Sample records for cinnamomum camphora seedlings

  1. Effects of 60-day NO2 fumigation on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidative response in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo-mei; Chen, Ying-xu; Du, Guo-jian; Wu, Xi-lin; Li, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the oxidative stress and antioxidative response of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumigation. Methods: Measurements were made up of the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation of one-year-old C. camphora seedlings exposed to NO2 (0.1, 0.5, and 4 ?l/L) fumigation in open top chambers over a period of 60 d. Results: After the first 30 d, 0.5 and 4.0 ?l/L NO2 showed insignificant effects on the growth of C. camphora seedlings. However, exposure to 0.5 and 4.0 ?l/L NO2 for 15 d significantly reduced their chlorophyll content (P<0.05), enhanced their malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05), and also significantly reduced the maximal quantum yield of PSII in the dark [the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F v/F m)] (P<0.05). In the latter 30 d, 0.5 ?l/L NO2 showed a positive effect on the vitality of the seedlings, which was reflected by a recovery in the ratio of F v/F m and chlorophyll content, and obviously enhanced growth, SOD activity, ascorbate (AsA) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P<0.05); 4.0 ?l/L NO2 then showed a negative effect, indicated by significant reductions in chlorophyll content and the ratio of F v/F m, and inhibited growth (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest adaptation of C. camphora seedlings to 60-d exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 ?l/L NO2, but not to 60-d exposure to 4.0 ?l/L NO2. C. camphora seedlings may protect themselves from injury by strengthening their antioxidant system in response to NO2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20205305

  2. An Efficient Protocol for Plantlet Regeneration via Direct Organogenesis by Using Nodal Segments from Embryo-Cultured Seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora L.

    PubMed Central

    Du, Li; Li, Yongpeng; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient plantlet regeneration protocol via direct organogenesis was established for camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.). Stem segments with one node (SN explants) from embryo-cultured seedlings (EC seedlings) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine was used to induce cotyledonary embryo germination. This medium was also used for EC seedlings propagation and adventitious bud induction from SN explants. Regenerated plantlets were cultured on hormone-free MS medium for elongation and root induction. The regeneration capability of SN explants was compared by using EC seedling lines established in this research. EC seedling line EL6 exhibited the highest adventitious bud induction frequency (91.7%) and the highest number of buds per responding explant (5.2), which was considered as the most efficient EC seedling line for further gene transformation research. PMID:25962170

  3. [Effects of nitrogen addition on red soil microbes in the Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Yi; Zhu, Fan; Su, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Wen-De

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen addition on the red soil microbial communities in Cinnamomum camphora plantation, three treatments of nitrogen addition were designated as control (N0: 0 g x m(-2)), low nitrogen (N1: 5 g x m(-2)) and high nitrogen (N2 :15 g x m(-2)). Soil microbial numbers, microbial biomass carbon (C), biomass N and microbial community functional diversity were analyzed using the methods of plate counting, chloroform fumigation and BIOLOG system, respectively. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria in N1 and N2 were significantly higher than the control 1 month after nitrogen addition, but significantly lower than the control 13 months after nitrogen addition, and the number of fungi and actinomycetes were not significantly changed after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass C, N increased with the increase of nitrogen at 1 month, but the soil microbial biomass C increased significantly 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass N was lower 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The variation of the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbial communities was resulted from the nitrogen addition. The indices of Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index were calculated to show the differences in nitrogen treatments and in times, which turned out to be insignificant. PMID:24191573

  4. A Comparative Study on the Anatomy and Development of Different Shapes of Domatia in Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae)

    PubMed Central

    NISHIDA, SACHIKO; TSUKAYA, HIROKAZU; NAGAMASU, HIDETOSHI; NOZAKI, MASUMI

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Domatia are small organs usually found in the axils of major veins on the underside of leaves and, although they have received wide attention from ecologists, few detailed reports exist on their anatomy or development. This study is focused on the domatia of Cinnamomum camphora (Lauraceae) and is the first comparative study on the anatomy and development of the different shapes of domatia within a single plant. • Methods Four types of domatia in C. camphora leaves were observed on paraffin sections under a microscope. • Key Results The domatia consisted of six histological parts: the upper epidermis, the upper mesophyll tissue, spongy tissue, the lower mesophyll tissue, the tissue filling the rim opening, and the lower epidermis. They differed from the non-domatial lamina mainly in the cell structure of the upper and lower mesophyll tissue and the rim tissue. Differences in domatium shapes were mainly associated with differences in the structure of the upper mesophyll and in the number and size of the rim tissue cells. Differences in the development of domatium types were observed in terms of initiation timing, differentiation of the upper mesophyll cells and degree of rim tissue development. • Conclusions In domatia, active anticlinal division in the lower mesophyll cells, as compared with the upper mesophyll cells, was coordinated with dynamic growth of rim tissue cells and resulted in cavity formation. The anatomical or developmental differences among the four types of domatia were related to the positions of the domatia within a leaf. In terms of the ecological implications, the major anatomical difference between the domatia used by herbivorous and carnivorous mites was in the development of the rim tissue. PMID:16446284

  5. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Zhu, Xue-mei; Luo, Li-ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-yuan; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) is rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) or medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs). The purpose of the present study was to produce zero-trans MCTs-enriched plastic fat from a lipid mixture (500 g) of palm stearin (PS) and CCSO at 3 weight ratios (PS:CCSO 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, wt/wt) by using lipase (Lipozyme TL IM, 10% of total substrate) as a catalyst at 65 °C for 8 h. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic acid (C16:0, 42.68% to 53.42%), oleic acid (C18:1, 22.41% to 23.46%), and MCFAs (8.67% to 18.73%). Alpha-tocopherol (0.48 to 2.51 mg/100 g), ?-tocopherol (1.70 to 3.88 mg/100 g), and ?-tocopherol (2.08 to 3.95 mg/100 g) were detected in the interesterified products. The physical properties including solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), and crystal polymorphism of the products were evaluated for possible application in shortening or margarine. Results showed that the SFCs of interesterified products at 25 °C were 9% (60:40, PS:CCSO), 18.50% (70:30, PS:CCSO), and 29.2% (80:20, PS:CCSO), respectively. The ?' crystal form was found in most of the interesterified products. Furthermore, no trans fatty acids were detected in the products. Such zero-trans MCT-enriched fats may have a potential functionality for shortenings and margarines which may become a new type of nutritional plastic fat for daily diet. PMID:22515238

  6. Enzymatic production of zero-trans plastic fat rich in ?-linolenic acid and medium-chain fatty acids from highly hydrogenated soybean oil, Cinnamomum camphora seed oil, and perilla oil by lipozyme TL IM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-Li; Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Hu, Jiang-Ning; Li, Hong-Yan; Luo, Li-Ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2013-02-13

    In the present study, zero-trans ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA)-enriched plastic fats were synthesized through enzymatic interesterification reactions from highly hydrogenated soybean oil (HSO), Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO), and perilla oil (PO). The reactions were performed by incubating the blending mixtures of HSO, CCSO, and PO at different weight ratios (60:40:100, 70:30:100, 80:20:100) using 10% (total weight of substrate) of Lipozyme TL IM at 65 °C for 8 h. After reaction, the physical properties (fatty acids profile, TAG composition, solid fat content, slip melting point, contents of tocopherol, polymorphic forms, and microstructures) of the interesterified products and their physical blends were determined, respectively. Results showed that the fatty acid compositions of the interesterified products and physical blends had no significant changes, while the content of MCFA in both interesterified products and physical blends increased to 8.58-18.72%. Several new types of TAG species were observed in interesterified products (SSL/SLS, PLO/LLS, and OLLn/LnLO/LOLn). It should be mentioned that no trans fatty acids (TFA) were detected in all products. As the temperature increased, the solid fat content (SFC) of interesterified products was obviously lower than that of physical blends. The SFCs of interesterified products (60:40:100, 70:30:100, and 80:20:100, HSO:CCSO:PO) at 25 °C were 6.5%, 14.6%, and 16.5%, respectively, whereas the counterparts of physical blends were 32.5%, 38.5%, and 43.5%, respectively. Meanwhile, interesterified products showed more ?' polymorphs than physical blends, in which ?' polymorph is a favorite form for production of margarine and shortening. Such zero-trans ALA and MCFA-enriched fats may have desirable physical and nutritional properties for shortenings and margarines. PMID:23350869

  7. Flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities from Cinnamomum species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nagendra Prasad; Bao Yang; Xinhong Dong; Guoxiang Jiang; Haiyan Zhang; Haihui Xie; Yueming Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamomum has long been regarded as a food or medicinal plant. Leaves of five species of Cinnamomum, namely C. burmanni, C. cassia, C. pauciflorum, C. tamala and C. zeylanica, were chosen to investigate their antioxidant activities in this study. C. zeylanica exhibited the highest total phenolic content while C. burmanni had the highest flavonoid content among the five species. These

  8. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  9. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:25838932

  10. A Study of the Yield of Camphor and of Camphor Oil Obtained from the Laurus Camphora of Jamaica

    E-print Network

    Weidlein, Edward Ray

    1910-05-15

    one part to one thousand, and is separated from the water by filtration. The camphor in this form is a heavy brownish-white substance containing oil and other impurities. The steam distillation for the leaves lasted two hours, at the end of which... Camphora is being cultivated at Ceylon, Canary Islands, Southern California, Florida, Texas and Jamaica. These same reasons also brought forth many companies to prepare camphor synthetically, but almost all of these companies failed in the attempt...

  11. Chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Sakariah, K K

    2000-09-01

    The steam-distilled oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) flowers was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It consists of 23% hydrocarbons and 74% oxygenated compounds. A total of 26 compounds constituting approximately 97% of the oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (41.98%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.97%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) are found to be major compounds. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. PMID:10995352

  12. Allozyme Variation in Four Geographic Areas of Cinnamomum kanehlrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-P. Lin; Y.-P. Cheng; S.-G. Huang

    The once dominant endemic broadleaf tree species In Taiwan, CInnamomum kanehlrae Hay., has become a rare and endangered species due to overcutting. A done bank, consisting of at least 220 clones collected istandwide, was established at the Uukuel station, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Genetic diversity wtthln and genetic dif- ferentiation among four geographic areas of C. kanehlrae were Investigated using

  13. Essential Oil of the Fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gopal R. Mallavarapu; Srinivasaiyer Ramesh

    2000-01-01

    The fruit oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume grown in Bangalore was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-nine constituents representing 94.5% of the oil were identified. The main constituents of the oil were ?-pinene (11.2%), ?-caryophyllene (11.0%), ?-cadinene (13.6%) and ?-muurolol (9.8%). The composition of the oil in the present study is different from the earlier report on the oil wherein

  14. A new phenolic glycoside from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Junfen; Xue, Yongbo; Lai, Yongji; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Jinwen

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-?-D-apiofuranosyl-(1?6)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhibition against ConA-induced T cells proliferation. PMID:25365297

  15. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  16. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  17. Mosquitocidal Activity of Leaf and Bark Essential Oils of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhika Samarasekera; Kosmulalage S. Kalhari; Indira S. Weerasinghe

    2005-01-01

    Mosquito control properties of essential oils of leaf and bark of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) and their eight compounds were investigated against Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles tessellatus and Aedes aegypti. Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil showed good knock-down and mortality against A. tessellatus (LD50 0.33 ?g\\/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LD 0.66 ?g\\/mL) than leaf oil (LD 1.03 and 2.1 ?g\\/mL). Cinnamaldehyde

  18. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils of Ceylon Cinnamomum and Cymbopogon species against Musca domestica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhika Samarasekera; Kosmulalage S. Kalhari; Indira S. Weerasinghe

    2006-01-01

    Insecticidal properties of essential oils of leaf and bark of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae), Cymbopogon nardus Rendle (Gramineae) and Cymbopogon citratus DC. (Gramineae) and their 10 compounds were investigated against Musca domestica (housefy). Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark and Cymbopogon citratus oils showed good knock down and mortality against M. domestica (LD50 1.37 and 1.71 ?g\\/insect, respectively) than C. zeylanicum leaf

  19. Advances in the apiary control of the honeybee American Foulbrood with Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesel Brenda GENDE; Matías Daniel MAGGI; Natalia DAMIANI; Rosalia FRITZ; Martin Javier; Ignazio FLORIS

    The activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees essential oil (cinnamon oil) against Paenibacillus larvae (Withe) was evaluated in the laboratory and in a field experiment in order to improve the biological control of the Apis mellifera L. disease American foul- brood (AFB). The MICs (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) against P. larvae were determined by the tube dilution method. Bee lethality was estimated

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sindhu Mathew; T. Emilia Abraham

    2006-01-01

    The free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum leaf (CLE) were studied and compared to antioxidant compounds like trolox, butylated hydroxyl anisole, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The CLE exhibited free radical scavenging activity, especially against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation. They also exhibited reducing power and metal ion chelating activity, along

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cinnamic aldehyde purified from Cinnamomum cassia shoot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-O. Kim; S.-W. Park; H.-D. Park

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which causes the hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans. Control of the bacterial cells in foods is an important factor to reduce outbreaks of the foodborne diseases. In this study, cinnamic aldehyde possessing antimicrobial activity against the bacterial cells was purified from the extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume)

  2. Efficacy of Cinnamomum cassia Blume. in age induced sexual dysfunction of rats

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cinnamomum cassia has been suggested in Ayurveda for the management of sexual dysfunction. This research work was conducted to shed some light on the mechanism of action of the extract, and evaluate the efficacy of its methanol extract in age induced sexual dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Secondary objective of the project was to study the effect of treatment on sperm parameters and smooth muscle:collagen level in rat penile tissue. Methods Young and aged male rats were treated with methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia at a dose of 100 mg/kg and sexual behavior was observed on 28th day in presence of female rats in estrous phase. Sildenafil was used as standard medicine. Effect of treatment was studied on epididymal sperm parameters, and Massons trichrome staining of rat penile tissues was performed to know the level of smooth muscle:collagen. Results The treatment significantly increased sexual function in aged rats that had decreased in comparison to young rats, but did not have any significant effect on sperm count, live and defective sperm percentage. However, treatment induced an increase in smooth muscle level and a decrease in collagen level in the aged rat penile tissue in comparison to that of age matched control. Conclusion Based on our studies, we found that Cinnamomum cassia extract was effective in management of sexual dysfunction in aged rats and hence we propose a possible mechanism of action for Cinnamomum cassia which could be responsible for restoring sexual activity in aged rat. PMID:24563594

  3. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oils and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloeum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Tzen Chang; Pin-Fun Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of the essential oils from leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B) and their chemical constituents were investigated in this study. The nine strains of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus, were used in the antibacterial tests. Results

  4. Inhibitory Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Bark-Derived Component against Rat Lens Aldose Reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoi-Seon Lee

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of active compounds isolated from Cinnamomum cassia bark against lens aldose reductase and compare to that of three commercially available compounds (cinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, and eugenol) and quercitrin as aldose reductase inhibitors. The IC50 value of cinnamaldehyde was determined. METHODS. Active compound was purified on repeated silica gel column and HPLC (Waters Delta

  5. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study. PMID:26041191

  6. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed. PMID:24236996

  7. REFORESTATION AND SEEDLING SYMBIONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedlings are dependent on symbiotic associations with microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes for normal growth and development. itrogen fixing leguminous and non-leguminous trees form symbiotic relationships with Rhizobium (bacteria) and Frankia (actino...

  8. Terminating red imported fire ants using Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Chun-Ya Lin; Yen-Ray Hsui; Mei-Chun Lu; Wen-Jer Wu; Shang-Tzen Chang

    2008-01-01

    Eleven compounds from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaf essential oil were identified by GC–MS and the dominant constituent was trans-cinnamaldehyde (79.85%). The toxicity of leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde were then determined to study their effectiveness in controlling the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results of the toxicity tests indicated that both the indigenous cinnamon leaf essential

  9. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Tsong Lin; Chi-Jung Chen; Ting-Yu Lin; Judia Chen Tung; Sheng-Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC–MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were ?-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), ?-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory

  10. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Chin-Gi Huang; Yen-Ray Hsui; Wei-June Chen; Shang-Tzen Chang

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde\\/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC50 values in 24h were 40.8?g\\/ml

  11. Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the Biological Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongwon Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee; Hyeon Ka; Won-Tae Jung; Hyun-Ju Jung; Hee-Juhn Park

    2001-01-01

    GC-MS analysis on the essential oil (CC-oil) ofCinnamomum cassia stem bark led to the identification of cinnamaldehyde (CNA,1), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (2-CNA), coumarin (2), and cinnamyl acetate. The major volatile flavor in CC-oil was found to be 2-CNA. Coumarin was first isolated from this\\u000a plant by phytochemical isolation and spectroscopic analysis. CNA and CC-oil showed potent cytotoxicity, which was effectively\\u000a prevented by

  12. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume ( Lauraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Unlu; Emel Ergene; Gulhan Vardar Unlu; Hulya Sivas Zeytinoglu; Nilufer Vural

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against

  13. Modelling Seedling Mortality Michael Lavine

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Modelling Seedling Mortality Michael Lavine Duke University ISDS Brian Beckage Duke University Dept. of Biology James Clark Duke University Dept. of Biology September 12, 2000 Abstract Seedling mortality of forests. To learn about seedling mortality, ecologists return regularly to forest quadrats to count

  14. VIRGINIA 4-H PINE SEEDLING

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    VIRGINIA 4-H PINE SEEDLING PROJECT Publication 420-068 · Reprinted 2005 Virginia Cooperative and coastal plain counties) White Pine (mountain and valley counties) Map of Planting Area Pine seedlings Pine seedlings are made available free to 4-H members who complete and return this record sheet each

  15. Germination and seedling development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed germination and seedling development are highly sensitive to the environment at planting and for several weeks after that. Major factors that affect germination and development are temperature, water availability, soil conditions such as compaction, rhizosphere gases, and seed and seedlin...

