalian predation had a role in low seedling recruitment in the park. Nine study sites, three in each section (urban, middle and rural) of the park were located along an urban-rural land use gradient. At each site, 27 seedlings were planted.

  10. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Entry; P. T. Rygiewicz; W. H. Emmingham

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and

  11. Adaptations enhancing survival and establishment of seedlings on coastal dune systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Maun

    1994-01-01

    Studies on the survival and establishment of seedlings in coastal and lacustrine sand dune systems suggest that nutrient deficiency, lack of moisture, sand accretion, salt spray and predation are probably the most important limiting factors. Seedlings employ both avoidance and tolerance strategies to with-stand the different stresses. For example, seedling recruitment of dune species coincided with periods of high moisture

  12. Slugs, willow seedlings and nutrient fertilization: intrinsic vigor inversely affects palatability

    E-print Network

    Orians, Colin

    seedlings for condensed tannin and protein concentration, and related these data to changes in palatability of vulnerability compared to discs from less fertilized seedlings, which were also more tannin-rich. In a whole with height of the seedlings was positively correlated with an increase in condensed tannin concentration. We

  13. Patterns of element concentrations help explain varietal differences in rice seedling vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling vigor is an important factor in rice production because it minimizes exposure of emerging seedlings to soil-borne diseases and promotes the early development of a uniform stand. Seedling vigor is influenced by both genetics and environment. In this study where plants of varying levels of se...

  14. Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Photosynthesis and shoot water status of seedlings from different oak species — Stress effects induced on shoot photosynthesis and leaf water status by root hypoxia due. Predawn leaf water potential remained high in all cases, in- dicating that reductions in photosynthesis

  15. Can seedling mineral composition predict rice grain nutritional value?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the possibility of using the mineral (ionomic) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of specific minerals in their grain. This information will be used for genetically improving the nutritional value of rice g...

  16. Weed Seedling Emergence and Survival as Affected by Crop Canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured impact of cool-season crops on seedling emergence, survival, and seed production of weeds common in corn and soybean. Weed dynamics were monitored in permanently-marked quadrats in winter wheat, spring wheat, and canola. Three species, green foxtail, yellow foxtail, and common ...

  17. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 ?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  18. Sesinoside, a new iridoid glucoside from sesame (Sesamum indicum) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Takase, Ryo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Kosumi; Hasegawa, Koji; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-11-01

    A new iridoid glucoside, sesinoside (1), was isolated from the seedlings of Sesamum indicum. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and by methanolysis of 1, which produced the known compounds, phlorigidosides C (2) and (6Z)-foliamenthic acid methyl ester (3). This is the first report of an iridoid glucoside with 3. PMID:25532274

  19. WEED SEEDLING EMERGENCE AND MICROCLIMATE IN A TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropic ageratum (Ageratum conyzoides) is an important annual weed in tropical cropping systems. Better and more timely strategies for its control might be developed through a more thorough understanding of its emergence behavior. Seedling emergence of tropic ageratum was monitored periodically and s...

  20. Seedling Vigor in Beta vulgaris: The Artistry of Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling vigor and stand establishment are two problems that growers have struggled with for decades. The initial conditions that a germinating seed encounters, and its ability to deal with them, affect the rate at which germination occurs, the rate of mobilization of stored energy reserves that the...

  1. Seedling emergence of horseweed in no-till

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density of horseweed is increasing in no-till cropping systems because horseweed seed is transported by wind and seedlings can establish from seeds lying on the soil surface. Also, horseweed has developed resistance to commonly-used herbicides, thus control tactics are often ineffective. This repo...

  2. Influence of sulfometuron methyl on conifer seedling root development

    E-print Network

    ), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western red-cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don growth, western red-cedar seedlings showed the greatest negative impact to site prepara- tion compared Western hemlock Á Western red-cedar O. T. Burney Á D. F. Jacobs (&) Hardwood Tree Improvement

  3. Recruitment Limitation, Seedling Performance and Persistence of Exotic Tree Monocultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Siemann; William E. Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Many native plant communities are replaced by exotic monocultures that may be successional stages or persistent community types. We surveyed a stand of Sapium sebiferum (Chinese Tallow Tree) that replaced tallgrass prairie in Texas and performed experiments with seeds and seedlings to determine the contributions of recruitment limitation and natural enemy release to allowing such a forest type to persist

  4. Micropropagation of flowering dogwood ( Cornus florida ) from seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Kaveriappa; L. M. Phillips; R. N. Trigiano

    1997-01-01

    A method for regenerating whole plants from nodal (axillary bud) cultures of seedlings was developed for flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.). The seed source significantly influenced the rate of proliferation, although cultures initiated from each of the seven mother trees produced some shoots. Woody plant medium (WPM) was superior to either Murashige and Skoog or Schenk and Hildebrandt basal medium.

  5. N dynamics in the rhizosphere of Pinus ponderosa seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette M. Norton; Mary K. Firestone

    1996-01-01

    Transformations of inorganic N were studied in microcosms containing Pinus ponderosa seedlings. We assessed the potential for immobilization and mineralization of NH4+ in soils collected from adjacent to coarse, fine and young roots and in soil more than 5 mm from any root. Rates of mineralization and immobilization of NH4+ in soils collected from adjacent to roots were >50% higher

  6. Protein phosphorylation differs significantly among ontogenetic phases in Malus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification affecting protein function and metabolism, dynamic changes in this process during ontogenesis remain unexplored in woody angiosperms. Methods Phosphorylated proteins from leaves of three apple seedlings at juvenile, adult vegetative and reproductive stages were extracted and subjected to alkaline phosphatase pre-treatment. After separating the proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoprotein-specific Pro-Q Diamond staining, differentially expressed phosphoproteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results A total of 107 phosphorylated protein spots on nine gels (three ontogenetic phases?×?three seedlings) were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The 55 spots of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large-chain fragments varied significantly in protein abundance and degree of phosphorylation among ontogenetic phases. Abundances of the 27 spots corresponding to Rubisco activase declined between juvenile and reproductive phases. More extensively, phosphorylated ?-tubulin chain spots with lower isoelectric points were most abundant during juvenile and adult vegetative phases. Conclusions Protein phosphorylation varied significantly during vegetative phase change and floral transition in apple seedlings. Most of the observed changes were consistent among seedlings and between hybrid populations. PMID:24904238

  7. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Swain; Jonathan E. Poulton

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside @)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES SEEDLING PATHOGENICITY FACTOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a larger research program focusing on the capacity of Fusarium verticillioides to infect and endophytically colonize corn, we have examined an apparent seedling pathogenicity factor produced by the fungus. Genetic analysis of field isolates indicated a single locus segregates for ability...

  9. Seeds and Seedling Establishment of Wyoming Big Sagebrush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Booth; Y. Bai

    Success with Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) depends on good seed vigor, and rapid seedling development. These characteristics are influenced by harvesting, processing, storing, and sowing. In this paper we discuss research findings related to those activities: (1) It appears that Wyoming big sagebrush growing on the western edge of the Great Plains might hold viable seed longer into

  10. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  11. Germination and seedling survival in fens undergoing succession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Van den Broek; Boudewijn Beltman

    2006-01-01

    We studied mechanisms of vegetation change in fens subject to succession from open water to floating mats and finally herbaceous rich-fens. Earlier research showed that these systems are characterized by transient seed banks. Our main question was whether seedlings of later successional fen stages are already present in earlier stages, remaining subordinate in the vegetation until conditions become suitable for

  12. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  13. Seedling vigor in Beta vulgaris: The artistry of germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor in order to overcome beet’s inherent disadvantages of small seed size and encapsulation in a corky fru...

  14. Effect of GA3, kinetin and indole acetic acid on carbohydrate metabolism in chickpea seedlings germinating under water stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur

    2000-01-01

    Enhanced amylase activity was observed during a 7-day-growth period in the cotyledons of PEG imposed water stressed chickpea seedlings grown in the presence of GA3 and kinetin, when compared with stressed seedlings. During the first 5 days of seedling growth, the seedlings growing under water deficit conditions as well as those growing in the presence of PGRs had a higher

  15. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on water stress tolerance of big sagebrush seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, G.E.; Stahl, P.D.; Williams, S.E.; Frost, S.M. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Reestablishment of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) on mined lands has been difficult in the past even though it is widespread in the western US. Its reestablishment on mined lands has recently become law where wildlife is one of the post-mining land uses and it represented the primary premining shrub species. One hypothesis thought to contribute to its difficult reestablishment is the reduce lack of mycorrhizae inoculum present in the disturbed topsoil and the resulting effect on the seedling`s ability to extract water from the soil under the arid/semiarid climate of this region. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizae on sagebrush seedling water stress tolerance. Seedling ages evaluated ranged from 30 to 150 days. Seedling survival was greater for mycorrhizal seedlings compared to non-mycorrhizal seedlings when soil moisture tension was {minus}2.5 to {minus}3.8 MPa. At all ages, the degree of soil dryness necessary to cause sagebrush seedling mortality was significantly greater for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Seedling age and mycorrhizal infection exhibited a significant statistical interaction; suggesting that as the sagebrush seedling aged, the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) increased the plants water stress tolerance. These findings lead the authors to conclude that topsoil management that prevents/reduces the loss of AM inoculum in the topsoil will significantly enhance the success of sagebrush establishment on mined lands.

  16. Running Head: Neighborhood dependent seedling survival1 Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical2

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    as a mechanism. In contrast,27 much stronger negative conspecific effects were associated with seedling neighbors Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Richmond 2753,9 Australia10 11 Author. 2012). Species coexistence requires stabilizing mechanisms that increase negative conspecific38

  17. Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine seedlings in two bare-root nurseries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Juzwik; D. J. Rugg

    1996-01-01

    Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine (Pinus strobus) were followed across locations and over time within three operational nursery fields with loamy sand soils at a provincial nursery in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and a state nursery in southern Wisconsin, USA. One Ontario field was fumigated with dazomet; the other was not fumigated. The Wisconsin field was

  18. Seedling occurrence in alpine treeline conifers: A case study from the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Smith, William K.

    1999-05-01

    Information concerning the occurrence of very young (1- to 10-year-old) tree seedlings in the alpine treeline ecotone is rare. Seedling occurrence of the dominant conifers Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa was measured in the treeline ecotone of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming (central Rocky Mountains, USA), an area composed of elongated tree islands separated by open meadows (ribbon forest) that grade into the closed forest. No seedlings were found on the windward sides of tree islands, while a mean of 0.6 seedlings.m -2 occurred on the leeward (downward) sides. These values compared to the 4.2 seedlings.m -2 in the closed forest. In addition, a strong correspondence was found between snowpack depth and seedling abundance, with depths that were either too shallow (< 0.5 m) or too deep (> 1.5 m) associated with fewer or no seedlings. A. lasiocarpa seedlings made up much less of the overall seedling population in the ribbon forest (6 %) than in the closed forest (22 %). Seedling establishment in this portion of the alpine treeline ecotone appears to be occurring at a low rate that differs between the two dominant species and may be strongly influenced by wind-driven snow accumulation patterns.

  19. Why Seedlings Die: Linking Carbon and Water Limitations to Mechanisms of Mortality During Establishment in Conifer Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.; Mitton, J.; Castanha, C.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Recent ecophysiological studies aimed at explaining adult tree mortality during drought have examined the carbon (C)-exhaustion compared to the hydraulic-failure hypotheses for death. Prolonged drought leads to durations of stomatal closure (and thus limited C gain), which could result in long periods of negative C balance and fatal reductions in whole-plant C reserves (i.e., available non-structural carbohydrates ["NSC"]). Alternatively, C reserves may not decrease much but could become increasingly inaccessible to sink tissues in long dry-periods due to impediments to translocation of photosynthate (e.g., through disruption of hydrostatic pressure flow in phloem). As C reserves decline or become inaccessible, continued maintenance respiration has been hypothesized to lead to exhaustion of NSC after extended durations of drought, especially in isohydric plant species. On the other hand, hydraulic failure (e.g., catastrophic xylem embolisms) during drought may be the proximate cause of death, occurring before true C starvation occurs. Few studies have investigated specifically the mechanism(s) of tree death, and no published studies that we know of have quantified changes in NSC during mortality. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND HYPOTHESES We conducted two studies that investigated whole-tree and tissue-specific C relations (photosynthetic C gain, respiration, dry-mass gain, and NSC pools) in Pinus flexilis seedlings during the initial establishment phase, which is characterized by progressive drought during summer. We measured survival, growth and biomass allocation, and C-balance physiology (photosynthetic C-gain and chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration C-use, and NSC concentrations) from germination to mortality. We hypothesized that 1) stomatal and biochemical limitations to C gain would constrain seedling survival (through inadequate seasonal C-balance), as has been shown for conifer seedlings near alpine treeline; 2) hydraulic constraints (embolisms and/or reduced hydraulic conductance), associated with roots unable to escape the seasonal drying front in the soil, would limit seedling survival at least as much as C-balance dysfunction; and 3) seedling mortality would not be due to exhaustion of whole-plant NSC, as suggested by appreciable NSC in dead conifer seedlings reported in alpine treeline studies. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS Preliminary results suggest that photosynthesis, fluorescence, and whole-tree NSC remained high until mortality, when plant water potentials decreased below -5 MPa. As seedlings approached mortality, NSC concentrations (both soluble sugars and starch) in roots decreased from ~9% to <3% of dry-mass. In aboveground tissues, NSC concentrations also declined initially (from ~12% to 3% of dry-mass), but then increased in needles (up to 8% dry-mass) and especially stems (up to 16% dry-mass), suggesting impediments to phloem-translocation in stems. Thus, seedling death could not be directly attributed to dysfunction of C-balance physiology, or exhaustion of NSC at the whole-plant level. We propose that hydraulic failure was likely the proximate cause of mortality under the conditions we evaluated, and drought-induced inhibition of NSC transport to roots may ultimately undermine the ability of seedlings to tap progressively deeper water sources during summer drying.

  20. Relationship between seedling and mature vegetation on the hilly-gullied Loess Plateau.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Feng; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Seedling is an indispensable stage in plant cycle life, and seedling survival is important during natural vegetation restoration, especially on the Loess Plateau. In 2007, we selected 4 plots of Artemisia scoparia communities (ASC) and 4 plots of Artemisia gmelinii + Artemisia giraldii communities (AGC), examined seedling richness, diversity during the rainy season, and examined mature vegetation richness, coverage, and frequency in August. The results showed that seedlings density of ASC were 29 n m(-2), 33 n m(-2), 20 n m(-2) and 31 n m(-2) in July to October respectively, and that of AGC were 14 n m(-2), 12 n m(-2), 6 n m(-2) and 9 n m(-2) respectively; A. scoparia seedlings represented 53.2% of the total seedlings in ASC, the dominant species in AGC only account for less than 5% of the total seedlings. Most of the seedlings found were belonged to Compositae, Leguminoseae and Gramineae; 80% of seedlings in ASC were mainly comprised of A. scoparia and Lespedeza davurica, while in AGC that consisted of more than 6 species, such as L. davurica, Sophora viciifolia, Dracocephalum moldavicaand, A. gmelinii, Patrinia heterophylla, Heteropappus altaicus so on. Sørensen similarity index between monthly seedlings was approximately 0.47 in ASC and 0.35 in AGC; Sørensen similarity index between seedlings and mature vegetation ranged from 0.18 to 0.34 in ASC, and varied from 0.26 to 0.39 in AGC. These results suggested that seedling establishment would be a bottleneck for natural vegetation restoration when seed supply and seedling emergence were possible. PMID:24701385

  1. Refugial forests of the southern Appalachians: photosynthesis and survival in current-year Abies fraseri seedlings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2005-11-01

    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret) is an endemic, high-elevation conifer confined to six relict mountaintop communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. High adult mortality has occurred over the past 50 years, possibly the result of an introduced insect (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg), air pollution, or both. Knowledge of the mechanisms of and limitations to seedling establishment may allow reestablisment and perpetuation of this unique community type, notwithstanding global climate change. We monitored seedling emergence and mortality in relation to photosynthetic performance and water relations in microsites differing in canopy openness (sunlight exposure) over the summer of 2004. Abundance of cotyledonous seedlings in early summer was 2.3 times greater (849 versus 366 seedlings m(-2)) in microsites with lower sky exposure (greater canopy closure) than in microsites with greater sky exposure (greater canopy openness). In contrast, late-season abundance and survival were greater in areas beneath more open canopies than in areas beneath less open canopies (3.3 times and 11.7 times greater, respectively). However, newly emerged seedling survival in a completely open site (no overhead canopy) was zero, despite an initial density of 124 seedlings m(-2). Seedling water status was similar in open- and closed-canopy sites (-0.52 and -0.74 MPa, respectively). Photosynthetic carbon gain was higher in newly emerged seedlings at open canopy than at closed canopy sites, especially during early morning. Based on photosynthetic light response curves and measured sunlight regimes, seedlings in open canopy sites were estimated to assimilate 3.3-4.5 times more carbon than seedlings at closed sites. Reductions in carbon gain of closed-site seedlings, primarily a result of limited sunlight, corresponded to substantial increases in seedling mortality (98 versus 79% in open canopy sites). Thus, sunlight exposure, which reflects overstory canopy structure, appears to be an important factor influencing newly emerged seedling survival and distribution. PMID:16105805

  2. Seedling interactions in a tropical forest in Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-C. Svenning; T. Fabbro; S. J. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Competition is believed to be a central force limiting local diversity and controlling the structure of plant communities.\\u000a However, it has been proposed that the stressed understory environment limits total understory plant density to such low levels\\u000a that competitive exclusion cannot be an important factor limiting the local diversity of understory plants. To evaluate the\\u000a importance of inter-seedling competition, we

  3. Paclobutrazol protects wheat seedlings from injury due to waterlogging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinelle A. Webb; R. A. Fletcher

    1996-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds were imbibed for 18 h in 40 mM KCl solution containing either distilled water or 100 mg l-1 paclobutrazol (PBZ, a triazole) and then air dried. Seeds were germinated in a greenhouse and one set of seedlings was grown under non-stressed conditions. Another three sets were stressed by waterlogging at three different stages when the

  4. Effect of paclobutrazol on abscisic acid levels in wheat seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Buta; D. W. Spaulding

    1991-01-01

    Contradictory results have been reported for the effects of triazoles on abscisic acid (ABA) levels in plants. Paclobutrazol\\u000a reduced the height, fresh weight, and ABA levels of wheat seedlings. The magnitude of the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol\\u000a on ABA levels was dependent on the length of time after application. ABA levels in plants as determined by gas chromatography-selected\\u000a ion monitoring-mass

  5. Jasmonic acid affects mycorrhization of spruce seedlings with Laccaria laccata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Regvar; N. Gogala; N. Žnidarši?

    1997-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) was shown to be an important regulating molecule after wounding and pathogen attack, but it also conveys\\u000a mycorrhizal signalling. It was therefore applied to the ectomycorrhizal system. Root growth patterns of 2-month-old spruce\\u000a seedlings mycorrhized with Laccaria laccata after treatment with 0.5 ?M JA, 5.0 ?M JA, or none for the control, were studied using a paper-sandwich

  6. Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schopfer; K.-H. Fidelak; E. Schäfer

    1982-01-01

    The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]˜0.1% of total phytochrome, established by

  7. Rapid multiplication of Jojoba seedlings by in vitro culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Roussos; A. Tolia-Marioli; C. A. Pontikis; D. Kotsias

    1999-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider) seedling explants were cultured on a modified Driver Kuniyuki medium, supplemented\\u000a with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine alone and in combination with silver nitrate. Shoot proliferation was successful\\u000a at all the concentrations tested, with a maximum number of 15.2 shoots per original explant. Shoots produced during the proliferation\\u000a stage were treated with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid

  8. Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maribel L Dionisio-Sese; Satoshi Tobita

    1998-01-01

    The possible involvement of activated oxygen species in the mechanism of damage by NaCl stress was studied in leaves of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) exhibiting different sensitivities to NaCl. The 3-week-old rice seedlings were subjected to 0, 6 and 12 dS m?1 salinity levels for 1-week after which differences in antioxidant capacities and possible correlation, growth rate

  9. Enantioselective separation and phytotoxicity on rice seedlings of paclobutrazol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Xie, Xuemei; Liu, Weiping

    2011-04-27

    The environmental significance of enantioselectivity in chiral insecticides and herbicides has been widely studied. However, little information is currently available on the enantioselective behavior of chiral plant growth regulators. In this study, paclobutrazol enantiomers were resolved and prepared by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with a Sino-chiral OJ column. The relationship among absolute configuration, optical activity and circular dichroism of paclobutrazol enantiomers was established. The enantioselective behavior of paclobutrazol, including enantioselective effect of paclobutrazol on the growth of rice seedlings and cyanobacteria and enantioselective loss of paclobutrazol in rice seedling growth media, in rice culture system was studied. The (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer was almost 3.1 times more active than the (2R,3R)-(+)-enantiomer toward shoot growth as measured by 7 day EC50 values. Enantioselectivity could not be determined with respect to root growth of rice seedlings because a typical dosage response was not observed in the range of the concentrations studied. The dissipation of paclobutrazol in rice growth medium is not enantioselective. Enantiomers and diastereoisomer of paclobutrazol all facilitated the growth of cyanobacteria, which increase the effectiveness of rice biofertilizers. The (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer showed stronger stimulatory activity on Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacteria than the (2R,3R)-(+)-enantiomer, whereas the latter was a more potent stimulator of Anabaena sp. growth. These observations indicate that application of the (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer of paclobutrazol and Microcystis aeruginosa in rice cultivation is a good strategy for improving rice seedling performance. PMID:21395310

  10. Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

  11. The significance of glucosinolates for sulfur storage in Brassicaceae seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea seedlings contained a twofold higher glucosinolate content than B. rapa and these secondary sulfur compounds accounted for up to 30% of the organic sulfur fraction. The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a sink for excessive atmospheric supplied sulfur. Upon sulfate deprivation, the foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 replaced sulfate as the sulfur source for growth of B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings. The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher than that of sulfate-sufficient plants, both in absence and presence of H2S and SO2. The significance of myrosinase in the in situ turnover in these secondary sulfur compounds needs to be questioned, since there was no direct co-regulation between the content of glucosinolates and the transcript level and activity of myrosinase. Evidently, glucosinolates cannot be considered as sulfur storage compounds upon exposure to excessive atmospheric sulfur and are unlikely to be involved in the re-distribution of sulfur in B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings upon sulfate deprivation. PMID:25566279

  12. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability. PMID:22476669

  13. The significance of glucosinolates for sulfur storage in Brassicaceae seedlings.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; De Kok, Luit J

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea seedlings contained a twofold higher glucosinolate content than B. rapa and these secondary sulfur compounds accounted for up to 30% of the organic sulfur fraction. The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a sink for excessive atmospheric supplied sulfur. Upon sulfate deprivation, the foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 replaced sulfate as the sulfur source for growth of B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings. The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher than that of sulfate-sufficient plants, both in absence and presence of H2S and SO2. The significance of myrosinase in the in situ turnover in these secondary sulfur compounds needs to be questioned, since there was no direct co-regulation between the content of glucosinolates and the transcript level and activity of myrosinase. Evidently, glucosinolates cannot be considered as sulfur storage compounds upon exposure to excessive atmospheric sulfur and are unlikely to be involved in the re-distribution of sulfur in B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings upon sulfate deprivation. PMID:25566279

  14. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  15. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  16. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  17. A chitosan induced 9-lipoxygenase in Adelostemma gracillimum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Ma, Chang-Le; Zeng, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins generated by the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway play an important role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. In chitosan-treated Adelostemma gracillimum seedlings, obvious accumulation of 9-LOX-derived oxylipins, namely 9,10,11-trihydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid, was detected. Using degenerate primers, a LOX-specific fragment putatively encoding LOX was obtained by RT-PCR, and a 2.9-kb full-length cDNA named AgLOX1 was isolated by RACE from chitosan-induced A. gracillimum seedlings. Genomic Southern analysis implied that there was only one copy of AgLOX1 in the A. gracillimum genome. AgLOX1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein was partially purified. The enzyme converted linoleic and linolenic acids almost exclusively to their 9-hydroperoxides. AgLOX1 encoded a 9-lipoxygenase. Northern blot analysis indicated that chitosan-induced AgLOX1 transcript accumulation peaked at 8 h after initiation of treatment, whereas trihydroxy derivatives accumulation was highest at 24 h after elicitation. Results showed that chitosan-induced AgLOX1 encoded a 9-lipoxygenase potentially involved in the defense response through 9-LOX pathway leading to biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds in A. gracillimum seedlings. PMID:22312270

  18. Photosynthesis and transpiration of loblolly pine seedlings as influenced by moisture-stress conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, J.R.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    One-yr-old seedlings were exposed to 8 wk of moisture stress conditioning (MSC); seedlings were watered only when pre-dawn needle water potential fell below -1.4 MPa. Water was then withheld and photosynthesis and transpiration rates recorded. Photosynthesis in well-watered controls and MSC seedlings was reduced to zero in 12 and 17 days respectively. Seedlings were harvested and water use efficiency calculated using photosynthesis and transpiration data; it was expressed as mg of CO/sub 2/ fixed per g of water lost. Seedlings exposed to MSC continued to photosynthesize to much lower needle water potentials. This response is at least partly attributed to the significant decrease (0.45 MPa) in needle osmotic potential found in MSC seedlings, which were able to maintain turgor to lower needle water potentials. Transpiration rate decreased 30% and water use efficiency increased 67% as a result of MSC. 26 references.

  19. Machine vision system for quality control assessment of bareroot pine seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhoit, John H.; Kutz, L. J.; Vandiver, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system was used at a forest nursery for two months to make quality control measurements of bareroot pine seedlings. In tests conducted during the lifting season, there was close agreement between machine vision and manual measurement distribution results for seedling samples for both root collar diameter and tap root length. During a second set of tests conducted after adding a bud tip height measurement routine, measurement distribution results for seedling samples were in close agreement for root collar diameter, tap root length, and bud tip height. Machine vision measurements of root collar diameter and tap root length also correlated well with manual measurements on a seedling-to- seedling basis for the second test. With the machine vision system, seedling samples could be measured by one person in approximately the same amount of time that it took two people to measure them manually.

  20. 3-D sensor using relative stereo method for bio-seedlings transplanting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroyasu, Takehisa; Hayashi, Jun'ichiro; Hojo, Hirotaka; Hata, Seiji

    2005-12-01

    In the plant factory of crone seedlings, most of the production processes are highly automated, but the transplanting process of the small seedlings is hard to be automated because the figures of small seedlings are not stable and to handle the seedlings it is required to observe the shapes of the small seedlings. Here, a 3-D vision system for robot to be used for the transplanting process in a plant factory has been introduced. This system has been employed relative stereo method and slit light measuring method and it can detect the shape of small seedlings and decides the cutting point. In this paper, the structure of the vision system and the image processing method for the system is explained.

  1. Exogenously applied GA 4 is converted to GA 1 in seedlings of Salix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olavi Junttila

    1993-01-01

    Gibberellin A4 (GA4) is biologically active in Salix pentandra and is able to induce stem elongation in seedlings grown under short day (SD) conditions, as well as in seedlings grown under\\u000a long day (LD) conditions and treated with a growth retardant BX-112. [3H2]GA4 and [2H2]GA4 were applied to seedlings and leaf and stem explants of S. pentandra, and metabolites were

  2. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  3. Inter organ comparison of amylases and starch content in mungbean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narinder Kaur; Prabhdeep Kaur; Anil K. Gupta

    2001-01-01

    During seedling growth of mungbean in dark, depletion of cotyledonary starch is reflected by an increase in starch content\\u000a of root and shoot. With progress of seedling growth, amylolytic activity increases in all organs i.e. cotyledons, shoots and roots. A rapid turnover of starch in shoots and roots has been proposed. Amylase activity of seedlings\\u000a was in the order of

  4. Inheritance and interrelationships of some seedling disease escape characteristics in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L

    E-print Network

    Abd-Alla, Salem Abdel-Kirim

    1968-01-01

    to seed deterioration, low temperature germination and seedling growth as a means of developing cottons which escape seedling disease, It is not known whether the various traits comprising seedling disease escape are inherited. This investigation... growing seasons for getting better fiber maturity and higher yield s. Presley (30) found that deteri. orated seed require higher tempera- tures for germination than undeteriorated seed. Bird and Blackman (5), using Presley's method of artificial seed...

  5. Tree seedling survivorship, growth, and allocation in the Cross Timbers ecotone of Oklahoma, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall W. Myster

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand tree dynamics and maintenance of the ecotone between eastern deciduous forest and tallgrass\\u000a prairie, I planted seedlings of five different species into a Cross Timbers area in North West Oklahoma for one-year. The\\u000a seedlings were planted in four different patch-types under two different herbivore treatments. I found that (1) out of the\\u000a original 200 seedlings,

  6. Analysis of the relationship between photosynthetic photon flux density and natural Taxus baccata seedlings occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iszku?o, Grzegorz; Boraty?ski, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationship of seedlings and saplings of Taxus baccata to the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) reaching the forest floor under natural conditions. Two permanent plots, subdivided into 1 × 1 m square plots, were established in a naturally regenerating population of T. baccata formed during last decades in the Kórnik Arboretum, Poland. All seedlings in every 1 × 1 m plots were counted. Relative PPFD was measured for every plot at the canopy height of the yew seedlings. The dependence of seedling density upon PPFD was examined. We found, that the frequency of the smallest seedlings (to 6.0 cm tall) was highest in the most shaded plots and decreased in plots with increasing PPFD. Thus, the youngest yew seedlings can germinate and grow in very shady conditions. However, the older seedlings (6.1-25.0 and 25.1-100.0 classes) were observed most frequently in 2-7% PPFD. The small numbers of older, taller seedlings in deep shade likely indicate a higher mortality rate of seedlings less than 6 cm in height without promotion to the next height class. Probably the low value of PPFD under the canopy of the stand significantly reduces the competition of other plants with the youngest yew seedlings. At higher light levels they may not be able to compete with more light-demanding plants, such as herbs and seedlings of broad-leaved trees. The seedlings of the second (6.1-25.0 cm) and third (25.1-100.0 cm) height classes were observed most frequently in the plots with 2-7% PPFD ( Fig. 1b and c).

  7. Analysis of phytochrome kinetics in light-grown Avena sativa L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gottmann; E. Schäfer

    1983-01-01

    The phytochrome content, the rate of phytochrome accumulation after a light\\/dark transition and the rate of phytochrome destruction after a 1.5 d reaccumulation period in darkness were measured in light grown Avena sativa L. seedlings. The results using spectrophotometrical methods (Norflurazon treated seedlings) and the radio-immunoassay (RIA) (green seedlings) were almost identical. The rate of phytochrome synthesis was analysed by

  8. Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

  9. Survival of selected pine seed sources with different seedling treatments on droughty sites in East Texas

    E-print Network

    Echols, Ralph James

    1984-01-01

    under stress (van Buijtenen et al. 1975). It has been shown that loblolly pine seedlings from the xeric "Lest Pines" area of Texas lose moisture slower than seedlings from a East Texas seed source (Davies 1973). The Lest Pines seedlings are able... (Thames 1963). This is because the rows of stcmata are f~ apart (van Buijtenen et al. 1975). The ~ of stcmata per needle and per square millimeter of surface area are significantly less on ~ngs fran the Lest pines than on seedlings frcm wetter sites 29...

  10. Community-Wide Spatial and Temporal Discordances of Seed-Seedling Shadows in a Tropical Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Pizo, Marco Aurélio; Siqueira, Tadeu; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Jordano, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Several factors decrease plant survival throughout their lifecycles. Among them, seed dispersal limitation may play a major role by resulting in highly aggregated (contagious) seed and seedling distributions entailing increased mortality. The arrival of seeds, furthermore, may not match suitable environments for seed survival and, consequently, for seedling establishment. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal patterns of seed and seedling distribution in contrasting microhabitats (bamboo and non-bamboo stands) from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Spatial distribution patterns, spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling recruitment between subsequent years in two fruiting seasons (2004–2005 and 2007–2009), and the relation between seeds and seedlings with environmental factors were examined within a spatially-explicit framework. Density and species richness of both seeds and seedlings were randomly distributed in non-bamboo stands, but showed significant clustering in bamboo stands. Seed and seedling distributions showed across-year inconsistency, suggesting a marked spatial decoupling of the seed and seedling stages. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that only seed density and seed species richness differed between stand types while accounting for variation in soil characteristics. Our analyses provide evidence of marked recruitment limitation as a result of the interplay between biotic and abiotic factors. Because bamboo stands promote heterogeneity in the forest, they are important components of the landscape. However, at high densities, bamboos may limit recruitment for the plant community by imposing marked discordances of seed arrival and early seedling recruitment. PMID:25856393

  11. Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, R.D.; Denton, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without grazing. Treatment comparisons for plant group and non-plant percent cover differed only for litter and bare soil, but cover and composition of bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey) were greater without grazing.

  12. Photosynthesis, water relations and mortality in Abies lasiocarpa seedlings during natural establishment.

    PubMed

    Cui, M; Smith, W K

    1991-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of natural seedling establishment in forest trees not associated with anthropogenic disturbance. Photosynthesis and water relations measurements were made on one- through four-year-old seedlings of Abies lasiocarpa Nutt. (subalpine fir) establishing naturally in an understory environment. First (current)-year seedlings generally had only cotyledons, whereas most second-year seedlings had both cotyledons and primary leaves. Mortality was high (> 60%) in first-year seedlings with the greatest mortality (> 90%) measured at the more open, sun-exposed sites within the understory. Seedling mortality was negligible after the first year of growth at shaded microsites and after the second year of growth at sunny microsites. Photosynthetic CO(2) uptake at light saturation was considerably lower in first-year than in fourth-year seedlings (0.6 micromol m(-2) s(-1) versus 1.7 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and occurred at lower solar irradiance (240 micromol m(-2) s(-1) versus 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation). Differences in photosynthetic capacity were due to differences in both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to CO(2) uptake. Carbon dioxide assimilation in first- and second-year seedlings was 28 and 29%, respectively, of the mean value measured for fourth-year seedlings. Although first-year seedlings had low transpiration rates, their water use efficiency (photosynthesis/transpiration) was less than half that of fourth-year seedlings and their water potentials were lower than those of all other age classes (0.46 mol CO(2) mmol(-1) H(2)O and -3.0 MPa, respectively). The stomatal limitation to CO(2) uptake was approximately 21% in first- and second-year seedlings, and increased to 39% in fourth-year seedlings. Intercellular CO(2) concentrations were greater in first- and second-year seedlings (255 and 250 microl l(-1), respectively) than in third- and fourth-year seedlings (203 and 186 microl l(-1), respectively). Thus, abrupt increases in water status and photosynthetic capacity after the first or second year of growth appear crucial for survival to maturity. Moreover, differences in temperature and water relations according to microsite may be major factors determining seedling establishment and, thus, the distributional and successional patterns observed for adult trees of Abies lasiocarpa. PMID:14972895

  13. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  14. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of mechanical loss of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius or naturally occurring fungi encountered during lifting of nursery seedlings to the capacity of these seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow. Seedlings were planted in January 1981. Seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae formed in the nursery can tolerate more removal of ectomycorrhizae than routine nursery seedlings with natural ectomycorrhizae. However, seedlings in both ectomycorrhizal condition groups were severely impacted by removal of ectomycorrhizae. 1 table.

  15. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  16. Fuel reduction at a Spanish heathland by prescribed fire and mechanical shredding: effects on seedling emergence.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2013-11-15

    Traditional heathland burning has declined in Spain, leading to fuel accumulation and fuel reduction treatments have become common for severe wildfire hazard reduction. These methods need to maintain the botanical composition of those shrub communities. Prescribed fire has been widely used in the past, but we need to compare mechanical fuel reduction with prescribed fire because it is easier and safer to carry out in a wide range of weather conditions. This information could be particularly useful in flammable ecosystems all over the world where traditional anthropogenic burning has declined. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning and mechanical shredding on the seedling emergence and its relation to the mature vegetation in a fire-prone heathland dominated by Erica australis L. and Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., in Galicia (NW Spain). We combined a greenhouse experiment with periodic field inventories of seedling emergence. In the greenhouse study, the seedling emergence was significantly higher in the soil samples after burning (383 seedlings m(-2)) than in samples before burning (242 seedlings m(-2)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in seedling density before and after mechanical shredding (243 compared with 261 seedlings m(-2)). Also, the number of seedlings that emerged after burning was significantly higher than that emerged after mechanical shredding. The maximum temperatures at the soil organic layer surface during burning were significantly and positively related to the density of Halimium lasianthum ssp. alyssoides and P. tridentatum seedlings. In the field study, the observed seedling density was very low both after prescribed burning and mechanical shredding. There was a high degree of similarity between emerged seedlings and mature vegetation in both the treated and in the untreated soils, which was probably a consequence of the dominance of resprouting species. Some consequences for the management of these shrublands are also discussed. PMID:24036096

  17. Hordeum vulgare Seedlings Amine Oxidase: Purification and Properties.

    PubMed

    Cogoni, A; Piras, C; Farci, R; Melis, A; Floris, G

    1990-06-01

    Although no amine oxidase could be detected in crude extracts, the enzyme has been purified to apparent homogeneity from Hordeum vulgare seedlings using ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE cellulose, Hydroxylapatite, and Sephadex G200 columns. Gel filtration experiments indicate a molecular weight of about 150,000. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 7.5 in potassium phosphate buffer. The spectrum of ultraviolet and visible regions were similar to Cuamine oxidase from Leguminosae. PMID:16667542

  18. Fully automated compound screening in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Dominique; Nguyen, Long; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput small molecule screenings in model plants are of great value to identify compounds that interfere with plant developmental processes. In academic research, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana is the most commonly used model organism for this purpose. However, compared to plant cellular systems, A. thaliana plants are less amenable to develop high-throughput screening assays. In this chapter, we describe a screening procedure that is compatible with liquid handling systems and increases the throughput of compound screenings in A. thaliana seedlings. PMID:24306857

  19. Interaction between a Dark Septate Endophytic Isolate from Dendrobium sp. and Roots of D. nobile Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between an isolate of dark septate endophytes (DSE) and roots of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. seedlings are reported in this paper. The isolate was obtained from orchid mycorrhizas on Dendrobium sp. in subtropical forest. The fungus formed typical orchid mycorrhiza in aseptic co-culture with D. nobile seedlings on modified Murashige-Skoog (MMS) medium. Anatomic observations of the infected roots showed that

  20. Seasonal frost hardiness of Nothofagus solandri seedlings from two altitudinally diverse sites in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis H. Greer; Peter Wardle; Rowan p Buxton

    1989-01-01

    Seasonal variation in frost hardiness was evaluated in beech (Nothofagus solandri) seedlings from sites in North Canterbury at 460 m near the lower altitude limit, and at 1100 m near timberline. Both 1-. 2-year old seedlings were lifted on five occasions through the year and exposed to a range of controlled frosts. Visual frost damage was measured four weeks later

  1. Seedling growth of Mora gonggrijpii, a large seeded climax species, under different soil and light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Steege

    1994-01-01

    Mora gonggrijpii seedlings were harvested on two soil types in small gaps and in the forest understorey. The seedlings appear to be intolerant of lateritic soil with poor drainage either as a result of poor aeration or reduction of the soil which is rich in iron and aluminium. Biomass allocation is not greatly affected on the lateritic soil as compared

  2. Relationship between gibberellins, height, and stress tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunita Sarkar; Michel R. Perras; Duane E. Falk; Ruichuan Zhang; Richard P. Pharis; R. Austin Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between gibberellin (GA) levels, height, and stress tolerance was investigated using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings, which were exposed to heat stress (50 °C for 3 h) and a free radical generator (Paraquat). Barley cv. Perth seedlings were treated with GA-inhibitors, either a triazole or one of two acylcyclohexanediones. They were tested along with four mutants that were

  3. Potential Impact of Climatic Change on Tropical Rain Forest Seedlings and Forest Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Whitmore

    1998-01-01

    Tropical rain forests are dynamic and continually regenerating by growth of seedlings up from the forest floor into canopy gaps that form on a cycle of usually a century of more in length. Changes in seedling establishment, survival, and release in gaps could thus change canopy species composition for a long time. Of likely climatic changes, evidence is presented that

  4. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil.

    PubMed

    Tng, David Y P; Janos, David P; Jordan, Gregory J; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M J S

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an "ashbed effect"). PMID:25339968

  5. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

  6. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  7. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GLYOXYLATE CYCLE ENZYMES IN SUGAR BEET RELATED TO SEEDLING VIGOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One component of seedling vigor is the efficient utilization of the seed storage reserves to provide energy necessary for growth. This study examined the relationship between the genes of energy metabolism and differences in seedling vigor of sugar beet hybrids under different stress germination re...

  8. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  9. Growth response and nutrient utilization of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings inoculated with bioinoculants under tropical nursery conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thangavelu Muthukumar; Karuthamuthu Udaiyan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of tetrapartite associations between an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus geosporum), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Paenibacillus polymyxa), Frankia and Casuarina equisetifolia on growth, nutrient acquisition, nutrient utilization and seedling quality of C. equisetifolia. Seedlings of C. equisetifolia were grown in an Alfisol soil and inoculated with G. geosporum, P. polymyxa and Frankia either individually or in combinations.

  10. Fall fertilization enhanced nitrogen storage and translocation in Larix olgensis seedlings

    E-print Network

    loading of deciduous forest nursery seedlings is of special interest because of foliage abscission use efficiency Á Deciduous forest seedling Á Nitrogen storage Á Nutrient translocation Introduction and varied translocation patterns. For non-deciduous seed- lings in the nursery, fall fertilization typically

  11. Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978-January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.R.

    1980-03-01

    The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt to establish baseline survival rates for seedlings grown in totally controlled environments. Studies to determine the optimum container for tree seedling production have been run and will continue as other containers are identified and made available. The most significant of the research results has been in the maximization of seedling growth. Seedling production times have been decreased in some species by as much as 50% under the baseline production times. Controlled environment production techniques provide for plant densities as high as 144 seedlings per square foot of growing space. Investigations of growing media indicate a significant species specific responses. Preliminary results of outplanting indicate survival rates as high as 90% plus.

  12. How do soil nutrients affect within-plant patterns of herbivory in seedlings of Eucalyptus nitens ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prue E. Loney; Clare McArthur; Gordon D. Sanson; Noel W. Davies; Dugald C. Close; Gregory J. Jordan

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed how the palatability of leaves of different age classes (young, intermediate and older) of Eucalyptus nitens seedlings varied with plant nutrient status, based on captive feeding trials with two mammalian herbivores, red-bellied pademelons (Thylogale billardierii), and common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Seedlings were grown under three nutrient treatments (low, medium and high), and we determined how palatability

  13. Integration of light and abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling development

    E-print Network

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    Integration of light and abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling, The Netherlands, and approved January 31, 2008 (received for review November 13, 2007) Seed germination, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system

  14. ANATOMY OF THE SEED AND SEEDLING OF SPARTINA ALTERNIFLORA LOIS (POACEAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Members of the genus Spartina are dominant macrophytes in many salt marshes of North and South America, Europe, and Africa. Although the genus is of great ecological importance, seeds and seedlings of its 16 species have not been described. he seed and seedling of an American spe...

  15. Physiology, morphology, and ozone uptake of leaves of black cherry seedlings, saplings, and canopy trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Fredericksen; B. J. Joyce; J. M. Skelly; K. C. Steiner; T. E. Kolb; K. B. Kouterick; J. E. Savage; K. R. Snyder

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of ozone uptake were related to physiological, morphological, and phenological characteristics of different-sized black cherry trees (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) at a site in central Pennsylvania. Calculated ozone uptake differed among open-grown seedlings, forest gap saplings, and canopy trees and between leaves in the upper and lower crown of saplings and canopy trees. On an instantaneous basis, seedling leaves had

  16. Genetic dissection of height in maritime pine seedlings raised under accelerated growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Plomion; C.-E. Durel; D. M. O'Malley

    1996-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to investigate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to height growth on 126 F2 seedlings of maritime pine (Pinuspinaster Ait). The haploid megagametophyte was used to determine the maternal genotype of each F2 individual. The seedlings were raised for 2 years in a greenhouse under accelerated growth conditions consisting of intense fertilization

  17. Impact of seed and seedling predation by small rodents on early regeneration establishment of black spruce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Côté; Jean Ferron; Réjean Gagnon

    2003-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) postdispersal seed and juvenile seedling predation by small ro- dents (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner), Clethrionomys gapperi (Vigor), and Phenacomys intermedius (Merriam)) was assessed in three boreal habitats over a 2-year period using an extensive exclosure-control experiment. Small rodent relative abundance was measured during six periods using snap trapping. We found that seed and juvenile seedling

  18. Environmental factors and seed abundance influence seedling emergence of a perennial forest herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Annette; Barsch, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    Seedlings are an important, but vulnerable stage in the life cycle of plants. The identification of factors affecting their recruitment is therefore fundamental for understanding basic plant population processes as well as plant distribution and abundance. In this study, we used a combined experimental and observational approach to examine how microsite quality and quantity as well as seed supply affect different processes of seedling establishment, using the perennial forest herb Phyteuma spicatum (Campanulaceae) as model species. This species reproduces exclusively by seed, and seedling emergence, growth and survival are therefore critical stages in its life cycle. Seedlings were frequent in microsites with bare soil and overall high light intensities, and were less common in sites with deep litter layers as well as dense and low vegetation. Seed addition, via experimental sowings or via the natural seed rain, consistently enhanced seedling emergence. Seed density effects, however, were variable among years; seedling emergence rates decreased at high seed densities in one of two seed cohorts. Seedling emergence time, size and survival were largely not affected by microhabitat type or seed density. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental factors and seed abundance determine recruitment success of P. spicatum and that effects on early processes of seedling establishment (emergence) are stronger than effects on late processes of establishment (growth and survival). Our work thereby contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying recruitment patterns of this species and other perennial herbs.

  19. Divergent Selection for Seedling Tiller Number in Big Bluestem and Switchgrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander J. Smart; Kenneth P. Vogel; Lowell E. Moser; Walter W. Stroup

    2003-01-01

    weight, single tiller (SWST)), which were planted in isolated polycross tillering half-sib lines at the nonirrigated site, but were nurseries. Seed from polycross nurseries was used to conduct a second not different at the irrigated site. cycle of selection. Populations were evaluated in greenhouse studies Vogel (1996, personal communication) observed that for fresh weight and tiller number of seedlings. Seedling

  20. Contribution of cotyledons to seedling dry weight and development in Medicago falcata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongxiang Zhang; Yi Wu; Cory Matthew; Daowei Zhou; Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments are reported, two of which involved cotyledon excision, to elucidate seedling developmental strategy of a North China rangeland legume, Medicago falcata. Early loss of cotyledons was fatal, with data indicating a possible hormonal?type signal from cotyledons to initiate first leaf expansion. Cotyledons made a substantive photosynthetic contribution for some 28 days from imbibition, but high seedling relative growth

  1. Growth and photosynthesis of seedling of five bottom land tree species following nutrient enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Vaitkus; T. G. Ciravolo; K. W. McLeod; E. M. Mavity; K. L. Novak

    1993-01-01

    Land management practices are increasingly focusing on the use of native plant communities to filter wastewater. Nutrient uptake from these effluents may affect overall growth and physiology. We examined the effects of increased nutrient levels on the seedlings of five species of bottomland trees. Seedlings of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. (hornbeam), Pinus serotina Michaux (pond pine), Acer rubrum L. (red maple),

  2. EFFECTS OF HAYSCENTED FERN DENSITY AND LIGHT ON WHITE ASH SEEDLING GROWTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy E. Hippensteel

    Communities of hayscented ferns ( Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore 1 are present in many forested areas of Pennsylvania. These ferns can reduce the number and height growth of desirable tree seedlings. A study was conducted to determine the effects of fern frond density on the stem growth and leaf development of bare- root planted white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) seedlings.

  3. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. PMID:25401150

  4. Release of naturally established white pine seedlings from competition: An objective field index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. a Nolet; D. a Bouffard; F.a b Lorenzetti

    2006-01-01

    Gap cutting has been recently prescribed in Quebec to favor the regeneration of midtolerant species such as white pine. However, this new practice may lead to increased competition, jeopardizing the survival of established seedlings. One important question, therefore, is how much care will be required to ensure that the seedlings will reach the sapling stage. More importantly, a practical field

  5. Effects of slug herbivory on the seedling establishment of two montane Asteraceae species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Scheidel; Helge Bruelheide

    2005-01-01

    Seedling establishment as the life stage transition most sensitive to herbivory might be impossible even if the herbivory losses suffered by adult plants of the same species are tolerable. We tested the hypothesis that herbivory impedes seedling establishment of two montane Asteraceae species on their lower altitudinal distribution border.In a submontane meadow in the Harz Mountains, Germany, the montane grassland

  6. Association with mature plants protects seedlings from predation in an arid grassland shrub, Gutierrezia microcephala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew A. Parker

    1982-01-01

    Survivorship of Gutierrezia microcephala (Compositae) seedlings was studied in an undisturbed arid grassland and in experimental plots where various components of the natural vegetation were removed following seed germination. The major causes of seedling mortality were herbivore damage from the specialist grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis, and drought stress associated with competition from established plants. The relative intensity of these mortality factors

  7. Influence of paclobutrazol on water consumption and plant performance of Arbutus unedo seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Navarro; M Sánchez-Blanco; Sebastián Bañon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of paclobutrazol on the water consumption, plant water relations, gas exchange and development of strawberry tree seedlings (Arbutus unedo L.), to evaluate water resource management. Seedlings (8cm in height) were subjected to a single drench of 60 or 100mg of paclobutrazol and pot-grown in a greenhouse for 4 months. Untreated

  8. Negative Associations Between Seedlings and Adult Plants In Two Alpine Plant Communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant species’ requirements at seed and seedling stages are critical in determining their distributions. Proximity to adult plants, as well as the presence of litter or rocks on the soil surface can influence seedling success. By comparing the microsite characteristics of points occupied by naturall...

  9. Salt stress limitation of seedling recruitment in a salt marsh plant community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W. Shumway; Mark D. Bertness

    1992-01-01

    Seedling recruitment in salt marsh plant communities is generally precluded in dense vegetation by competition from adults, but is also relatively rare in disturbance-generated bare space. We examined the constraints on seedling recruitment in New England salt marsh bare patches. Under typical bare patch conditions seed germination is severely limited by high substrate salinities. We examined the germination requirements of

  10. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of the glycolate oxidase gene in tobacco seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Barak; Ali Nejidat; Yair Heimer; Micha Volokita

    2001-01-01

    The roles of light and of the putative plastid signal in glycolate oxidase (GLO) gene expression were investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN) seedlings during their shift from skotomorphogenic to photomorphogenic development. GLO transcript and enzyme activities were detected in etiolated seedlings. Their respective levels increased three- and six-fold during 96 h of exposure to light. The GLO transcript

  11. Seedling occurrence in alpine treeline conifers: A case study from the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Hättenschwiler; William K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Information concerning the occurrence of very young (1- to 10-year-old) tree seedlings in the alpine treeline ecotone is rare. Seedling occurrence of the dominant conifers Picea engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa was measured in the treeline ecotone of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming (central Rocky Mountains, USA), an area composed of elongated tree islands separated by open meadows (ribbon forest) that

  12. A TEST OF MUTUAL AID IN COMMON MYCORRHIZAL NETWORKS: ESTABLISHED VEGETATION NEGATES BENEFIT IN SEEDLINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-M. Kytöviita; M. Vestberg; J. Tuomi

    2003-01-01

    By acquiring symbiosis from the mycelium supported by neighboring plants, seedlings become connected to a common mycorrhizal network (CMN). Although the main- tenance of a CMN may lead to mutual benefit among the neighboring plants, the benefits may be unequally distributed if the plants differ in their sink strength for the shared resources in the CMN. Hence, seedlings may not

  13. Germination, survival, and growth of grass and forb seedlings: effects of soil moisture variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination and seedling growth, survivorship, and final biomass and their responses to varying numbers of days between watering were studied in two grass and six forb species native to the U.S. Central Plains grasslands. Our object was to assess the potential role of germination and seedling g...