  16. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Singh, S. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients. PMID:22701361

  17. Two new compounds from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Liu; Shao-Min Zhong; Ruo-Yun Chen; Yan Wu; Xue-Jun Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Two new compounds, cinnamic aldehyde cyclic d-galactitol 3?R,4?S-acetal (1) and cinnamomumolide (2), along with six known compounds, syringaresinol (3), lyoniresinol (4), 5,7,3?-trimethoxyl-( ? )-epicatechin (5), 5,7-dimethoxyl-3?,4?-di-O-methylene-( ± )-epicatechin (6), 2-methoxyl-4-hydroxy cinnamyl aldehyde (7), and glucosyringic acid (8), have been isolated from the dried tender stems of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. Compound 2 was elucidated as 8-methoxyl-9-hydroxy-3?,4?-methylenedioxy-3S,4R-diphenyl butyrolactone, named

  18. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Tang Tung; Meng-Thong Chua; Sheng-Yang Wang; Shang-Tzen Chang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil and anti-inflammatory activities from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the twig essential oil were further analyzed by GC–MS and they were found to be l-bornyl acetate (15.89%), caryophyllene oxide (12.98%), ?-eudesmol (8.03%), ?-caryophyllene (6.60%), T-cadinol (5.49%), ?-cadinene (4.79%), trans-?-elemenone (4.25%),

  19. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Chun Liao; Dai-Chang Kuo; Chia-Chia Lin; Kuo-Chieh Ho; Tsan-Piao Lin; Shih-Ying Hwang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. RESULTS: Populations of

  20. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Cheol Yang; Hoi-Seon Lee; Si Hyeock Lee; J. Marshall Clark; Young-Joon Ahn

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and

  1. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication. PMID:25051315

  2. Induction of apoptosis by cinnamaldehyde from indigenous cinnamon Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh through reactive oxygen species production, glutathione depletion, and caspase activation in human leukemia K562 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzou-Chi Huang; Hui-Yin Fu; Chi-Tang Ho; Di Tan; Yu-Ting Huang; Min-Hsiung Pan

    2007-01-01

    The compositions of essential oils from leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones (A and B) commercially cultivated by Taiwan Cinnamon Biotech Co. Ltd., in Taiwan were investigated. GC and GC–MS analyses showed that Cinnamomum osmophloeum clones A and B contain trans-cinnamaldehyde (91.15%) and cinnamyl acetate (46.39%), respectively, as the major component. This study demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde was able to induce

  3. Terminating red imported fire ants using Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Lin, Chun-Ya; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Lu, Mei-Chun; Wu, Wen-Jer; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-03-01

    Eleven compounds from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaf essential oil were identified by GC-MS and the dominant constituent was trans-cinnamaldehyde (79.85%). The toxicity of leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde were then determined to study their effectiveness in controlling the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results of the toxicity tests indicated that both the indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde had an excellent inhibitory effect in controlling the red imported fire ant. The LT(50) values for both 2% leaf essential oil and 2% trans-cinnamaldehyde after open exposure were 105.0min and 32.2min; after close exposure were 18.5min and 21.2min, respectively. PMID:17369041

  4. The essential oil profiles and antibacterial activity of six wild Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Nagappan, Thilahgavani; Kulip, Julius

    2014-09-01

    The essential oil composition of six species of wild Cinnamomum found in Borneo was investigated. The oils were obtained from bark by hydrodistillation and the volatile chemical profile was obtained via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). A total of 65 volatile constituents were identified, where the essential oils of the studied specimens contained high contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Eucalyptol (1.2-31.1%), terpinen-4-ol (7.9-22.1%), eugenol (0.4-37.9%) and ?-cadinol (0.4-1.8%) were detected consistently in the specimens studied. The oils of C. cuspidatum and C. crassinervium exhibited significant inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes, specifically the latter, which displayed a lower minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value against Staphylococcus aereus and L. monocytogenes. This result had highlighted the possible usage of the essential oil derived from wild cinnamom species against food borne pathogens. PMID:25918818

  5. Water extract of Cinnamomum cassia suppresses angiogenesis through inhibition of VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eok-Cheon; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2015-04-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, has been a major target for cancer therapy. Antiangiogenic herbal medicines are useful in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we found that a water extract of Cinnamomum cassia (CCWE) was a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, CCWE suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration, invasion, tube formation, and intracellular signaling events such as phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and VEGFR2, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase. Furthermore, CCWE inhibited VEGF-induced vessel sprouting of rat aorta ex vivo. These findings might be of particular interest for drug development because VEGF signaling is a potential target for treatment of angiogenesis-associated diseases. PMID:25560253

  6. Wilsonols A-L, megastigmane sesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Penghua; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Li, Weijie; Zhang, Jinwen; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Mengke; Luo, Zengwei; Li, Yan; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2013-07-26

    Twelve new megastigmane sesquiterpenoids, wilsonols A-L (1-12), were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum wilsonii, along with seven known analogues (13-19). The structures of compounds 1-12 were established by spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu K? irradiation, and the absolute configurations of 6-12 were determined by the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-9 and 13-19 were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480, and compared against the Beas-2B immortalized (noncancerous) human bronchial epithelial cell line. Compound 13 exhibited IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 12 ?M and selectivity indices of >10 against SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7 cell lines. Selected compounds were evaluated for in vitro immunomodulatory activity. PMID:23822611

  7. Constituents of the essential oil of the Cinnamomum cassia stem bark and the biological properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, J; Lee, K T; Ka, H; Jung, W T; Jung, H J; Park, H J

    2001-10-01

    GC-MS analysis on the essential oil (CC-oil) of Cinnamomum cassia stem bark led to the identification of cinnamaldehyde (CNA, 1), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (2-CNA), coumarin (2), and cinnamyl acetate. The major volatile flavor in CC-oil was found to be 2-CNA. Coumarin was first isolated from this plant by phytochemical isolation and spectroscopic analysis. CNA and CC-oil showed potent cytotoxicity, which was effectively prevented by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment. Intraperitoneal administration with CNA considerably decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and glutathione S-transferase activity in rats. These results suggest that CC-oil and CNA can regulate the triggering of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes by the formation of a glutathione-conjugate. PMID:11693543

  8. Enantioenriched (3S)-(+)Linalool in the Leaf Oil of Cinnamomum tamala Nees et Eberm. from Kumaon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Chanotiya; A. Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Variations and genuineness in constituents of Cinnamomum tamala leaf essential oil are characterized by enantio-GC-FID, capillary GC-FID and GC\\/MS. The oil samples were analyzed for two consecutive years. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde, which was the principal component, was higher in the first year oil samples but lower in the second year samples. Similarly, (Z)-cinnamaldehyde was 5.8–7.1% in the first year oils and 1–1.1%

  9. Major chemotypes and antioxidative activity of the leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. from a clonal orchard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Hung Lin; Shu-Yin Yeh; Min-Yi Lin; Ming-Chih Shih; Kai-Ts’ung Yang; Shih-Ying Hwang

    2007-01-01

    Essential oils of 92 cutting clones from a clonal orchard of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were obtained by hydrodistillation and characterised by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Our results showed that the yields of essential oils ranged between 0.09% and 2.65% (vol\\/fresh wt). The constituents of essential oils varied among samples. The major chemotypes classified in the individual cutting clones were cinnamaldehyde (50

  10. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2005-12-01

    The toxicity of cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of their related compounds, benzyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl acetate, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde, as well as two widely used pediculicides, d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay with female lice at 0.25 mg/cm(2), benzaldehyde was 29- and 27-fold more toxic than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively, as judged by median lethal time (LT(50)) values. Salicylaldehyde was nine and eight times more active than pyrethrum and d-phenothrin, respectively. Pediculicidal activity of linalool was comparable with that of d-phenothrin and pyrethrum. Cinnamomum bark essential oil was slightly less effective than either d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. Benzyl alcohol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde exhibited moderate pediculicidal activity. After 24h of exposure, no hatching was observed with 0.063 mg/cm(2) salicylaldehyde, 0.125 mg/cm(2) benzaldehyde, 0.5mg/cm(2)Cinnamomum bark essential oil, 1.0 mg/cm(2) (E)-cinnamaldehyde, and 1.0 mg/cm(2) benzyl cinnamate. Little or no ovicidal activity was observed with d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. In vapour phase toxicity tests with female lice, benzaldehyde and salicylaldehyde were much more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these compounds was largely due to action in the vapour phase. Neither d-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Cinnamomum bark essential oil and test compounds described merit further study as potential pediculicides or ovicides for the control of P. h. capitis. PMID:16188263

  11. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon ( Cinnamomum osmophloeum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Ju-Yun Liu; Yen-Ray Hsui; Shang-Tzen Chang

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC–MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC–MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes—cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde\\/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and

  12. Study on tissue culture for Gelidium seedling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Lu-Qing; Luo, Qi-Jun; Fei, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Bin

    1996-06-01

    As seedling culture is a crucial factor for successful cultivation of Gelidium, the authors researched tissue culture technology for producing seedlings. The morphogeny and experimental ecology were observed and studied fully in 2 5 mm isolated tissue fragments. Regeneration, appearance of branching creepers and attaching structure and new erect seedlings production and development were studied. Fragments were sown on bamboo slice and vinylon rope. The seedlings were cultured 20 30 days indoor, then cultured in the sea, where the density of erect seedlings was 3 19 seedlings/cm2, growth rate was 3.84% day. The frond arising from seedlings directly was up to 10 cm per year. The ecological conditions for regenerated seedlings are similar to the natural ones. The regenerated seedlings are suitable for raft culture in various sea areas.

  13. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  14. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Chua, Meng-Thong; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-04-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of C. osmophloeum were investigated for the first time. The extracts were obtained successively using liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water fractions. The antioxidant activities of C. osmophloeum twig extracts were examined using various antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, NBT, reducing power, lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates, metal chelating ability, and photochemiluminescence (PCL). In addition, total phenolic contents were also determined. Results revealed that the BuOH fraction exhibited the best performance in DPPH assay, NBT assay, reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates assay. Furthermore, the BuOH fraction has the highest total phenolic contents (496.7 mg of GAE/g). Consequently, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside was also isolated from the antioxidative BuOH fraction and its activity was also confirmed. These results demonstrated that ethanolic extracts of C. osmophloeum twigs have excellent antioxidant activities and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:17478090

  15. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira extracts on tyrosinase suppressor, wound repair promoter, and antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  16. Volatile constituents from Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit stalks and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2003-07-16

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. The steam-distilled volatile oil from cinnamon fruit stalks was analyzed with GC and GC-MS. It showed the presence of hydrocarbons (44.7%) and oxygenated compounds (52.6%). Twenty-seven compounds constituting ca. 95.98% of the volatile oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (36.59%) and (E)-caryophyllene (22.36%) are found to be major compounds. The volatile oil was screened for its potential as an antioxidant by using in vitro models, such as the beta-carotene-linoleate and phosphomolybdenum complex method. The volatile oil showed 55.94% and 66.9% antioxidant activity at 100 and 200 ppm concentration, respectively. Also, the volatile oil showed good antioxidant capacity, using the formation of the phosphomolybdenum complex. A comparison of the chemical composition of the volatile oil was made with that of buds, flowers, and fruits. This is the first report on the chemical composition of volatile oil of the fruit stalks of this species and its antioxidant activity. PMID:12848508

  17. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chua, Meng-Thong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-06-01

    In this study, chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil and anti-inflammatory activities from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. were investigated for the first time. The chemical constituents of the twig essential oil were further analyzed by GC-MS and they were found to be L-bornyl acetate (15.89%), caryophyllene oxide (12.98%), gamma-eudesmol (8.03%), beta-caryophyllene (6.60%), T-cadinol (5.49%), delta-cadinene (4.79%), trans-beta-elemenone (4.25%), cadalene (4.19%), and trans-cinnamaldehyde (4.07%). The effects of essential oil on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. Results of nitric oxide tests indicated that twig essential oil and its major constituents such as trans-cinnamaldehyde, caryophyllene oxide, L-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, E-nerolidol, and cinnamyl acetate have excellent activities. These findings demonstrated that essential oil of C. osmophloeum twigs have excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus have great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:17826984

  18. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  19. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 ?g/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. PMID:20828600

  20. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  1. Beet Rust and Seedling Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beet rust, caused by Uromyces betae, can cause pustules on most beet types, and can be a problem in various beet growing areas. Seedling rust, caused by Puccinia subnitens can cause lesions on young beets, primarily on cotyledons, and does not cause economic damage. This chapter describes the dise...

  2. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Seema; Sangma, Tultul; Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari

    2015-07-01

    Objective Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) is commonly known as cinnamon in traditional system of medicine having antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and other activities. The present study was designed to assess the effect of extract of CZ bark on cognitive performance of scopolamine (SCOP)-treated rats and on associated altered oxidative stress markers in the brain of rats. Methods The extract was administered orally in three doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for a period of 21 days. SCOP was administered in the dose of 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance step-down tasks were performed to assess cognitive functions. At the end of the study, oxidative stress parameters namely, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also analyzed in the brain tissue of rats. Results SCOP-treated group showed significantly impaired acquisition and retention of memory as compared to the saline- and vehicle-treated groups. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 21 days significantly reversed SCOP-induced amnesia as evidenced by increased step-down latency in passive avoidance and decreased latency in Morris water maze test compared to the SCOP-treated group. SCOP administration also caused the increase of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Pretreatment with CZ extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in MDA levels and increase in GSH levels as compared to the SCOP-treated animals. Discussion The results suggest that CZ can induce cognitive improvement in SCOP-treated rats and this effect can be attributed to a certain extent to decreased oxidative stress. PMID:24559058

  3. Antifungal Activity of the Bark and Leaf Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. Alone and in Combination against Variou s Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BUSHRA ABDULKARIM MOHARM; IBRAHIM JANTAN; JACINTA SANTHANAM; JAMIA AZDINA JAMAL

    The leaf and bark oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Pre sl. were examined for their antifungal activity against 6 dermatophytes (Tricho phyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and M. aud ouini), one filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus) and 5 strains of yeasts (Ca ndida albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. tropicalis, Ca. parapsilosis and Crytococcus neofor mans) by using

  4. Interactions between soil scarification and Norway spruce seedling types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Johansson; Urban Nilsson; H. Lee Allen

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between scarification treatments and seedling types of Norway spruce were examined at two different locations in southern Sweden. The scarification treatments were not scarified control, mounding and soil inversion and the seedling types were a 10 week-old containerized seedling (mini seedling), a 2 year-old containerized seedling and a 2 year-old hybrid seedling, grown as a containerized seedling the first year and as

  5. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 ?g/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 ?g/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 ?g/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy observed in this study is attributed to both major and minor compounds of the essential oils. PMID:24885613

  6. ESTABLISHMENT AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BIG BLUESTEM AND SWITCHGRASS POPULATIONS DIVERGENTLY SELECTED FOR SEEDLING TILLER NUMBER.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection at the seedling stage in grass breeding would be extremely useful if seedling traits are correlated to desired agronomic traits. The objective of this study was to evaluate seedling morphological development, plant growth, and field establishment of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitma...

  7. Grass Seed Structure and Seedling Emergence

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity discusses both seed structure and seedling emergence in monocots. Through active learning elements, photos and text students will discover the basic anatomy of seeds and the function of each structure. The process of seedling emergence is presented in detail including the difference between emergence in cool-season and warm-season grasses.

  8. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferation tumoral cells activities of Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, and Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yerra Koteswara Rao; Shih-Hua Fang; Yew-Min Tzeng

    2007-01-01

    The extracts of chloroform (1) and methanol (2) from Antrodia camphorata (AC), and chloroform (3) and n-butanol (4) fractions of methanol extract from Cordyceps sinensis (CS), and hexane (5), ethyl acetate (6), and methanol (7) from Cinnamomum osmophloeum bark (CO) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory as well as tumor-cell growth inhibitory activities in vitro. All the tested extracts dose dependently

  9. Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol K. Augspurger; Colleen K. Kelly

    1984-01-01

    We present results of two experiments designed to identify the relative importance of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions on pathogen-caused mortality of tropical tree seedlings. The field experiment on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, demonstrated that both an increase in dispersal distance and a decrease in seedling density reduce levels of damping-off disease among seedlings of Platypodium elegans, and

  10. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses antihypertensive and organ protective effects that may result from its ability to increase the production of the endogenous NO and/or to regulate dyslipidemia. PMID:23368533

  11. DESIGN ISSUES FOR EVALUATING SEEDLING EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree seedling studies, covering a wide range of experimental conditions in pollutant treatment, species, facilities, and exposure regimes, have become commonplace in forestry research for assessing the actual and potential environmental effects of air pollutants on forest ecosyst...

  12. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (??? t? ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light–dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(?)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders.

  13. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  14. Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits ?-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chen-Tien; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Yu-Che; Shih, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy. PMID:24051402

  15. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ?C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (?E) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  16. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 ?L/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 ?L/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 ?L/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  17. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  18. Long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats (Efectos a largo plazo del aceite esencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume en algunos parametros fisiológicos en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talal A. ZARI; Ayed Sh

    2009-01-01

    The long-term effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oil on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while high density lipoprotein HDL- cholesterol, total protein and uric acid

  19. Clinorotation affects soybean seedling morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilaire, E; Guikema, J A; Brown, C S

    1995-01-01

    Although spaceflight does not appear to significantly affect seed germination, it can influence subsequent plant growth. On STS-3 and SL-2, decreased growth (measured as plant length, fresh weight and dry weight) was noted for pine, oat and mung bean. In the CHROMEX-01 and -02 experiments with Haplopappus and in the CHROMEX-03 experiment with Arabidopsis, enhanced root growth was noted in the space-grown plants. In the CHROMEX-04 experiment with wheat, both leaf fresh weight and leaf area were diminished in the space-grown plants but there was no difference in total plant height (CS Brown, HG Levine, and AD Krikorian, unpublished data). These data suggest that microgravity impacts growth by whole plant partitioning of assimilates. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of clinorotation on the growth and morphology of soybean seedlings grown in the BRIC (Biological Research In Canister) flight hardware. This experiment provided baseline data for a spaceflight experiment (BRIC-03) flown on STS-63 (Feb. 3-11, 1995). PMID:11538905

  20. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  1. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J; LeMay, R; Jahns, G

    1994-11-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers. PMID:11540197

  2. Ethylene and the growth of rice seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, S.O.; Kende, H.

    1985-09-01

    Etiolated whole rice seedlings enclosed in sealed vials produced ethylene at a rate of 0.9 picomole per hour per seedling. When 2-centimeter-long shoots were subdivided into 5-millimeter-long sections, the sections containing the tip of the shoot evolved 37% of the total ethylene with the remaining 63% being produced along a gradient decreasing to the base of the shoot. The tip of coleoptile also had the highest level of the ethylene presursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and of the ethylene-forming enzyme activity. In short-term experiments, the growth rate of decapitated seedlings was restored to almost that of intact seedlings by application of ethylene at a concentration of 10 microliters per liter. Apart from ethylene, O/sub 2/ also participates in the control of coleoptile growth. When rice seedlings were grown in a gas mixture of N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, the length of the coleoptiles reached a maximum at a concentration of 2.5% O/sub 2/. Lower and higher concentrations of O/sub 2/ reduced coleoptile growth. The effect of exogenous ethylene on coleoptile growth was also O/sub 2/ dependent. 25 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  4. STATISTICAL ISSUES FOR SEEDLING STUDIES IN AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the very nature that seedlings represent the future forests, they are an important population for exposure studies. he experimental conditions for seedling studies cover a wide range of treatment combinations, facilities, and exposure regimes. he experimental utilization of ex...