  14. Seed Dispersal and Seedling Establishment of Pinon and Juniper Species within the Pinon-Juniper Woodland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene W. Schupp; Stephen B. Vander Wall

    Understanding the prehistoric and historic dynamics of pinon-juniper woodland requires knowledge of the seed dispersal mechanisms and seedling establishment requirements of the tree species. Here, the types and effectiven-ess of the different seed dispersers and the environmental requirements for seedling estab­ lishment are compared and contrasted for the various pinon and juniper species within the woodlands. The importance of long­

  15. Comparative transcription profiling analyses of maize reveals candidate defensive genes for seedling resistance against corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As maize seedlings germinate into the soil, they encounter an environment teaming with insects seeking rich sources of nutrition. Maize presumably has developed a number of molecular mechanisms to ensure survival at the beginning of its life cycle. Bioassays indicated maize seedlings were more toxic...

  16. FOLIAR N RESPONSE OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS TO ELEVATED CO2 AND O3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between needle N status and exposure to combined CO2 and O3 stresses were studied in Pinus ponderosa seedlings. The seedlings were grown for three years (April 1998 through March 2001) in outdoor chambers in native soils from eastern Oregon, and exposed to ambient ...

  17. Away-field advantage: mangrove seedlings grow best in litter from other mangrove species

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Samantha

    litter pro- duction by co-occurring plant species can cascade through soils and feed back to indirectly, Edgewater, MD 28607, USA. Plant community composition can impact ecosystem processes via litter feedbacks treatments did not impact seedling root:shoot ratios or tissue C:N. Our finding that seedlings grow best

  18. Influence of wood ash on morphological parameters and mycorrhization of Scots pine containerised seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrejs Br?velis; Aigars Indriksons

    Effect of wood ash treatment on the morphological parameters and mycorrhization of Scots pine seedlings in peat soils was analysed. The influ- ence of 6 and 12 t ha-1 wood ash applications, worked onto the soil 12 months prior to planting of containerised seedlings, was evaluated and the dynamics of mineral nutrients in fertilised sample plots was followed. It was

  19. Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon and phosphorus relations in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pine seedlings J.V.D. Rousseau C physiological and developmental responses to mycorrhizal fungus inocula- tion and applied phosphorus were exam unique to the mycorrhizal association. Materials and Methods Pinus taeda L. seedlings, initially grown

  20. -Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings -681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996

    E-print Network

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    - Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings - 681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996 abandoned for half a century and are sur- rounded by Picea abies (Norway spruce) forests. The causes of inhibition of establishment of Norway spruce seedlings in the meadows were tested experimentally

  1. The effect of mollusc grazing on seedling recruitment in artificially created grassland gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hanley; M. Fenner; P. J. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments conducted in spring and autumn 1992 examined the effect of mollusc grazing on seedling regeneration from natural grassland seedbanks by creating artificial gaps in plots in a grassland sward. Molluscs were excluded from half the gaps by application of molluscicide. Mollusc grazing in both the spring and autumn experiment significantly reduced seedling recruitment, though the intensity of grazing

  2. Signalling molecules and the synthesis of alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob J. Aerts; Andrea Schäfer; Manfred Hesse; Thomas W. Baumann; Alan Slusarenko

    1996-01-01

    The Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus, produces numerous alkaloids, several of which have important pharmaceutical uses. Catharanthus seedlings rapidly accumulate the monomeric alkaloids, vindoline, catharanthine and tabersonine, during germination. Various plant signalling molecules were tested for their ability to enhance alkaloid synthesis in Catharanthus seedlings. The compounds tested included plant hormones, fatty acid-derived messengers and agents that can induce systemic-acquired resistance

  3. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  4. Seed and seedling ecology research as the foundation for enhancing restoration outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of restoration in arid and semiarid rangelands is severely limited by deficiencies in our understanding of seedling ecology and seedling recruitment. This is significant because rangelands provide sustenance for roughly one-third of the global population, and evolving challenges such as...

  5. Effects of different sand burial depths on seedling growth of three psammophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Qu; Halin Zhao; Xueyong Zhao; Ruilian Zhou; Shaokun Wang; Mei Zhao; Xueyun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sand burial depth on seedling growth of three dominant annual herbaceous plants in Horqin Sandy Land were studied. Nine treatments of sand burial depth were designed, growth characteristics including survival rates, seedling height, total biomass and its allocation were measured. The results showed that shallow burial depth stimulated the survival rates of three species, however, severe sand burial

  6. Effects of seed hydropriming in presence of exogenous proline on chilling injury limitation in Vigna radiata L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Posmyk; K. M. Janas

    2007-01-01

    Three-day-old seedlings (t\\u000a 0 stage) of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek obtained from seeds hydroprimed (H) and hydroprimed with proline (HPro) were examined. H and HPro slightly improved\\u000a mung bean seed germination and seedlings growth at 5°C. The best growth was observed in the seedlings obtain from HPro5 (5 mM)\\u000a seeds in comparison with the seedlings obtained from the control-non-primed seeds and

  7. Colonization with Hebeloma crustuliniforme increases water conductance and limits shoot sodium uptake in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tawfik M. Muhsin; Janusz J. Zwiazek

    2002-01-01

    White spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and treated with 25 mM NaCl to examine the effects of salinized soil and mycorrhizae on root hydraulic conductance and growth. Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly greater shoot and root dry weights, number of lateral branches and chlorophyll content than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Salt treatment reduced seedling growth in both

  8. Chlorophyll fluorescence, root growth potential, and stomatal conductance as estimates of field performance potential in conifer seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia J. L’Hirondelle; David G. Simpson; Wolfgang D. Binder

    2007-01-01

    After cold storage, conifer seedlings in British Columbia are tested for field growth potential before planting. We compared\\u000a three tests of performance potential using container-grown seedlings of Douglas-fir, interior spruce, lodgepole pine, and\\u000a western larch (14 seedlots total). On several autumn dates, seedlings were lifted and stored at ?2°C. The following spring\\u000a we tested stored seedlings for root growth potential

  9. Seedling Populations Produced by Colored-leaf Genotypes of Japanese Barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.) Contain Seedlings with Green Leaf Phenotype1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Lehrer; Mark H. Brand; Jessica D. Lubell

    2006-01-01

    The leaf color of seedling populations derived from ornamental genotypes of Japanese barberry ( Berberis thunbergii DC.) was evaluated to determine whether nursery selections of this important landscape plant could be expected to produce green-leaf progeny or seedlings with leaf color resembling the purple-leaf or yellow-leaf parent. This is a compelling inquiry since nearly all B. thunbergii plants found within

  10. Macro and micro nutrient contents of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) and eggplant ( Solatium melongena var. Esculentum ) seedlings and their effects on seedling growth in relation to humic acid application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dursun; I. Guven; M. Turan

    Plant performance mainly depends on characteristics of photosynthetically active organs. Many of these characteristics such\\u000a as growth performance and quality of seedlings are modified by ecological conditions and growing techniques. Production of\\u000a vegetable crops from seedlings is commonly practiced by vegetable growers. This study was conducted to determine macro and\\u000a micro nutrient contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and eggplant (Solanum

  11. Forty years of inoculating seedlings with truffle fungi: past and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Murat, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The first commercialization of seedlings inoculated with truffle fungi occurred in 1973. Over the last 40 years, considerable progress has been made relative to quality control for inoculated seedlings. A recently published paper by Andrés-Alpuente and colleagues (Mycorrhiza 24:29-37, 2014) reviewed and tested the different methods of mycorrhization assessment currently used in Europe. The aim of this paper is to augment their findings by adding information to the discussion about the most important steps in seedling quality control. Additionally, the history of seedlings inoculated with truffles, procedures currently used in France for seedling control quality, and a reflection on future research aimed at increasing truffle production will be presented. PMID:24989673

  12. Microclimate, freezing tolerance, and cold acclimation along an elevation gradient for seedlings of the Great Basin Desert shrub, Artemisia tridentata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E Loik; Sean P Redar

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation, microclimate, seedling frequency, freezing tolerance, and cold acclimation were compared for seedlings of Artemisia tridentata collected from 1775, 2175, and 2575 m elevation in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Data were used to test the hypothesis that ecotypic differences in stress physiology are important for seedling survival along gradients from desert to montane ecosystems. The vegetation canopy cover and

  13. DIFFERENTIAL STRESS-INDUCTION OF GLYOXYLATE ENZYMES AS A MARKER OF SEEDLING VIGOUR IN SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant differences in seedling vigour exist among sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hybrids. The seedling vigour trait likely is complex but efficient mobilization of seed storage reserves during germination and early seedling growth and in diverse environments must be considered. The involvement of...

  14. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  15. An elicitor in caterpillar oral secretions that induces corn seedlings to emit chemical signals attractive to parasitic wasps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted C. J. Turlings; Philip J. McCall; Hans T. Alborn; James H. Tumlinson

    1993-01-01

    Regurgitate of corn-fed beet armyworm (BAW) caterpillars,Spodoptera exigua, when applied to damaged sites of corn (Zea mays) seedlings, causes the release of relatively large amounts of terpenes by the seedlings several hours later. This plant response could be induced by merely placing the cut stem of seedlings in a solution of BAW regurgitate for 12 hr, a response that could

  16. Seedling herbivory by slugs in a willow hybrid system: developmental changes in damage, chemical defense, and plant performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Fritz; Cris G. Hochwender; Debra A. Lewkiewicz; Sara Bothwell; Colin M. Orians

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated feeding preference and damage by the slug, Arion subfuscus, on seedlings of two willow species, Salix sericea and S. eriocephala, and their F1 interspecific hybrids. Trays of seedlings were placed in the field and excised leaves were presented to slugs in choice tests. Slugs preferred feeding on and caused the most damage to S. eriocephala seedlings. S. sericea

  17. Root dipping of conifer seedlings shows little benefit in the northern Rocky Mountains. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.P.

    1994-07-01

    In the growth chamber, in the greenhouse, and in field studies, root dipping of bareroot lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and Engelmann spruce seedlings did not improve seedling survival, shoot growth, or root growth under dry soil conditions. Seedling root growth varied with tree species, soil type, and type of rood dip.

  18. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Para ´, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis; Jurandir Galvao

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Para ´, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory and in experimental canopy gaps. We found that only 1-2% of seedlings in

  19. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis; Mark S. Ashton; Jurandir Galvão

    2005-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory and in experimental canopy gaps. We found that only 1–2% of seedlings in the

  20. Effects of topsoil removal on seedling emergence and species diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with Plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed. A study was developed to determine the effects of topsoil removal on seedling emergence and plant species diversity. Trial plots were prepared by removing 5, 10, or 20 cm of topsoil, seeding a mix of nine native species, mulching with straw, and then anchoring the straw with erosion netting. Additional plots (0 topsoil removal treatment) were lightly bladed to remove existing vegetation and then treated as above. Approximately 85 mm of supplemental irrigation was applied to help initiate germination during early spring. Seedling density data of seeded and nonseeded species was collected following emergence, and species diversity was calculated with the Shannon diversity index for the nonseeded species. Densities of seeded species either were unaffected by or increased with increased depth of topsoil removal. In general, densities of nonseeded species decreased with increased depth of topsoil removal. The number of species, species diversity and evenness also decreased with increased depth of topsoil removal. Initial emergence of seeded species is apparently unaffected by topsoil removal at this site.

  1. Developmental Reaction Norms for Water Stressed Seedlings of Succulent Cacti

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Ulises; Zhou, Royce W.; Castillo, Guillermo; Collazo-Ortega, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Succulent cacti are remarkable plants with capabilities to withstand long periods of drought. However, their adult success is contingent on the early seedling stages, when plants are highly susceptible to the environment. To better understand their early coping strategies in a challenging environment, two developmental aspects (anatomy and morphology) in Polaskia chichipe and Echinocactus platyacanthus were studied in the context of developmental reaction norms under drought conditions. The morphology was evaluated using landmark based morphometrics and Principal Component Analysis, which gave three main trends of the variation in each species. The anatomy was quantified as number and area of xylem vessels. The quantitative relationship between morphology and anatomy in early stages of development, as a response to drought was revealed in these two species. Qualitatively, collapsible cells and collapsible parenchyma tissue were observed in seedlings of both species, more often in those subjected to water stress. These tissues were located inside the epidermis, resembling a web of collapsible-cell groups surrounding turgid cells, vascular bundles, and spanned across the pith. Occasionally the groups formed a continuum stretching from the epidermis towards the vasculature. Integrating the morphology and the anatomy in a developmental context as a response to environmental conditions provides a better understanding of the organism's dynamics, adaptation, and plasticity. PMID:22479481

  2. Effects of bisphenol A on chlorophyll synthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liya; Wang, Lihong; Qiu, Zhiyong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), as an emerging environmental pollutant, is potentially harmful to plant growth. Chlorophyll (Chl) is critical in photosynthesis that provides matter and energy for plant growth. How BPA affects the chlorophyll content remains largely unknown. Here, the effects of BPA on Chl synthesis in soybean seedlings were investigated. Exposure to 1.5 mg/L BPA decreased the 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) content and increased protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), magnesium protoporphyrin, and protochlorophyll contents and 5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase, porphobilinogen deaminase, uroporphyrinogen III synthase, uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase activities. Exposure to 17.2 and 50.0 mg/L BPA exerted the opposite effects on these four intermediates and five enzymes. Following the withdrawal of BPA exposure, the aforementioned parameters gradually recovered, except magnesium protoporphyrin content in exposure to 50.0 mg/L BPA. Our findings revealed that exposure to low-concentration BPA increased the Chl content in soybean seedlings through improving Chl synthesis, especially the conversion from ALA to Proto IX, whereas exposure to high-concentration BPA decreased the Chl content through inhibiting Chl synthesis, especially the conversion from ALA to Proto IX. The dual effects of BPA were largely reversed following the withdrawal of BPA exposure. PMID:25352395

  3. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vianello, F; Malek-Mirzayans, A; Di Paolo, M L; Stevanato, R; Rigo, A

    1999-03-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid procedure for the purification of pea seedling amine oxidase is reported. The crude enzyme, obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation, was purified in two steps: the first one by anion-exchange chromatography and the second one by affinity chromatography. The first chromatography step was carried out on a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. By lowering the amount of protein loaded on the column and the buffer concentration it was possible to obtain an enzyme pure at 95% (sp act 1.2 microkat/mg). To achieve a higher degree of purification various affinity resins were prepared and tested. The resins were obtained by covalent immobilization of polyamines on Sepharose according to three different procedures. The best results were obtained with 6-aminohexyl-Sepharose 2B, prepared using CNBr as coupling agent, and eluting the enzyme by a solution containing 1, 4-diaminocyclohexane. This last compound was found to be a relatively strong competitive inhibitor of the oxidative deamination of cadaverine catalyzed by pea seedling amine oxidase (Ki = 32 microM). According to this procedure an electrophoretically homogeneous enzyme, characterized by a specific activity of 1.63 microkat/mg, was obtained. PMID:10049675

  4. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  5. Some Factors Regulating Auxin Translocation in Intact Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Long, John; Basler, Eddie

    1973-01-01

    Several factors which influence the translocation patterns of stem-injected indoleacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Stringless Greenpod) were characterized. The acropetal translocation of auxin from the site of injection is markedly sensitive to concentration in the range of 1.0 to 5.0 micrograms per plant. The antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid enhanced translocation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the growing shoots and primary leaves. Translocation to the roots was unaffected by p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid while leaching of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid into the nutrient solution was enhanced slightly. Steam girdling experiments revealed that translocation to the primary leaves was in the xylem. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited accumulation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in young shoots, epicotyls, and roots and enhanced accumulation in the primary leaves. The relative exchangeability of auxin between xylem and phloem is discussed in terms of regulation of auxin movements in intact bean seedlings. Images PMID:16658273

  6. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness. PMID:22028890

  7. Influence of Litter and Weather on Seedling Recruitment in a Mixed Oak–Pine Woodland

    PubMed Central

    DZWONKO, ZBIGNIEW; GAWRO?SKI, STEFAN

    2002-01-01

    The effects of regular litter removal and annual variation in temperature and precipitation on seedling recruitment of species differing in their seed size and mode of dispersal were studied in a 16?year (1984–1999) experiment in a mixed oak–pine wood in southern Poland. Litter was the most important factor in determining spatial variability in seedling recruitment, whereas differences in climatic conditions among years, especially temperature fluctuations in late winter and early spring, determined the temporal variability in seedling recruitment. Compared with control plots, significantly more new individuals of bryophytes and seedlings as well as a number of new species of vascular plants were noted in the litter?removal plots over the 16?year study. Litter strongly impeded seedling emergence of small?seeded species. The negative effect of litter on seedling recruitment of large?seeded species and the recruitment of new shoots in species growing clonally was much weaker. There was a significant positive correlation between the numbers of seedlings in the litter?removal and control plots and temperatures in January to March. In the litter?removal plots this mainly affected small?seeded species. Seedling recruitment was less consistently related to variation in precipitation. Positive relationships were found only between the number of seedlings of large?seeded species in the litter?removal plots and precipitation in July of the current year and in September of the previous year, and between the number of seedlings in the control plots and precipitation in September and November of the previous year. PMID:12197522

  8. Effects of Burial in Sand and Water Supply Regime on Seedling Emergence of Six Species

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, YUANRUN; XIE, ZHIXIAO; YU, YI; JIANG, LIANHE; SHIMIZU, HIDEYUKI; RIMMINGTON, GLYN M.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Air seeding has long been regarded as a quick and successful measure for vegetation rehabilitation in China. However, seedling emergence of often-used species including Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii and Medicago sativa is low. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to study the effects of sowing depth and water supply on seedling emergence, in order to understand the requirements for increasing seedling emergence. • Methods Seeds were exposed to different environments of burial and water supply regimes in PVC pots (7 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height) under the same light intensity and alternating temperature regimes in a growth chamber. • Key Results Seedlings of three species (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica) with relatively light seeds emerged well at a 0·5 cm sowing depth under a 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regime. However, few seedlings of these species emerged when the sowing depth was over 1 cm or when water supply was 5 mm. Seedlings of Caragana korshinskii, Hedysarum fruticosum and Medicago sativa emerged from sowing depths of 0·5–4 cm, 0·5–3 cm, and 0·5–4 cm, respectively, under both 7·5 and 10 mm water supply regimes. Under a 5 mm water supply regime, seedlings of these species also emerged at over 1 cm sowing depth. Seeds of all six species sown on the surface of sand did not germinate, and seedlings did not emerge when they were sown at depths greater than 6 cm. • Conclusions Based on these experiments, a 0·5 cm sowing depth resulted in the highest seedling emergence and it is concluded that this is the optimal sowing depth for seedling emergence of all six species. PMID:15820988

  9. Ethanolamide Oxylipins of Linolenic Acid Can Negatively Regulate Arabidopsis Seedling Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Keereetaweep, Jantana; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Chapman, Kent D.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are fatty-acid derivatives with potent biological activities in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Polyunsaturated NAEs are among the most abundant NAE types in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, and they can be metabolized by either fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by lipoxygenase (LOX) to low levels during seedling establishment. Here, we identify and quantify endogenous oxylipin metabolites of N-linolenoylethanolamine (NAE 18:3) in Arabidopsis seedlings and show that their levels were higher in faah knockout seedlings. Quantification of oxylipin metabolites in lox mutants demonstrated altered partitioning of NAE 18:3 into 9- or 13-LOX pathways, and this was especially exaggerated when exogenous NAE was added to seedlings. When maintained at micromolar concentrations, NAE 18:3 specifically induced cotyledon bleaching of light-grown seedlings within a restricted stage of development. Comprehensive oxylipin profiling together with genetic and pharmacological interference with LOX activity suggested that both 9-hydroxy and 13-hydroxy linolenoylethanolamides, but not corresponding free fatty-acid metabolites, contributed to the reversible disruption of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of seedling cotyledons. We suggest that NAE oxylipins of linolenic acid represent a newly identified, endogenous set of bioactive compounds that may act in opposition to progression of normal seedling development and must be depleted for successful establishment. PMID:24151297

  10. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Liu, Changqu

    2014-01-01

    Although resprouting plays an important role in facilitating persistence of damaged seedlings, the functional attributes of cotyledons and taproots during resprouting of 1-year oak seedlings are not well explored. In this study, cotyledons were removed from Quercus mongolica seedlings to explore resprouting in response to simulated disturbance as a function of shoot clipping, and to examine the resprouting ability in relation to timing of clipping and cotyledon removal. Isotope labeling experiments were also performed to evaluate contribution of the cotyledons and taproots to resprouting. Regardless of timing of shoot clipping, seedlings successfully resprouted provided their cotyledons were not detached. Clipped seedlings were less likely to resprout when cotyledons were removed. Seedlings clipped at earlier development stage exhibited higher resprouting capacity than those clipped at later stage. Cotyledon removal, more than timing of clipping, decreased the dry masses of newly-resprouted shoots. However, no significant influences of cotyledon removal and timing of clipping were found on the dry masses of roots, suggesting the importance of cotyledons for resprouting. Roots became functional and accumulated more soil nitrogen after shoot clipping and cotyledon removal, representing a double security-based strategy for the clipped seedlings to resprout despite the importance of cotyledons. PMID:24888417

  11. Localization of [gamma]-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase and Glutathione Synthetase Activity in Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Ruegsegger, A.; Brunold, C.

    1993-01-01

    Fresh weight, protein, cysteine, [gamma]-glutamylcysteine, glutathione, and the extractable activity of the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis, [gamma]-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2) and glutathione synthetase (EC 6.3.2.3), were measured in roots, scutella, endosperms, and shoots of 3-, 7-, and 11-d-old maize (Zea mays L. cv LG 9) seedlings. In 3-d-old seedlings, the scutella represented 14% of the seedling fresh weight, containing 43% of total protein and 63 and 55% of the activity of [gamma]-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, respectively; in 11-d-old seedlings, the corresponding values were 4.5% for fresh weight, 8.0% for protein content, and 14 and 20% for the enzyme activities. The highest concentrations of thiols were found for cysteine (0.27 mM) in the roots, for glutathione (4.4 mM) in the shoots, and for [gamma]-glutamylcysteine (13 [mu]M) in the scutella of 3-d-old seedlings. The enzyme activities of roots were localized in subcellular fractions after sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Nearly half of the [gamma]-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was detected in the root proplastids of 4-d-old seedlings, whereas <10% of the glutathione synthetase activity was localized in this organelle. Our results demonstrate the importance of scutella in glutathione synthesis in the early stage of seedling development. Unlike chloroplasts, root plastids show only a small proportion of glutathione synthetase activity. PMID:12231710

  12. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

  13. Sharing rotting wood in the shade: ectomycorrhizal communities of co-occurringbirch and hemlock seedlings.

    PubMed

    Poznanovic, Sarah K; Lilleskov, Erik A; Webster, Christopher R

    2015-02-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD)is an important nursery environment for many tree species. Understanding the communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF)and the effect of ECMF species on tree seedling condition in CWD will elucidate the potential for ECMF-mediatedeffects on seedling dynamics. In hemlock-dominatedstands, we characterized ECMF communities associated with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt) seedling pairs growing on CWD. Seedling foliage and CWD were analyzed chemically, and seedling growth, canopy cover, and canopy species determined. Thirteen fungal taxa, 12 associated with birch, and 6 with hemlock, were identified based on morphology and ITS sequencing. Five species were shared by co-occurringbirch and hemlock, representing 75 % of ectomycorrhizal root tips. Rarified ECMF taxon richness per seedling was higher on birch than hemlock. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed significant correlations between ordination axes, the mutually exclusive ECMF Tomentella and Lactarius spp., foliar N and K, CWD pH, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Seedlings colonized by Lactarius and T. sublilacina differed significantly in foliar K and N, and CWD differed in exchangeable Ca and Mg. CWD pH and nutrient concentrations were low but foliar macro-nutrientconcentrations were not. We hypothesize that the dominant ECMF are adapted to low root carbohydrate availability typical in shaded environments but differ in their relative supply of different nutrients. PMID:25091153

  14. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  15. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  16. Ethanolamide oxylipins of linolenic acid can negatively regulate Arabidopsis seedling development.

    PubMed

    Keereetaweep, Jantana; Blancaflor, Elison B; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are fatty-acid derivatives with potent biological activities in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Polyunsaturated NAEs are among the most abundant NAE types in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, and they can be metabolized by either fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by lipoxygenase (LOX) to low levels during seedling establishment. Here, we identify and quantify endogenous oxylipin metabolites of N-linolenoylethanolamine (NAE 18:3) in Arabidopsis seedlings and show that their levels were higher in faah knockout seedlings. Quantification of oxylipin metabolites in lox mutants demonstrated altered partitioning of NAE 18:3 into 9- or 13-LOX pathways, and this was especially exaggerated when exogenous NAE was added to seedlings. When maintained at micromolar concentrations, NAE 18:3 specifically induced cotyledon bleaching of light-grown seedlings within a restricted stage of development. Comprehensive oxylipin profiling together with genetic and pharmacological interference with LOX activity suggested that both 9-hydroxy and 13-hydroxy linolenoylethanolamides, but not corresponding free fatty-acid metabolites, contributed to the reversible disruption of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of seedling cotyledons. We suggest that NAE oxylipins of linolenic acid represent a newly identified, endogenous set of bioactive compounds that may act in opposition to progression of normal seedling development and must be depleted for successful establishment. PMID:24151297

  17. Seasonal differences in needle gas exchange between mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    In 1990, an interactive study was initiated to understand the differing physiological and morphological response of mature tissue and seedling tissue to stress. The study was conducted at the Air Pollution and Climate Change Exposure Facility in a Pinus ponderosa seed production orchard at the US Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, CA. The orchard consists of clonal trees and the authors have planted half-sibling seedlings which correspond to the mature clones which were measured. Both the mature trees and seedlings were regularly irrigated and fertilized. The result is that they have minimized the genetic and environmental differences that might otherwise influence the physiological differences between mature and seedling tissue. One of the physiological parameters which was measured was seasonal and diurnal gas exchange using a LICOR 6200. They measured gas exchange in November 1989, March, July, and October 1990. They found that throughout the year, all gas exchange components (eg. photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance) were significantly greater for seedling tissue. Photosynthetic differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 1.1 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and 0.5 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Transpiration differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 2.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}2{sup {minus}1} and 1.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Finally, gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue were greater for current needles than one-year old needles. The results of this study demonstrate that gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue observed in the field may be the result of inherent physiological differences, and not merely genetic and environmental differences.