  5. USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR FOREST-TREE SEEDLING PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was undertaken to determine the beneficial and harmful effects of using dewatered, digested sewage sludge in: (1) containerized production of forest tree seedlings, (2) tree seedling production in a conventional outdoor nursery, (3) establishment and growth of transplant...

  6. Changes of nucleic acids of wheat seedlings under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytnyk, K. M.; Musatenko, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the growth of wheat seedlings and their nucleic acid content were studied. It was shown that both space and ground seedlings have almost the same appearance, dry weight and nucleic acid content in the root, coleoptile and leaves. The only difference found is in the RNA and DNA content, which is twice as much in the ground seedling apices as in the space-grown seedlings.

  7. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 ?g) and the inhibitory activity against rat ?-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ?70 % inhibition at 25 ?g/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ?70 % inhibition at 25 ?g/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 ?g/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 ?g/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 ?g/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 ?g/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 ?g/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 ?g/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4?,5?-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 ?M) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 ?M) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 ?M), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 ?M), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 ?M) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  9. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  10. Cinnamomum cassia Bark in Two Herbal Formulas Increases Life Span in Caenorhabditis elegans via Insulin Signaling and Stress Response Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. Methods and Principal Findings In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (A?)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Conclusion/Significance These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s). PMID:20179756

  11. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  12. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  13. Method of pollination and heritability for seedling vigor in switchgrass 

    E-print Network

    Ramirez de Leon, Hector

    2005-08-29

    to establish. Improving seedling vigor is one approach for improving establishment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) select for increased seedling mass through half-sib family selection; 2) calculate an estimate of heritability for seedling mass; and 3...

  14. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  15. Chilling stress response of postemergent cotton seedlings.

    PubMed

    DeRidder, Benjamin P; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J

    2008-11-01

    Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to postemergent 13-day-old cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 100A-glandless) seedlings. Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. For some chilled plants, the soil temperature was maintained at control level. Plant growth, water relations and net photosynthesis (P(n)) were analyzed after one or three chilling cycles and after 3 days of recovery. Three chilling cycles led to lower relative growth rate (RGR) compared with controls during the recovery period, especially for plants with chilled shoots and roots. Treatment differences in RGR were associated with net assimilation rate rather than specific leaf area. Both chilling treatments led to loss of leaf turgor during the night-to-day transition; this effect was greater for plants with chilled compared with warm roots. Chilling-induced water stress was associated with accumulation of the osmolyte glycine betaine to the same extent for both chilling treatments. Inhibition of P(n) during chilling was related to both stomatal and non-stomatal effects. P(n) fully recovered after seedlings were returned to control conditions for 3 days. We conclude that leaf expansion during the night-to-day transition was a significant factor determining the magnitude of the chilling response of postemergent cotton seedlings. PMID:18573190

  16. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  17. Are Seedlings of Hemerocallis Fulva Specially Variable?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus M. Hartog

    1891-01-01

    I SHALL be grateful to any of your readers who will write and let me know their experiences as to the variability of seedlings of Hemerocallis fulva, or who will raise it from seed in fair quantity, and kindly communicate to me their results, which shall be duly acknowledged.

  18. Accelerated seedling emergence in interspecific competitive neighbourhoods

    E-print Network

    Rice, Kevin

    emergence may confer a competitive advantage. The experiments reported here found more rapid emergence in a perennial grass species when it was planted in potentially highly competitive interspecific neighbourhoods seeds germinate and seedlings emerge from the soil has important consequences for subsequent survival

  19. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF APHANOMYCES SEEDLING RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphanomyces seedling disease is one of the causal agents preventing good stand persistence in sugarbeet. Aphanomyces generally becomes more of a problem for growers when plants are four to six weeks old, especially after a heavy rain and in flooded areas of the field. There has been no reliable seed...

  20. Solar irradiance and the development of endomycorrhizal green ash seedlings.

    PubMed

    Borges, R G; Chaney, W R

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the effects and interaction of four irradiances, 37, 53, 70 and 100% full sunlight, and the endomycorrhizae Glomus macrocarpum and Glomus fasciculatum on the development of seedlings of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. At all irradiances, mycorrhizal seedlings were taller and larger in diameter than nonmycorrhizal seedlings. Seedlings inoculated with G. macrocarpum showed the best height growth at 70% or less of full sunlight, whereas seedlings inoculated with G. fasciculatum grew best at 37 and 53% full sunlight. Leaf area was greatest in shaded seedlings and was enhanced by mycorrhizal inoculation. Shoot/root ratios were greater for mycorrhizal than for nonmycorrhizal seedlings. At intermediate light intensities, percent root length colonized was greatest, whereas the concentrations of soluble sugar and starch in roots were at intermediate levels. PMID:14969881

  1. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. Results Populations of C. kanehirae were classified into four geographic regions: northwestern (NW), west-central (WC), southwestern (SW), and southeastern (SE). In total, 113 individuals from 19 localities were sampled, and variations in the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) intron and leafy (Lfy) intron-2 sequences of nuclear DNA were examined in order to assess phylogeographic patterns, the timescales of demographic and evolutionary events, and recent anthropogenic effects. In total, 210 Chs and 170 Lfy sequences, which respectively constituted 36 and 35 haplotypes, were used for the analyses. Estimates of the migration rate (M) through time revealed a pattern of frequent gene flow during previous and the present interglacials. The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The level of among-region genetic differentiation was significant when comparing eastern to western populations. However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. Moreover, essentially no genetic structuring was found for the three regions west of the CMR. A fit of spatial range expansion was found for pooled and regional samples according to the non-significant values of the sum of squared deviations. Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. Conclusions Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic structuring displayed are the result of historical gene flows. Southward dispersals in an earlier time frame from the NW region and in a later time frame from the SE region were inferred. The BSP analysis suggested a postglacial expansion event. Recent trends, however, refer to a bottleneck due to human interventions observed for both pooled and regional C. kanehirae samples. PMID:20433752

  2. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales: Part 1. Experimental observations, Advances in Water Resources 39 (2012) 85-96. - K. Edmaier, P. Burlando and P. Perona, Mechanisms of vegetation uprooting by flow in alluvial non-cohesive sediment. Hydrology And Earth System Sciences, vol. 15, p. 1615-1627, 2011. - K. Edmaier, B. Crouzy, P. Perona, Experimental characterization of root anchoring in non-cohesive sediment, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (under revision).

  3. TEMPORAL ALLOCATION OF 14C TO EXTRAMATRICAL HYPHAE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ponderosa pine seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme either in growth pouches before they were transplanted to root-mycocosms (P seedlings), or at the time of transfer to root-mycocosms (V seedlings). ninoculated seedlings served as controls (U seedlings). he us...

  4. Photocontrol of anthocyanin formation in turnip seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Grill

    1965-01-01

    The participation of the red\\/far-red reversible reaction of phytochrome in the control of anthocyanin formation in turnip seedlings has been demonstrated. A brief exposure to red light following a preliminary irradiation period in blue, increased anthocyanin content compared with blue alone; this effect was reversed by a subsequent short exposure to far-red. The sensitivity to red light was largely restricted

  5. Soil physical conditions affecting seedling root growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Eavis

    1972-01-01

    Summary  The role of mechanical impedance, poor aeration and water availability in restricting pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling root growth in sandy loam soil at three bulk densities and six matric potentials was studied. Mechanical impedance\\u000a increased both with bulk density and —matric potential. In certain treatments the roots were shorter and thicker as impedance\\u000a increased but in others shorter, thicker

  6. Turnover of Dhurrin in Green Sorghum Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Adewusi, Steve R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with 14C-tyrosine and [14C]shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover. PMID:16667820

  7. No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonie Gorissen; Nicolai U. Kraut; Ries de Visser; Marcel de Vries; Han Roelofsen; Roel J. Vonk

    2011-01-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in significant amounts in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings in the form of its precursor glucoraphanin, has been identified as an inducer of quinine reductase, a phase-II detoxification enzyme known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Its concentration in broccoli seedlings usually decreases during the first 7–14days after germination. No conclusive data on sulforaphane metabolism in seedlings are

  8. Asymmetrical intraspecific competition in Echinochloa crus - galli is related to differences in the timing of seedling emergence and seedling vigour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenka Martinkova; Alois Honek

    Individual size is an important factor that determines fitness in annual plants. Variation in size originates at the seedling\\u000a stage based on differences in seedling vigour and time of emergence, ensuing asymmetrical intraspecific competition between\\u000a early- and late-established plants. The effects of the order of seedling emergence on characteristics of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) were studied. In the first experiment,

  9. Seedlings Finally Get Their Due: Book Review of Seedling Ecology and Evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Book Review of: Seedling Ecology and Evolution. Ed. Leck, Mary Allessio, Parker, V. Thomas and Simpson, Robert L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 2008. Many plant demographers find themselves, at some point, staring at a dataset full of detailed information on juvenile and adult plants,...

  10. Seedling traits of maize as indicators of root lodging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomy Seedling traits of maize as indicators of root lodging P Stamp, C Kiel Swiss Federal whether root lodging of maize (Zea mays L) can be predicted at the seedling stage. In the first experiment-leaf stage, the diameter of the primary root was closely and negatively correlated with root lodging

  11. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...

  12. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system. PMID:25634803

  13. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitiioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind blown soil particle abrasion negatively impacts millions of hectares of crops annually. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of wind and wind blown sand abrasion damage on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedling biomass partitioning to leaves, stems, and roots. Seedlings of three ...

  14. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and mineral soil were 25% taller than those planted in poorly drained fibric substrates. & Conclusion AllORIGINAL PAPER Growth of planted black spruce seedlings following mechanical site preparation to improve growth conditions of planted black spruce seedlings in boreal forested peatlands where closed

  16. Neighbor Effects in Mast Year Seedlings of Acer saccharum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Taylor; L. W. Aarssen

    1989-01-01

    The size and age distributions of Acer saccharum Marsh. seedlings were studied in a mature hardwood forest in southeastern Ontario between 26 June and 26 September 1986. Ninety-one percent of the seedlings surveyed were produced in 1984 which was a mast year for this population of sugar maple. Mean height within quadrats was negatively correlated with the density of two-

  17. Examining salt stress for improvement of seedling vigor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers worldwide. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor, with vigor defined here as the ability of seedlings to tolerate adverse environments. Ongoi...

  18. Seedling emergence of yellow woodsorrel in eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow woodsorrel is a perennial weed invading no-till rotations in eastern South Dakota. This study quantified the seedling emergence pattern of yellow woodsorrel across a four-year period. Yellow woodsorrel began emerging in early May and continued for 14 weeks. Approximately 80% of seedlings em...

  19. Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Blue oak seedlings may be older than they look Ralph L. Phillips u Neil K. McDougald o Richard B. Standiford William E.Frost A 4-year study indicates that na- tive blue oak seedlings are prob- ably much the year of above- average rainfall. Blue oak (Quercusdouglasii)trees are a valuable economic and aesthetic

  20. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of ...

  1. Response of Eucalyptus nitens seedlings to gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Williams; J. J. Ross; J. B. Reid; B. M. Potts

    1999-01-01

    The plant growth regulators (PGRs) paclobutrazol, chlormequat chloride and prohexadione where applied to 11 month old seedling of Eucalyptus nitens to examine their relative effects on precocious flowering, growth and levels of GA20 and GA1 in the shoot apex. Paclobutrazol was most effective in reducing growth and levels of GA20 and GA1 in the seedlings followed by chlormequat chloride with

  2. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  3. Running Head: Neighborhood dependent seedling survival1 Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical2

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    and/or survival (collectively performance) among49 conspecifics (Wright 2002). Plant performance#12;1 Running Head: Neighborhood dependent seedling survival1 Does relatedness matter? Phylogenetic density dependent survival of seedlings in a tropical2 forest3 Edwin Lebrija-Trejos1,2* (lebrijaee

  4. DIVERGENT SELECTION FOR SEEDLING TILLER NUMBER IN BIG BLUESTEM AND SWITCHGRASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass seedling tiller number and shoot weight are traits associated with seedling vigor. The response to selection for high shoot weight and divergent selection for seedling tiller number in big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) seedlings and realized herit...

  5. Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Eastmond, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from seed tissues and analysed for their in vitro activities. Furthermore, several genes encoding lipases have been cloned and characterised from plants. However, only recently has data been presented to establish the molecular identity of a lipase that has been shown to be required for TAG breakdown in seeds. In this review we briefly outline the processes of TAG synthesis and breakdown. We then discuss some of the biochemical literature on seed lipases and describe the cloning and characterisation of a lipase called SUGAR-DEPENDENT1, which is required for TAG breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. PMID:19136267

  6. Subamolide E from Cinnamomum subavenium induces sub-G1 cell-cycle arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis and reduces the migration ability of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wu, Pei-Fang; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2011-08-10

    The aim of this work was to investigate the anticancer cytotoxic effects of natural compound subamolide E on the human skin cancer melanoma A375.S2 cells. Subamolide E was isolated from Cinnamomum subavenium and demonstrated cytotoxicities in the cell-growth assay at concentration ranges from 0 to 100 ?M at 24 h. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry analyses were used to evaluate cell-cycle distribution and found that subamolide E caused DNA damage in the sub-G1 phase with a dose-dependent manner after 24 h of treatment. According to the western blot result, subamolide-E-treated cells with the increase of caspase-dependent apoptotic proteins induced related pathway mechanisms. Subamolide E also showed antimigratory activities of A375.S2 cells on the wound-healing assay. Finally, subamolide E demonstrated minor cytotoxicities to normal human skin cells (keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts); therefore, it is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin melanoma. PMID:21707085

  7. The standardized BHH10 extract, a combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, reverses bone mass and metabolism in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17?-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. PMID:25230217

  8. Cinnamomum cassia bark produced by solid-state fermentation with Phellinus baumii has the potential to alleviate atopic dermatitis-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Kyu; Son, Hyeong-U; Kim, Jong-Myung; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the aqueous fraction of Cinnamomum cassia produced by solid-state fermentation with Phellinus baumii (afCc/Pb) inhibits atopic symptoms in vivo, its efficacy was evaluated in an animal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. Immune-related cells were quantified using hematoxylin and eosin staining, and phenotypic cytokines, enzymes and the expression of other proteins in the animal model were evaluated. The data revealed that afCc/Pb (100 µg/ml) exhibited strong anti-atopic activity, causing a significant 40% reduction in immune response, as shown by the extent of ear swelling, resulting from a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the skin tissues due to decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and interleukin-31 expression. These results collectively suggest that afCc/Pb has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of atopic dermatitis in a mouse model of DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis, and that it may be a valuable bioresource for the cosmetic/cosmeceutical industry. PMID:25406033

  9. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nailufar, Florensia; Arifin, Poppy F

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the gastric acid antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from Cinnamomum burmannii. Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+ ATPase) activity and its gene expression were observed, and the antioxidant activity of DLBS2411 was also investigated. Treatment of DLBS2411 decreased the level of H+/K+ ATPase messenger RNA expression on human embryonic kidney 293 cells and rat gastric parietal cells in a dose-dependent manner, in vitro and ex vivo. DLBS2411 also acted as a competitive inhibitor by showing inhibition in gastric H+/K+ ATPase activity at various pHs. In gastric ulcer animal models induced with indomethacin and ethanol, DLBS2411showed a reduction in the number of petechiae, suggesting that the fraction also confers gastroprotective activity. Moreover, DLBS2411 was also found to have potent antioxidant activity. Taken together, DLBS2411 is a promising novel agent for the management of dyspepsia, a condition of hyperacidity and diseases in the stomach requiring gastroprotection. PMID:24101879

  10. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (? = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0?µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  11. Some evidences on the mode of action of Cinnamomum verum bark essential oil, alone and in combination with piperacillin against a multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2014-11-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mode of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB) when use singly and in combination with piperacillin on its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against plasmid-conferred multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis of the membrane permeabilizing effects of CB on treated cultures through their stability against sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) revealed that the essential oils played a role in disrupting the bacterial cell membrane. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, reduction in bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed the presence of potential quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%) and eugenol (6.57%) were found to be the major components in the essential oil. These findings suggest that CB has the potential to reverse bacteria resistance to piperacillin in E. coli J53 R1 and may operate via two mechanisms: alteration of outer membrane permeability and inhibition of bacterial QS. PMID:25381741

  12. Unusual germination and seedling development in two monocotyledonous dicotyledons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Philomena; C K Shah

    1985-01-01

    Morphology of germination and seedling development have been studied inNymphaea lotus Auct. varpubescens (Willd) HK. f. and Th. andTrapa natans L. varbispinosa (Roxb.) Makino.Nymphaea germination has been grouped as a separate type, namely,Nymphaeal and that ofTrapa asTrapael. InNymphaea andTrapa seedlings, the extension growth is at the mid portion of the cotyledon (mesocotyl) unlike at its base as in the monocotyledons.

  13. Effect of vanadium on the growth of soybean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Wang; Z. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to investigate the effects of vanadium (V) on the growth of soybean seedlings\\u000a in two soils. As the concentration of V added to the fluvo-aquic soil (Fluvaqents) exceeded 30 mg V kg-1 soil, the dry matter yields of shoots and roots were significantly decreased (>1%LSD), and the leaves of soybean seedlings\\u000a turned yellow

  14. Carex Seedling Emergence in Restored and Natural Prairie Wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin M. Kettenring; Susan M. Galatowitsch

    2011-01-01

    Carex species, common dominants of wet meadows and widespread in ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, seldom naturally recolonize\\u000a drained wetlands following hydrologic restoration. We conducted a seedling emergence experiment with five Carex species in restored and natural prairie wetlands to determine if recolonization is limited by the suitability of conditions\\u000a for seed germination and seedling emergence. Seeds were sown unstratified

  15. Effect of simulated acid fog on needles of fir seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Igawa; Hideki Kameda; Fumitaka Maruyama; Hiroshi Okochi; Ichiro Otsuka

    1997-01-01

    Fir seedlings (Abies firma) were treated with simulated acid fog from September 1992 to April 1995. The simulated acid fog was at pH 3 and consisted of 1 mM nitric acid, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 1 mM ammonium sulfate. In 1993 spring, needles of the seedlings treated with the simulated acid fog became greener than those of the control,

  16. Limitations to seedling establishment in a mesic Hawaiian forest.

    PubMed

    Denslow, Julie S; Uowolo, Amanda L; Hughes, R Flint

    2006-05-01

    While invasive species may be visible indicators of plant community degradation, they may not constitute the only, or even the primary, limitation to stand regeneration. We used seed-augmentation and grass-removal experiments under different canopy conditions to assess the relative importance of dispersal limitation, resource availability, and competition on seedling establishment in the understory shrubs Sophora chrysophilla, Dodonea viscosa, and Pipturus albidus in a montane mesic forest in Hawaii. The study location was an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest at 1000-1500 m elevation on the leeward side of Hawaii Island; it is a closed-canopy forest historically subject to logging and grazing by cattle and sheep and currently dominated by the exotic grass, Ehrharta stipoides, in the herb layer. Seedling establishment after 1 and 2 years was strongly dispersal limited in Sophora and Dodonea, but not in Acacia, a non-augmented species in which abundant seedlings established, nor in Pipterus, in which only one seedling established in 2 years. Grass cover reduced seedling establishment in Acacia, Sophora, and Dodonea and, for the latter two species, seedling establishment was substantially greater in the warmer, more moist forest at the lowest elevation. Light, moisture, and resin-captured N and P were more strongly affected by elevation and canopy composition than by grass cover, but in most cases seedling establishment was not positively correlated with resource availability. Limitations to the establishment of woody seedlings in this forest-grassland mixture vary among species; however, both dispersal limitation and competition from a shade-tolerant grass are important deterrents to regeneration in these forests. PMID:16450179

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase and an inactivator from rice seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, S.; Beevers, H.

    1983-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was measured in the various organs of rice seedlings (Oryza sativa) growing in air. In extracts from ungerminated seeds, the ADH is stable, but in extracts from seedlings more than 2 days old the enzyme initially present loses activity in a time- and temperature-dependent fashion, due to the presence of an inactivating component which increases with age in roots and shoots. The inactivation can be prevented completely by dithiothreitol, and when this is included in the extraction medium the apparent loss of total ADH in roots and shoots with age is not observed. In seedlings grown in N/sub 2/, ADA levels in coleoptile extracts are higher than those in air, the enzyme is stable, and no inactivator can be detected. When seedlings grown for 5 days in air were transferred to N/sub 2/ for 3 days, ADA levels increased and there was a decline in inactivator activity. Transfer back to air after 1 day in N/sub 2/ led to loss of the accumulated ADH and increase in inactivator. These reciprocal changes and the fact that the inactivator is absent from coleoptiles of seedlings grown in N/sub 2/ appear to suggest a regulator role for the inactivator in vivo. However, it is clear that high levels of inactivator and ADH can exist in cells of seedlings grown in air for long periods without loss of enzyme activity, and it is argued that they must normally be separately compartmented.

  18. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future. PMID:19418253

  19. Lignification in young plant seedlings grown on earth and aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.; Scheld, W. H.; Peterson, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle era has provided an opportunity for investigators to conduct experiments in a microgravity environment. Two Shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, each contained an experiment designed principally to determine whether young plant seedlings exposed to microgravity had reduced lignin content in comparison to seedlings grown at one gravity. Three different plant species, pine, oats, and mung beans, were exposed for eight days to the microgravity environment of the Shuttle. The lignin content of in-flight seedlings was less than the control seedlings in all seven sets of seedlings included in these two experiments. In five sets of seedlings, the reduction in lignin content in flight seedlings ranged from 6 to 24 percent and was statistically significant. In addition, the activity of two enzymes involved in lignin synthesis, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase, were significantly reduced in pine seedlings. It was therefore concluded that microgravity, as perceived by young plant seedlings, results in reduced lignin synthesis.

  20. Seedling establishment of late colonizer is facilitated by seedling and overstory of early colonizer in a post-mined peatland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chika Egawa; Shiro Tsuyuzaki

    2011-01-01

    The seedling establishment of late colonizer may be promoted in the environments created by the early colonizer without interspecific\\u000a seedling competition. To confirm the hypothesis, seed-sowing experiments were conducted in a post-mined peatland, northern\\u000a Japan. Seeds on three grasses (Rhynchospora alba, Moliniopsis japonica and Phragmites australis) were sown in four vegetation sites: bareground, R. alba grassland, M. japonica grassland, and

  1. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  2. Thigmomorphogenesis: a dose response to flexing in Ulmus americana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Telewski, Frank W.; Pruyn, Michele L.

    1998-01-01

    Six-week-old half-sib seedlings of Ulmus americana L. were subjected to different amounts of flexure daily for 3 weeks under controlled greenhouse conditions. The daily flexure treatments were: no flexing in a staked stem, minimal flexing in a non-staked stem, and five, 10, 20, 40, and 80 flexures. Seedling height and diameter growth and average leaf area were determined before and after the treatments. The ratio of the change in height growth (DeltaH) to the change in diameter growth (DeltaD; (DeltaH:DeltaD)) before and after the 3-week treatments were calculated. At the end of the 3-week experiment, staked seedlings were significantly taller and had smaller stem diameters than all of the flexed seedlings. Height growth tended to decrease exponentially with increased flexure, with significant differences between the extremes of treatment. All of the flexure treatments significantly increased stem diameter compared to staked seedlings. The DeltaH:DeltaD ratio exhibited an exponential function in response to increased flexure. Average leaf area decreased with increased flexure, and seedlings in the 40x and 80x flexure treatments had significantly less leaf area than seedlings in all of the other treatments. These data are similar to the dose responses previously observed in herbaceous species. The finding that trees exhibit greater sensitivity to low doses of flexure than to high doses of flexure indicates that slight exposure to wind may result in a large initial alteration in stem morphology, producing a thigmomorphogenetic effect. Trees will continue to respond to increasing amounts of mechanical stress, but at an exponentially declining rate. Declining leaf areas in response to increasing amounts of mechanical stress may result in a decrease in available photosynthate, resulting in a tree of smaller stature compared to trees exposed to lower amounts of mechanical loading. PMID:12651301

  3. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17?-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  4. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm (Tejpat) oil (CTO) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%). CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg), cinnamaldehyde (20?mg/kg) and glibenclamide (0.6?mg/kg) in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28?days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased reduced glutathione (GSH). Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity. PMID:22882757

  5. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 ?g/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 ?g/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-?. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  6. Gene Expression in Plant Lipid Metabolism in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, An-Shan; Haslam, Richard P.; Michaelson, Louise V.; Liao, Pan; Napier, Johnathan A.; Chye, Mee-Len

    2014-01-01

    Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, ?-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1) and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS) was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6) in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX) lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25264899

  7. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  8. Effect of sorghum seedlings and previous crop, on soil fluorescent pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The hypotheses that sorghum seedlings [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varying in sorgoleone production will differentially modify soil microorganisms and will effect subsequent planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were tested. Methods: Wheat cultivar Lewjain, and sorghum genotypes ...

  9. Seedling Interference and Niche Differentiation Between Crested Wheatgrass and Contrasting Native Great Basin Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interference from crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.} Gaertn.) seedlings is considered a major obstacle to native species establishment; however, estimates of interference at variable seedling densities have not been fully defined. We conducted greenhouse experiments using an addition seri...

  10. Selection on Seedling Emergence Timing and Size in an Annual Plant (common sunflower, Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae))

    E-print Network

    Kristen, Mercer L.; Alexander, Helen M.; Snow, Allison A.

    2011-06-01

    • Premise: Variation in seedling emergence timing is considered adaptive over the long term in wild populations, but early emergence can result in a fitness advantage. To explore the adaptive significance of seedling ...

  11. Nitrogen ion utilization by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Growth responses of one-year-old tulip poplar seedlings were determined for different nitrogen sources (HN/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH+/sub 4/, NO-/sub 3/, no nitrogen) at 336 ppm N in nutrient culture. At the end of three months, there were no significant differences in growth observed among treatments in terms of stem elongation, leaf area, and leaf size. After four months, however, seedlings of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) greater growth (final weight gain and stem elongation) than all other nitrogen sorces. Growth was slightly less for the NO-/sub 3/ treatment plants, but compared with NH+/sub 4/ and no nitrogen treatment, both NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and NO-/sub 3/ treatments exhibited significantly greater growth responses. NO-/sub 3/ is recommended as the sole nitrogen source, especially for small seedlings of tulip poplar.

  12. Factors affecting the production of terpenes in seedlings of Pinus elliottii 

    E-print Network

    Ishihara, Hiroichi

    1987-01-01

    of terpenes was calculated using an internal standard, and data were subjected to statistical tests. For seedlings in the greenhouse, terpene content increased with seedling age. Upon wounding the seedlings, total resin acid production increased... significantly, and total monoterpene production also increased but not significantly. Seedlings responded to wounding very rapidly, within one hour. Fungal infection also induced resin acid increases, but not significantly. The compositions of terpenes were...

  13. Grazing on regeneration sites encourages pine seedling growth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Ratliff; R. G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the seedlings were significantly taller, with longer leaders with season-long grazing than without

  14. Seedling vigour and the early growth of transplanted rice ( Oryza sativa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ros; R. W. Bell; P. F. White

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the positive response of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) to nursery fertiliser application was due to increased seedling vigour or possibly to increased nutrient content. This paper presents results of two glasshouse experiments designed to test the hypothesis that seedling vigour was responsible for the response of transplanted seedlings to nursery treatments. The aim of the

  15. Double-stocking for overcoming damage to conifer seedlings by pocket gophers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Engeman; Richard M. Anthony; Victor G. Barnes; Heather W. Krupa; James Evans

    1998-01-01

    A 5-yr study was conducted on national forests in Idaho and Oregon to evaluate how doubling the seedling stocking rate of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) would relate to 5-year survival and the uniformity of distribution of seedlings in the presence of northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) damage. Either 4 or 8 seedlings were planted in 40-m2 subplots (1000 or 2000

  16. Positive, Negative and Net Effects of Shrub-Tree Seedling Interactions in Red Pine Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Montromery; P. B. Reich; S. B. Boyden; B. J. Palik

    2009-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, young tree seedlings interact with already established vegetation such as adult trees, shrubs, herbs, understory trees, and other juvenile trees. The extent and nature of these interactions can affect growth rates of tree seedlings and their probability of survival. Thick shrub understories are thought to deter regeneration through increased mortality and slow growth of tree seedlings and

  17. Effects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Loblolly and Slash Pine Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Enebak; G. Wei; J. W. Kloepper

    Loblolly and slash pine seed were inoculated at sowing with 1 of 12 different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the greenhouse. Time to germination and seedling densities were determined at 21 days, and seedling biomass was measured at 12 wk after sowing. All bacterial strains significantly increased the speed of seedling emergence over nontreated pine seed. By 12

  18. Growth and water relations of seedlings of two subspecies of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Bachelard, E P; Banks, J C

    1988-06-01

    Seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus Labill subsp. globulus grown in soil in pots in the greenhouse grew faster than seedlings of E. globulus subsp. bicostata, and responded better to added nutrients and water. However, water stress caused a greater reduction in the growth of shoots and roots, and in the root/shoot ratios of fertilized seedlings of subsp. globulus than in those of bicostata. More leaf surface wax was produced by seedlings grown in the presence of fertilizer and an adequate supply of water than by seedlings subjected to nutrient or water stress. Despite larger amounts of leaf surface wax, seedlings of subsp. bicostata had higher epidermal conductances than seedlings of subspecies globulus. However, epidermal conductances were reduced more by water stress and by fertilization in seedlings of subsp. bicostata than in subsp. globulus. Tissue osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were reduced by water stress only in seedlings of subsp. bicostata and were increased by fertilizer only in seedlings of subsp. globulus. The results indicate that although seedlings of subsp. globulus have inherently higher growth rates, seedlings of subsp. bicostata are better adapted to drought. PMID:14972823

  19. Morphological responses of Datura ferox L. seedlings to the presence of neighbours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Ballaré; R. A. Sánchez; Ana L. Scopel; C. M. Ghersa

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effects of density on the dynamics of seedling growth and canopy microclimate within experimental stands composed of Datura ferox L. seedlings grown in individual pots. Interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by seedlings was evaluated either indirectly, by measuring leaf area, proportion of leaf area shaded by neighbouring individuals and laminar orientation with respect to sunlight, or

  20. Summary Seedmassandrelativegrowth rate (RGR) are im-portant determinants of early seedling growth, and hence seed-

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , and hence seed- ling establishment. Although a positive interspecific relation- ship between seed mass and seedling dry mass is well estab- lished, much less is known about the relationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR within species. We examined re- lationships among seed mass, seedling mass and RGR

  1. Spatial pattern of seedlings 1 year after fire in a Mediterranean pine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ne'eman; H. Lahav; I. Izhaki

    1992-01-01

    The spatial distribution of seedlings of the dominant perennial plant species (Pinus halepensis, Cistus salviifolius, Rhus coriaria) and may annual species was studied after a wild fire in an eastern Mediterranean pine forest. The spatial distribution of all seedlings is affected by the location of the old burned pine trees. Seedling density of Pinus and Cistus is higher at a

  2. Differences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species

    E-print Network

    Kratochvíl, Lukas

    Differences in germination and seedling establishment of alien and native Impatiens species Rozdíly., Jarosík V. & Pysek P. (2009): Differences in germi- nation and seedling establishment of alien and native design. In this study seed and seedling traits of three congeneric alien species in Europe, differing

  3. Phytol. (1995), 130, 447-459 Sensitivity of seedlings of black cherry

    E-print Network

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    1995-01-01

    Phytol. (1995), 130, 447-459 Sensitivity of seedlings of black cherry {Prunus serotina Ehrh The response of seedlings of black cherry {Prunus serotina Ehrh.) to ozone was evaluated in Great Smoky sensitive. Black cherry seedlings are shown to be among the most sensitive to elevated ozone of the 21 tree

  4. [Physiological responses of mycorrhizal Pinus massoniana seedlings to drought stress and drought resistance evaluation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Ding, Gui-jie

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculating Pisolithus tinctorius, Cenococcum geophilum, Cantharellus cibarius, and Suillus luteus on the physiological characteristics of Pinus massoniana seedlings under the conditions of drought stress and re-watering, with the drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings evaluated. Under drought stress, the MDA content and membrane' s relative permeability of P. massoniana seedlings increased, but these two indices in the inoculated (mycorrhizal) seedlings were significantly lower than these in the un-inoculated (control) seedlings. After re-watering, the MDA content and membrane's relative permeability of mycorrhizal seedlings had a rapid decrease, as compared with the control. In the first 21 days of drought stress, the production rate of superoxide radical of the seedlings increased, and the SOD, POD and NR activities of mycorrhizal seedlings increased significantly. With the extending of drought stress, the seedlings after re-watering had different recovery ability. Under the re-watering after 14 days drought stress, the SOD, POD and NR activities recovered. The drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings was in the order of Suillus luteus 1 > Suillus luteus 7 > Cantharellus cibarius > Cenococcum geophilum > Pisolithus tinctorius. The SOD and MDA activities had a greater correlation with the mycorrhizal seedlings drought resistance, being able to be used as the indicators to evaluate the drought resistance of mycorrhizal seedlings. PMID:23755475

  5. Seedling Growth and Survival of Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata), Six Years Later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor F. Colahan; Eric Weinbender

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, western red cedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings were planted in Forest Park in Portland, Oregon to ascertain whether mammalian predation had a role in low seedling recruitment in the park. Nine study sites, three in each section (urban, middle and rural) of the park were located along an urban-rural land use gradient. At each site, 27 seedlings were planted.

  6. Terpenoid diversity in the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Bisht, Dinesh S; Mathela, Chandra S

    2009-09-01

    The leaf terpenoid compositions of nine Lauraceae species, viz., Neolitsea pallens, Lindera pulcherrima, Dodecadenia grandiflora, Persea duthiei, Persea odoratissima, Persea gamblei, Phoebe lanceolata, Cinnamomum tamala, and Cinnamomum camphora, collected from the Himalayan region (India) were examined by GC, GC/MS, and NMR analyses in order to determine the similarities and differences among their volatile constituents. Furano-sesquiterpenoids were the principal constituents of N. pallens, L. pulcherrima, and D. grandiflora. (E)-Nerolidol, limonene, beta-pinene, and alpha-pinene were the major constituents of P. duthiei; alpha-pinene, sabinene, and beta-caryophyllene were predominant in P. odoratissima, while the oils of P. gamblei and P. lanceolata possessed beta-caryophyllene as common major constituent. C. camphora and C. tamala were marked by the presence of camphor and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within nine species of six genera of Lauraceae. PMID:19774599

  7. The Influence of Glomus mosseae on Tylenchulus semipenetrans-Infected and Uninfected Citrus limon Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    O'Bannon, J. H.; Inserra, R. N.; Nemec, S.; Vovlas, N.