  18. Seedling–herbivore interactions: insights into plant defence and regeneration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kasey E.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivores have the power to shape plant evolutionary trajectories, influence the structure and function of vegetation, devastate entire crops, or halt the spread of invasive weeds, and as a consequence, research into plant–herbivore interactions is pivotal to our understanding of plant ecology and evolution. However, the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory have received remarkably little attention, despite the fact that plants tend to be most susceptible to herbivory during establishment, and this damage can alter community composition and structure. Scope In this Viewpoint article we review why herbivory during early plant ontogeny is important and in so doing introduce an Annals of Botany Special Issue that draws together the latest work on the topic. In a synthesis of the existing literature and a collection of new studies, we examine several linked issues. These include the development and expression of seedling defences and patterns of selection by herbivores, and how seedling selection affects plant establishment and community structure. We then examine how disruption of the seedling–herbivore interaction might affect normal patterns of plant community establishment and discuss how an understanding of patterns of seedling herbivory can aid our attempts to restore semi-natural vegetation. We finish by outlining a number of areas where more research is required. These include a need for a deeper consideration of how endogenous and exogenous factors determine investment in seedling defence, particularly for the very youngest plants, and a better understanding of the phylogenetic and biogeographical patterns of seedling defence. There is also much still be to be done on the mechanisms of seedling selection by herbivores, particularly with respect to the possible involvement of volatile cues. These inter-related issues together inform our understanding of how seedling herbivory affects plant regeneration at a time when anthropogenic change is likely to disrupt this long-established, but all-too-often ignored interaction. PMID:23925939

  19. Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

  20. The structure of the stem endodermis in etiolated pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1987-01-01

    Differentiation of the endodermis was examined in third internodes of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska seedlings. The endodermis in young internodes contains large, sedimented amyloplasts; in older internodes, a casparian strip differentiates and the endodermis becomes depleted of starch except for the proximal region of the stem, which retains sedimented amyloplasts and remains graviresponsive. Sedimentation occurs in the hook but does not occur consistently until cells reach the base of the hook, where the axis becomes vertical, rapid cell elongation starts, and amyloplast diameter increases substantially. Contact between endoplasmic reticulum and amyloplasts was observed. Endoplasmic reticulum is not distributed polarly with respect to gravity. No symplastic or apoplastic blockages exist in the endodermis at the level of the stem where lateral gradients may be established during tropic curvature.

  1. Vegetation management for reducing mortality of ponderosa pine seedlings from Thomomys spp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G., Jr.; Anthony, M.; and others

    1995-01-01

    The effects of vegetation management on Mazama pocket gopher activity and damage to ponderosa pine seedlings were studied using atrazine herbicide to alter the habitat. Atrazine treatments were applied to a large treatment unit and observed effects were compared to an untreated control unit. The greatly reduced forb and grass cover on the treated unit was associated with a corresponding decrease in pocket gopher activity. Times until seedlings first incurred gopher damage and overall survival of two cohorts of seedlings were greatly increased on the treated unit.

  2. Enantioselective effects of chiral herbicide diclofop acid on rice Xiushui 63 seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Anping; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity (72-h EC50 values) of chiral diclofop acid towards rice Xiushui 63 seedlings and its effects on the Hill reaction activities of chloroplasts were determined. Significant differences were observed between the two enantiomers in 72-h EC50 values and in both in vivo and in vitro relative Hill reaction activities. These observations indicate that the enantiomers of diclofop acid pose different toxicities to rice seedlings: the S-enantiomer is more toxic to leaves and the R-enantiomer is more toxic to roots. These enantioselective toxic effects on rice seedlings should be taken into account in chiral herbicide application. PMID:19452112

  3. Development of the crone seedlings handling system using 3D-sensor and force control gripper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojo, Hirotaka; Takarada, Hiroshi; Hiroyasu, Takahisa; Hata, Seiji

    2005-12-01

    The crone seedlings have unstable form and it is hard to handle. In order to transplant crone seedlings automatically, the functions of 3D-shape recognition and force control of grippers are indispensable. We have introduced the new handling technology which combines the 3D-mesurement using the relative stereo method and gripping method by gripping stroke control for high elasticity forceps structure. In this gripping method, the gripping force is controlled according to the shoot diameter which is measured by 3d-mesurment of relative stereo method. The experimental crone seedlings transplant system using the new handling technique has been shown.

  4. Alkaloids of young ponderosa pine seedlings and late steps in the biosynthesis of pinidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne N. Tawara; Frank R. Stermitz; Andrei V. Blokhin

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) piperidine alkaloid accumulation from seeds to 28-day-old seedlings was assessed. Seeds were devoid of alkaloids but eight-day-old seedlings contained several alkaloids whose concentrations remained low with continued growth, while the concentration of pinidine [cis-2-methyl-6-(2-propenyl)-piperidine] steadily increased. 13C-Labelled cis-pinidinone [cis-2-methyl-6-(2-oxopropyl)-piperidine] was taken up through seedling roots and was incorporated into pinidine.

  5. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity by phosphate salts in mungbean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Swarnakar, Arpita; Mukherji, Subhendu

    2005-07-01

    Sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4.7H2O) is a potent inhibitor of mungbean seed germination and seedling growth. Germination is totally stopped at or above 50 microM Na2HAsO4.7H2O. Inhibition of seedling elongation started at a lower concentration of 5 microM As(V) and was drastically reduced at 20 microM As(V). Nutrients like salts of macroelements viz., NaH2PO4.2H2O, KH2PO4, K2SO4, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, (NH4)2SO4 NH4NO3 solutions at a concentration of 10mM and microelements viz., ZnSO4, CuSO4.5H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, MnCl2.4H2O, CoCl2.6H2O, FeSO4.7H2O solutions at a concentration of 1mM could help to ameliorate the toxic effects of As(V) to different degrees. Amelioration of As(V) toxicity was possible only when the mungbean seeds were pretreated with the above mentioned nutrients for 24 hr and then transferred to sodium arsenate. Simultaneous treatment of nutrients with As(V) or using nutrient solutions following As(V) treatment were of no help to reverse the toxic effects of sodium arsenate. PMID:16334296

  6. Two Approaches to Evaluate Drought Tolerance in Maize: Seedling Stress Response and Epicuticular Wax Accumulation

    E-print Network

    Meeks, Meghyn

    2010-12-02

    and epicuticular wax accumulation as predictors of drought tolerance. The seedling screening method measured germination, survival and recovery percentages after a series of drought cycles in a greenhouse environment. Eight inbred lines had significantly (P < 0...

  7. SEED HYDRATION-DEHYDRATION IN AN ALLELOCHEMICAL AFFECTS SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coumarin is an allelochemical widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Several researchers have reported that, depending on the concentration, this plant compound inhibits or delays germination, and will inhibit or stunt radicle elongation. However, the seed germination and seedling growth...

  8. Light and temperature differentially colimit subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce seedling

    E-print Network

    Massicotte, Hugues

    spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) seedling croissance de semis d'épinette (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) et de sapin (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook

  9. Forest microhabitats differentially influence seedling1 phenology of two co-existing Mediterranean oak species2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    seedling strategies in two co-occurring Mediterranean Quercus species with5 different leaf habits.6 conditions. We ask how forest microhabitats impact seasonal microclimatic4 conditions and phenological

  10. Use of TREGRO to simulate the effects of ozone on the growth of red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.; Kohut, R.J.; Amundson, R.G. (Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1993-08-01

    TREGRO, a model developed to simulate the growth of sapling red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), was parameterized to grow 2- to 3-yr-old seedlings. Results of the simulation compared favorably to actual growth of seedlings used in a field study of the effects of ozone and acidic precipitation on tree physiology and development. Furthermore, a 10-yr simulation produced a modeled tree that corresponded to saplings used in another field experiment. Additional simulations were conducted to compare predicted effects of ozone on seedling growth to those measured in controlled experiments. Based on the performance of the model, we believe TREGRO can be used effectively to simulate both seedling and sapling red spruce growth, and the potential effects of ozone on the development of the trees. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Ting Li; Zong-Bo Qiu; Xiao-Wei Zhang; Lin-Song Wang

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an active oxygen species, is widely generated in many biological systems and mediates various physiological and biochemical\\u000a processes in plants. In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous H2O2 was able to improve the tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress. Treatments with exogenous H2O2 for 2 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the

  12. Efficient generation of 2 E-hexenal by a hydroperoxide lyase from mung bean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Rehbock; D. Gan?er; R. G. Berger

    1998-01-01

    2E-hexenal was generated with a high molar conversion rate by the incubation of a hydroperoxide lyase containing extract from mung bean seedlings and its substrate, 13-hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E, 15Z-octadecatrienoic acid (13-HPOT). Various parameters affected the yield of 2E-hexenal and the conversion rate: hydroperoxide lyase activity was especially, pronounced in seedlings older than 10 days. The cleavage of 13-HPOT by a solubilized

  13. Chilling stress suppresses chloroplast development and nuclear gene expression in leaves of mung bean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Tzong Yang; Shu-Ling Chen; Chu-Yung Lin; Yih-Ming Chen

    2005-01-01

    Etiolated leaves of 28°C-dark-grown mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. 2937) seedlings fail to turn green after being shifted to a light and cold environment. At the visible phenotypic level, incapability of leaf greening is the only failure event for the de-etiolation of mung bean seedlings at low temperature. Ultrastructural studies revealed that chloroplast development was completely suppressed by chilling

  14. Microsite and litter cover effects on soil conditions and seedling recruitment in a saline agricultural system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Farrell; Christopher Szota; Richard J. Hobbs; Timothy D. Colmer

    Successful revegetation of saline land is dependent on seedling recruitment to maintain vegetative cover for lowering of saline\\u000a water tables and agricultural production. This paper examines seasonal effects of tree\\/shrub microsites and leaf-litter on\\u000a soil conditions and seedling recruitment in a saline grazing system planted with Eucalyptus sargentii Maiden tree rows (15 years old) and saltbush (Atriplex spp.) inter-rows (8 years old).

  15. Primate extirpation from rainforest fragments does not appear to influence seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Oscarm M; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Stoner, Kathryne E

    2015-04-01

    Primates are important seed dispersers, especially of large-seeded tree species, but the impact that these animals have on seedling recruitment is unclear. Evidence suggests that forest regeneration might be disrupted in forest fragments in which primates were extirpated. We tested this hypothesis by assessing seedling recruitment in 3 forest fragments occupied (OF) by primates, 3 fragments unoccupied (UF) by primates, and 3 areas within a continuous forest (CF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. Species and stem densities of tree, palm and liana seedlings were recorded over 16 months. Individuals were classified according to dispersal mode: large-seeded animal-dispersed (LS), small- and medium-seeded animal-dispersed (SS), and abiotically-dispersed species (AD). We assessed the influence of primate presence, adult tree assemblage, and fragment spatial metrics (size, age, distance to nearest fragment, and distance to continuous forest) on seedling assemblages. We recorded 6879 seedlings belonging to 90 species, and 59 genera in 405 1-m(2) plots. Both seedlings and adults showed similar differences in species and stem densities of LS, SS and AD species among forest types, suggesting that seedling assemblages were strongly influenced by the adult assemblages. The recruitment of each LS species varied among study sites, but evidence supporting higher recruitment enhancement of these species in continuous forest and occupied fragments was weak. Distance to continuous forest was the unique fragment spatial metric related (negatively) to the recruitment of LS species. Thus, primate extirpation does not appear to disrupt seedling assemblages in the Lancandona rainforest. Nevertheless, we cannot reject the hypothesis that certain LS species such as Spondias radlkoferi may be affected by the extirpation of primates. Am. J. Primatol. 77:468-478, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25556633

  16. Magnetic field can alleviate toxicological effect induced by cadmium in mungbean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-ping; Li, Ran; He, Jun-Min

    2011-06-01

    To alleviate toxicological effect induced by cadmium in mungbean seedlings, seeds were divided into four groups: The controls groups (CK, without treatment), magnetic field treated groups (MF), cadmium treated groups (CS), and magnetic field treated followed by cadmium treated groups (MF + CS).The results showed: (i) Compared with the controls, cadmium stress resulted in enhancing in the concentration of malondialdehyde, H(2)O(2) and O(2-), and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage while decreasing in the nitrice oxide synthase (NOS) activity, the concentration of nitrice oxide (NO), chlorophyll and total carbon and nitrogen, the net photosynthetic rate, the stomatal conductance, the transpiration rate, the water use efficiency, the lateral number and seedlings growth except for intercellular CO(2) concentration increase. However, the seedlings treated with 600 mT magnetic field followed by cadmium stress the concentration of malondialdehyde, H(2)O(2) and O(2-), and the conductivity of electrolyte leakage decreased, while the above mentioned NO concentration, NOS activity, photosynthesis and growth parameters increased compared to cadmium stress alone. (ii) Compared with the cadmium stress (CS), the seedling growth were inhibited when the seeds were treated with NO scavenger (hemoglobin, HB) and inhibition of NO generating enzyme (sodium tungstate, ST), conversely, the seedling growth were improved by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and CaCl(2). In the case of the HB and ST treatment followed by magnetic field and then the seedling subjected to CS, the seedlings growth was better than that of hemoglobin (HB) followed by CS and ST followed by CS. The seeds were treated with SNP and CaCl(2) followed by MF, and then subjected to CS, the seedlings growth were better than that of SNP followed by CS, and CaCl(2) followed by CS. These results suggested that magnetic field compensates for the toxicological effects of cadmium exposure are related to NO signal. PMID:21400092

  17. Antioxidant responses to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition in birch seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Koricheva; Sashwati Roy; John A. Vranjic; Erkki Haukioja; Patrick R. Hughes; Osmo Hänninen

    1997-01-01

    This study measured the responses of different anti-oxidants in 2-year-old birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings subjected to simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) and heavy metals (CuNi), applied alone or in combination for 2 months. The applied concentrations of pollutants did not significantly affect seedling biomass or total glutathione levels. Acid rain alone increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity both in leaves

  18. Plant growth enhancement and disease control by Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable seedlings grown under commercial conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Inbar; M. Abramsky; D. Cohen; I. Chet

    1994-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum was applied to cucumber and pepper seedlings as a peat-bran preparation incorporated into the propagative mixture in a commercial production nursery. On marketing day (after 18 and 30 days for cucumber and pepper, respectively), significant increases of 23.8% and 17.2% in seedling height, 96.1% and 50% in leaf area, and 24.7% and 28.6% in plant dry weight were

  19. Seed Size Effects on Seedling Emergence of Desert Psammophytes in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tobe; Liping Zhang; Kenji Omasa

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of seed size on the behavior of seeds and seedlings in sand, seedling emergence from sand was examined in Caragana korshinskii (Fabaceae; mean seed weight 65 mg) and Atraphaxis bracteata (Polygonaceae; mean seed weight 5.7 mg), two shrubs with nonphotoblastic seeds that grow on desert sand dunes in China. Seeds were sown at depths of 0 to 50 mm

  20. Heat shock protein Hsp90-2 expression in the Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    Heat shock proteins 90 kDa (Hsp90) are abundant under normal conditions and induced by stress. This family is distinguished from other chaperones in that most of its substrates are signal transduction proteins. Previously, we determined some time-dependent increase in the Hsp90 level in pea seedlings in response to simulated microgravity that indicated a stress-reaction. However, expression of the individual members of the Hsp90 family have specific pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations in the gene expression pattern of cytosolic Hsp90-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under 2D-clinorotation. To obtain detailed expression pattern of the HSP90-2 genes we used seeds that provides a resource of loss-of-function mutations gene expression patterns via translational fusions with the reporter gene, GUS (a line N 166718, NASC). There were two variants of the experiment: 1) seedlings grew under clinorotation for 10, 12, 14 d; 2) seedlings grew in the stationary conditions for 10 d followed by clinorotation for 3 h -at 22o C and 16h light cycle. The seedlings grown in the stationary conditions were used as a control. GUS staining showed that HSP90-2 expression was regulated during seedling development and affected by clinorotation in the heterozygous mutant plants. In the homozygous for the mutation plants, HSP90-2 expression was stable during seedling development and not affected by clinorotation. GUS staining was observed in cotyledons, leaves and hypocotyls of the seedlings (especially intense in vascular bundles), indicating intensive cellular processes with participation of this chaperone. Possible pathways of influence of clinorotation on HSP90-2 expression are discussed.

  1. Toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on metabolism of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kirbag Zengin; O. Munzuroglu

    2006-01-01

    Effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2H2O) on the content of chlorophyll (a?+?b), chlorophyll a\\/b ratio, proline, protein and abscisic acid in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings has been investigated. One-week-old seedlings were grown at cadmium concentration of 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 mM for ten days in Hoagland's solution. Elevated cadmium levels increased the abscisic acid contents in roots, shoots and leaves

  2. Reproductive strategy of an invasive thistle: effects of adults on seedling survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin G. Marushia; Jodie S. Holt

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species are known for their ability to form monocultures that exclude native species, yet intraspecific interactions\\u000a among invasives have not been well studied. Cynara cardunculus (L.) is an invasive perennial thistle that establishes high-density populations in coastal California grasslands. We examined\\u000a the natural distribution of C. cardunculus seedlings in an established population and found that nearly 100% of seedlings grew

  3. Induction by thidiazuron of somatic embryogenesis in intact seedlings of peanut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen K. Saxena; Kamal A. Malik; R. Gill

    1992-01-01

    In planta differentiation of somatic embryos was induced in seedlings of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) obtained from mature seeds germinated on a medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ: N-phenyl-N1- (1,2,3 thiadiazol-yl)urea). At optimum levels of TDZ (10 µM), all germinating seeds produced embryogenic seedlings, and somatic embryos developed in the apical region and on the surface of cotyledons and hypocotyls. These

  4. Competition for soil water between annual plants and blue oak ( Quercus douglasii ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Gordon; J. M. Menke; K. J. Rice

    1989-01-01

    We examined the competitive effects of two annual species on soil water potential and blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook & Arn.) seedling growth and water relations. Two densities of the annual grass Bromus diandrus (Roth.) (100\\/dm2, 3.6\\/dm2) and one density of the annual forb Erodium botrys (Cav.) (3.6\\/dm2) comprised plant neighborhoods around the oak seedlings grown in 1 m deep

  5. Factors affecting emergence and seedling vigor of kleingrass and Yuchi arrowleaf clover

    E-print Network

    Belkhiria, Mohsen Taoufik

    1981-01-01

    (Trifolium v siculosum Savi. ). Inoculation procedures included seed treatment with gum arabic (GA) only, GA and peat inoculum, and peat inoculum in. water. Seedling emergence from kleingrass seed seemed to be related more to genotype than to seed size... the style and format of the Agronomy Journal. seedling emergence, vigor, and nodulation of Yuchi arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi. ). REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Effects of Seedin De th and Soil Moisture on Seedlin Emer ence In practice, little...

  6. Impacts of seedling herbivory on plant competition and implications for species coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, M. E.; Sykes, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Although the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory for plant community composition are well understood, the mechanisms by which herbivores influence plant species recruitment to the established phase remain less clear. The aim was to examine how variation in the intensity of seedling herbivory interacts with growth-defence trade-offs and herbivore feeding preferences to affect plant community development. Methods Using 14-d-old seedlings of Trifolium pratense and T. repens, relative growth and susceptibility to herbivory by the snail Helix aspersa was quantified to elucidate putative growth-defence trade-offs for these species. Then mixed assemblages of 14-d-old Trifolium seedlings were exposed to herbivory by zero, two, five or ten snails and determined how variation in the intensity of herbivory affected competitive interactions into the mature phase (as measured by total plant biomass at 120 d old). Key Results In the absence of herbivory, communities were dominated by T. pratense; a result expected on the basis that it yielded larger and presumably more competitive seedlings. However, when seedlings were exposed to herbivory, the balance of competition shifted. At low levels of herbivory (two snails), both Trifolium species contributed equally to total plant biomass. More intense herbivory (five snails) resulted in almost total mortality of T. pratense and dominance of the mature community by T. repens. The most intense herbivory (ten snails) effectively removed all seedlings from the experimental community. Conclusions The study illustrates a mechanism whereby spatio-temporal fluctuations in seedling herbivory, when coupled with species-specific variation in competitive ability and sensitivity to herbivore attack, can differentially influence plant recruitment into the mature phase. This mechanism may be a key element in our attempts to understand plant species coexistence, since fluctuations in plant recruitment are fundamental to the many theories that view coexistence as a consequence of a spatio-temporal lottery for dominance over regeneration micro-sites. PMID:19351683

  7. Inhibitions of cotton seedling growth by volatile ketones emitted by cover crop residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith M. Bradow

    1993-01-01

    Low-input, sustainable agriculture (LISA) systems can include soil incorporation of residues of weeds and legume cover crop species. However, both seed germination and seedling growth of crops, including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), are inhibited by volatile organic compounds emitted by these residues during decomposition. A cotton seedling-growth assay was used to demonstrate that C4 through C9 ketones released by decomposing

  8. Photosynthetic response to precipitation\\/rainfall in predominant tree ( Ulmus pumila ) seedlings in Hunshandak Sandland, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-G. Li; G.-M. Jiang; M.-Z. Liu; S.-L. Niu; L.-M. Gao; X.-C. Cao

    2007-01-01

    The responses of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of field-growing Ulmus pumila seedlings to changes in simulated precipitation were studied in Hunshandak Sandland, China. Leaf water potential (?wp), net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N), stomatal conductance (g\\u000a s), and transpiration rate (E) were significantly increased with enhancement of precipitation from 0 to 20 mm (pU. pumila seedlings that could be avoided

  9. Factors affecting the production of terpenes in seedlings of Pinus elliottii

    E-print Network

    Ishihara, Hiroichi

    1987-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF TERPENES IN SEEDLINGS OF PINUS FLLIOITII A Thesis HIROICHI ISHIHARA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... ( ember) J. Charles Lee (Department Head) May 1987 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting the Prcduction of Terpenes in Seedlings of Pinus elliottii. (May 1987) Hiroichi Ishihara, B. S. , Kyoto University, Japan Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ed J. Soltes...

  10. Persistence and dissipation of dazomet in soil and tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goutam K. Pandit; Amitava Bhattacharya; Asit K. Das

    2000-01-01

    The persistence and dissipation pattern of dazomet residues in nursery bed soil and tomato seedlings under field condition and in submerged soil and surface water under laboratory condition was studied. In nursery bed soil the half life (t1\\/2) of dazomet ranged from 1.85 to 3.09 days indicating very rapid dissipation. No residues existed in tomato seedlings sown on the treated

  11. Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: a conceptual framework using mangroves.

    PubMed

    Balke, Thorsten; Webb, Edward L; van den Elzen, Eva; Galli, Demis; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2013-06-01

    1. Vegetated biogeomorphic systems (e.g. mangroves, salt marshes, dunes, riparian vegetation) have been intensively studied for the impact of the biota on sediment transport processes and the resulting self-organization of such landscapes. However, there is a lack of understanding of physical disturbance mechanisms that limit primary colonization in active sedimentary environments. 2. This study elucidates the effect of sediment disturbance during the seedling stage of pioneer vegetation, using mangroves as a model system. We performed mesocosm experiments that mimicked sediment disturbance as (i) accretion/burial of plants and (ii) erosion/excavation of plants of different magnitudes and temporal distribution in combination with water movement and inundation stress. 3. Cumulative sediment disturbance reduced seedling survival, with the faster-growing Avicennia alba showing less mortality than the slower-growing Sonneratia alba. The presence of the additional stressors (inundation and water movement) predominantly reduced the survival of S. alba. 4. Non-lethal accretion treatments increased shoot biomass of the seedlings, whereas non-lethal erosion treatments increased root biomass allocation. This morphological plasticity in combination with the abiotic disturbance history determined how much maximum erosion the seedlings were able to withstand. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seedling survival in dynamic sedimentary environments is determined by the frequency and magnitude of sediment accretion or erosion events, with non-lethal events causing feedbacks to seedling stability. Managers attempting restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, dunes and riparian vegetation should recognize sediment dynamics as a main bottleneck to primary colonization. The temporal distribution of erosion and accretion events has to be evaluated against the ability of the seedlings to outgrow or adjust to disturbances. Our results suggest that selecting fast-growing pioneer species and measures to enhance seedling growth or temporary reduction in sediment dynamics at the restoration site can aid restoration success for vegetated biogeomorphic ecosystems. PMID:23894211

  12. The effect of paclobutrazol on the growth and uptake of Ca and K by apple seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Swietlik; Stephen S. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Addition of paclobutrazol (PP333) at 0.2 ppm to a nutrient solution in which 11?month?old apple seedlings were growing reduced terminal growth, fresh weight increase (FWI), transpiration and Ca and K uptake per seedling. Total root surface area was not affected by PP333 treatment. Reduced Ca uptake preceded the reduction in transpiration and FWI. In the case of K these changes

  13. Physiological and mineralogical properties of arsenic-induced chlorosis in rice seedlings grown hydroponically

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molla Rahman Shaibur; Nobuyuki Kitajima; Reiko Sugawara; Toshihito Kondo; S. M. Imamul Huq; Shigenao Kawai

    2006-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to observe the effect of arsenic (As) on a number of physiological and mineralogical properties of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Akihikari) seedlings. Seedlings were treated with 0, 6.7, 13.4 and 26.8 µmol L As (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg As L) for 14 days in a greenhouse. Shoot dry matter yield decreased by 23, 56 and 64%; however, the

  14. The effect of canopy gaps on growth and morphology of seedlings of rain forest species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Popma; F. Bongers

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Growth and morphology of seedlings of ten tropical rain forest species were studied at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Seedlings were\\u000a grown in three environmental conditions: the shaded forest understorey (FU, receiving 0.9–2.3% of the daily photosynthetic\\u000a photon flux, PF, above the canopy), a small canopy gap of approx. 50 m2 (SG, receiving 2.1–6.1% of daily PF), and a large canopy gap

  15. Hydraulic Redistribution of Water from Pinus ponderosa Trees to Seedlings: Evidence for an Ectomycorrhizal Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renée Brooks; Frederick C. Meinzer; Joyce L. Eberhart

    2008-01-01

    While there is strong evidence for hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by trees, it is not known if common mycorrhizal networks (CMN) can facilitate HR from mature trees to seedlings under field conditions. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were planted into root-excluding 61-?m mesh barrier chambers buried in an old-growth pine forest. After 2 yr, several mature trees were

  16. Differential responses of pea seedlings to indole acetic acid under manganese toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Savita Gangwar; Vijay Pratap Singh; Sheo Mohan Prasad; Jagat Narayan Maurya

    2011-01-01

    Present study showed the responses of pea seedlings to exogenous indole acetic acid (IAA; 10 and 100 ?M) application under\\u000a manganese (Mn; 50, 100 and 250 ?M) toxicity. Manganese and 100 ?M IAA alone as well as in combination decreased growth of\\u000a pea seedlings compared to control. Moreover, some parameters of oxidative stress—hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also increased by single

  17. Concerted modulation of alanine and glutamate metabolism in young Medicago truncatula seedlings under hypoxic stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anis M. Limami; Gaelle Glevarec; Claudie Ricoult; Jean-Bernard Cliquet; Elisabeth Planchet

    2008-01-01

    The modulation of primary nitrogen metabolism by hypoxic stress was studied in young Medicago trunca- tula seedlings. Hypoxic seedlings were characterized by the up-regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (mAlaAT), and down-regulation of glutamine synthe- tase 1b (GS1b), NADH-glutamate synthase (NADH- GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase 3 (GDH3), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) gene expression. Hypoxic stress severely inhibited

  18. Effects of litter, soil surface conditions, and microhabitat on Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. Seedling emergence and establishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inés Ibáñez; Eugene W. Schupp

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the litter layer, soil surface conditions, and microhabitat on emergence of the tree Cercocarpus ledifolius, and how litter affected establishment and survival of first year seedlings of this species. Natural seedling emergence was similar in three microhabitats: open interspaces (0.12kg litter m?2), beneath Artemisia tridentata canopies (0.27kg litter m?2), and beneath C. ledifolius canopies (2.5kg

  19. Influence of Seed Priming Techniques on the Seedling Establishment, Yield and Quality of Hybrid Sunflower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MUBSHAR HUSSAIN; MUHAMMAD FAROOQ; SHAHZAD M. A. BASRA; N. AHMAD

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of seed priming techniques on the seedling establishment, yield and quality of hybrid sunflower. Seeds were hydro primed for 24 h, hardened for 24 h, matriprimed for 24 and 48 h, osmoprimed with 0.5% KNO3 for 12 h and with 0.1% NaCl for 12 h. Seed priming techniques affected seedling establishment,

  20. Selection for increased seed weight Panicum coloratum L. and its relationship to early seedling performance

    E-print Network

    Hussey, Mark Allen

    1979-01-01

    . Northward expansion of kleingrass is limited due to its lack of cold tolerance, although plants established at the thirty-fifth parallel in Texas have survived if they made it through the seedling year (32). Generally, Panicum coloratum is regarded...SELECTION FOR INCREASED SEED HEIGHT Panicum col oratum L. AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO EARLY SEEDLING PERFORMANCE A Thesis by MARK ALLEN HUSSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  1. Improved evaluation of the impedance to simulated seedling emergence caused by rainfall induced crusts

    E-print Network

    Holder, Cephas Bernard

    1973-01-01

    IMPROVED EVALUATION OF THE IMPEDANCE TO SIMULATED SEEDLING EMERGENCE CAUSED BY RAINFALL INDUCED CRUSTS A Thesis by CEPHAS BERNARD HOLDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6? University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Soil physics IMPROVED EVALUATION OF THE IMPEDANCE TO SIMULATED SEEDLING EMERGENCE CAUSED BY RAINFALL INDUCED CRUSTS A Thesis by CEPHAS BERNARD HOLDER Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Identification and quantification of the major endogenous cytokinins in pistachio seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ahmadi; D. A. Baker

    2000-01-01

    The major endogenous cytokinins, Z, ZR, DHZ, DHZR, iP and iPR in pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera L. cv. Ohadi) were purified by HPLC and their identities confirmed using GC-MS. The aerial parts of two-year old pistachio seedlings including mature leaves, young leaves, lateral buds, debarked stems and bark were subjected to analysis. All of the above mentioned cytokinins were identified

  3. Localization and characterization of soluble and plasma membrane aminopeptidase activities in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus Murphy; Lincoln Taiz

    1999-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that N,1-naphthylphthalamic acid is hydrolyzed at the root-hypocotyl transition zone and other regions of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, and that this reaction, like NPA-induced growth inhibition, is strongly promoted by blue light. In addition, NPA amidase activity was detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions obtained from Arabidopsis seedlings. To further investigate this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that the

  4. Growth and physiological responses of Picea asperata seedlings to elevated temperature and to nitrogen fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunzhang Zhao; Qing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Picea asperata is a dominant species in the subalpine coniferous forests distributed in eastern edges of Tibetan Plateau and upper reaches\\u000a of the Yangtze River. The paper mainly identified the short-term influences of experimental warming, nitrogen fertilization,\\u000a and their combination on growth and physiological performances of Picea asperata seedlings. These seedlings were subjected to two levels of temperature (ambient; infrared

  5. Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: a conceptual framework using mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Thorsten; Webb, Edward L; van den Elzen, Eva; Galli, Demis; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2013-01-01

    1. Vegetated biogeomorphic systems (e.g. mangroves, salt marshes, dunes, riparian vegetation) have been intensively studied for the impact of the biota on sediment transport processes and the resulting self-organization of such landscapes. However, there is a lack of understanding of physical disturbance mechanisms that limit primary colonization in active sedimentary environments. 2. This study elucidates the effect of sediment disturbance during the seedling stage of pioneer vegetation, using mangroves as a model system. We performed mesocosm experiments that mimicked sediment disturbance as (i) accretion/burial of plants and (ii) erosion/excavation of plants of different magnitudes and temporal distribution in combination with water movement and inundation stress. 3. Cumulative sediment disturbance reduced seedling survival, with the faster-growing Avicennia alba showing less mortality than the slower-growing Sonneratia alba. The presence of the additional stressors (inundation and water movement) predominantly reduced the survival of S. alba. 4. Non-lethal accretion treatments increased shoot biomass of the seedlings, whereas non-lethal erosion treatments increased root biomass allocation. This morphological plasticity in combination with the abiotic disturbance history determined how much maximum erosion the seedlings were able to withstand. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seedling survival in dynamic sedimentary environments is determined by the frequency and magnitude of sediment accretion or erosion events, with non-lethal events causing feedbacks to seedling stability. Managers attempting restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, dunes and riparian vegetation should recognize sediment dynamics as a main bottleneck to primary colonization. The temporal distribution of erosion and accretion events has to be evaluated against the ability of the seedlings to outgrow or adjust to disturbances. Our results suggest that selecting fast-growing pioneer species and measures to enhance seedling growth or temporary reduction in sediment dynamics at the restoration site can aid restoration success for vegetated biogeomorphic ecosystems. PMID:23894211

  6. Seed-litter-position drives seedling establishment in grassland species under recurrent drought.

    PubMed

    Wellstein, C

    2012-11-01

    Changes in land use and climate interfere with grassland ecosystem processes. Here I experimentally investigated the combined effects of land-use change related litter cover and contrasting water supply on seedling emergence. In this context, the role of the initial relative position of seeds, i.e. seeds on top of the litter versus seeds beneath the litter in interaction with water supply has not been investigated so far. I hypothesised that facilitative effects of litter on seedling emergence occur when seeds are covered by litter and deteriorate when litter covers the ground and seeds fall on it (seeds on top of the litter). Further, I hypothesised that the importance of seed position for seedling emergence will increase under conditions of recurrent drought. I performed a controlled pot experiment on seedling emergence of three common European grassland species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Leontodon autumnalis, Sanguisorba officinalis) by experimental manipulations of litter and water availability. Seedling emergence under moist conditions showed no significant differences between each litter position compared to the control across species. In contrast, under recurrent drought, seedling emergence was significantly higher below the litter compared to seeds on top of the litter and the control (i.e. no litter). In abandoned land, seedling emergence may be limited when seeds fall on ground-covering litter. In contrast, in grasslands with regular low-intensity land use, seedling emergence may be enhanced when a moderate level of litter covers seeds at the end of the growing season. Protective mechanisms that occur with seeds positioned beneath litter are particularly important under recurrent drought. PMID:22822918

  7. Alkaloid variations in Catharanthus roseus seedlings treated by different temperatures in short term and long term

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-rui Guo; Lei Yang; Jing-hua Yu; Zhong-hua Tang; Yuan-gang Zu

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of high temperature on variations of alkaloid metabolism in C. roseus seedlings in Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Northeast Forestry University, Heilongiang, China. 60-day-old C. roseus seedlings with 3–4 pairs of leaves were incubated in chambers with temperature of 30°C and 40°C for short-term heat shock\\u000a experiment and 20°C, 25°C and

  8. Spatial distribution and temporal regulation of phytochromes A and B levels in maize seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandra K. Reddy; Rameshwar Sharma

    1998-01-01

    Phytochrome distribution and putative level in dark- and light-grown maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were analyzed using antibodies against oat phytochrome A (PHYA) and tobacco phytochrome B (PHYB) by immunoblotting. During the course of leaf elongation (4–8 d), the putative level of both PHYA and PHYB declined with age. Exposure of etiolated seedlings to light induced severe down-regulation of PHYA

  9. Fluorescence and photochemical properties of phytochromes A and B in etiolated pea seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Sineshchekov; O. B. Ogorodnikova; J. L. Weller

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence and photochemical properties of phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB) have been investigated in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings by comparing wild-type (wt) seedlings with mutants lacking phyB (lv-5) or phyA (fun1-1), and with the double mutant. The red-light (R)-absorbing form of phytochrome (Pr) is characterized by four major parameters: position of the emission maximum at 85

  10. The ecology of Carex oxyandra II. The behavior of seedlings and tillers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azuma Tsujimura

    1987-01-01

    A study on the seedlings and tillers ofCarex oxyandra, a pioneer perennial, was carried out at Mt. Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. A field experiment showed that seedlings\\u000a had a rather low rate of growth, a small biomass and a high mortality rate. On the other hand, tillers in clones befan growth\\u000a much earlier, had a rapid growth rate and grew

  11. Long-term variability in seed size and seedling establishment of Maianthemum bifolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Kosi?ski

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies conducted in natural plants populations focus on the relationship between seed size and their germination\\u000a ability and seedling establishment. Maianthemum bifolium is a perennial herb that spreads vegetatively through rhizomatous growth and reproduces through seeds. However, this species\\u000a is characterized as seed and microsite limited, and under undisturbed conditions seedlings are not noted. The studies were\\u000a conducted

  12. Effects of artificial shade on early performance of white spruce seedlings planted on clearcuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongzhou ManKen; Ken J. Greenway

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content, growth, and mortality of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings were monitored for 2 years after planting under three scenarios of artificial shade: no-shade (control),\\u000a shade in summer only, and shade all year. The shade frames allowed 50–60% light transmission, with limited effects on air\\u000a temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture around seedlings. Based

  13. Seed dispersal and seedling emergence in an old field community in central New York (USA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Morris; P. L. Marks; C. L. Mohler; N. R. Rappaport; F. R. Wesley; M. A. Moran

    1986-01-01

    Seed dispersal and seedling emergence of common taxa growing in a Solidago-dominated old field in central New York (USA) were monitored from May 1982 to June 1984. Over 3.5x104 seeds per m2 were captured on seed traps in each of the two years, with peaks occuring in July (due to Hieracium) and in November (due to Solidago). About 4.0x103 seedling\\/m2

  14. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Lemay, R.; Peterson, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  15. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J. (Laboratorium voor Plantenbiochemie K. U. Leuven (Belgium)); Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more ({sup 35}S)cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA.

  16. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  17. Effect of CO2 laser radiation on physiological tolerance of wheat seedlings exposed to chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Jia, Jing-Fen; Yue, Ming

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of CO(2) laser pretreatment of wheat seeds on the physiological tolerance of seedlings to chilling stress, wheat seeds were exposed to CO(2) laser radiation for 300 s. After being cultivated for 48 h at 25 degrees C, the wheat seedlings were subjected to chilling stress for 24 h. Selected physiological and biochemical parameters were measured in 6-day-old seedlings. We observed that chilling stress enhanced the concentrations of malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione while decreasing the activities of nitric oxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of nitric oxide and glutathione in the wheat leaves compared with controls. When the chilling stress was preceded by CO(2) laser irradiation, the concentrations of malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione were decreased while the activities of nitric oxide synthase, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and the concentrations of nitric oxide and glutathione increased. Furthermore, chilling stress decreased the biomass, biophoton intensity and GHS/GSSG ratios of seedlings while these parameters increased when the seedlings were treated with CO(2) laser irradiation prior to the chilling stress. The results suggest that a suitable dose of CO(2) laser stimulation can enhance the physiological tolerance of wheat seedlings to chilling stress. PMID:20408975

  18. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  19. Protective effect of cerium ion against ultraviolet B radiation-induced water stress in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chun Xia; Chen, Min Min; Wang, Lei; Zou, Hua; Liang, Chan Juan; Wang, Li Hong; Zhou, Qing

    2012-06-01

    Effects of cerium ion (Ce(III)) on water relations of soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) stress were investigated under laboratory conditions. UV-B radiation not only affected the contents of two osmolytes (proline, soluble sugar) in soybean seedlings, but also inhibited the transpiration in soybean seedlings by decreasing the stomatal density and conductance. The two effects caused the inhibition in the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water, which decreased the water content and the free water/bound water ratio. Obviously, UV-B radiation led to water stress, causing the decrease in the photosynthesis in soybean seedlings. The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) Ce(III) could alleviate UV-B-induced water stress by regulating the osmotic and metabolic absorption of water in soybean seedlings. The alleviated effect caused the increase in the photosynthesis and the growth of soybean seedlings. It is one of the protective effect mechanisms of Ce(III) against the UV-B radiation-induced damage to plants. PMID:22095292

  20. Resource availability and repeated defoliation mediate compensatory growth in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, David A.; Zhang, Bin; Najar, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Plant ecologists have debated the mechanisms used by plants to cope with the impact of herbivore damage. While plant resistance mechanisms have received much attention, plant compensatory growth as a type of plant tolerance mechanisms has been less studied. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate compensatory growth for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings under varying intensities and frequencies of simulated defoliation, with or without nutrient enriched media. For the purpose of this study, changes in biomass production and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC) of roots and leaves were considered compensatory responses. All defoliated seedlings showed biomass accumulation under low defoliation intensity and frequency, regardless of resource availability; however, as defoliation intensity and frequency increased, compensatory growth of seedlings was altered depending on resource availability. Seedlings in a resource-rich environment showed complete compensation, in contrast responses ranged from undercompensation to complete compensation in a resource-limited environment. Furthermore, at the highest defoliation intensity and frequency, NSC concentrations in leaves and roots were similar between defoliated and non-defoliated seedlings in a resource-rich environment; in contrast, defoliated seedlings with limited resources sustained the most biomass loss, had lower amounts of stored NSC. Using these results, we developed a new predictive framework incorporating the interactions between frequency and intensity of defoliation and resource availability as modulators of plant compensatory responses. PMID:25083352

  1. Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Guo; Werger, Marinus J. A.

    1999-11-01

    An evergreen oak species, Cyclobalanopsis multinervis, and a deciduous oak species, Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata were grown from acorns under two light levels (full sunlight and shade at about 18 % of full sunlight, simulating the light intensities in forest clearings and gaps, respectively) for one growing season. Three hypotheses were tested: (i) the deciduous species grows faster than the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings; (ii) the deciduous species responds more strongly in terms of growth and morphology to variation in light climate than the evergreen species; and (iii) seedling size is positively correlated to acorn size. The results showed: (i) at both light levels, the deciduous seedlings gained significantly more growth in biomass and height than the evergreen seedlings; (ii) both species produced significantly more biomass in full sunlight than in shade, without showing any significant difference in height between treatments. Increase in light intensity improved the growth of the deciduous seedlings more strongly; (iii) at a similar age, the deciduous seedlings showed a greater response in leaf morphology and biomass allocation to variation in light levels, but when compared at a similar size, biomass allocation patterns did not differ significantly between species; (iv) bigger acorns tended to produce larger seedlings, larger leaf sizes and more leaf area, between and within species. These differences demonstrate that the deciduous species is gap-dependent and has the advantage over the evergreen species in forest gaps and clearings.

  2. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  3. Within-population variability influences early seedling establishment in four Mediterranean oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Barrio, Isabel C.; Villar, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    Regeneration of Mediterranean forests is severely limited. Multiple abiotic factors are known to constrain the establishment of woody seedlings at its first phases, such as summer drought or excessive incident radiation, but less attention has been paid to the role of intra-specific variation in seedling performance. In this study we investigate the relative influence of environment (light availability, soil moisture and summer irrigation) and intrinsic factors (seed mass and maternal origin) as determinants of within-population variability in the early establishment of four coexisting Mediterranean oaks (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, Quercus faginea and Quercus pyrenaica), from emergence and early growth to second-year survival in a field experiment. Seed size was a poor predictor of seed and seedling success. Instead, mother identity showed a stronger effect on seedling performance. Time and percentage of emergence, establishment success and morphological traits varied among seedlings from different maternal trees but main drivers for each variable were different for each species. In addition to a direct effect, in many cases mother-related intrinsic traits and seed mass influenced the effects of environmental conditions on seedling performance. The role of intrinsic factors was masked under ameliorated conditions (i.e. summer irrigation), indicating the relevant role of within-population variability to cope with highly heterogeneous and unpredictable Mediterranean environments.

  4. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J R; Scheld, H W; Lemay, R; Peterson, C

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings. PMID:11539752

  5. Long-distance dispersal helps germinating mahogany seedlings escape defoliation by a specialist caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Norghauer, Julian M; Grogan, James; Malcolm, Jay R; Felfili, Jeanine M

    2010-02-01

    Herbivores and pathogens with acute host specificity may promote high tree diversity in tropical forests by causing distance- and density-dependent mortality of seedlings, but evidence is scarce. Although Lepidoptera larvae are the most abundant and host-specific guild of herbivores in these forests, their impact upon seedling distributions remains largely unknown. A firm test of the mechanism underpinning the Janzen-Connell hypothesis is difficult, even for a single tree species, because it requires more than just manipulating seeds and seedlings and recording their fates. Experimental tests require: (1) an insect herbivore that is identified and highly specialised, (2) linkage to an in situ measure (or prevention) of herbivory, and (3) evaluation and confirmation among many conspecific adult trees across years. Here we present experimental evidence for a spatially explicit interaction between newly germinating seedlings of a Neotropical emergent tree, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), and caterpillars of a noctuid moth (Steniscadia poliophaea). In the understory of a southeastern Amazon forest, the proportion of attacks, leaf area lost, and seedling mortality due to this specialised herbivore peaked near Swietenia trees, but declined significantly with increasing distance from mature fruiting trees, as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. We conclude that long-distance dispersal events (>50 m) provided an early survival advantage for Swietenia seedlings, and propose that the role of larval Lepidoptera as Janzen-Connell vectors may be underappreciated in tropical forests. PMID:19885680

  6. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The molecular structure of these new loci is being investigated. Furthermore, a proteomic approach is being developed to characterize root-tip proteins that are differentially expressed, modified or targeted in response to gravity stimulation. We acknowledge funding by NASA and NSF.

  7. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete adelgid development (crawler to egg-laying adult), and very little adelgid development occurred on A. vetchii branches. The fourth study compared infestation levels and gouting response on excised versus intact branches of 4 year-old A. fraseri seedlings from three different seed sources, and excised branches from 4 year-old and 25 year-old trees. There were no differences in infestation levels between excised versus intact branches nor in very young versus mature trees; gouting response was observed only on intact branches. PMID:22239164

  8. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete adelgid development (crawler to egg—laying adult), and very little adelgid development occurred on A. vetchii branches. The fourth study compared infestation levels and gouting response on excised versus intact branches of 4 year—old A. fraseri seedlings from three different seed sources, and excised branches from 4 year—old and 25 year—old trees. There were no differences in infestation levels between excised versus intact branches nor in very young versus mature trees; gouting response was observed only on intact branches. PMID:22239164

  9. Variation in experimental flood impacts and ecogeomorphic feedbacks among native and exotic riparian tree seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kui, L.; Stella, J. C.; Skorko, K.; Lightbody, A.; Wilcox, A. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding interacts with riparian plants on a variety of scales, resulting in coevolution of geomorphic surfaces with plant vegetation communities. Our research aims to develop a mechanistic understanding of riparian seedling damage from small floods, with a focus on differential responses among species (native and non-native), ecogeomorphic feedbacks, and implications for riparian restoration. We tested the effects of controlled flood events on cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) seedlings in an experimental meandering stream channel. We hypothesized that seedling dislodgement and burial would be influenced by individual plant height, species-specific morphology, patch density, and differences in hydraulic forces (as a function of location on the bar). Four experimental floods were tested, with different combinations of plant species and seedling densities. For each flood run, rooted seedlings were installed within a 1.5-m-wide sandbar during low flow conditions and stream discharge was increased to a constant flood level for approximately 8 hours, after which seedling response was assessed. Seedling damage was analyzed within a logistic regression framework that predicted the probability of dislodgement or burial as a function of the explanatory variables. Plant dislodgement depended on root length and the location on the sandbar, whereas burial depended on plant height, species-specific morphology, and location. For every centimeter increase in plant height, the odds of plant burial decreased by 10 percent, illustrating the rate at which plants developed flood resistance as they grow taller. With every meter closer to the thalweg, plant dislodgement was four times more likely, and plant burial was 2.6 times more likely. The probability of burial was twice as great for tamarisk seedlings as for cottonwood. The increased sedimentation within tamarisk patches was associated with a denser foliage and a more compact crown for this species. The crown center of mass was 8.5 cm above the bed on average for tamarisk seedlings, versus 18 cm above the bed for cottonwood. These results suggest that both environmental variables and plant morphological traits are important to consider when designing flow-based restoration efforts on regulated rivers. For example, we expect that few plants are dislodged during small floods and that tamarisk are more likely to be buried compared to cottonwood.Fig. 1. Probability of seedling burial for tamarisk (left) is greater than for cottonwood independent of plant height and distance to the thalweg.

  10. Cell wall proteins in seedling cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J G; Cardemil, L

    1994-01-01

    Four cell wall proteins of cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis seedlings were characterized by PAGE and Western analyses using a polyclonal antibody, generated against soybean seed coat extensin. These proteins had M(r)s of 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 and 63,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteins exhibited a fluorescent positive reaction with dansylhydrazine suggesting that they are glycoproteins; they did not show peroxidase activity. The cell wall proteins were also characterized by their amino acid composition and by their amino-terminal sequence. These analyses revealed that there are two groups of related cell wall proteins in the cotyledons. The first group comprises the proteins of M(r)s 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 which are rich in glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine and they have almost identical NH2-terminal sequences. The second group comprises the M(r) 63,000 protein which is rich in proline, glycine, valine and tyrosine, with an NH2-terminal sequence which was very similar to that of soybean proline-rich proteins. PMID:7764478

  11. Photomorphogenic Responses in Maize Seedling Development1[w

    PubMed Central

    Markelz, Nicole H.; Costich, Denise E.; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    As an emerging maize (Zea mays) seedling senses light, there is a decrease in the rate of mesocotyl elongation, an induction of root growth, and an expansion of leaves. In leaf tissues, mesophyll and bundle sheath cell fate is determined, and the proplastids of each differentiate into the dimorphic chloroplasts typical of each cell type. Although it has been inferred from recent studies in several model plant species that multiple photoreceptor systems mediate this process, surprisingly little is known of light signal transduction in maize. Here, we examine two photomorphogenic responses in maize: inhibition of mesocotyl elongation and C4 photosynthetic differentiation. Through an extensive survey of white, red, far-red, and blue light responses among a diverse collection of germplasm, including a phytochrome-deficient mutant elm1, we show that light response is a highly variable trait in maize. Although all inbreds examined appear to have a functional phytochrome signal transduction pathway, several lines showed reduced sensitivity to blue light. A significant correlation was observed between light response and subpopulation, suggesting that light responsiveness may be a target of artificial selection. An examination of C4 gene expression patterns under various light regimes in the standard W22 inbred and elm1 indicate that cell-specific patterns of C4 gene expression are maintained in fully differentiated tissues independent of light quality. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first comprehensive survey of light response in maize and are discussed in relation to maize breeding strategies. PMID:14645729

  12. Effect of Cadmium on ?-Glutamylcysteine Synthesis in Maize Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Rüegsegger, Adrian; Brunold, Christian

    1992-01-01

    Cysteine, ?-glutamylcysteine, and glutathione and the extractable activity of the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis, ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (EC 6.3.2.2) and glutathione synthetase (EC 6.3.2.3), were measured in roots and leaves of maize seedlings (Zea mays L. cv LG 9) exposed to CdCl2 concentrations up to 200 micromolar. At 50 micromolar Cd2+, ?-glutamylcysteine contents increased continuously during 4 days up to 21-fold and eightfold of the control in roots and leaves, respectively. Even at 0.5 micromolar Cd2+, the concentration of ?-glutamylcysteine in the roots was significantly higher than in the control. At 5 micromolar and higher Cd2+ concentrations, a significant increase in ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity was measured in the roots, whereas in the leaves this enzyme activity was enhanced only at 200 micromolar Cd2+. Labeling of isolated roots with [35S]sulfate showed that both sulfate assimilation and glutathione synthesis were increased by Cd. The accumulation of ?-glutamylcysteine in the roots did not affect the root exudation rate of this compound. Our results indicate that maize roots are at least in part autonomous in providing the additional thiols required for phytochelatin synthesis induced by Cd. PMID:16668902

  13. Automorphogenesis and gravitropism of plant seedlings grown under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T; Saiki, M; Kamisaka, S; Yamashita, M

    2001-01-01

    Plant seedlings exhibit automorphogenesis on clinostats. The occurrence of automorphogenesis was confirmed under microgravity in Space Shuttle STS-95 flight. Rice coleoptiles showed an inclination toward the caryopsis in the basal region and a spontaneous curvature in the same adaxial direction in the elongating region both on a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat and in space. Both rice roots and Arabidopsis hypocotyls also showed a similar morphology in space and on the 3-D clinostat. In rice coleoptiles, the mechanisms inducing such an automorphic curvature were studied. The faster-expanding convex side of rice coleoptiles showed a higher extensibility of the cell wall than the opposite side. Also, in the convex side, the cell wall thickness was smaller, the turnover of the matrix polysaccharides was more active, and the microtubules oriented more transversely than the concave side, and these differences appear to be causes of the curvature. When rice coleoptiles grown on the 3-D clinostat were placed horizontally, the gravitropic curvature was delayed as compared with control coleoptiles. In clinostatted coleoptiles, the corresponding suppression of the amyloplast development was also observed. Similar results were obtained in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Thus, the induction of automorphogenesis and a concomitant decrease in graviresponsiveness occurred in plant shoots grown under microgravity conditions. PMID:11596636

  14. Effect of spaceflight on isoflavonoid accumulation in etiolated soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Levine, H. G.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V.; Piastuch, W. C.; Sager, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the potential impact of microgravity on flavonoid biosynthesis, we examined isoflavonoid levels in soybean (Glycine max) tissues generated under both spaceflight and clinorotation conditions. A 6-day Space Shuttle-based microgravity exposure resulted in enhanced accumulation of isoflavone glycosides (daidzin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6"-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) in hypocotyl and root tissues, but reduced levels in cotyledons (relative to 1g controls on Earth). Soybean seedlings grown on a horizontally rotating clinostat for 3, 4 and 5 days exhibited (relative to a vertical clinorotation control) an isoflavonoid accumulation pattern similar to the space-grown tissues. Elevated isoflavonoid levels attributable to the clinorotation treatment were transient, with the greatest increase observed in the three-day-treated tissues and smaller increases in the four- and five-day-treated tissues. Differences between stresses presented by spaceflight and clinorotation and the resulting biochemical adaptations are discussed, as is whether the increase in isoflavonoid concentrations were due to differential rates of development under the "gravity" treatments employed. Results suggest that spaceflight exposure does not impair isoflavonoid accumulation in developing soybean tissues and that isoflavonoids respond positively to microgravity as a biochemical strategy of adaptation.