    1979-01-01

    Greenhouse studies have shown that when rough lemon (Citrus limon) seedlings infected with TyIenchulus semipenetrans were transplanted into soil infested with Glomus mosseae, the mycorrhizal fungus infection increased seedling growth compared to nonntycorrhizal seedlings. Tylenchulus semipenetrans significantly suppressed seedling growth below that of mycorrhizal seedlings. Histological observations of nematode-free mycorrhizal roots showed that hyphae penetrated the epidermis and invaded the cortex, giving rise to arbuscules and vesicles. Nematode infection sites in T. semipenetrans-infected roots grown in soil infested with G. mosseae did not show evidence of vesicle development in the cortex but did show arbuscule development. PMID:19300642

  8. Validation of a metabolic cotton seedling emergence model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seedling emergence model based on thermal dependence of enzyme activity in germinating cotton was developed. The model was validated under both laboratory and field conditions with several cotton lines under diverse temperature regimes. Four commercial lines were planted on four dates in Lubbock T...

  9. Limitations to seedling establishment in a mesic Hawaiian forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie S. Denslow; Amanda L. Uowolo; R. Flint Hughes

    2006-01-01

    While invasive species may be visible indicators of plant community degradation, they may not constitute the only, or even the primary, limitation to stand regeneration. We used seed-augmentation and grass-removal experiments under different canopy conditions to assess the relative importance of dispersal limitation, resource availability, and competition on seedling establishment in the understory shrubs Sophora chrysophilla, Dodonea viscosa, and Pipturus

  10. Nutraceutical composition obtained from fungus-challenged soy seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Verbruggen; R. Simons; H. Niessen; J. P. Vincken; H. Gruppen

    1998-01-01

    Soybean seedlings and therefrom extractable compositions are described. Such compositions comprise prenylated isoflavones and at least one isoflavonoid, said isoflavonoid being selected from one of the chemical classes of isoflavones, coumestans and pterocarpans. Such compositions usually comprise at least 5 % prenylated isoflavones, in particular prenylated isoflavones selected from prenylated daidzein, prenylated hydroxydaidzein, prenylated glycitein, prenylated hydroxygenistein, and prenylated genistein.

  11. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 ?g/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion. PMID:25576419

  12. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles. PMID:12232341

  13. Survival and growth of Juniperus seedlings in Juniperus woodlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. W. Van Auken; J. T. Jackson; P. N. Jurena

    2005-01-01

    Juniperus woodlands are widely distributed in western North America. Few studies of seedling emergence, long-term survival, growth or mortality of the dominant Juniperus spp. in these woodlands have been carried out. Consequently, regeneration dynamics in these woodlands are poorly understood. Juniperus ashei is the dominant woody plant in the majority of woodland and savanna communities of the Edwards Plateau region

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES SEEDLING PATHOGENICITY FACTOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a larger research program focusing on the capacity of Fusarium verticillioides to infect and endophytically colonize corn, we have examined an apparent seedling pathogenicity factor produced by the fungus. Genetic analysis of field isolates indicated a single locus segregates for ability...

  15. Seedling vigor in Beta vulgaris: The artistry of germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emergence and stand establishment through the first 10 weeks after planting continue to be primary concerns of sugar beet growers. Our goal is to understand the genes and genetics of seedling vigor in order to overcome beet’s inherent disadvantages of small seed size and encapsulation in a corky fru...

  16. Cotton seedling abrasion and recovery from wind blown sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be severe enough to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings...

  17. Soybean seedlings tolerate abrasion from air-propelled grit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New tools for controlling weeds would be useful for soybean production in organic systems. Air-propelled abrasive grit is one such tool that performs well for in-row weed control in corn, but crop safety in soybean is unknown. We examined responses to abrasion by corn-cob grit of soybean seedlings a...

  18. Predicting Seedling Emergence Using Soil Moisture and Temperature Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey R. Taylor; Bruce A. Roundy; Phil S. Allen; Susan E. Meyer

    Hydrothermal time models are often used to predict seed germination rates. In this study, soil water potential data from three resistance-type sensors (Colman cells, Watermark brand sensors, and Delmhorst gypsum blocks) and from a time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probe (Campbell Scientific 615) were input into a hydrothermal time model to predict seedling emergence in a growth chamber experiment for six desert

  19. Nitrogen effects on seed germination and seedling growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS A. MONACO; CHARLES T. MACKOWN; DOUGLAS A. JOHNSON; THOMAS A. JONES; JEANETTE M. NORTON; JAY B. NORTON; MARGARET G. REDINBAUGH

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence associates the persistence of invasive plant species with disturbance and fluctuations in distinct forms of mineral N in soils. We conducted soil and hydroponic experi- ments to investigate the influence of N form and availability on germination and seedling development of 2 invasive annual grasses, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) and 6 perennial grasses, blue- bunch

  20. Interaction of Rotylenchulus reniformis with Seedling Disease Pathogens of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Palmateer, A. J.; Lawrence, K. S.; van Santen, E.; Morgan-Jones, G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 10 Fusarium species in concomitant association with Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. In experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, and F. sporotrichioides; Rhizoctonia solani; and Thielaviopsis basicola. The experimental design was a 2 × 14 factorial consisting of the presence or absence of R. reniformis and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls in autoclaved field soil. In experiment 2, the same fungal and nematode treatments were examined in autoclaved or non-autoclaved soil. This experimental design was a 2 × 2 × 14 factorial consisting of field or autoclaved soil, presence or absence of R. reniformis, and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls. In both tests, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, F. solani, R. solani, and T. basicola consistently displayed extensive root and hypocotyl necrosis that was more severe (P ? 0.05) in the presence of R. reniformis. Soil treatment (autoclaved vs. non-autoclaved) influenced the impact of the Fusarium species on cotton seedling disease, with disease being more severe in the autoclaved soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction on cotton seedlings was greater in field soil compared to autoclaved soil (P ? 0.05). This study suggests the importance of Fusarium species and R. reniformis in cotton seedling disease. PMID:19262802

  1. Interaction of Rotylenchulus reniformis with Seedling Disease Pathogens of Cotton.

    PubMed

    Palmateer, A J; Lawrence, K S; van Santen, E; Morgan-Jones, G

    2004-06-01

    The impact of 10 Fusarium species in concomitant association with Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. In experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, and F. sporotrichioides; Rhizoctonia solani; and Thielaviopsis basicola. The experimental design was a 2 x 14 factorial consisting of the presence or absence of R. reniformis and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls in autoclaved field soil. In experiment 2, the same fungal and nematode treatments were examined in autoclaved or non-autoclaved soil. This experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 14 factorial consisting of field or autoclaved soil, presence or absence of R. reniformis, and the 12 fungal treatments plus two controls. In both tests, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, F. solani, R. solani, and T. basicola consistently displayed extensive root and hypocotyl necrosis that was more severe (P seedling disease, with disease being more severe in the autoclaved soil. Rotylenchulus reniformis reproduction on cotton seedlings was greater in field soil compared to autoclaved soil (P seedling disease. PMID:19262802

  2. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Sena Gomes; T. T. Kozlowski

    1980-01-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticles and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal

  3. In vitro seed germination and seedling propagation in Campanula spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovica Seglie; Valentina Scariot; Federica Larcher; Marco Devecchi; Paola Maria Chiavazza

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated in vitro seed germination and seedling multiplication methods to preserve and introduce new naturalized valuable Campanula species to the floriculture markets. Populations of Campanula barbata L., Campanula latifolia L., Campanula rapunculoides L., Campanula spicata L., and Campanula trachelium L. from various sites in northern Italy were considered in this study. Seeds were sown on half-strength Murashige and

  4. In vitro seed germination and seedling propagation in Campanula spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludovica Seglie; Valentina Scariot; Federica Larcher; Marco Devecchi; Paola Maria Chiavazza

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated in vitro seed germination and seedling multiplication methods to preserve and introduce new naturalized valuable Campanula species to the floriculture markets. Populations of Campanula barbata L., Campanula latifolia L., Campanula rapunculoides L., Campanula spicata L., and Campanula trachelium L. from various sites in northern Italy were considered in this study. Seeds were sown on half-strength Murashige and

  5. Seeds and Seedling Establishment of Wyoming Big Sagebrush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Booth; Y. Bai

    Success with Wyoming sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) depends on good seed vigor, and rapid seedling development. These characteristics are influenced by harvesting, processing, storing, and sowing. In this paper we discuss research findings related to those activities: (1) It appears that Wyoming big sagebrush growing on the western edge of the Great Plains might hold viable seed longer into

  6. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION, SEEDS, AND SEEDLINGS Walter T. McDonough

    E-print Network

    SEXUAL REPRODUCTION, SEEDS, AND SEEDLINGS Walter T. McDonough Natural genetic interchange conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combina- tion of environmental conditions, there is significantL, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed

  7. Protein phosphorylation differs significantly among ontogenetic phases in Malus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although protein phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification affecting protein function and metabolism, dynamic changes in this process during ontogenesis remain unexplored in woody angiosperms. Methods Phosphorylated proteins from leaves of three apple seedlings at juvenile, adult vegetative and reproductive stages were extracted and subjected to alkaline phosphatase pre-treatment. After separating the proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and phosphoprotein-specific Pro-Q Diamond staining, differentially expressed phosphoproteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results A total of 107 phosphorylated protein spots on nine gels (three ontogenetic phases?×?three seedlings) were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The 55 spots of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large-chain fragments varied significantly in protein abundance and degree of phosphorylation among ontogenetic phases. Abundances of the 27 spots corresponding to Rubisco activase declined between juvenile and reproductive phases. More extensively, phosphorylated ?-tubulin chain spots with lower isoelectric points were most abundant during juvenile and adult vegetative phases. Conclusions Protein phosphorylation varied significantly during vegetative phase change and floral transition in apple seedlings. Most of the observed changes were consistent among seedlings and between hybrid populations. PMID:24904238

  8. The differential establishment of seedlings from chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers in natural populations of the grass Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Clay

    1983-01-01

    The grass Danthonia spicata produces dimorphic seeds from chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers. The seed remains attached to seedlings so one can identify the reproductive origin of seedlings. The proportion of chasmogamous and cleistogamous seedlings becoming established varies widely between populations. The types of seedlings becoming established was generally consistent from year to year and correlated with the proportion of flower

  9. Biological seed priming mitigates the effects of water stress in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narsingh Bahadur; Singh, Deepmala; Singh, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. PAC 36) seedlings were inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A+), Bacillus polymyxa (B+), separately and in combination of the two (AB+). Relative water content and seedling growth were maximum in AB+ seedlings under control. Water stress significantly decreased the RWC, growth and dry mass of non-inoculated seedlings. However, inoculated seedlings maintained higher growth even under water stress. Pigments and protein contents decreased under water stress, but higher amount of the same was observed in stressed AB+ seedlings. Enhanced activity of nitrate reductase was recorded in AB+ seedlings with maximum in control. Water stress significantly decreased the nitrate reductase activity. A significant increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in leaves was recorded under water stress except in B+ with maximum increase in non-inoculated seedlings. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased in stressed non-inoculated seedlings while increased in the leaves of A+ and AB+ seedlings. Almost similar trends were recorded for both leaves and cotyledons. PGPR improved the water status in stressed seedlings and thereby physiological and biochemical parameters and thus ameliorated the severe effects of water stress. PMID:25964714

  10. Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) interactions with barley, rice, and wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shun; Liu, Xuming; Wang, Haiyan; El-Bouhssini, Mustapha

    2009-08-01

    A choice test revealed that Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), adults deposited approximately 3 times more eggs on wheat (Triticum spp.), seedlings than on barley (Hordeum spp.) or rice, Oryza sativa L., seedlings. On a barley seedling, 49.4% of eggs were deposited on either the abaxial leaf surface or the coleoptile and first leaf sheath (C&FLS), where newly hatched larvae die due to their inability to migrate into the interspace between leaf sheaths. In comparison, only 14% of eggs were deposited on the abaxial leaf surface or C&FLS on a wheat seedling. The average death rate of Hessian fly larvae in seedlings of an apparently susceptible barley line was 60%, compared with only 10% in seedlings of a susceptible wheat cultivar. The development of Hessian fly larvae was also much slower in barley seedlings than in wheat seedlings. It took 12 d for Hessian fly larvae to finish the first and second instars in susceptible barley seedlings, compared with 10 d in susceptible wheat seedlings under the same conditions. These results indicate that barley is not a good host for the Hessian fly. Our results also confirmed that rice is a nonhost for the Hessian fly. The resistance mechanism in rice was different from that in R gene resistant wheat. Hessian fly larvae grew a little and died more slowly in rice seedlings, whereas Hessian fly larvae died quickly without growth in resistant wheat. PMID:19736782

  11. Oxygen Sensing Coordinates Photomorphogenesis to Facilitate Seedling Survival

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J.; Gibbs, Daniel J.; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W.; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6–8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil’s gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. PMID:25981794

  12. Oxygen sensing coordinates photomorphogenesis to facilitate seedling survival.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J; Gibbs, Daniel J; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6-8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil's gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. PMID:25981794

  13. Chemical composition and the insecticidal activity of certain plants applied as powders and essential oils against two stored-products coleopteran beetles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gomah E. NenaahSahar; Sahar I. A. Ibrahim

    Powders and essential oils were prepared from the aerial parts of Cinnamomum camphora, Ocimum basilicum, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and seeds of Pimpinella anisum. Their adulticidal activities and effects on the F1 progeny of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were evaluated. The chemical composition of the plant oils were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC\\/mass\\u000a spectrometry (MS). All of

  14. Effects of host plant exposure to cadmium on mycorrhizal infection and soluble carbohydrate levels of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kim, C-G; Power, S A; Bell, J N B

    2004-09-01

    In a Cd-contaminated environment, not only mature trees but also their seeds and young seedlings can be exposed to Cd. Cadmium taken up by young seedlings may influence mycorrhizal infection, which might in turn influence resistance to Cd toxicity. In order to eliminate soil-mediated responses of mycorrhizal infection to Cd, Pinus sylvestris seedlings were exposed to Cd prior to fungal inoculation and replanted to clean substrates with fungal inoculum. Cadmium pretreatment reduced the proportion of living mycorrhizal short roots of seedlings inoculated with Paxillus involutus. However, no such effect was observed for seedlings inoculated with Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon subcaerulescens. Therefore, infection by P. involutus appeared to be affected by Cd taken up by seedlings. Overall stem length and biomass of the seedlings were reduced by Cd pretreatment. Infection by S. bovinus and R. subcaerulescens increased stem length and biomass of the seedlings. Root soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. PMID:15234095

  15. Widespread density-dependent seedling mortality promotes species coexistence in a highly diverse Amazonian rain forest.

    PubMed

    Metz, Margaret R; Sousa, Wayne P; Valencia, Renato

    2010-12-01

    Negative density-dependent mortality can promote species coexistence through a spacing mechanism that prevents species from becoming too locally abundant. Negative density-dependent seedling mortality can be caused by interactions among seedlings or between seedlings and neighboring adults if the density of neighbors affects the strength of competition or facilitates the attack of natural enemies. We investigated the effects of seedling and adult neighborhoods on the survival of newly recruited seedlings for multiple cohorts of known age from 163 species in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador, an ever-wet, hyper-diverse lowland Amazonian rain forest. At local scales, we found a strong negative impact on first-year survival of conspecific seedling densities and adult abundance in multiple neighborhood sizes and a beneficial effect of a local tree neighborhood that is distantly related to the focal seedling. Once seedlings have survived their first year, they also benefit from a more phylogenetically dispersed seedling neighborhood. Across species, we did not find evidence that rare species have an advantage relative to more common species, or a community compensatory trend. These results suggest that the local biotic neighborhood is a strong influence on early seedling survival for species that range widely in their abundance and life history. These patterns in seedling survival demonstrate the role of density-dependent seedling dynamics in promoting and maintaining diversity in understory seedling assemblages. The assemblage-wide impacts of species abundance distributions may multiply with repeated cycles of recruitment and density-dependent seedling mortality and impact forest diversity or the abundance of individual species over longer time scales. PMID:21302838

  16. Planting cost, survival, and growth one to three years after establishing loblolly pine seedlings with straight, deformed, or pruned taproots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy B. Harrington; Kirk D. Howell

    1998-01-01

    To provide an objective approach for comparing various planting methods likely to differ in cost, seedling performance, and cost efficiency, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were dug-hole or slit planted with either straight, deformed, or pruned taproots, and planting rate (seconds per seedling) and three-year survival and growth of seedlings were measured. The per-hectare cost of dug-hole planting seedlings

  17. Combined potentiating action of phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic effect using in vivo rat and in vitro NIH/3T3 cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineeta; Singh, S P; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to analyze the ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimitic effect by determining the levels of blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) after daily administration of each alone and in combined at 250 mg/kg in alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with the extracts restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The anti-diabetic effect further potentiated the insulin signaling pathway by co-administration of both extracts. The molecular mechanisms of modulating gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor were also evaluated on specific targets of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), AKT, and the glucose transporter (GLUT4) on NIH/3T3 cell line by western blotting, ELISA, semiquantitative RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. The active principle of both extracts revealed insulin mimicking effect as indicated by increased expression of pIRS1 and pAKT in time-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in PI3-K content between unchallenged and challenged groups. Enhanced expression of GLUT-4 transcript further suggested that the Cinnamomum and Aloe phytochemicals could serve as a good adjuvant in the present armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs by either mimicking or improving insulin action. This study reveals that ethanolic extracts of C. tamala and A. vera have potent therapeutic efficacy and prospect for the development of phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus. PMID:25536877

  18. Implications of seed size for seedling survival in Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus wislizeni (Cactaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.; Pierson, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Larger seeds have been shown to convey benefits for seedling survival but the mechanisms of this process are not well understood. In this study, seed size and seedling survival were compared for 2 sympatric cactus species, Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose and Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose, in laboratory and field experiments in the northern Sonoran Desert. Both species have small seeds, but Ferocactus seeds are nearly twice as long and 3 times as heavy as those of Carnegiea. The difference in size is perpetuated after germination: new Ferocactus seedlings have 4 times the estimated volume of new Carnegiea seedlings. In an outdoor experiment, annual survivorship of both species was low but was 6 times higher for Ferocactus (6 seedlings, 8.1%) than Carnegiea (1 seedling, 1.4%). The pattern of seedling mortality in relation to temperature and rain suggests that, after the initial flush of seed and seedling predation, drought and heat took a greater toll on Carnegiea than Ferocactus seedlings, probably because the larger seedling volume of Ferocactus conferred greater drought tolerance. In addition, F. wislizeni could become established without benefit of nurse plants whereas C. gigantea could not; this might reflect differential tolerance to high soil temperatures.