  15. Polyamines in Rice Seedlings under Oxygen-Deficit Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Remo; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Bertani, Alcide

    1989-01-01

    Incubation of 3-d-old seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv Arborio under anaerobic conditions, leads to a large increase in the titer of free putrescine while aerobic incubation causes a slight decrease. After 2 days, the putrescine level is about 2.5 times greater without oxygen than in air. The rice coleoptile also accumulates a large amount of bound putrescine and, to a lesser extent, spermidine and spermine (mainly as acid-soluble conjugates). Accumulation of conjugates in the roots is severely inhibited by the anaerobic treatment. Feeding experiments with labeled amino acids showed that anoxia stimulates the release of 14CO2 from tissues fed with [14C]arginine and that arginine is the precursor in putrescine biosynthesis. After 2 d of anoxia, the activity of arginine decarboxylase was 42% and 89% greater in coleoptile and root, respectively, than in the aerobic condition. The causes of the differences in polyamine metabolism in anoxic coleoptiles and roots are discussed. Images Figure 3 PMID:16667132

  16. Cadmium exposure affects iron acquisition in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Stefania; Ortolani, Maria R; Catarcione, Giulio; Paolacci, Anna R; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the question of the interference between iron (Fe) nutrition and cadmium (Cd) toxicity at the level of growth performance, phytosiderophores (PS) release, micronutrient accumulation and expression of genes involved in Fe homeostasis in barley seedlings, a plant with strategy II-based response to Fe shortage. Cd exposure induced responses similar to those of genuine Fe deficiency also in Fe-sufficient plants. Most genes involved in PS biosynthesis and secretion (HvNAS3, HvNAS4, HvNAS6, HvNAS7, HvNAAT-A, HvDMAS1 and HvTOM1) induced by Fe deprivation were also significantly upregulated in the presence of Cd under Fe sufficient conditions. Accordingly, the enhanced expression of these genes in roots under Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of PS release. However, induced expression of HvIRO2 and the downregulation of HvIDEF1 and HvIRT1, after Cd exposure, suggested the presence of a pathway that induces HvIRO2-mediated PS biosynthesis under Cd stress, which probably is not simply caused by Fe deficiency. The downregulation of HvIRT1 and HvNramp5 may represent a protective mechanism at transcriptional level against further Cd uptake by these transporters. These results likely indicate that Cd itself may be able to activate Fe acquisition mechanism in an Fe-independent manner. PMID:24724721

  17. Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg{sup +2} or Ca{sup +2} for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn{sup +2}, and Hg{sup +2} were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg{sup +2} was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn{sup +2} about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as ({sup 32}P) phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine.

  18. Clinorotation affects morphology and ethylene production in soybean seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Peterson, B. V.; Guikema, J. A.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight influences growth, morphology and metabolism in etiolated germinating soybean. To determine if clinorotation will similarly impact these processes, we conducted ground-based studies in conjunction with two space experiment opportunities. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were planted within BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) canisters and grown for seven days at 20 degrees C under clinorotation (1 rpm) conditions or in a stationary upright mode. Gas samples were taken daily and plants were harvested after seven days for measurement of growth and morphology. Compared to the stationary upright controls, plants exposed to clinorotation exhibited increased root length (125% greater) and fresh weight (42% greater), whereas shoot length and fresh weight decreased by 33% and 16% respectively. Plants grown under clinorotation produced twice as much ethylene as the stationary controls. Seedlings treated with triiodo benzoic acid (TIBA), an auxin transport inhibitor, under clinorotation produced 50% less ethylene than the untreated control subjected to the same gravity treatment, whereas a treatment with 2,4-D increased ethylene by five-fold in the clinorotated plants. These data suggest that slow clinorotation influences biomass partitioning and ethylene production in etiolated soybean plants.

  19. Trigonelline accumulation in leaves of Panicum virgatum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Wooda, Andrew J; Gibson, David J

    2014-08-01

    Panicum virgatum is a dominant, native, perennial species found in the tallgrass prairie. In this study, we report the biosynthesis and accumulation of trigonelline (TRG) in leaves of P. virgatum in response to water-deficit stress. Once established, half of the seedlings underwent a drought stress treatment while the other half were watered daily (control). Relative water content (RWC) and trigonelline (TRG) concentrations were determined. RWC showed an interaction between moisture treatment and time, in which upland cultivars had the highest mean RWC compared with the lowland cultivars. The moisture treatments showed a significant difference in TRG concentration across all P. virgatum cultivars, which ranged from 0.5-31.8 microg/gFW(-1). There was a divergence in TRG accumulation between upland and lowland cultivars in relation to RWC. This study is the first to report TRG accumulation in the grass P. virgatum, and to test for differences in TRG with respect to water-deficit stress among cultivars. The effect of soil moisture levels on cultivars may be important in making an informed selection and the response of P. virgatum and other dominant grasses should be considered as a potential filter in tallgrass prairies for restoration. Physiological markers such as TRG and RWC can aid in this decision making process. PMID:25233598

  20. Effect of co-inoculations of native PGPR with nitrogen fixing bacteria on seedling traits in Prosopis cineraria.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Pancholy, Anjly; Jindal, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2014-09-01

    Prosopis cineraria significantly contribute to sand dune stabilization, soil fertility rejuvenation and is an integral component of agro-forestry systems in arid regions of India. Effect of different rhizobacterial seed treatments on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of P. cineraria (HPY-1) and (FG-1) were tested. Observations on seed germination (%) and seedling traits viz., root length (cm), shoot length (cm), seedling weight (g) and seedling length of different treatments were recorded. Whereas, germination index (GI), seedling vigour index (SVI) and root/shoot length ratio were derived from the observed data. The scarification treatment with sulphuric acid for 10 minutes substantially enhanced germination from < 20% to 80-82% in control treatments. Treatments with co-inoculations of Bacillus licheniformis and Sinorhizobium kostiense or S. saheli supported the maximum seed germination and seedling growth and vigour. The maximum germination per cent (92.5%), seedling length (10.94 cm), seedling vigour index (10.12) and germination index (7.97) were recorded with treatment (V2T6) wherein seeds of high pod yielding genotype were co-inoculated with Bacillus licheniformis and S. kostiense. The higher positive correlations of seedling length v/s shoot length followed by SVI v/s seedling length, SVI v/s root length and seedling length v/s root length is a fair indicative of inter dependency of these characteristics. Higher R2 values of root length v/s shoot length followed by that of SVI v/s GI indicates that a regression line fits the data well and future outcomes of observed seedling traits are likely to be predicted by the model. PMID:25204069

  1. Effects of dispersal, shrubs, and density-dependent mortality on seed and seedling distributions in temperate forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janneke Hille Ris Lambers; James S. Clark

    2003-01-01

    Processes limiting recruitment of trees may have large impacts on forest dynamics. In this paper, we deter- mined the effects of dispersal, shrubs (Rhododendron maximum), and density-dependent mortality on seed and seedling distributions of Southern Appalachian trees. We quantified the spatial distribution of seed rain, seed bank densities, first-year seedlings, and older than first-year seedlings in five vegetation plots. We

  2. High water temperature tolerance in photosynthetic activity of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner seedlings from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahiko Abe; Keigo Yokota; Akira Kurashima; Miyuki Maegawa

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of Zostera japonica seedlings was measured using a gas volumeter at 0 and 6 days in culture under eight light (0–800 ?mol photons\\/m2\\/s) and ten water temperature conditions (5–35°C). Seedlings from Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture were cultured in incubators accurately\\u000a controlled at each test temperature for 1 week. After 1 week, maximum gross photosynthesis (P\\u000a maxg) appeared at 29°C and most seedlings cultured

  3. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality of the seedlings after removal from storage. PMID:25340859

  4. Fine-scale spatial heterogeneity and seed size determine early seedling survival in a desert perennial shrub ( Ericameria nauseosa: Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Balogh Benard; Catherine A. Toft

    2008-01-01

    In heterogenous landscapes, seeds settle in some microsites more readily than others, independently of whether those microsites\\u000a are suitable for germination and subsequent growth, and survival of seedlings. Wild seeds and seedlings of Ericameria\\u000a nauseosa var. oreophila in the sand-dune ecosystem near Mono Lake, California show both concordance and conflict in where seeds are retained and\\u000a where seedlings flourish. Using

  5. Alleviation of chilling-induced oxidative damage by salicylic acid pretreatment and related gene expression in eggplant seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuangchen Chen; Liu Zimei; Jinxia Cui; Ding Jiangang; Xiaojian Xia; Dilin Liu; Jingquan Yu

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) pretreatment on ascorbate–glutathione (GSH) cycle under chilling stress in eggplant seedlings\\u000a were investigated. Salicylic acid pretreatment improved chilling resistance of eggplant seedlings with maximum efficiency\\u000a at a concentration of 0.3%. The chilling injury index was decreased by 36.9% as compared to that of the control after 0.3%\\u000a SA pretreatment. Under chilling stress, seedlings pretreated

  6. Alterations in seedling vigour and antioxidant enzyme activities in Catharanthus roseus under seed priming with native diazotrophs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karthikeyan; C. A. Jaleel; R. Gopi; M. Deiveekasundaram

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on Catharanthus roseus to study the effect of seed treatments with native diazotrophs on its seedling growth and antioxidant enzyme activities.\\u000a The treatments had significant influence on various seedling parameters. There is no significant influence on dry matter production\\u000a with the diazotrophs, Azospirillum and Azotobacter. However, the vital seedling parameters such as germination percentage and vigour

  7. Changes in Nutrient-Homeostasis and Reserves Metabolism During Rice Seed Priming: Consequences for Seedling Emergence and Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Farooq; Shahzad MA Basra; Abdul Wahid; Nazir Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In this study influence of different seed priming treatments on the nutrient-homeostasis and reserve metabolism during seedling emergence and growth of rice were determined. Seed priming treatments included pre-germination, hydropriming for 48 h, osmohardening with KCl and CaCl2, ascorbate priming and hardening. All treatments shortened the emergence time and enhanced the energy and index of seedling emergence. Seedlings from primed

  8. Gas exchange and dry matter allocation responses to elevation of atmospheric C02 concentration in seedlings of three tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Y. HOLLINGER

    1998-01-01

    Summary Photosynthetic rates of 13-month-old Pinus rndiarn D. Don, Notf~ofngus fusca (Hook f.) 0rst. and Pseudofsuga menziesii (Mlrb.) Franco seedlings grown and measured at elevated atmospheric concen- trations of C02 (-620 pI I -') were 32 to 558 greater than those of seedlings grown and measured at ambient (-310 )11 I-') concentrations of CO?. Seedlings grown in ambient and elevated

  9. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m?2·s?1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality of the seedlings after removal from storage. PMID:25340859

  10. Effect of osmo- and hydropriming of chickpea seeds on seedling growth and carbohydrate metabolism under water deficit stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur

    2002-01-01

    Seven-day-old seedlings obtained from seeds primed with mannitol (4%)and water showed three to four fold more growth with respect to root and shootlength in comparison with seedlings obtained from non-primed seeds. Seedlingswere grown under water deficit stress conditions created by 15% polyethyleneglycol (PEG) 6000 in the medium. Priming of chickpea seeds with NaCl and PEGwasnot effective in increasing seedling growth

  11. The effects of methyl bromide alternatives on soil and seedling microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology in Oregon and Washington forest tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six fumigant treatments were evaluated at two forest tree nurseries in Oregon and one forest tree nursery in Washington for their effects on soil microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology during a 2-year study. Fusarium commune, F. oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi complex, P. irregulare,...

  12. The role of seedling recruitment from juvenile populations of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) at the Dongting Lake wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zheng-Miao; Chen, Xin-Sheng; Xie, Yong-Hong; Xie, Ya-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings and vegetative ramets may contribute differentially to the recruitment of clonal populations in different growth phases, but this has rarely been investigated. In this study, we quantified the number and survivorship of seedlings and vegetative ramets monthly in juvenile and mature populations of Carex brevicuspis. During the first growing season after flooding (from October to January), 9 seedlings m(-2) (13% of all established shoots) were found in juvenile populations, while no seedlings were found in mature populations. During the second growing season before flooding (from February to May), no new seedling recruits were found either in juvenile or in mature populations. All shoots of seedlings were withered during the dormant season (January and February), but 62.5% seedlings could produce vegetative ramets in the following growing season. During the dormant season, all the early emerging ramets (sprouted in October) withered, but the later emerging ones (sprouted in November and December) survived in both mature and juvenile populations. These results indicated that seedling recruitment was only apparent in juvenile populations of C. brevicuspis. The genetic diversity in mature C. brevicuspis populations may be established in juvenile populations by seedling recruitment, and sustained in mature populations by vegetative reproduction. PMID:25728624

  13. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  14. Distribution and composition of ¹?C-labeled photosynthate within seedlings of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa torr.

    E-print Network

    Hursey, Robert Allan

    1967-01-01

    Average weight, s of oven-dried mesquite seedlings grown under high light intensi'ty o o o o o a o o o o o o o 15 Average counts per minute of radio- activity in mesquite seedlings after 15-minute treatment of the primary leaf at, four ages with I...~C-urea Average counts per minute of radio- activity in mesquite seedlings after treatment of the primary leaf with I~C-urea for four time periods g2 42 Average count, s per minute of radio- activity in the untreated port;ions of mesquite seedlings after 15...

  15. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  16. Basal transcription factor 3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya; Jamil, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3 (Ri)) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200??M GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3 (Ri) lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants. PMID:24971328

  17. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Methods Gibberellic acid (GA3), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. Key Results It was found that GA3 stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA3 stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus. PMID:22843341

  18. Recruitment dynamics in a rainforest seedling community: context-independent impact of a keystone consumer.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Lake, P S

    2008-05-01

    The influence of keystone consumers on community structure is frequently context-dependent; the same species plays a central organising role in some situations, but not others. On Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean, a single species of omnivorous land crab, Gecarcoidea natalis, dominates the forest floor across intact rainforest. We hypothesised that this consumer plays a key role in regulating seedling recruitment and in controlling litter dynamics on the island, independent of the type of vegetation in which it occurred. To test this hypothesis, we conducted crab exclusion experiments in two forest types on the island and followed the dynamics of seedling recruitment and litter processing for six years. To determine if these effects were likely to be general across the island, we compared land crab densities and seedling abundance and diversity at ten sites across island rainforest. Surveys across island rainforest showed that seedlings of species susceptible to predation by land crabs are consistently rare. Abundance and diversity of these species were negatively correlated to red crab abundance. Although red land crabs may be important determinants of seedling recruitment to the overstorey, differences in overstorey and seedling composition at the sites suggests that recruitment of vulnerable trees still occurs at a temporal scale exceeding that of this study. These "windows" of recruitment may be related to infrequent events that reduce the effects of land crabs. Our results suggest that unlike the context dependence of most keystone consumers in continental systems, a single consumer, the red land crab, consistently controls the dynamics of seedling recruitment across this island rainforest. PMID:18320231

  19. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20–30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field experiments. PMID:25852717

  20. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean communities.

  1. Constraints on tree seedling establishment in montane grasslands of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coop, Jonathan D; Givnish, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Montane and subalpine grasslands are prominent, but poorly understood, features of the Rocky Mountains. These communities frequently occur below reversed tree lines on valley floors, where nightly cold air accumulation is spatially coupled with fine soil texture. We used field experiments to assess the roles of minimum temperature, soil texture, grass competition, and ungulate browsing on the growth, photosynthetic performance, and survival of transplanted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings at 32 sites straddling such reversed tree lines in the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico (USA). Seedling growth increased most strongly with increasing nighttime minimum temperatures away from the valley bottoms; seedlings experiencing the coldest temperatures on the caldera floor exhibited stunted needles and often no measurable height growth. Based on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratios PhiPSII and Fv/Fm, we found that low minimum temperatures, low soil moisture, and fine soil texture all contributed to photoinhibition. Neighboring herbs had only minor negative effects on seedlings. We found no effect of ungulates, but golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) caused substantial seedling mortality. Second-year seedling survival was highest on sandy soils, and third-year survival was highest at sites with higher minimum temperatures. We conclude that differential tree seedling establishment driven by low minimum temperatures in the valley bottoms is the primary factor maintaining montane grasslands of the VCNP, although this process probably operated historically in combination with frequent surface fire to set the position of the tree line ecotone. As at alpine tree lines, reversed tree lines bordering montane and subalpine grasslands can represent temperature-sensitive boundaries of the tree life form. PMID:18481534

  2. A comparative study of oak (Quercus, Fagaceae) seedling physiology during summer drought in southern California.

    PubMed

    Mahall, Bruce E; Tyler, Claudia M; Cole, E Shelly; Mata, Catarina

    2009-04-01

    Natural recruitment of oaks appears to be declining throughout the northern hemisphere. Summer drought poses a potentially important barrier to oak recruitment in southern California. To evaluate this barrier, we grew evergreen Quercus agrifolia and deciduous Q. lobata from seeds near parental trees. We measured water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange during these seedlings' fourth and fifth summers and compared them to neighboring adults. Most seedlings had substantially lower values for predawn xylem pressure potential (?(pd)), minimum photosystem II (PSII) quantum efficiency (?(PSIIMIN)), maximum quantum efficiency for PSII under dark-adapted leaf conditions (Fv/Fm), and maximum photosynthetic assimilation (Amax), and higher values for maximum nonphotochemical quenching (NPQmax) than did conspecific adults. The high, unvarying ?(pd) values of the adults suggest they use perennially available groundwater. Quercus lobata seedlings commonly had lower values for ?(pd) than did Q. agrifolia, and values for ?(pd) and ?(PSIIMIN) were significantly related to size in Q. lobata but not in Q. agrifolia. These data suggest important interspecific differences in root architecture. Lower values for ?(PSIIMIN), Fv/Fm, and higher NPQmax in Q. agrifolia indicate that Q. agrifolia seedlings were usually under more stress than Q. lobata, which typically had higher Amax rates than did Q. agrifolia seedlings. Diurnal photosynthesis curves were quite flat for Q. agrifolia, but they peaked in the morning for Q. lobata. Established seedlings appeared to be under more stress than adults, but this stress did not appear severe enough to cause death. Access to perennially available groundwater may be crucial for the seedling to sapling transition. PMID:21628230

  3. Early selection of black spruce seedlings and global change: Which genotypes should we favor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.M.; Lechowicz, M.J.; Potvin, C. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    The effects of both soil fertility and predicted changes in climate on growth of different families of black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., during the first growing season was studied. The results were used to examine whether reforestation programs should consider changing their preferred family lines in anticipation of altered performance given global climate change. We grew seedlings of 16 open-pollinated maternal families of black spruce under phytotron conditions simulating present and mid-21st century climatic conditions during the growing season. The realistic, simulated future climate included both elevated CO[sub 2] levels and seasonally appropriate increases in mean daily temperature. To explore the dependence of climatic responses on site quality, seedlings were irrigated with solutions having either 5 or 100 mg/L of nitrogen. The lower nitrogen level represents a poor site for black spruce growth and survival, but the higher level provides ample nitrogen. We also recorded seed size for each seedling to evaluate the degree to which maternal investments might buffer responses to future climate and fertility during the first year on the seedbed. Seedling survival and growth increase both under the future climate regime and with nitrogen fertilization. The two factors interacted synergistically, with nitrogen enrichment significantly enhancing the positive effects of the future climate regime. Nitrogen-poor conditions, however, did not preclude a positive seedling response to the future climate. Our results indicate that seedling survival and height growth are highly dependent upon initial seed mass, seed germination, and seedling, survival and growth, but their relative performances did not vary significantly among the treatments. These results suggest that black spruce families selected for rapid growth under present conditions will also do well in the future, at least in terms of early establishment and performance on sites regenerated by seeding.

  4. Seedling Responses to Water Pulses in Shrubs with Contrasting Histories of Grassland Encroachment

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven R.; Archer, Steven R.; Schwinning, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has occurred worldwide, but it is unclear why some tree and shrub species have been markedly more successful than others. For example, Prosopis velutina has proliferated in many grasslands of the Sonoran Desert in North America over the past century, while other shrub species with similar growth form and life history, such as Acacia greggii, have not. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to assess whether differences in early seedling development could help explain why one species and not the other came to dominate many Sonoran Desert grasslands. We established eight watering treatments mimicking a range of natural precipitation patterns and harvested seedlings 16 or 17 days after germination. A. greggii had nearly 7 times more seed mass than P. velutina, but P. velutina emerged earlier (by 3.0±0.3 d) and grew faster (by 8.7±0.5 mg d?1). Shoot mass at harvest was higher in A. greggii (99±6 mg seedling?1) than in P. velutina (74±2 mg seedling?1), but there was no significant difference in root mass (54±3 and 49±2 mg seedling?1, respectively). Taproot elongation was differentially sensitive to water supply: under the highest initial watering pulse, taproots were 52±19 mm longer in P. velutina than in A. greggii. Enhanced taproot elongation under favorable rainfall conditions could give nascent P. velutina seedlings growth and survivorship advantages by helping reduce competition with grasses and maintain contact with soil water during drought. Conversely, A. greggii's greater investment in mass per seed appeared to provide little return in early seedling growth. We suggest that such differences in recruitment traits and their sensitivities to environmental conditions may help explain ecological differences between species that are highly similar as adults and help identify pivotal drivers of shrub encroachment into grasslands. PMID:24475263

  5. Salt stress-induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamines regulate a variety of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and stress-induced responses in plants. Present investigations report the effect of NaCl stress on endogenous serotonin and melatonin accumulation and their differential spatial distribution in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedling roots and cotyledons using HPLC and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments lead to variable effect on hypocotyl elongation and root growth under NaCl stress. NaCl stress for 48?h increases endogenous serotonin and melatonin content in roots and cotyledons, thus indicating their involvement in salt-induced long distance signaling from roots to cotyledons. Salt stress-induced accumulation of serotonin and melatonin exhibits differential distribution in the vascular bundles and cortex in the differentiating zones of the primary roots, suggesting their compartmentalization in the growing region of roots. Serotonin and melatonin accumulation in oil body rich cells of salt-treated seedling cotyledons correlates with longer retention of oil bodies in the cotyledons. Present investigations indicate the possible role of serotonin and melatonin in regulating root growth during salt stress in sunflower. Effect of exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments (15 ?M) on sunflower seedlings grown in the absence or presence of 120 mM NaCl substantiates their role on seedling growth. Auxin and serotonin biosynthesis are coupled to the common precursor tryptophan. Salt stress-induced root growth inhibition, thus pertains to partial impairment of auxin functions caused by increased serotonin biosynthesis. In seedling cotyledons, NaCl stress modulates the activity of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4), the enzyme responsible for melatonin biosynthesis from N-acetylserotonin. PMID:24799301

  6. Endoreduplication in the germinating embryo and young seedling is related to the type of seedling establishment but is not coupled with superoxide radical accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rewers, Monika; Sliwinska, Elwira

    2014-08-01

    During germination, the embryo axis elongates and the radicle emerges through the surrounding structures of the seed. However, this elongation is not even along the axis, and it has been suggested that the region responsible for radicle protrusion is related to the type of subsequent seedling establishment. Eleven epigeal- and five hypogeal-type species were selected to study endoreduplication, a process coupled with cell elongation, in the radicle, hypocotyl-radicle transition zone, hypocotyl, and cotyledons of dry and germinating seeds, and in seedlings after radicle protrusion. Flow cytometry was used to establish the proportions of nuclei with different DNA contents, the mean C-value, and the (?>2C)/2C ratio. Additionally, a nitroblue tetrazolium chloride test was applied to the embryos/seedlings in the dry state and during and after germination to localize superoxide radical (O2(•-)) accumulation, which has been suggested to play a role in cell elongation. Endoreduplication intensity varied in different species, in the embryo/seedling regions, and with the type of seedling establishment. In most of the cases, it was highest in the transition zone of epigeal species and in the hypocotyl in hypogeal species. O2(•-) was invariably produced during germination in the radicle, and additionally in the transition zone at the time of radicle protrusion; thus, it was not coupled with endoreduplication, and most probably played a role in defence against biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. These results provide information to aid in the selection of the most suitable plant material for molecular research on germination and for monitoring seed priming. PMID:24863437