  19. Lipid utilization, gluconeogenesis, and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cornah, Johanna E; Germain, Véronique; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Smith, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this research was to test the role of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase (MLS) in lipid utilization, gluconeogenesis, and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that in the absence of MLS, succinate produced by isocitrate lyase (ICL) could still feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas glyoxylate could be converted to sugars using enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway. To test this hypothesis we isolated knock-out mls mutants and studied their growth and metabolism in comparison to wild type and icl mutant seedlings. In contrast to icl seedlings, which grow slowly and are unable to convert lipid into sugars (Eastmond, P. J., Germain, V., Lange, P. R., Bryce, J. H., Smith, S. M. & Graham, I. A. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 5669-5674), mls seedlings grow faster, use their lipid more rapidly, and are better able to establish as plantlets. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses show that icl seedlings exhibit many features characteristic of carbohydrate starvation, whereas mls seedlings differ relatively little from wild type. In the light mls seedlings generate more sugars than icl seedlings, and when fed with [14C]acetate, 14C-labeling of sugars is three times greater than in icl seedlings and more than half that in wild type seedlings. The mls seedlings also accumulate more glycine and serine than icl or wild type seedlings, consistent with a diversion of glyoxylate into these intermediates of the photorespiratory pathway. We conclude that, in contrast to bacteria and fungi in which MLS is essential for gluconeogenesis from acetate or fatty acids, MLS is partially dispensable for lipid utilization and gluconeogenesis in Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:15272001

  20. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  1. Incorporation of cytokinins into DNA of wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashova, I.B.; Vanyushin, B.F.

    1986-08-20

    After incubation of wheat seedlings with (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine or (8-/sup 3/H)zeathin appreciable radioactivity was found in the purine bases of DNA, mainly in adenine. Moreover, as a result of acid hydrolysis labeled cytokinins were isolated from labeled highly purified preparations of the total DNA of wheat seedlings. Their radioactivity constituted 5-10% of the radioactivity of the adenine bases in the DNA. After mild acid hydrolysis (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine and (/sup 3/H)zeathin were found in the deoxyribonucleoside fraction obtained from cytokinin-labeled DNA. Thus, different cytokinins (N/sup 6/-substituted adenine derivatives) are covalently incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of plants.

  2. Copper Toxicity Tolerance in Aegilops and Haynaldia Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Landjeva; M. Merakchijska-Nikolova; G. Ganeva

    2003-01-01

    The seedling response to high Cu concentrations (1 and 10 ?M CuSO4 . 5 H2O) was studied in Aegilops triuncialis, Ae. geniculata, Ae. cylindrica and Haynaldia villosa. The negative effect of Cu on the root growth was recorded at both concentrations, while the shoot growth was inhibited at\\u000a 10 ?M. The most tolerant was Ae. triuncialis, followed by Ae. geniculata.

  3. Enantioselective separation and phytotoxicity on rice seedlings of paclobutrazol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Xie, Xuemei; Liu, Weiping

    2011-04-27

    The environmental significance of enantioselectivity in chiral insecticides and herbicides has been widely studied. However, little information is currently available on the enantioselective behavior of chiral plant growth regulators. In this study, paclobutrazol enantiomers were resolved and prepared by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography with a Sino-chiral OJ column. The relationship among absolute configuration, optical activity and circular dichroism of paclobutrazol enantiomers was established. The enantioselective behavior of paclobutrazol, including enantioselective effect of paclobutrazol on the growth of rice seedlings and cyanobacteria and enantioselective loss of paclobutrazol in rice seedling growth media, in rice culture system was studied. The (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer was almost 3.1 times more active than the (2R,3R)-(+)-enantiomer toward shoot growth as measured by 7 day EC50 values. Enantioselectivity could not be determined with respect to root growth of rice seedlings because a typical dosage response was not observed in the range of the concentrations studied. The dissipation of paclobutrazol in rice growth medium is not enantioselective. Enantiomers and diastereoisomer of paclobutrazol all facilitated the growth of cyanobacteria, which increase the effectiveness of rice biofertilizers. The (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer showed stronger stimulatory activity on Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacteria than the (2R,3R)-(+)-enantiomer, whereas the latter was a more potent stimulator of Anabaena sp. growth. These observations indicate that application of the (2S,3S)-(-)-enantiomer of paclobutrazol and Microcystis aeruginosa in rice cultivation is a good strategy for improving rice seedling performance. PMID:21395310

  4. Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

  5. Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maribel L Dionisio-Sese; Satoshi Tobita

    1998-01-01

    The possible involvement of activated oxygen species in the mechanism of damage by NaCl stress was studied in leaves of four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) exhibiting different sensitivities to NaCl. The 3-week-old rice seedlings were subjected to 0, 6 and 12 dS m?1 salinity levels for 1-week after which differences in antioxidant capacities and possible correlation, growth rate

  6. Rapid multiplication of Jojoba seedlings by in vitro culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Roussos; A. Tolia-Marioli; C. A. Pontikis; D. Kotsias

    1999-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider) seedling explants were cultured on a modified Driver Kuniyuki medium, supplemented\\u000a with various concentrations of 6-benzyladenine alone and in combination with silver nitrate. Shoot proliferation was successful\\u000a at all the concentrations tested, with a maximum number of 15.2 shoots per original explant. Shoots produced during the proliferation\\u000a stage were treated with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid

  7. Ontogeny of Cotton Seeds: Gametogenesis, Embryogenesis, Germination, and Seedling Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rickie B. Turley; Kent D. Chapman

    Production of a viable seed is of paramount importance to the survival of a plant species. Many plants, including cotton,\\u000a amass large reserves of storage protein and oil in their seeds (oilseeds) to use during dormancy, germination, and seedling\\u000a growth. These reserves are mobilized after imbibition when environmental conditions are favorable for growth. Due to their\\u000a rich supply of protein

  8. Rodent seed predation and seedling recruitment in mesic grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Edwards; M. J. Crawley

    1999-01-01

    Seedling recruitment of two grasses (Arrhenatherum elatius and Festuca rubra) and two herbs (Centaurea nigra and Rumex acetosa) was measured in areas with and without rodents to which seeds of each species were sown at three seed densities (1000, 10,000\\u000a and 50,000 seeds m?2) in two seasons (spring and autumn 1995). Seed removal was measured for 10-day periods and the

  9. Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schopfer; K.-H. Fidelak; E. Schäfer

    1982-01-01

    The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]˜0.1% of total phytochrome, established by

  10. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  11. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  12. The significance of glucosinolates for sulfur storage in Brassicaceae seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aghajanzadeh, Tahereh; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea seedlings contained a twofold higher glucosinolate content than B. rapa and these secondary sulfur compounds accounted for up to 30% of the organic sulfur fraction. The glucosinolate content was not affected by H2S and SO2 exposure, demonstrating that these sulfur compounds did not form a sink for excessive atmospheric supplied sulfur. Upon sulfate deprivation, the foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 replaced sulfate as the sulfur source for growth of B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings. The glucosinolate content was decreased in sulfate-deprived plants, though its proportion of organic sulfur fraction was higher than that of sulfate-sufficient plants, both in absence and presence of H2S and SO2. The significance of myrosinase in the in situ turnover in these secondary sulfur compounds needs to be questioned, since there was no direct co-regulation between the content of glucosinolates and the transcript level and activity of myrosinase. Evidently, glucosinolates cannot be considered as sulfur storage compounds upon exposure to excessive atmospheric sulfur and are unlikely to be involved in the re-distribution of sulfur in B. juncea and B. rapa seedlings upon sulfate deprivation. PMID:25566279

  13. Antioxidant responses of rice seedling to Ce?+ under hydroponic cultures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-Man; Chen, Hong

    2011-09-01

    Since the 1980s, rare earth elements have been commonly used in China because of their enriched fertilizers. To understand the potential benefits or damages of Ce(4+) on rice, the antioxidant responses (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase activities, and ascorbate and glutathione contents) of rice seedling to Ce(4+) under hydroponic cultures were investigated. The results showed that Ce(4+) induced H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) production of rice seedling. The inhibition studies with diphenylene iodonium suggested that the key enzyme responsible for oxidative bursts was primarily NADPH oxidase. Ce(4+) (0.02 mM) increased the antioxidant capacity of reduced ascorbate and glutathione and the levels of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase. However, antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity of rice seedling were decreased by 0.2mM Ce(4+) treatment, indicating that higher content of Ce(4+) damaged the mechanism of defense responses and emerged the peroxidation of membrane lipids. These results will help us to understand the mechanism of Ce(4+) on rice and concern about its environmental impact in agriculture. PMID:21514673

  14. Phytotoxicity of arsenic compounds on crop plant seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae; Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The effects of inorganic and organic arsenic on the germination and seedling growth of 10 crop plants were investigated to elucidate the relationship between toxicity and the arsenic chemical states. Two types of soils, soil A and B, were also tested to determine how physicochemical properties of soils were related to toxicity of arsenic and the sensitivity of the plants. All tested plant species, except mung bean and cucumber, showed inhibition of germination by two types of inorganic arsenic, arsenite, and arsenate, while the organic arsenic compound, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), had no inhibitory effects on plants in soil A. In contrast, the growth of seedlings of all 10 plant species was sensitive to the presence of arsenic. The sensitivity of the plants toward inorganic arsenic compounds showed similar trends but differed for DMA. Overall, seedling growth was a more sensitive endpoint to arsenic toxicity than germination, and the relative toxicity of arsenic compounds on plants was arsenite?>?DMA?>?arsenate. Interestingly, the sensitivity of wheat varied significantly when the soil was changed, and the DMA was most toxic rather than arsenite in soil B. Thus, the systematic study employed here provides insights into the mechanisms of arsenic toxicity in different plant species and the role of physicochemical properties of soils. PMID:25791266

  15. Role of carbohydrates in diurnal chilling sensitivity of tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    King, A I; Joyce, D C; Reid, M S

    1988-03-01

    Tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) chilled starting at different times during the light/dark cycle were most chilling-sensitive at the end of the dark period (AI King, MS Reid, BD Patterson 1982 Plant Physiol 70: 211-214). Low-temperature tolerance was regained with as little as 10 minutes of light exposure. Low light intensities were less effective than high light intensities in reducing sensitivity, and the length of exposure to light directly influenced sensitivity. Seedlings kept at low night temperatures prior to chilling were also less injured following chilling. Light also restored chilling tolerance to seedlings whose roots were removed. Supplying cut shoots with sucrose, glucose, or fructose reduced chilling sensitivity and largely eliminated the diurnal difference in sensitivity. Endogenous carbohydrate content was correlated with changes in chilling sensitivity; starch and sugar content fell markedly during the dark period. Increased concentrations of sugars were detected 15 minutes after the start of the light period. This evidence all suggests that changes in chilling sensitivity over the diurnal period are regulated by the light cycle. It also suggests that increased sensitivity at the end of the dark period could be due to carbohydrate depletion, and that chilling tolerance following light exposure is likely due to carbohydrate accumulation or closely related events. PMID:16665984

  16. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduction decreased in SAR-treated white pine seedlings inoculated with VPSt-1. SAR-treated Austrian pine seedlings were resistant to VPSt-1, but SAR-treated Scots pine seedlings lost tolerance to VPSt-1 and wilted 50-60 days after inoculation. PMID:19290259

  17. Root graviresponsiveness and columella cell structure in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Root graviresponsiveness in normal and carotenoid-deficient mutant seedlings of Zea mays was not significantly different. Columella cells in roots of mutant seedlings were characterized by fewer, smaller, and a reduced relative volume of plastids as compared to columella cells of normal seedlings. Plastids in columella cells of mutant seedlings possessed reduced amounts of starch. Although approximately 10 per cent of the columella cells in mutant seedlings lacked starch, their plastids were located at the bottom of the cell. These results suggest that (i) carotenoids are not necessary for root gravitropism, (ii) graviresponsiveness is not necessarily proportional to the size, number, or relative volume of plastids in columella cells, and (iii) sedimentation of plastids in columella cells may not result directly from their increased density due to starch content. Plastids in columella cells of normal and mutant seedlings were associated with bands of microtubule-like structures, suggesting that these structures may be involved in 'positioning' plastids in the cell.

  18. Survival of planted tupelo seedlings in F- and H-Area tree-kill zones

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Swamp tupelo seedlings were planted in four areas which experienced previous tree mortality at the seeplines of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The sites represented a range in severity of impact and stage of recovery. Seedlings were planted in February of 1994 and followed through the first growing season in the field. Survival on all sites through the first growing season was excellent, with greater than 92% of the seedlings still alive. Most seedlings appeared healthy with few external signs of stress. The performance of the seedlings will be followed in subsequent years to determine the physical state of the soil environment on seedling growth. Hopefully, the results will indicate that artificial reforestation can begin on similarly impacted sites prior to the beginning of natural revegetation of the site.

  19. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  20. Responses of ectomycorrhizal American elm ( Ulmus americana ) seedlings to salinity and soil compaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Calvo Polanco; Janusz J. Zwiazek; Mihaela C. Voicu

    2008-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) seedlings were either non-inoculated or inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor and a mixture of the two fungi to study the effects of ectomycorrhizal associations on seedling responses to soil compaction\\u000a and salinity. The seedlings were grown in the greenhouse in pots containing non-compacted (0.4 g cm?3 bulk density) and compacted (0.6 g cm?3 bulk density) soil and

  1. Habitat associations of trees and seedlings in a Bornean rain forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Campbell O. Webb; David R. Peart

    2000-01-01

    Summary 1 In species-rich mixed dipterocarp rain forest in Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated evidence for tree species associations with physical habitat variables (physiography for adults and seedlings, and light for seedlings). A total of 325 species were included in the analysis. 2 A stratified random sample of 28 tree and seedling plots (0.16†ha and 36†m2, respectively) was taken from a

  2. Observations on Root Disease of Container Whitebark Pine Seedlings treated with Biological Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a non-treated control. Seedlings treated with the biological controls and non-symptomatic seedlings in the control treatment had

  3. The role of cotyledon metabolism in the establishment of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa ) seedlings growing under salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María C. Ruffino; Mariana Rosa; Mirna Hilal; Juan A. González; Fernando E. Prado

    2010-01-01

    A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on emergence, growth, water status, photosynthetic\\u000a pigments, osmolyte accumulation, and ionic content of quinoa seedlings (Chenopodium quinoa). The aim was to test the hypothesis that quinoa seedlings are well adapted to grow under salinity due to their ability to\\u000a adjust the metabolic functionality of their cotyledons. Seedlings were

  4. Soil type affects seedling shade response at low light for two Inga species from Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. T. Palow; S. F. Oberbauer

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of many humid tropical tree species are associated with specific soil types. This specificity most likely results\\u000a from processes at the seedling stage, but light rather than nutrient levels is generally considered the dominant limitation\\u000a for seedling growth in the tropical forest understory. If nutrients are limiting and allocation to belowground resources differs,\\u000a seedling growth responses to shade should

  5. Early root growth plasticity in seedlings of three Mediterranean woody species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco M. Padilla; Juan de Dios Miranda; Francisco I. Pugnaire

    2007-01-01

    Since very young seedlings are sensitive to dehydration, soil desiccation is often responsible for seedling death in water-stressed\\u000a environments. Roots play a major role in overcoming water stress and plant establishment, thus early root development in response\\u000a to limited water availability becomes a strategy that may ensure seedling recruitment. We explored whether different water\\u000a availabilities altered growth patterns of very

  6. Exogenously applied GA 4 is converted to GA 1 in seedlings of Salix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olavi Junttila

    1993-01-01

    Gibberellin A4 (GA4) is biologically active in Salix pentandra and is able to induce stem elongation in seedlings grown under short day (SD) conditions, as well as in seedlings grown under\\u000a long day (LD) conditions and treated with a growth retardant BX-112. [3H2]GA4 and [2H2]GA4 were applied to seedlings and leaf and stem explants of S. pentandra, and metabolites were

  7. Analysis of phytochrome kinetics in light-grown Avena sativa L. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gottmann; E. Schäfer

    1983-01-01

    The phytochrome content, the rate of phytochrome accumulation after a light\\/dark transition and the rate of phytochrome destruction after a 1.5 d reaccumulation period in darkness were measured in light grown Avena sativa L. seedlings. The results using spectrophotometrical methods (Norflurazon treated seedlings) and the radio-immunoassay (RIA) (green seedlings) were almost identical. The rate of phytochrome synthesis was analysed by

  8. Early postfire seed dispersal, seedling establishment and seedling mortality of Pinus coulteri (D. Don) in central coastal California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Borchert; Matthew Johnson; David S. Schreiner; Stephen B. Vander Wall

    2003-01-01

    Seedling recruitment in many highly serotinous populations of Pinus coulteri on California's central coast depends almost entirely on periodic, stand-replacing fire. Compared to serotinous pines of the Mediterranean Basin, little detailed information is available on the postfire demography of California closed-cone pines, including P. coulteri. In September 1996 a wildfire burned the 760-ha American Canyon Research Natural Area (RNA). Using

  9. 13:00:09:11:10 Fungal endophytes protect grass seedlings against

    E-print Network

    Kramarz, Paulina

    , the weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans) seedlings are the hosts, and the grove snail (Cepaea nemoralis typhina endophyte stimulates the host, weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans), to produce seeds

  10. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  11. [Effects of grafting on physiological characteristics of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming-min; Zhang, Xin-ying; Fu, Qiu-shi; He, Zhong-qun; Wang, Huai-song

    2014-12-01

    The effects of grafting on physiological characters of melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings under copper stress were investigated with Pumpkin Jingxinzhen No. 3 as stock and oriental melon IVF09 as scion. The results showed that the physiological characters of melon seedlings were inhibited significantly under copper stress. Compared with self-rooted seedlings, the biomass, the contents of photosynthetic pigment, glucose and fructose, the photosynthetic parameters, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the leaves of the grafted seedlings were increased significantly. The uptake of nutrients was improved with the contents of K, P, Na increased and the content of Cu decreased. When the concentration of Cu2+ stress was 800 micromol L(-1), the contents of Cu in the leaves and roots of the grafted seedlings were decreased by 31.3% and 15.2%, respectively. Endogenous hormone balance of seedlings was improved by grafting. In the grafted seedlings, the content of IAA and peroxidase activity were higher, whereas the contents of ABA, maleicdialdehyde, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were lower than that in the control. It was concluded that the copper stress on the physiological characters of melon seedlings was relieved by grafting which improved the resistance of the grafted seedlings. PMID:25876409

  12. Ames Research Center views of Oats, Slash-Pine and Mung bean seedlings STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Young oat seedlings are shown in a ground laboratory after being flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-3 in March of 1982. All plants were part of the experimental Plant Growth Unit. They appear to have grown to look similar to the control seedlings on earth. A few small roots can be seen growing upward from the soil (33915); Young slash-pine seedlings are shown upon returning from the STS-3 mission (33916); Mung bean seedlings are shown after their return from space aboard the STS-3 (37917).