  7. Involvement of phytochrome A in suppression of photomorphogenesis in rice seedling grown in red light.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ansuman; Sahoo, Dinabandhu; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2013-12-01

    Plants have evolved a remarkable capacity to track and respond to fluctuations of light quality and intensity that influence photomorphogenesis facilitated through several photoreceptors, which include a small family of phytochromes. Rice seedlings grown on germination paper in red light for 48 h having their shoot bottom exposed had suppressed photomorphogenesis and were deficient in chlorophyll. Seedlings grown under identical light regime having their shoot bottom covered were green and accumulated chlorophyll. Further, etiolated seedlings with their shoot bottom exposed, when grown in 4 min red/far-red cycles for 48 h, accumulated chlorophyll demonstrating the reversal of suppression of photomorphogenesis by far-red light. It implicates the involvement of phytochrome. Immunoblot analysis showed the persistence of photolabile phytochrome A protein for 48 h in seedlings grown in red light with their shoot bottom exposed, suggesting its involvement in suppression of photomorphogenesis. This was further corroborated in phyA seedlings that turned green when grown in red light having their shoot bottom exposed. Calmodulin (CaM) antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalene sulphonamide or trifluoperazine substantially restored photomorphogenesis both in the wild type (WT) and phyA demonstrating the involvement of CaM-dependent kinases in the down-regulation of the greening process. Results demonstrate that red light-induced suppression of photomorphogenesis, perceived in the shoot bottom, is a red high irradiance response of PhyA. PMID:23495675

  8. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings. PMID:25069575

  9. Climate Change Alters Seedling Emergence and Establishment in an Old-Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Aimée T.; Norby, Richard J.; Campany, Courtney E.; Sides, Katherine E.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological succession drives large-scale changes in ecosystem composition over time, but the mechanisms whereby climatic change might alter succession remain unresolved. Here, we asked if the effects of atmospheric and climatic change would alter tree seedling emergence and establishment in an old-field ecosystem, recognizing that small shifts in rates of seedling emergence and establishment of different species may have long-term repercussions on the transition of fields to forests in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduced seeds from three early successional tree species into constructed old-field plant communities that had been subjected for 4 years to altered temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 regimes in an experimental facility. Our experiment revealed that different combinations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature, and soil moisture altered seedling emergence and establishment. Treatments directly and indirectly affected soil moisture, which was the best predictor of seedling establishment, though treatment effects differed among species. Conclusions The observed impacts, coupled with variations in the timing of seed arrival, are demonstrated as predictors of seedling emergence and establishment in ecosystems under global change. PMID:20976104

  10. Seedling growth and biomass allocation of endemic and threatened shrubs of rupestrian fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Daniel; Fernandes, G. Wilson; Silveira, Fernando A. O.; Chalub, Clarissa

    2009-03-01

    The increasing anthropogenic pressure in the rare rupestrian fields in southeastern Brazil has led to the expansion of degraded areas on the extremely nutrient-deficient quartzitic soils. On the other hand, the use of rupestrian field native species in reclamation programmes has been hampered by the lack of studies involving seedling physiological ecology. The present study evaluated biomass allocation and seedling growth rate during early seedling growth of four Fabaceae shrubs: Collaea cipoensis, Calliandra fasciculata, Chamaecrista ramosa, and Mimosa foliolosa. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) species proportionally allocate higher biomass to the roots, presenting a high root/shoot ratio; and (ii) species exhibit low phenotypic variation because they have adapted to poor nutritional environments. A 12-month greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate seedling growth and biomass allocation performance in substrates with contrasting levels of soil fertility. The four species studied presented values of root/shoot ratio lower than one in both fertility conditions of the substrate. Growth parameters for Collaea and Calliandra increased with increasing soil fertility, while no differences were observed for Mimosa and Chamaecrista. Although the four species are naturally adapted to low nutritional quality soils, seedling development was not hindered by high fertility substrate conditions. Despite the remarkable differences in fertility between the substrates, the responsiveness in growth and allocation in Chamaecrista and Mimosa was lower than that expected if the species would exhibit high phenotypic variation. The implications for rupestrian field restoration are discussed.

  11. Effect of a Longitudinally Applied Voltage Upon the Growth of Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Mark F.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11537877

  12. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years. PMID:25729635

  13. Seed deposition patterns and the survival of seeds and seedlings of the palm Euterpe edulis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizo, Marco A.; Simão, Isaac

    2001-08-01

    The seed deposition pattern created by a seed disperser is one of the components of the efficiency of a species as seed disperser, and ultimately may influence the recruitment of a plant species. In this study, we used the seeds of a bird-dispersed forest palm, Euterpe edulis, to investigate the effects of two distinct seed deposition patterns created by birds that defecate (clumped pattern) and regurgitate seeds (loose-clumped pattern) on the survival of seeds experimentally set in an E. edulis-rich site, and of seedlings grown under shade-house conditions. The study was conducted in the lowland forest of Parque Estadual Intervales, SE Brazil. Clumped and loose-clumped seeds were equally preyed upon by rodents and insects. Although clumped and isolated seedlings had the same root weight after 1 year, the isolated seedlings survived better and presented more developed shoots, suggesting intraspecific competition among clumped seedlings. Our results indicate that animals that deposit E. edulis seeds in faecal clumps (e.g. cracids, tapirs) are less efficient seed dispersers than those that regurgitate seeds individually (e.g. trogons, toucans). Intraspecific competition among seedlings growing from faecal clumps is a likely process preventing the occurrence of clumps of adult palms.

  14. Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Marcus; T?šitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    For germination and establishment, orchids depend on carbon (C) and nutrients supplied by mycorrhizal fungi. As adults, the majority of orchids then appear to become autotrophic. To compare the proportional C and nitrogen (N) gain from fungi in mycoheterotrophic seedlings and in adults, here we examined in the field C and N stable isotope compositions in seedlings and adults of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Using a new highly sensitive approach, we measured the isotope compositions of seedlings and adults of four orchid species belonging to different functional groups: fully and partially mycoheterotrophic orchids associated with narrow or broad sets of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and two adult putatively autotrophic orchids associated exclusively with saprotrophic fungi. Seedlings of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi were enriched in (13) C and (15) N similarly to fully mycoheterotrophic adults. Seedlings of saprotroph-associated orchids were also enriched in (13) C and (15) N, but unexpectedly their enrichment was significantly lower, making them hardly distinguishable from their respective adult stages and neighbouring autotrophic plants. We conclude that partial mycoheterotrophy among saprotroph-associated orchids cannot be identified unequivocally based on C and N isotope compositions alone. Thus, partial mycoheterotrophy may be much more widely distributed among orchids than hitherto assumed. PMID:24444001

  15. Low root reserve accumulation during drought may lead to winter mortality in poplar seedlings.

    PubMed

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2013-04-01

    Climate models suggest that more frequent drought events of greater severity and length, associated with climate change, can be expected in the coming decades. Although drought-induced tree mortality has been recognized as an important factor modulating forest demography at the global scale, the mechanisms underlying drought-induced tree mortality remain contentious. Above- and below-ground growth, gas exchange, water relations and carbon reserve accumulation dynamics at the organ and whole-plant scale were quantified in Populus tremuloides and P. balsamifera seedlings in response to severe drought. Seedlings were maintained in drought conditions over one growing and one dormant winter season. Our experiment presents a detailed description of the effect of severe drought on growth and physiological variables, leading to seedling mortality after an extended period of drought and dormancy. After re-watering following the dormant period, drought-exposed seedlings did not re-flush, showing that the root system had died off. The results of this study suggest a complex series of physiological feedbacks between the measured variables in both Populus species. Further, they reveal that reduced reserve accumulation in the root system during drought decreases the conversion of starch to soluble sugars in roots, which may contribute to the root death of drought-exposed seedlings during the dormant season by compromising the frost tolerance of the root system. PMID:23347066

  16. G protein signaling in UV protection: methods for understanding the signals in young etiolated seedlings.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Nunnelly, Danielle A; Kaufman, Lon S; Warpeha, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    A seed is competent to respond to light soon after imbibition. A new developmental program begins in or on the ground where the young seedling may be exposed to heat, cold, drought, flooding (anoxia), salts, varying levels of visible light, and the topic of this paper, ultraviolet radiation. Herein what is described is a method for growing and maintaining seedlings, then methods of UV irradiation in order to measure discrete effects of UV wavelengths in signal transduction, very early in seedling development. The physiological response to an abiotic signal is partly dependent on the developmental state of the plant. Dark-grown seedlings of plant species possess young leaves or leaf primordia in a "suspended" state of development whereby exposure to sunlight, visible and UV, is required to initiate the leaf developmental program, including development of etioplasts or proplastids into fully functioning chloroplasts. In order for us to understand the initial and persisting effects of UV in seedlings, we "delay" light-induced development by carrying out all experiments in complete darkness between days 0 (seed) and day 7 (Arabidopsis). In this case, the UV regulation of a simple signaling pathway in Arabidopsis, G protein signaling in UV protection and acclimation early in development, is investigated with the use of several mutants and easily score-able phenotypes. PMID:23913039

  17. Dynamics and partitioning of the ionome in seeds and germinating seedlings of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are among the most critical phases in the development of plants, and seed vigour has become an important trait for the selection of robust crop cultivars. Little is known about the potentially limiting role of mineral nutrients in early metabolic and developmental processes during germination. Therefore, we assessed the ionome and relative distribution of mineral elements in different seed and seedling tissues of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and monitored the internal allocation of nutrients during germination. In seeds, cotyledons harboured the main pool of K, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas the seed coat contained most of the Ca, Na, B, Cu and Mo. Although the early root and hypocotyl tissue expanded first, concentrations of most elements were initially low. Re-allocation of elements to the root/hypocotyl tissue from other pools set in two days after seed imbibition and was most rapid for K. Relative to the critical deficiency levels of vegetative tissues, seed tissues were particularly low in B, K and Fe. Further analyses of the ionome of seeds and seedlings, grouped according to their germination efficiency, indicated that in particular low S, Mg and Ca coincided with germination failure. This study documents highly dynamic changes in the ionome of seed and seedling tissues and provides evidence for potentially limiting elements during early germination and seedling establishment in rapeseed. PMID:23939714

  18. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from extreme dehydration and oxidative stress in seedlings of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Almoguera, Concepción; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Personat, José-María; Tejedor-Cano, Javier; Lindahl, Marika; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Jordano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9) has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII) maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI) membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation. PMID:23227265

  19. [Effects of light intensity on seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-fu; Cao, Min

    2007-01-01

    With shading experiment, this paper studied the seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea, a representative species in Xishuangbanna seasonal rain forest under different light intensity and forest habitat. The results showed that both 100% light and deepest shading did not facilitate the germination of S. wantianshuea seed, while medium shading accelerated the seed germination. Gap center was more appropriate to the seed germination than gap edge and under-canopy. The seeds in gap center had the highest germination rate and rapid germination. Under partially shading, the seedling height, diameter of basal stem, and leaf area per seedling were in their peak, while the root-shoot ratio decreased with increasing shading and achieved its maximum under 100% light. The specific leaf area increased with increasing shading in a certain range, and peaked under 4.2% light. Gap center was beneficial to the early seedling growth, with all growth parameters except root-shoot ratio peaked there. The effects of environmental factors, mainly light intensity and quality, on the seed germination and seedling growth of S. wantianshuea were discussed. PMID:17396494

  20. Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-06-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro). PMID:24699829

  1. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  2. Expression of stress-related genes in zebrawood (Astronium fraxinifolium, Anacardiaceae) seedlings following germination in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Peter W; Ciampi, Ana Y; Salomão, Antonieta N; Costa, Tânia da S A; Azevedo, Vânia C R

    2014-03-01

    Seeds of a tropical tree species from Brazil, Astronium fraxinifolium, or zebrawood, were germinated, for the first time in microgravity, aboard the International Space Station for nine days. Following three days of subsequent growth under normal terrestrial gravitational conditions, greater root length and numbers of secondary roots was observed in the microgravity-treated seedlings compared to terrestrially germinated controls. Suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNA and EST analysis were used to detect differential gene expression in the microgravity-treated seedlings in comparison to those initially grown in normal gravity (forward subtraction). Despite their return to, and growth in normal gravity, the subtracted library derived from microgravity-treated seedlings was enriched in known microgravity stress-related ESTs, corresponding to large and small heat shock proteins, 14-3-3-like protein, polyubiquitin, and proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. In contrast, the reverse-subtracted library contained a comparatively greater variety of general metabolism-related ESTs, but was also enriched for peroxidase, possibly indicating the suppression of this protein in the microgravity-treated seedlings. Following continued growth for 30 days, higher concentrations of total chlorophyll were detected in the microgravity-exposed seedlings. PMID:24688295

  3. Second year effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Potted native and phyton-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed for a second growing season to ozone and/or acid deposition in open-top field chambers on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1,680 m). Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient ozone (COE), (2) ozone with clouds excluded (CE), and (3) exposure to clouds and ozone, as control chambers (CO), and (4) open plots (AA). No differences were detected among treatments for biomass accumulation or for chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phyton seedlings in AA and CO treatments maintained high photosynthetic rates through October, whereas rates in CE and COE decreased, suggesting that dormancy and winter hardiness were delayed in AA and CO, possibly making seedlings susceptible to early frosts. Respiration of both seedling types was higher for AA and CO throughout most of the growing season, which could lead to depletion of carbohydrates, and eventually to a reduction in growth and vigor of the seedlings over time due to air pollution.

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  5. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  6. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Because Pinus ponderosa (Dougl.ex Laws) and P. radiata (D.Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate Cesium 137 and Strontium 90--characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout--from contaminated soil. All seedlings were grown for 3 months in cu cm of sphagnum peat moss:perlite (1:1 V:V) in a growth chamber. In experiment 1, seedling accumulation of 137 CS and 90 Sr after 1 month of exposure was measured. In experiment 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Experiment 3 measured seedling accumulation of CS 137 and SR 90 at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium. Accumulation of CS 137 and SR 90 by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. (Copyright (c) 1993, Environmental Quality.)

  7. Proline partially overcomes excess molybdenum toxicity in cabbage seedlings grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumchai, J; Huang, J-Z; Lee, C-Y; Chen, F-C; Chin, S-W

    2013-01-01

    In vitro grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) seedlings exposed to excess molybdenum (Mo) ions exhibited severely reduced plant growth at the cotyledonary stage. Adding 80 mM proline (Pro) to the Mo-treated medium could help 50% seedlings to overcome the toxicity and grow true leaves. Under excess Mo stress, seedlings accumulated blue/purple anthocyanin in their cotyledons and hypocotyls. The anthocyanin content under Mo with 40 mM Pro was 4-fold higher than the control medium, MS with 40 mM Pro. The presence of Pro in the excess-Mo condition reduced chlorophyll a, whereas the chlorophyll b content was much higher than the control media of MS with and without Pro. Moreover, supplementing various concentrations of Pro into the Mo-stressed condition promoted the seedlings with higher antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidate, and catalase. In addition, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation pathways, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were all upregulated. Our study indicated that, under excess Mo stress, the antioxidant activity of cabbage seedlings was induced in an attempt to protect plants from the Mo-induced toxicity and exacerbated growth. Pro, on the other hand, functioned in producing higher antioxidant enzyme activity to partially help recover plant growth. PMID:24301928

  8. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, P. N.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation.

  9. Influence of germination date on Dioon edule (Zamiaceae) seedling tolerance to water stress.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Flores, Joel; Rodríguez Millán, Paulina S; Rubio Méndez, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Dioon edule seedling mortality is mostly attributed to dehydration by prolonged drought, even when they present xeromorphic characteristics like the adult plants. The effect of germination date (GD) and soil water deficit on seedling tolerance to water stress was assessed. The seedlings germinated and grown from mature seeds every month from December to April GD were selected to evaluate the leaf area, photosynthetic pigment content, crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) activity, stomatal conductance (gs) and leaflet anatomy at soil water potential (?s) of 0.0 MPa (day 1), -0.1 MPa (day 40), -1.0 MPa (day 90), -1.5 MPa (day 130), and a control (0.0 MPa at day 130) to recognize differences due to leaf development. The seedlings shifted from C3 to CAM cycling when exposed to water stress at ?s of -1.0 MPa, like adult plants. The March-April GD seedlings with undeveloped sclerified hypodermis and stomata, presented reduced leaf area, lower Chlorophyll a/b ratio, higher CAM activity and midday partial stomatal closure when reached ?s of -1.0 MPa. These have higher probability of dehydration during severe drought (February-April) than those of the December-February GD with similar ?s. Plants used for restoration purposes must have full leaf development to increase the survival. PMID:24500792

  10. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  11. The combined effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Tuber melanosporum on the quality of Pinus halepensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, J A; Martin, A; Anriquez, A; Albanesi, A

    2012-08-01

    The ecological, economic and social values of the ectomycorrhizal fungi of the black truffle found in the rural Mediterranean are well known. The inoculation of Pinus halepensis seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria can improve the morphology and physiology of the seedlings and benefit the regeneration of arid regions and the reintroduction of inocula of mycorrhizal fungi into these areas. Some rhizobacteria can improve the establishment and functioning of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. In this study, seedlings of P. halepensis were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT 844 under non-limiting greenhouse conditions. Five months after inoculation, we analysed the growth, water parameters (osmotic potential at saturation, osmotic potential at turgor loss and modulus of elasticity), concentrations of mycorrhizal colonies, nutrient concentration and nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) in roots and aerial parts of the seedlings. Subsequently, tests were performed to estimate the root growth potentials. None of the treatments changed the water parameters or growth potentials of the roots. The inoculations improved the growth and nutrient uptake of the seedlings, although the combination of P. fluorescens CECT 844 and T. melanosporum did not generally lead to a significant improvement over the positive effects of a simple inoculation of T. melanosporum; however, the addition of P. fluorescens CECT 844 did double the rate of the mycorrhization of T. melanosporum. These results may be promising for enhancing the cultivation of truffles. PMID:22068563

  12. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries. PMID:22777281

  13. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Methods Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Key Results Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism. PMID:24043495

  14. Hydrogen peroxide acts upstream of nitric oxide in the heat shock pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Guo, Yunjing; Jia, Lixiu; Chu, Hongye; Zhou, Shuo; Chen, Kunming; Wu, Dan; Zhao, Liqun

    2014-04-01

    We previously reported that nitric oxide (NO) functions as a signal in thermotolerance. To illustrate its relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) in the tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to heat shock (HS), we investigated the effects of heat on Arabidopsis seedlings of the following types: the wild type; three NADPH oxidase-defective mutants that exhibit reduced endogenous H?O? levels (atrbohB, atrbohD, and atrbohB/D); and a mutant that is resistant to inhibition by fosmidomycin (noa1, for nitric oxide-associated protein1). After HS, the NO levels in atrbohB, atrbohD, and atrbohB/D seedlings were lower than that in wild-type seedlings. Treatment of the seedlings with sodium nitroprusside or S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine partially rescued their heat sensitivity, suggesting that NO is involved in H?O? signaling as a downstream factor. This point was verified by phenotypic analyses and thermotolerance testing of transgenic seedlings that overexpressed Nitrate reductase2 and NOA1, respectively, in an atrbohB/D background. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that NO stimulated the DNA-binding activity of HS factors and the accumulation of HS proteins through H?O?. These data indicate that H?O? acts upstream of NO in thermotolerance, which requires increased HS factor DNA-binding activity and HS protein accumulation. PMID:24510762

  15. Damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in Noshahr and Kelardasht.

    PubMed

    Zad, S J; Koshnevice, M

    2001-01-01

    To study the damping-off of conifer seedlings, we have collected samples from the roots of conifer seedlings (Pinus nigra, Picea excelsa, Abieces spp, Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens) from nurseries in the south of Iran (Noshahr and Kelardasht). After disinfecting the samples, we have used standard media like PDA, MA and CLA. The following fungi were identified: Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium sambucinum, Clamydosporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon spp., Alternaria spp, Macrophomina phaseoli. Amongst the above mentioned fungi, Fusarium spp. were the commonest ones. Pathogenecity tests of Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on seedlings were done. Isolated fungal colonies were purified using single mycelium and single spore methods. Fungal isolates were identified after subculturing on PDA and CLA media by Nelson method. These isolates were Fusarium solani, F. oxysporium, F. sambucinum and F. clamydosporum. Other fungal isolates were Rhizoctonia spp. In order to determine the infectivity of Fusarium on their hosts, seeds of Pinus nigra, Cupressus arizonica and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis were cultured in four repetitions each containing 2 seedlings. After a seasonal growth, seedlings were inoculated with a suspension of Fusarium spores (4.5 +/- 0.3 x 1016 spore/ml). Infection of P. nigra, Cupressus arizonica and Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis with F. solani and Pinus nigra and Cupressus semperivirens var. horizontalis with F. oxysporum was high whereas that of Cupressus arizonica with F. sambucinum, F. mondiforme and F. clamydosporum was moderate. PMID:12425024

  16. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  17. Development of Enzymes in the Cotyledons of Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, T.; McGregor, D. I.; Beevers, Harry

    1973-01-01

    Changes in hypocotyl length, cotyledon weight, lipid content, chlorophyll content, and capacity for photosynthesis have been described in seedlings of Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad. (watermelon) growing at 30 C under various light treatments. Corresponding changes in the levels of 19 enzymes in the cotyledons are described, with particular emphasis on enzymes of microbodies, since during normal greening, enzymes of the glyoxysomes are lost and those of leaf peroxisomes appear. In complete darkness enzymes of the glyoxysomes reach a peak at 4 days and decline as the fat is depleted. Enzymes of mitochondria and of glycolytic pathways also peak at 4 to 5 days and either remain unchanged or decline to a lesser extent. Exposure to light at 4 days, when the cotyledons emerge, results in a selectively greater destruction of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle; chlorophyll synthesis and capacity for photosynthesis increase in parallel, and there is a striking increase in the activities of chloroplast enzymes and in those of the leaf peroxisomes, hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase. The reciprocal changes in enzymes of the glyoxysomes and of leaf peroxisomes can be temporally dissociated, since even after 10 days in darkness, when malate synthetase and isocitrate lyase have reached very low levels, hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase increase strikingly on exposure to light and the cotyledons become photosynthetic. Furthermore, the parallel development of enzymes of leaf peroxisomes and functional chloroplasts is not immutable, since hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase activity can be elicited in darkness following a 5-minute exposure to light at day 4 while chlorophyll does not develop under these conditions. PMID:16658299

  18. Early seed fall and seedling emergence: precursors to tropical restoration.

    PubMed

    Howe, Henry F; Urincho-Pantaleon, Yuliana; de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    We explore processes of seed immigration and seedling recruitment before an experimental rainforest restoration matures enough to affect either. Twenty-four 30 × 30-m plots were fenced in 12 ha of pasture in 2006. Seeds were collected in ninety-six 1-m(-2) seed traps; recruits were censused in ~12,000 m(2) in which establishment was allowed. We tested effects of distance from forest, living trees, and stumps of trees cut during site preparation on seed rain in 2007 and effects of these and soil depth on recruits through June 2008. Seed fall and recruitment were not correlated with distance to forest 90-400 m away, nor to living shade trees outside the 160 × 485-m experimental grid. Recruitment differed for animal- and wind-dispersed species in a topographically complex landscape. Recruitment of wind-dispersed species was random with respect to soil depth or distance to recent stumps. Recruitment of animal-dispersed species was multimodal; partial correlations with number of stumps within 30 m of plots were significant with soil depth held constant (P < 0.025), as were correlations of recruitment with soil depth with number of stumps held constant (P < 0.01). Animal-dispersed recruits were often not conspecifics of adults that had been cut, indicating a legacy of attraction by fruiting trees of animals bearing seeds from distant sources. Ecological implications are that recruitment in pastures released from grazing reflects a mix of widely scattered wind-dispersed pioneers and, where animal-dispersed trees exist, multi-modal and decidedly non-random recruitment of pioneer and later successional animal-dispersed trees from seed banks. PMID:20559658

  19. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 ?M juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 ?M juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 ?M juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 ?M juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 ?M juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound. PMID:25240266

  20. A wounding-induced PPO from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Márcio S T; Siqueira, Fabrício P; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Fernandes, Kátia V S

    2008-09-01

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPO) are induced in cowpea plants by wounding. The highest activity levels were detected 48h after this stimulus in both wounded and neighbor-to-wounded unifoliates of cowpea seedlings; the increase of activity was in the order of 13 to 15-fold, respectively, in comparison to control unifoliates. Multiple molecular forms of active PPO (Mrs 58, 73 and congruent with220kDa) were detected by partially denaturing SDS-PAGE. Wounding-induced cowpea PPO were extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The effects of substrate specificity, pH, thermal stability and sensitivity to various inhibitors - resorcinol, EDTA, sodium azide and tropolone - of partially purified soluble PPO were investigated. Purified wounding-induced cowpea PPO (wicPPO) showed the highest activities towards 4-methylcatechol (Km=9.86mM, Vmax=24.66 EU [DeltaAmin(-1)]) and catechol (Km=3.44mM, Vmax=6.64 EU [DeltaAmin(-1)]); no activity was observed towards l-tyrosine, under the assay conditions used. The optimum pH for wound-induced cowpea PPO was 6.0 with 4-methylcatechol as substrate. The enzyme was optimally activated by 10 mM SDS and was highly stable even after 5 min at 80 degrees C. The most effective inhibitor was tropolone, whereas addition of 10mM of resorcinol, EDTA and sodium azide were able to reduce PPO activities by 40%, 15% and 100%, respectively. PMID:18675435

  1. Effects of Chemical Treatments upon Photosynthetic Parameters in Soybean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Manning, David T.; Chen, Tsong Meng; Campbell, Andrew J.; Tolbert, N. E.; Smith, E. Wayne