  13. Seasonal Pattern of Tomato Mosaic Tobamovirus Infection and Concentration in Red Spruce Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bachand, George D.; Castello, John D.

    1998-01-01

    Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) infects red spruce (Picea rubens) and causes significant changes in its growth and physiology. The mechanism of infection and the pattern of virus concentration in seedling roots and needles were investigated. One-year-old red spruce seedlings were obtained from the nursery in April and June 1995 and August 1996 and tested for ToMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus-free seedlings were divided into three treatments: control, root inoculated, and needle inoculated. Two control, five root-inoculated, and five needle-inoculated seedlings were sampled destructively at biweekly intervals for 3 months and then tested for ToMV by ELISA. ToMV was transmitted to seedlings by root but not by needle inoculation. The virus was detected in 67 to 100% of roots but in less than 7% of needles of root-inoculated seedlings. The percent infection of root-inoculated seedlings differed significantly between the April and June and between the April and August inoculation periods. Virus concentration in infected seedling roots increased initially, peaked within 4 weeks postinoculation, and steadily declined thereafter. Significant differences in ToMV concentrations in roots also were detected among inoculation periods and sampling dates. Early spring may represent the optimal time for infection of seedlings, as well as for assaying roots for ToMV. PMID:16349546

  14. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of mechanical loss of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pisolithus tinctorius or naturally occurring fungi encountered during lifting of nursery seedlings to the capacity of these seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow. Seedlings were planted in January 1981. Seedlings with Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae formed in the nursery can tolerate more removal of ectomycorrhizae than routine nursery seedlings with natural ectomycorrhizae. However, seedlings in both ectomycorrhizal condition groups were severely impacted by removal of ectomycorrhizae. 1 table.

  15. Characterization of soldat8, a suppressor of singlet oxygen-induced cell death in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Coll, Núria S; Danon, Antoine; Meurer, Jörg; Cho, Won Kyong; Apel, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    The flu mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana overaccumulates in the dark the immediate precursor of chlorophyllide, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), a potent photosensitizer, that upon illumination generates singlet oxygen ((1)O2). Once (1)O2 has been released in plastids of the flu mutant, mature plants stop growing, while seedlings die. Several suppressor mutations, dubbed singlet oxygen-linked death activator (soldat), were identified that specifically abrogate (1)O2-mediated stress responses in young flu seedlings without grossly affecting (1)O2-mediated stress responses of mature flu plants. One of the soldat mutations, soldat8, was shown to impair a gene encoding the SIGMA6 factor of the plastid RNA polymerase. Reintroduction of a wild-type copy of the SOLDAT8 gene into the soldat8/flu mutant restored the phenotype of the flu parental line. In contrast to flu, seedlings of soldat8/flu did not bleach when grown under non-permissive dark/light conditions, despite their continuous overaccumulation of the photosensitizer Pchlide in the dark. The activity of SIGMA6 is confined primarily to the very early stage of seedling development. Inactivation of SIGMA6 in soldat8 mutants disturbed plastid homeostasis, drastically reduced the non-photochemical quenching capacity and enhanced the light sensitivity of young soldat8 seedlings. Surprisingly, after being grown under very low light, soldat8 seedlings showed an enhanced resistance against a subsequent severe light stress that was significantly higher than in wild-type seedlings. In order to reach a similar enhanced stress resistance, wild-type seedlings had to be exposed to a brief higher light treatment that triggered an acclimatory response. Such a mild pre-stress treatment did not further enhance the stress resistance of soldat8 seedlings. Suppression of (1)O2-mediated cell death in young flu/soldat8 seedlings seems to be due to a transiently enhanced acclimation at the beginning of seedling development caused by the initial disturbance of plastid homeostasis. PMID:19273469

  16. Regulation of the Heat Shock Response in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimpel, Janice A.; Nagao, Ronald T.; Goekjian, Virginia; Key, Joe L.

    1990-01-01

    The transcriptional response of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings during heat shock (HS) was investigated under two different treatment regimes. During prolonged heat treatment at 40°C, active transcription of the HS genes (as measured by “runoff” transcription assays) occurs only during the first few hours. Nonetheless, mRNAs for these genes are present at relatively high abundance even after 9 hours of exposure to 40°C. Because HS mRNAs have a fairly short half-life (less than 3 hours) at 28°C, these results indicate that HS mRNAs are inherently more stable at 40°C. During a second type of heat treatment regime—short pulses of high (45°C) heat followed by 1 to 2 hours at 28°C—transcription of HS genes is comparable to that achieved at 40°C for the first few hours, even though the tissue is maintained at non-HS temperatures. The transcriptional responses to these two different heat treatments indicate that regulatory controls for the transcription of the HS genes must involve more than a simple sensing of ambient temperature, since transcription of these genes can be turned off at 40°C (in the case of prolonged exposure) and can continue at 28°C (following a short, severe heat treatment). Additional results demonstrate that the response of soybean seedlings to a particular HS depends on their prior exposure to heat; seedlings given a preheat treatment (that is known to induce thermotolerance) respond more moderately to a short heat pulse at 45°C. Overall, this research indicates that plants have mechanisms for both monitoring the severity of changes in temperature and for measuring the magnitude and duration of the stress. Such information is then used to regulate the plant's response to heat both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667880

  17. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates aluminum toxicity in germinating wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Tan, Zhu-Qin; Hu, Lan-Ying; Wang, Song-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping; Jones, Russell L

    2010-06-01

    Protective role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on seed germination and seedling growth was studied in wheat (Triticum) seeds subjected to aluminum (Al(3+)) stress. We show that germination and seedling growth of wheat is inhibited by high concentrations of AlCl(3). At 30 mmol/L AlCl(3) germination is reduced by about 50% and seedling growth is more dramatically inhibited by this treatment. Pre-incubation of wheat seeds in the H(2)S donor NaHS alleviates AlCl(3)-induced stress in a dose-dependant manner at an optimal concentration of 0.3 mmol/L. We verified that the role of NaHS in alleviating Al(3+) stress could be attributed to H(2)S/HS(-) by showing that the level of endogenous H(2)S increased following NaHS treatment. Furthermore, other sodium salts containing sulfur were ineffective in alleviating Al(3+) stress. NaHS pretreatment significantly increased the activities of amylases and esterases and sustained much lower levels of MDA and H(2)O(2) in germinating seeds under Al(3+) stress. Moreover, NaHS pretreatment increased the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased that of lipoxygenase. NaHS pretreatment also decreased the uptake of Al(3+) in AlCl(3)-treated seed. Taken together these results suggest that H(2)S could increase antioxidant capability in wheat seeds leading to the alleviation of Al(3+) stress. PMID:20590986

  18. Following isotopes in pulse-chase enriched aspen seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, C. E.; Wasylishen, R. E.; Landhäusser, S.; Quideau, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    One method to quantitatively trace biogeochemical fluxes through ecosystems, such as organic matter decomposition, is to use plant material enriched with stable isotopes. However, as plant macromolecules are known to vary in their rate of formation and decomposition, both the enrichment levels and the location of enrichment within the plant material should be characterized prior to decomposition and tracing studies. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a common tree species with a diverse organic matter chemical structure found in the western Canadian boreal forest. This study used a multi pulse and multi chase enrichment of stable isotopes (15N and 13C) on aspen seedlings to determine the seedling enrichment, isotope movement among plant tissues and translocation of isotopes within plant macromolecules e.g., carbohydrates and lignin. As expected, all tissues experienced increased enrichment with multiple pulses. An initial enrichment with 13C was observed in the leaves followed by translocation to the stems and roots while the 15N moved upward from the roots to leaves. The macromolecular chemistry of the organic carbon was further characterized using 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After the initial two hour chase period enrichment of the O-alkyl type (carbohydrate) carbon within the leaves was identified, followed by redistribution to more complex carbon compounds after the one week chase period. Root and stem tissues did not show the same pattern. Rather, changes in 13C enrichment were observed in shifting ethyl and methyl alkyl (lipid) carbon peak intensities for the stem samples while roots did not preferentially allocate 13C to a specific macromolecule. These results confirm that stable isotope enrichment of plants was non-uniform across macromolecules and tissue types. Enrichment of aspen seedlings was therefore dependant on the pulse-chase sequence used.

  19. Growth Interactions during Bacterial Colonization of Seedling Rootlets

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, P.; Ercolani, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    Rootlet elongation and bacterial growth on rootlets were determined after inoculation of cucumber and spinach seedlings with Pseudomonas strains differing in production of siderophores and HCN. Siderophore producers grew more profusely than nonproducers on both species and promoted rootlet elongation on cucumber. Coinoculation of siderophore producers and nonproducers resulted in restricted growth of the latter. The total populations of nonproducers of HCN in the presence of HCN producers were not decreased, but the tenacity of their association with the rootlet surface was altered. PMID:11282653

  20. Triterpene constituents from the seedling of Aronia melanocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yu; X. Li; C.-C. Zhao; J. Xu; P. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Two new triterpene saponins, 16-O-acetyl-21-O-angeloyltheasapogenol A 3-O-[?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)][?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl (1 ? 3)]-?-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid (1) and 16,28-O-diacetyl-21-O-tigloyltheasapogenol A 3-O-[?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)][?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 2)-?-l-arabinopyranosyl (1 ? 3)]-?-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid (2), together with four known triterpenenes, have been isolated from the dried seedling of Aronia melanocarpa, and their structures established by spectroscopic and chemical evidence.

  1. Water transfer via ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae to conifer seedlings.

    PubMed

    Plamboeck, Agneta H; Dawson, Todd E; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M; North, Malcolm; Bruns, Thomas D; Querejeta, José Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about water transfer via mycorrhizal hyphae to plants, despite its potential importance in seedling establishment and plant community development, especially in arid environments. Therefore, this process was investigated in the study reported in this paper in laboratory-based tripartite mesocosms containing the shrub Arctostaphylos viscida (manzanita) and young seedlings of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The objectives were to determine whether water could be transported through mycorrhizal symbionts shared by establishing conifers and A. viscida and to compare the results obtained using two tracers: the stable isotope deuterium and the dye lucifer yellow carbohydrazide. Water containing the tracers was added to the central compartment containing single manzanita shrubs. The fungal hyphae were then collected as well as plant roots from coniferous seedlings in the other two compartments to determine whether water was transferred via fungal hyphae. In addition, the length of the hyphae and degree of mycorrhizal colonisation were determined. Internal transcribed spacer-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis was used to identify the fungal species involved in dye (water) transfer. Results of the stable isotope analysis showed that water is transferred via mycorrhizal hyphae, but isotopically labelled water was only detected in Douglas-fir roots, not in sugar pine roots. In contrast, the fluorescent dye was transported via mycorrhizal hyphae to both Douglas-fir and sugar pine seedlings. Only 1 of 15 fungal morphotypes (identified as Atheliaceae) growing in the mesocosms transferred the dye. Differences were detected in the water transfer patterns indicated by the deuterium and fluorescent dye tracers, suggesting that the two labels are transported by different mechanisms in the same hyphae and/or that different fungal taxa transfer them via different routes to host plants. We conclude that both tracers can provide information on resource transfer between fungi and plants, but we cannot be sure that the dye transfer data provide accurate indications of water transfer rates and patterns. The isotopic tracer provides more direct indications of water movement and is therefore more suitable than the dye for studying water relations of plants and their associated mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:17333298

  2. Colonization with Hebeloma crustuliniforme increases water conductance and limits shoot sodium uptake in white spruce ( Picea glauca ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tawfik M. Muhsin; Janusz J. Zwiazek

    2002-01-01

    White spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and treated with 25 mM NaCl to examine the effects of salinized soil and mycorrhizae on root hydraulic conductance and growth. Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly greater shoot and root dry weights, number of lateral branches and chlorophyll content than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Salt treatment reduced seedling growth in both

  3. Proline in relation to free radical production in seedlings of Brassica juncea raised under sodium chloride stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alia; P. Pardha Saradhi; Prasanna Mohanty

    1993-01-01

    The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher in cotyledons from NaCl-raised Brassica juncea seedlings than in control seedlings. Light accelerated the MDA-producing capacity of thylakoids isolated from both control and treated seedlings. When exposed to strong white light (920 µmol photons m-2 s-1) the thylakoids from NaCl seedlings produced nearly 5 times more MDA than control thylakoids. In the cotyledons

  4. Seedling size influences relationships of shade tolerance with carbohydrate-storage patterns in a temperate rainforest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. LUSK; F. I. PIPER

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1. Carbohydrate storage has been attributed an important role in the ability to tolerate shade, yet empirical support for this idea has been patchy. We asked if carbohydrate- storage patterns of seedling evergreens in low light are correlated with variation in shade tolerance, and how these patterns change with seedling size. 2. We measured biomass distribution and total non-structural

  5. Evolution under domestication: contrasting functional morphology of seedlings in domesticated cassava and its closest wild relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoît Pujol; Gilda Mühlen; Nancy Garwood; Yael Horoszowski; Emmanuel J. P. Douzery; Doyle McKey

    2005-01-01

    Summary • Although cassava ( Manihot esculenta ssp. esculenta ) is asexually propagated, farmers incorporate plants from seedlings into planting stocks. These products of sex are exposed to selection, which in agricultural environments should favour rapid growth. •T o examine whether seedling morphology has evolved under domestication, we compared domesticated cassava, its wild progenitor ( M. esculenta ssp. flabellifolia )

  6. Cotton Seedling Injury and Recovery from Wind Blown Sand Abrasion: I. Duration of Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of...

  7. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. PMID:25401150

  8. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  9. The effect of mollusc grazing on seedling recruitment in artificially created grassland gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Hanley; M. Fenner; P. J. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments conducted in spring and autumn 1992 examined the effect of mollusc grazing on seedling regeneration from natural grassland seedbanks by creating artificial gaps in plots in a grassland sward. Molluscs were excluded from half the gaps by application of molluscicide. Mollusc grazing in both the spring and autumn experiment significantly reduced seedling recruitment, though the intensity of grazing

  10. Genetic dissection of height in maritime pine seedlings raised under accelerated growth conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Plomion; C.-E. Durel; D. M. O'Malley

    1996-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to investigate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits related to height growth on 126 F2 seedlings of maritime pine (Pinuspinaster Ait). The haploid megagametophyte was used to determine the maternal genotype of each F2 individual. The seedlings were raised for 2 years in a greenhouse under accelerated growth conditions consisting of intense fertilization

  11. ECOGRAPHY 25: 481487, 2002 Mammalian predator scent, vegetation cover and tree seedling

    E-print Network

    by meadow voles Jyrki Pusenius and Richard S. Ostfeld Pusenius, J. and Ostfeld, R. S. 2002. Mammalian predator scent, vegetation cover and tree seedling predation by meadow voles. ­ Ecography 25: 481 these hypotheses by comparing tree seedling predation by meadow voles within large outdoor enclosures treated

  12. OIKOS 98: 385392, 2002 Herbivory on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna

    E-print Network

    OIKOS 98: 385­392, 2002 Herbivory on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna Margaret T. Shaw on Acacia seedlings in an East African savanna. ­ Oikos 98: 385­392. Trees critically affect the functioning of savanna ecosystems through their effects on nutrient cycling, water availability, and patterns of space

  13. Effects of the period of glyphosate treatment on oak seedlings: phenological and physiotogical aspects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of the period of glyphosate treatment on oak seedlings: phenological and physiotogical of oak regenerations. Glyphosate (N phosphonomethylglycine) enables good control when applied in winter to green brambles (Frochot and Wehrlen, 1983). However, the tolerance of oak seedlings to the glyphosate

  14. Contribution of cotyledons to seedling dry weight and development in Medicago falcata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongxiang Zhang; Yi Wu; Cory Matthew; Daowei Zhou; Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments are reported, two of which involved cotyledon excision, to elucidate seedling developmental strategy of a North China rangeland legume, Medicago falcata. Early loss of cotyledons was fatal, with data indicating a possible hormonal?type signal from cotyledons to initiate first leaf expansion. Cotyledons made a substantive photosynthetic contribution for some 28 days from imbibition, but high seedling relative growth

  15. Field tests of denatonium benzoate to reduce seedling damage by pocket gophers ( Thomomys talpoides Rich.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary W. Witmer; Michael J. Pipas; John C. Bucher

    1998-01-01

    The repellency of a bitter compound, denatonium benzoate, to reduce pocket gopher damage to conifer seedlings was tested in two independent field trials in Oregon and Idaho. In the Oregon trial (1992 to 1993), treatments included a denatonium benzoate tablet placed in-ground with the seedling roots; a tablet plus denatonium benzoate foliar spray applied to both roots and foliage; and

  16. Nitrate uptake and utilization is modulated by exogenous ?-aminobutyric acid in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose M. Barbosa; Narendra K. Singh; Joe H. Cherry; Robert D. Locy

    2010-01-01

    Exogenously applied GABA modulates root growth by inhibition of root elongation when seedlings were grown in vitro on full-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts, but root elongation was stimulated when seedlings were grown on 1\\/8 strength MS salts. When the concentration of single ions in MS salts was individually varied, the control of growth between inhibition and stimulation was found

  17. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant–bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock. This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic bacteria, the seedlings grow in pulverized rock for at least a

  18. Diversity and abundance of insect herbivores foraging on seedlings in a rainforest in Guyana

    E-print Network

    Basset, Yves

    Diversity and abundance of insect herbivores foraging on seedlings in a rainforest in Guyana Y V E foraging on 10 000 tagged seedlings representing ®ve species of common rainforest trees were surveyed densities were among the lowest densities reported in tropical rainforests to date: 2.4 individuals per

  19. Negative Associations Between Seedlings and Adult Plants In Two Alpine Plant Communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant species’ requirements at seed and seedling stages are critical in determining their distributions. Proximity to adult plants, as well as the presence of litter or rocks on the soil surface can influence seedling success. By comparing the microsite characteristics of points occupied by naturall...