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various chemical treatments upon photosynthesis, soluble leaf protein, CO2 compensation point, and leaf light transmission in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., seedlings were examined following varying response periods after application at 14 to 17 days postemergence. The compounds N6-benzyladenine (BA), 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid (CPMP), (4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid (CPA), rhodanine-N-acetic acid (RAA), and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) significantly increased soluble protein and decreased senescence, measured by leaf light transmission, at CO2 concentrations below the compensation point in a survival chamber. All compounds except BA significantly decreased transmission values under ambient atmospheric conditions. In statistically significant experiments, applications of 3.49 millimolar CPMP increased net photosynthesis on a leaf area basis by an average of 14.4% at all trifoliolate positions with increases generally requiring response periods of 12 days or longer. RAA at 1.31 and 2.61 millimolar increased net photosynthesis by 19 to 36% following 13-day response periods. CPMP and other compounds tested had no effect upon the CO2 compensation point after 4- to 8-day response periods. The effects of CPMP and RAA upon net photosynthesis and soluble protein appeared to involve a combined stimulation of protein synthesis and an antisenescent effect. There were no indications that any of the photosynthetic changes observed resulted from direct differential effects upon ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. The assays for soluble protein and light transmission responded more consistently to the chemicals than did photosynthesis. PMID:16663948

  2. Effect of nursery nitrogen application of bare-root Larix olgensis seedlings on growth, nitrogen uptake and initial field performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo Lei; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Le; Shi, Wenhui; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Jiaxi; Cheng, Zhongqian

    2013-01-01

    Nursery nitrogen application has been used to improve seedling quality. The technique has received little attention with bare-root seedlings and their subsequent field performance on weed competition sites. Our research objective was to examine responses of one- and two- year-old bare-root Olga Bay larch (Larix olgensis Henry) seedlings to nursery nitrogen supplements and subsequent one-year field performance on a competitive site. The fertilizer levels (kg N ha(-1)) were 0 (control), 60 (conventional fertilization, 60 C), 120 (additional nitrogen applied two times, 120 L), 180 (additional nitrogen applied three times, 180 L) and N were applied in increments of 30 kg ha(-1 )at 15-day interval to maintain a base nutrient level Although pre-planting morphological attributes and nitrogen status of one-year-old (la) seedlings were more sensitive to 60 C than for two-year-old (2a) seedlings, the conventional application failed to enhance their field survival (15.6% vs 17.8%), relative height growth (89.0% vs 79.6%), and relative diameter growth (17.0% vs 22.9%). The la seedlings' field survival (15.6% for 0, 17.8% for 60 C) and 2a seedlings' relative height growth rate (11.0% for 0, 8.9% for 60 C) were not increased significantly until they were provided the 120 L (survival of 23.3% for la, relative height growth rate of 15.0% for 2a). According to pre-planting attributes and field performance, optimum nursery nitrogen application was 120 L for the 2a seedlings and 180 L for la seedlings. Except for component nitrogen concentration, pre-planting morphological attributes and component N content for the 2a seedlings were as much 3.3 to 37.7 times that of la seedlings. In conclusion, the contrasting survival of poor (15.6%-28.9%) for la seedlings and high (84.4%-91.1%) for 2a seedlings indicated that additional nitrogen fertilizer would not equal the benefits of an another year's growth in the nursery. Successful reforestation could not be fulfilled by la seedlings regardless of their prenutrients. An alternative technique for sites with competing vegetation was to apply 120 kg N ha(-1) in the nursery during July and August on 2a seedlings. PMID:24006811

  3. ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? (Cinnamomum cassia) Development of Acne Gel with Cassia Oil (Cinnamomum cassia) ?????? ????????1 ????????? ???????1 ???????? ???????1 ???????? ?????????????2 ??? ????????? ??????????3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nichakorn Charoenkul; Hathairat Rimkeeree; Penkwan Chompreeda; Uraiwan Dilokkunanant; Chuenjit Changchenkit

    This research is aimed at developing of acne gel that use cassia oil as anti-acne agent. Susceptibility testing against two strains of acne-causing bacteria; Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. showed the MICs of cassia oil were 156 and 625 µg\\/ml, respectively. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that major constituent of cassia was cinnamaldehyde (C9H8O). Results from consumers age ranged between 15-25 years

  4. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of physiological stress caused by mechanical loss of specific ectomycorrhizae (as done by seedling lifting machines) to the capacity of pine seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow.

  5. A comparative field study of growth and survival of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1996-12-31

    This study is a comparison of seedling growth and survival of seven species of conifers that make up the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest--Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. The field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the study species` relatively shade and drought tolerances. Six discrete treatments were created in the first experiment by using three elevations (1,600 m, 1,900, m, and 2,200 m) and two natural light levels (closed canopy shade and open gap sun) at each elevation. One or two-year old seedlings were planted in the ground in replicate plots in each treatment and followed for two growing seasons. Four responses were analyzed--survival, height growth, diameter growth, and mass growth (total mass as well as root mass and shoot mass separately).

  6. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on water relations and photosynthesis in White Pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, K.J.; Zwiazek, J.J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    Transpiration, photosynthesis, water potential components and tissue fluoride concentrations were determined in mildly drought stressed 9-week-old seedlings fumigated with HF. Only those seedlings which showed no visible signs of fluoride injury were selected for the measurements. Photosynthesis decreased after 1 and 7 days of fumigation with 2, 4 and 20 ppb HF. A decrease in the transpiration rates has been observed after 2, 7 and 22 days of 0.5 ppb HF treatment and after 2 days of 2 ppb HF treatment. The same treatments which reduced transpiration rates resulted in an increase in osmotic potentials and water potentials. Possible mechanism of HF-induced alterations in seedling water relations by altering stomatal movements is discussed.

  7. Coincidence of biophoton emission by wheat seedlings during simultaneous, transcontinental germination tests.

    PubMed

    Gallep, Cristiano M; Moraes, Thiago A; Dos Santos, Samuel R; Barlow, Peter W

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of spontaneous ultra-weak light (biophoton) emission from native Brazilian and German wheat seedlings in three simultaneous series of germination tests are presented, two run in Germany and one in Brazil. Seedlings in both countries presented semi-circadian rhythms of emission that were in accordance with the local lunisolar gravimetric tidal acceleration, as did seeds which had been transported from Brazil to Germany. The simultaneity of the photon emission patterns in all tests argues for the lunisolar tide and its rhythmic variations as regulators of the natural rhythm of photon emission. However, seedlings from seed samples transported from Brazil to Germany showed, in addition, a temporary disturbance within the emission periodicity which may indicate a possible short-term acclimatization to the new location. PMID:23011402

  8. Effects of long-term ozone fumigations on growth and gas exchange of Fraser fir seedlings.

    PubMed

    Seiler, J R; Tyszko, P B; Chevone, B I

    1994-01-01

    Fraser fir seedlings from two seed sources in the Southern Appalachians (Mt Mitchell, North Carolina, a declining population; and Mt Rogers, Virginia, a relatively healthy population) were subjected to long-term (2.5 years) intermittent ozone fumigations (0.025, 0.070, and 0.150 ppm) while being grown through five growth cycles in an accelerated-growing regime. Fumigations took place during bud break, stem elongation and bud set. Following each growing cycle, gas exchange parameters and dry weights were determined. The ozone fumigations did not produce any effect on seedling growth. The ozone fumigation effects on gas exchange parameters were inconsistent, and generally not statistically different, with no differences occurring between seed sources. There was no correlation between photosynthetic rates and seedling growth. These results provide no evidence that ozone may be contributing to the differences in decline noted between the Mt Rogers and Mt Mitchell populations of Fraser fir. PMID:15091656

  9. Evaluation of Parkia pendula lectin mRNA differentially expressed in seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, M J B M; Santos, P B; Carvalho-Junior, L B; Stirling, J; Beltrão, E I C

    2014-05-01

    Parkia pendula (Willd.) Walp. (Fabaceae) is a neotropical species of the genus Parkia more abundantly distributed in Central to South America. From the seeds of P. pendula a glucose/mannose specific lectin (PpeL) was isolated that has been characterised and used as a biotechnological tool but until now this is the first manuscript to analyse P. pendula mRNA expression in seedlings. For this porpoise a Differential display reverse transcription polimerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of P. pendula lectin mRNAs in non-rooted seedlings. No bands were observed in the agarose gel, indicating the absence of mRNA of PpeL seedlings. our findings confirm that lectins mRNAs are differently regulated among species even if they are grouped in the same class. PMID:25166336

  10. The effect of sugar mill effluent on enzyme activities of rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Behera, B K; Misra, B N

    1985-08-01

    The effect of sugar mill effluent on the activities of peroxidase, amylase, and nitrate reductase of rice (Oryza Sativa L. C.V. Mushoori) seedlings have been investigated. In addition, an attempt was also made to investigate effluent-induced changes in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, during germination of rice seedlings. The effects were studied in relation to both concentration of effluent and time of exposure. The activity of all enzymes tested, except succinate dehydrogenase, decreased during effluent treatment. A marked increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity was noticed at various concentrations of effluent treatment. When time-dependent changes in succinate dehydrogenase activity were followed a nearly threefold increase was found with 12 hr of treatment after which a rapid loss was noticed. A correlation was established between the retardation of growth and development of effluent-treated rice seedlings with the activities of some key enzymes regulating growth and development. PMID:3160578

  11. [Phenotypic variability of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings as a result of inhibition of Hsp90 chaperones].

    PubMed

    Kozeko, L E

    2013-01-01

    The influence of geldanamycin (GDA)--an inhibitor of Hsp90 chaperones--on growth and morphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was studied. It was shown that treatment of seeds Col with the inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in variability of seedling's rates of growth and phenotypes. GDA treatment of genetic polymorphic seeds of natural A. thaliana populations and UV-B irradiated seeds Col resulted in a significant rise in the amount of seedlings with morphological alterations and the amount of non-germinated seeds. The obtained data testify that Hsp90 may restrict stochastic processes, thereby participating in the plant development canalization, conceal genetic variations and maintain cell vitality. PMID:23745360

  12. Pinus halepensis invasion in mountain pampean grassland: effects of feral horses grazing on seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    de Villalobos, A E; Zalba, S M; Peláez, D V

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the mechanisms that determine the increasing abundance of Pinus halepensis in mountain pampean grasslands in Argentina that is associated with the continuous presence of feral horses. We hypothesized that direct and indirect effects of feral horse grazing on grassland may affect the establishment of P. halepensis. We conducted a field experiment to evaluate this hypothesis, studying the response of seedling emergence, survival and growth to herbaceous vegetation defoliation and soil disturbance in sites with contrasting grazing histories. We also evaluated the composition and structure of plant communities of each experimental site. Direct effects such as heavily defoliated perennial grasses and indirect effects such as reduced specific and functional richness, diversity and evenness enhanced the emergence, survival and early growth of the seedlings. High bare ground percentage and low grass biomass also positively affected seedling establishment. The experimental evidence demonstrates that the combination of invasional meltdown hypothesis and weakened biotic resistance are the mechanisms involved in P. halepensis invasion. PMID:21477801

  13. Interactive effects of cadmium and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Chen, Minmin; Wang, Lei; Liang, Chanjuan; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2012-05-01

    Interactive effects of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and acid rain on photosynthetic light reaction in soybean seedlings were investigated under hydroponic conditions. Single treatment with Cd(2+) or acid rain and the combined treatment decreased the content of chlorophyll, Hill reaction rate, the activity of Mg(2+)-ATPase, maximal photochemical efficiency and maximal quantum yield, increased initial fluorescence and damaged the chloroplast structure in soybean seedlings. In the combined treatment, the change in the photosynthetic parameters and the damage of chloroplast structure were stronger than those of any single pollution. Meanwhile, Cd(2+) and acid rain had the interactive effects on the test indices in soybean seedlings. The results indicated that the combined pollution of Cd(2+) and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of the single pollution of Cd(2+) or acid rain on the photosynthetic parameters due to the serious damage to the chloroplast structure. PMID:22182775

  14. Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density-dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Wright, S Joseph; Hernández, Andrés; Reich, Peter B

    2014-04-01

    A complex set of interactions among neighbors influences plant performance and community structure. Understanding their joint operation requires extensive information on species characteristics and individual performance. We evaluated first-year survival of 35719 tropical forest seedlings of 222 species and 15 annual cohorts relative to the density of conspecific and heterospecific neighbors and the phylogenetic similarity of heterospecific neighbors. Neighbors were from two size classes, and size asymmetric interactions provided insight into likely mechanisms. Large heterospecific and conspecific neighbors reduced seedling survival equally, suggesting resource competition rather than host-specific enemies as a mechanism. In contrast, much stronger negative conspecific effects were associated with seedling neighbors capable of limited resource uptake, suggesting shared pests rather than competition as the mechanism. Survival improved, however, near phylogenetically similar heterospecific neighbors, suggesting habitat associations shared among closely related species affect spatial patterns of performance. Improved performance near phylogenetically similar neighbors is an emerging pattern in the handful of similar studies. PMID:24933813

  15. Phytochrome signaling in green Arabidopsis seedlings: impact assessment of a mutually-negative phyB-PIF feedback loop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reversibly red (R)-far-red (FR)-light-responsive phytochrome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light, and the shade-avoidance process in fully-deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade. The intra...

  16. Phosphorus nutrition of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal tree seedlings from a lowland tropical rain forest in Korup National Park, Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BERNARD MOYERSOEN; IAN J. ALEXANDER; ALASTAIR H. FITTER

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between mycorrhizal colonisation and phosphorus acquired by seedlings of the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree Oubanguia alata Bak f. (Scytopetalaceae) and the ectomycorrhizal tree Tetraberlinia moreliana Aubr. (Caesalpinioideae) was evaluated at low and high inorganic phosphorus availabil- ity. AM colonisation was positively correlated with phosphorus uptake by O. alata at low, but not at high phosphorus availability. Seedlings growth was

  17. Does shrub invasion indirectly limit grass establishment via seedling herbivory? A test at grassland-shrubland ecotones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Does shrub invasion at ecotones indirectly limit grass establishment by increasing mammalian seedling herbivory, Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico? We tested the hypothesis that herbivore-related mortality of seedlings of the dominant perennial grass Bouteloua eriopoda would be highest in shrub-dominate...

  18. Evaluation of seedling cold tolerance in rice cultivars: a comparison of visual ratings and quantitative indicators of physiological changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is sensitive to prolonged exposure to low temperature, which at the seedling stage can result in significant chilling injury and mortality. The objective of this study was to quantify physiological and biochemical changes in rice seedlings undergoing chilling stress and compar...

  19. Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed in northern Arizona

    E-print Network

    Effects of post-fire conditions on germination and seedling success of diffuse knapweed in northern changes. We hypothesized that diffuse knapweed germination and seedling growth would respond positively, unburned bare soil and unburned. We removed packets monthly and measured percent germination. Germination

  20. GENETIC MAPPING OF THE QCTS12 AND QCTS4 LOCI CONTROLLING M202 RICE SEEDLING RESPONSE TO LOW TEMPERATURES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California variety M202 exhibits good tolerance to low temperatures during the seedling stage of development. We have identified two major genetic loci, qCTS12 and qCTS4, which are involved in the low temperature tolerance of M202 seedlings. The qCTS12 locus, provides tolerance to cold-induced w...

  1. The effects of size of opening in vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of goldenrods ( Solidago spp.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah E. Goldberg; Patricia A. Werner

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the effects of size of opening in the vegetation and litter cover on seedling establishment of two species of goldenrods (Solidago spp.) in an abandoned field in southwestern Michigan, U.S.A. Seeds of S. canadensis and S. juncea were sown into clipped plots, ranging from 0 cm (control, unclipped) to 100 cm in diameter, with and without litter. Seedling

  2. Ectomycorrhizal colonization and seedling growth of Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae) species in simulated shade environments of a Sri Lankan rain forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. D. Tennakoon; I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke; K. M. Hafeel; G. Seneviratne; C. V. S. Gunatilleke; P. M. S. Ashton

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine whether the degree of ectomycorrhizal (EM) colonization was associated with amount of shade for potted seedlings of five rain forest tree species. Seedlings were exposed to a range of shade treatments—from the open to that emulating the degree of shade beneath a deep-canopied forest. The experiment was carried out at the field

  3. The effects of ethylenediurea and sodium erythorbate on photosynthetic function of ozone-exposed loblolly pine seedlings

    E-print Network

    Kuehler, Eric Anthony

    1995-01-01

    In separate experiments, ozone-sensitive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were treated with either 0 ppm, 150 ppm or 300 ppm ethylenediurea (EDU) or 0 ppm, 1030 ppm, or 2060 ppm Ozoban every 14 days. The seedlings were grown in open...

  4. Taxonomic scale-dependence of habitat niche partitioning and biotic neighbourhood on survival of tropical tree seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Queenborough, Simon A.; Burslem, David F. R. P.; Garwood, Nancy C.; Valencia, Renato

    2009-01-01

    In order to differentiate between mechanisms of species coexistence, we examined the relative importance of local biotic neighbourhood, abiotic habitat factors and species differences as factors influencing the survival of 2330 spatially mapped tropical tree seedlings of 15 species of Myristicaceae in two separate analyses in which individuals were identified first to species and then to genus. Using likelihood methods, we selected the most parsimonious candidate models as predictors of 3 year seedling survival in both sets of analyses. We found evidence for differential effects of abiotic niche and neighbourhood processes on individual survival between analyses at the genus and species levels. Niche partitioning (defined as an interaction of taxonomic identity and abiotic neighbourhood) was significant in analyses at the genus level, but did not differentiate among species in models of individual seedling survival. By contrast, conspecific and congeneric seedling and adult density were retained in the minimum adequate models of seedling survival at species and genus levels, respectively. We conclude that abiotic niche effects express differences in seedling survival among genera but not among species, and that, within genera, community and/or local variation in adult and seedling abundance drives variation in seedling survival. These data suggest that different mechanisms of coexistence among tropical tree taxa may function at different taxonomic or phylogenetic scales. This perspective helps to reconcile perceived differences of importance in the various non-mutually exclusive mechanisms of species coexistence in hyper-diverse tropical forests. PMID:19740886

  5. Use of Brassicaceous seed meals to improve seedling emergence of tomato and pepper in Pythium ultimum infested soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maxwell Handiseni; Jack Brown; Robert Zemetra; Mark Mazzola

    2012-01-01

    Growth room studies were conducted to determine the impact of Brassicaceae seed meals on the emergence of tomato and pepper seedlings in Pythium ultimum infested soils. Pasteurised Burch sandy loam soils were amended with intact and denatured seed meal of rape seed and mustard. Brassica juncea or Brassica napus intact seed meal increased the tomato and pepper seedling emergence. Interestingly,

  6. Effects of competition from young northern hardwoods on red pine seedling growth, nutrient use efficiency, and leaf morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine J. Elliott; A WHITE

    1993-01-01

    Elliott, K.J. and White, AS., 1993. Effects of competition from young northern hardwoods on red pine seedling growth, nutrient use efficiency, and leaf morphology. For. Ecol. Manage., 57. 233- 255. The effects of competition from three northern hardwood tree species on red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait. ) seedlings were examined on two clear-cut sites in western Maine. We examined how

  7. Relative toxicity of arsenite and arsenate on germination and early seedling growth of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy A. Meharg

    2002-01-01

    Elevated soil arsenic levels resulting from long-term use of arsenic contaminated ground for irrigation in Bangladesh may inhibit seed germination and seedling establishment of rice, the country's main food crop. A germination study on rice seeds and a short-term toxicity experiment with different concentrations of arsenite and arsenate on rice seedlings were conducted. Percent germination over control decreased significantly with

  8. Shoot and root sensitivity of containerized black spruce, white spruce and jack pine seedlings to late fall freezing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Bigras; H. A. Margolis

    1997-01-01

    Damage to containerized forest seedlings due to freezing can occur in the fall or early winter in Canadian forest nurseries. The following spring, damage to shoots and impairment of growth is observed. The objectives of this experiment were to measure the impact of late fall low temperatures (0° to --30°C) on whole seedlings of the three most common species used

  9. A LOW COST, HIGH ACCURACYOPTICAL FLOW METHOD FOR MEASURING 2D AND 3D CORN SEEDLING GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Barron, John

    A LOW COST, HIGH ACCURACYOPTICAL FLOW METHOD FOR MEASURING 2D AND 3D CORN SEEDLING GROWTH: THEORY propose the use of optical flow as a means of accurately measuring 2D and 3D growth of young corn­ cal flow method for the use in (accurately) measuring young corn seedling growth. The 2D plant motion

  10. Abstract We evaluated feeding preference and damage by the slug, Arion subfuscus, on seedlings of two willow

    E-print Network

    Orians, Colin

    of two willow species, Salix sericea and S. eriocephala, and their F1 in- terspecific hybrids. Trays preferred feeding on and caused the most damage to S. eriocephala seedlings. S. sericea seedlings were least subfuscus · Fitness · Hybrid · Chemical defense · Salix Introduction Detailing the relationships between

  11. Anthocyanin formation in turnip seedlings ( Brassica rapa L.): Evidence for two light steps in the biosynthetic pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Grill; Daphne Vince

    1964-01-01

    Summary In turnip seedlings, anthocyanin synthesis can be induced with light as soon as water uptake enables the seed coat to be removed. In very young seedlings the main site of production is in the cotyledons but this moves to the hypocotyl when the period of dark growth, before transfer to the light, is increased. The total amount of anthocyanin

  12. Intraspecific variation in the response to CO 2 enrichment in seeds and seedlings of Plantago lanceolata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata D. Wulff; Helen Miller Alexander

    1985-01-01

    Four genotypes of P. lanceolata were grown to maturity at combinations of two levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and two temperature conditions. Seed weight was determined, and seed germination and seedling growth were measured for the progeny of each genotype under the same environmental conditions. Overall, high CO2 levels decreased seed weight, increased germination percentage and rate, and increased seedling

  13. Summary Drought stress is the main cause of mortality of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings in forest plantations. We

    E-print Network

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro

    Summary Drought stress is the main cause of mortality of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings in forest plantations. We therefore assessed if drought hardening, applied in the nursery at the end of the growing season, enhanced the drought toler- ance and transplanting performance of holm oak seedlings

  14. Incident Irradiance and Cupric Hydroxide Container Treatment Effects on Early Growth and Development of Container-grown Pawpaw Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk W. Pomper; Desmond R. Layne; Snake C. Jones

    2002-01-01

    The North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) has great potential as a fruit crop or as a landscape plant. The influence of incident irradiance on pawpaw seedling growth and development in containers was examined in the greenhouse and outdoors. Root spiraling can be a problem for container-grown pawpaw seedlings; therefore, the influence of paint containing cupric hydroxide (Cu(OH) 2)

  15. Growth and gibberellin-A 1 metabolism in normal and gibberellin-insensitive ( Rht3 ) wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Stoddart

    1984-01-01

    Growth parameters were determined for tall (rht3) and dwarf (Rht3) seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant statures and leaf length were reduced by 50% in dwarfs but root and shoot dry weights were less affected. Leaves of dwarf seedlings had shorter epidermal cells and the numbers of cells per rank in talls and dwarfs matched the observed relationships in

  16. Limiting mechanisms in the regeneration of the Chilean matorral Experiments on seedling establishment in burned and cleared mesic sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Holmgren; Alejandro M. Segura; Eduardo R. Fuentes

    2000-01-01

    The Chilean matorral is characterized by multispecific shrub clumps in dry areas but has a continuous canopy in wetter sites. It has been hypothesized that this difference is due to easier recolonization of open patches by shrub seedlings under more mesic conditions. Within the mesic range of the matorral we designed a field experiment to compare shrub seedling emergence, growth,

  17. Limiting mechanisms in the regeneration of the Chilean matorral – Experiments on seedling establishment in burned and cleared mesic sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Holmgren; Alejandro M. Segura; Eduardo R. Fuentes

    2000-01-01

    The Chilean matorral is characterized by multispecific shrub clumps in dry areas but has a continuous canopy in wetter sites. It has been hypothesized that this difference is due to easier recolonization of open patches by shrub seedlings under more mesic conditions. Within the mesic range of the matorral we designed a field experiment to compare shrub seedling emergence, growth,

  18. Fine mapping of the qCTS4 locus associated with seedling cold tolerance in rice (Orysa Sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures ('15°C) and under prolonged or repeated exposure, yellowing and stunting are commonly observed. Damage to seedlings results in poor stand establishment and delayed maturation, which can cause significant reductions in yield. In general, japonica rice ...

  19. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa. PMID:23636582

  20. [Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on photosynthetic characteristics of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Yan, Fei; Hu, Li-Pan; Zhou, Xiao-Ting; Zou, Zhi-Rong

    2014-10-01

    In this research, the possibility of exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on photosynthetic characteristics of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress was investigated. Five leaves seedlings of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Jinpeng No. 1) were used as starting materials, applied with 50 mg · L(-1) ALA by foliage spray or 10 mg · L(-1) ALA by root soaking to study the changes in their photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters under 100 mmol · L(-1) NaCl. The result showed that, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rate P,, stomata conductance g(s), intercellular CO2 concentration Ci, transpiration Tr) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv'/Fm', Fm', ?PS II, ETR, qP, Pc) were severely reduced under NaCl treatment and ALA application by foliage spray or root soaking with proper concentrations exerted positive influences on tomato seedlings under salt stress, while there were some differences between foliage spray and root soaking in the influence on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. Both foliage spray with 50 mg · L(-1) ALA and root soaking with 10 mg L(-1) ALA significantly increased Pn, Ci, g(s) and Tr of tomato seedlings under NaCl stress, alleviated photosynthetic inhibition. Root application of ALA had a better effect on the chlorophyll content than foliage application. However, the photosynthetic parameters showed that foliage application of ALA had a better effect than root application, and both treatments had no difference in the influence on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of tomato seedlings. It could be deduced that the regulating effect of ALA on enhancing salt tolerance of tomato seedlings is attributed to its effect on improving chlorophyll biosynthesis and metabolism, increasing stomatal conductance and reducing stomatal limitation, thus, enhancing the photosynthetic capacity and PS II photochemical efficiency of tomato leaves under NaCl stress. PMID:25796901