  20. Seedling growth of allopolyploids from Lolium multiflorum L. x Festuca arundinacea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dijkstra; A. L. F. DE VOS

    1975-01-01

    Seedlings of allopolyploid families from Lolium multiflorum x Festuca arundinacea were compared with varieties of the two parental species. They were investigated at different stages in a heated and an unheated greenhouse and in the field. Early seedling growth in the hybrid families in most cases, proved to be significantly better than in the two Festuca arundinacea standard varieties. One

  1. Effects of slug herbivory on the seedling establishment of two montane Asteraceae species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Scheidel; Helge Bruelheide

    2005-01-01

    Seedling establishment as the life stage transition most sensitive to herbivory might be impossible even if the herbivory losses suffered by adult plants of the same species are tolerable. We tested the hypothesis that herbivory impedes seedling establishment of two montane Asteraceae species on their lower altitudinal distribution border.In a submontane meadow in the Harz Mountains, Germany, the montane grassland

  2. A TEST OF MUTUAL AID IN COMMON MYCORRHIZAL NETWORKS: ESTABLISHED VEGETATION NEGATES BENEFIT IN SEEDLINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-M. Kytöviita; M. Vestberg; J. Tuomi

    2003-01-01

    By acquiring symbiosis from the mycelium supported by neighboring plants, seedlings become connected to a common mycorrhizal network (CMN). Although the main- tenance of a CMN may lead to mutual benefit among the neighboring plants, the benefits may be unequally distributed if the plants differ in their sink strength for the shared resources in the CMN. Hence, seedlings may not

  3. Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-treeline ecotone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Germino; William K. Smith; A. Catherine Resor

    2002-01-01

    The importance of seedling establishment to the position ofalpine-treeline is recognized, yet little is known about factorsaffecting the survival of seedlings of treeline conifers during their initialyears of growth and establishment. This establishment period may have thegreatest mortality of all life stages until death of mature trees by disease orfire. Spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and survival ofseedlings

  4. Energy biomass tree seedling production study. Fuels from woody biomass. Progress report, September 1978-January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, K.R.

    1980-03-01

    The research to date has centered around the establishment of baseline growing conditions for a number of species of tree seedlings, primarily deciduous hardwoods. As these baseline conditions were established for each specie, the shoot and root environments were manipulated in an attempt to establish techniques to increase seedling growth and reduce production times. Seedlings were outplanted in an attempt to establish baseline survival rates for seedlings grown in totally controlled environments. Studies to determine the optimum container for tree seedling production have been run and will continue as other containers are identified and made available. The most significant of the research results has been in the maximization of seedling growth. Seedling production times have been decreased in some species by as much as 50% under the baseline production times. Controlled environment production techniques provide for plant densities as high as 144 seedlings per square foot of growing space. Investigations of growing media indicate a significant species specific responses. Preliminary results of outplanting indicate survival rates as high as 90% plus.

  5. Fall fertilization enhanced nitrogen storage and translocation in Larix olgensis seedlings

    E-print Network

    loading of deciduous forest nursery seedlings is of special interest because of foliage abscission use efficiency Á Deciduous forest seedling Á Nitrogen storage Á Nutrient translocation Introduction and varied translocation patterns. For non-deciduous seed- lings in the nursery, fall fertilization typically

  6. Needle mottle in eastern white pine seedlings: a selective parameter for air pollution sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Dochinger; S. L. Arner

    1978-01-01

    Positive correlations were established between morphological characteristics in eastern white pine seedlings and subsequent tolerance or sensitivity to air pollution 5 and 7 years after outplanting in Ohio plantations. Of 11 seedling variables, needle mottling was an accurate indicator of sensitivity or tolerance to air pollution. This characteristic, which may be genetically controlled, should allow for the detection and removal

  7. Weed Technology 2014 28:408417 Do Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) Seedling Emergence Patterns

    E-print Network

    Williams, Martin M. II

    Weed Technology 2014 28:408­417 Do Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) Seedling Emergence Patterns that seed sample within maternal family explained 48% of total variation in the percentage of viable, buried seeds that produced seedlings. Differences within, rather than among, maternal families also accounted

  8. Biological control of seedling blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum with beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Dal Bello; C. I. Mónaco; M. R. Simón

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is associated with the cereal damping-off complex which reduces germination, seedling stand and yield. Fifty-two bacterial strains and six Trichoderma spp. isolated from the wheat rhizosphere were evaluated for biocontrol of seedling blight of wheat caused by F. graminearum. Their potential as biocontrol agents was tested in vitro and in the greenhouse. Isolates varied in their ability to

  9. Variation among black walnut seedling families in resistance to competition and allelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Rink; J. W. VAN SAMBEEK

    1985-01-01

    Summary Of three environmental variables affecting black walnut seedling establishment, moisture stress overshadowed the effects of fescue leachate and fertilizer. Interactions between moisture stress and family and between fescue leachate and moisture stress for both seedling height and dry weight suggested that selection for tolerance to moisture stress is possible, whereas progress from selecting for resistance to fescue leachate would

  10. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on damping-off disease in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. TABIN; A. ARUNACHALAM; K. SHRIVASTAVA; K. ARUNACHALAM

    Damping-off disease of Aquilaria agallocha seedlings caused by the pathogenic fungus (Pythium aphanidermatum) results in poor regeneration under natural conditions and in the nursery. In the present study, Glomus fasciculatum, an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus was examined for its ability to reduce the rotting incidence of Aquilaria seedlings. Dual inoculations (AM+pathogen) restricted the progression of the pathogen in the root

  11. Phytotoxicity of American beech leaf leachate to sugar maple seedlings in a greenhouse experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth N. Hane; Steven P. Hamburg; Adelia L. Barber; Jennifer A. Plaut

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to reexamine the factors that affect codominance of American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the potential phytotoxic ef- fects of American beech leaf leachate on sugar maple seedlings. We utilized an experimental protocol that addressed phytotoxic, nutrient, and pH effects by watering seedlings with seven

  12. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  13. Growth dynamics and mycorrhizas of Norway spruce ( Picea abies ) seedlings in relation to boron supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjoriitta Möttönen; Tarja Lehto; Pedro J. Aphalo

    2001-01-01

    The effects of three boron levels on the growth dynamics and ectomycorrhizas of seedlings of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] were studied in a growth room experiment. The seedlings were grown in forest humus mixed with quartz sand for 16 weeks. The B treatment was applied in the nutrient solution. Stem height, dry weight, number of root tips, mycorrhizas

  14. Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with damping-off and crown rot of rooibos seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia species were reported to be an important component of the complex involved in damping-off of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) seedlings and cause severe crown rot of seedlings in nurseries. However, no information is available on the anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia associated with d...

  15. Austral Ecology (2004) 29, 383390 Seed mass and seedling establishment after fire in

    E-print Network

    Moles, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Austral Ecology (2004) 29, 383­390 Seed mass and seedling establishment after fire in Ku@bio.mq.edu.au) Abstract Relationships between seed mass and several aspects of plant regeneration ecology were a significant positive relationship between seed mass and time to seedling emergence (P

  16. What do seedlings die from and what are the implications for evolution of seed size?

    E-print Network

    Moles, Angela

    What do seedlings die from and what are the implications for evolution of seed size? Angela T@bio.mq.edu.au). Plants face a fundamental trade-off between producing many small seeds, each with a low probability of successfully establishing as a seedling and producing fewer, better provisioned seeds with higher establishment

  17. Seed and seedling ecology research as the foundation for enhancing restoration outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of restoration in arid and semiarid rangelands is severely limited by deficiencies in our understanding of seedling ecology and seedling recruitment. This is significant because rangelands provide sustenance for roughly one-third of the global population, and evolving challenges such as...

  18. Salt stress limitation of seedling recruitment in a salt marsh plant community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W. Shumway; Mark D. Bertness

    1992-01-01

    Seedling recruitment in salt marsh plant communities is generally precluded in dense vegetation by competition from adults, but is also relatively rare in disturbance-generated bare space. We examined the constraints on seedling recruitment in New England salt marsh bare patches. Under typical bare patch conditions seed germination is severely limited by high substrate salinities. We examined the germination requirements of

  19. EFFECTS OF HAYSCENTED FERN DENSITY AND LIGHT ON WHITE ASH SEEDLING GROWTH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy E. Hippensteel

    Communities of hayscented ferns ( Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore 1 are present in many forested areas of Pennsylvania. These ferns can reduce the number and height growth of desirable tree seedlings. A study was conducted to determine the effects of fern frond density on the stem growth and leaf development of bare- root planted white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) seedlings.

  20. Photosynthesis and leaf longevity in alder, birch and ash seedlings grown under different nitrogen levels

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Photosynthesis and leaf longevity in alder, birch and ash seedlings grown under different nitrogen photosynthetic rates and leaf longevity of deciduous broad-leaved tree seedlings in relation to the anatomical regulated strictly with an artificially illumi- nated chamber (Koike, 1987). Leaf temperature was kept

  1. Ontogenetic changes in leaf development and photosyn-thesis of Prunus serotina seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ontogenetic changes in leaf development and photosyn- thesis of Prunus serotina seedlings S- story or in partially cut stands. Leaf age and developmental stage are important determinants of many is a process that influences survival or death of young seedlings. Relationships between plant age, leaf age

  2. Seed Dispersal and Seedling Establishment of Pinon and Juniper Species within the Pinon-Juniper Woodland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene W. Schupp; Stephen B. Vander Wall

    Understanding the prehistoric and historic dynamics of pinon-juniper woodland requires knowledge of the seed dispersal mechanisms and seedling establishment requirements of the tree species. Here, the types and effectiven-ess of the different seed dispersers and the environmental requirements for seedling estab­ lishment are compared and contrasted for the various pinon and juniper species within the woodlands. The importance of long­

  3. FOLIAR N RESPONSE OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS TO ELEVATED CO2 AND O3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between needle N status and exposure to combined CO2 and O3 stresses were studied in Pinus ponderosa seedlings. The seedlings were grown for three years (April 1998 through March 2001) in outdoor chambers in native soils from eastern Oregon, and exposed to ambient ...

  4. Effects of seed-caching desert rodents on seedling survival of Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to consuming seeds, many small mammals also cache seeds in shallowly buried scatterhoards, and seeds of many plant species germinate and establish aggregated clusters of seedlings from these caches. Scatterhoards made by desert heteromyid rodents provide the primary source of seedling re...

  5. Phytotoxicity and Transport of Gallium (Ga) in Rice Seedlings for 2-Day of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Feng, Xing-Hui; Feng, Yu-Xi

    2015-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings to investigate the accumulation and phytotoxicity of gallium nitrate. A linear decrease in relative growth rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency was observed in rice seedlings with increasing Ga concentrations. However, inhibition of these selected parameters was noted different at different Ga treatments. Relative growth rate was more sensitive towards Ga treatments. Phyto-transport of Ga was apparent, but recovery of Ga in different parts of rice seedlings varied significantly: roots were dominant site for Ga accumulation. The total accumulation rates of Ga were positively correlated to Ga concentrations. Results indicated that the addition of Ga did not cause deleterious effects on plant physiological functions over a 2-day exposure period. Large amounts of Ga were removed from the hydroponic solution through rice seedlings. Accumulation of Ga in plant tissues resulted in growth inhibition of rice seedlings. PMID:25634322

  6. Effects of ferulic acid, an allelopathic compound, on leaf expansion of cucumber seedlings grown in nutrient culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Udo Blum; Barry R. Dalton

    1985-01-01

    Cucumber seeds and seedlings at various ages (7–19 days old) were treated with a single treatment or multiple treatments (at 2-day intervals) of ferulic acid in nutrient culture. Ferulic acid treatments of cucumber seeds during stages of germination and radicle growth did not significantly reduce subsequent seedling growth. Ferulic acid treatments to seedlings reduced leaf area, leaf expansion, and dry

  7. Auxin efflux facilitator and auxin dynamism responsible for the gravity-regulated development of peg in cucumber seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki Takahashi; Chiaki Watanabe; Nobuharu Fujii; Yutaka Miyazawa

    2010-01-01

    Cucumber seedlings develop a protuberance, peg, by which seed coats are pulled out just af-ter germination. The peg is usually formed on the lower side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root of the seedlings grown in a horizontal position. Our previous spaceflight experiment showed that unilateral positioning of a peg in cucumber seedlings occurred due to its suppression

  8. Penicillium frequentans isolated from Picea glehnii seedling roots as a possible biological control agent against damping-off

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiko Yamaji; Yukiharu Fukushi; Yasuyuki Hashidoko; Satoshi Tahara

    2005-01-01

    Picea glehnii seedlings are affected by damping-off fungi in nurseries. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate fungi grown in the seedling rhizosphere in forest soil of P. glehnii, (2) to select fungi that produce antifungal compounds against Pythium vexans, and (3) to examine whether or not selected fungi can protect seedlings from P. vexans. Penicillium frequentans from

  9. Distribution pattern of radiocalcium (Ca) and radiosulphur (S) in citrus seedlings under normal and deficient conditions of different micronutrient elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ved Parkash; B. V. Subbiah

    1965-01-01

    Fourty days old seedlings of Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri L.) were subjected to copper, zinc, iron, manganese and boron deficiencies in solution cultures. The autoradiographic technique was adopted for investigating the pattern of absorption and distribution of Ca and S3 in the citrus seedlings under imbalance nutritional conditions. The radioactive material was fed when the seedlings exhibited characterstic symptoms of

  10. Growth of dipterocarp seedlings in artificial gaps: An experiment in a logged-over rainforest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Tuomela; Jussi Kuusipalo; Lauri Vesa; Koerdi Nuryanto; A. P. S. Sagala; Göran Ådjers

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the feasibility of assisted natural regeneration of dipterocarp rainforest trees through gap simulation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) opening of a gap enhances the rate of growth of dipterocarp seedlings; (2) growth of dipterocarp seedlings depends on gap size, being fastest in relatively small openings; and (3) growth of dipterocarp seedlings depends

  11. New Diseases and EPidemics11L First Report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on Pine Seedlings in South Africa

    E-print Network

    New Diseases and EPidemics11L First Report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on Pine Seedlings subglurinans f. sp. pini on pine seedlings in South Africa. Plant Dis. 78:309-312. A study of fungi responsible report of F. s. pini causing root disease of pine seedlings and is also the first record of the fungus

  12. Identification of Calonectria colhounii Associated with Basal Stem Rot on Blueberry Seedlings Imported from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Nak Beom; Kim, Wan Gyu; Park, Myung Soo; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Heo, Noh-Youl

    2010-01-01

    Basal stem rot symptoms were found on blueberry seedlings imported from the United States of America in 2008. The fungus obtained from the diseased seedlings was identified as Calonectria colhounii based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The consignments of the blueberry seedlings infected with C. colhounii were destroyed to prevent introduction of the fungus to Korea. PMID:23956678

  13. Survival of tree seedlings on different species of decaying wood maintains tree distribution in Michigan hemlock-hardwood forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Marx; Michael B. Walters

    Summary 1. Seedlings of some tree species are strongly associated with decaying wood in the germination or establishment period. Despite recognition of this pattern in forests around the world, few studies have compared the ability of different species of decaying wood to support seedlings. 2. We measured the abundance, survival, and age distribution of seedlings of Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock),

  14. Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a “keystone” tree species ( Quercus douglasii ): the interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Rice; D. R. Gordon; J. L. Hardison; J. M. Welker

    1993-01-01

    Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and survival. Between-population variation was examined for seedlings grown from acorns collected from a

  15. Cavitation, stomatal conductance, and leaf dieback in seedlings of two co-occurring Mediterranean shrubs during an intense drought

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Vilagrosa; J. Bellot; V. R. Vallejo; E. Gil-Pelegrin

    2003-01-01

    Seedling shrubs in the Mediterranean semi-arid climate are subjected to intense droughts during summer. Thus, seedlings often surpass their limits of tolerance to water stress, resulting in the loss of hydraulic conductivity due to xylem cavitation. The response in terms of stomatal conductance, vulner- ability to cavitation, leaf dieback, and survival were analysed in two co-occurring seedlings of mastic tree

  16. Seedling herbivory by slugs in a willow hybrid system: developmental changes in damage, chemical defense, and plant performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Fritz; Cris G. Hochwender; Debra A. Lewkiewicz; Sara Bothwell; Colin M. Orians

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated feeding preference and damage by the slug, Arion subfuscus, on seedlings of two willow species, Salix sericea and S. eriocephala, and their F1 interspecific hybrids. Trays of seedlings were placed in the field and excised leaves were presented to slugs in choice tests. Slugs preferred feeding on and caused the most damage to S. eriocephala seedlings. S. sericea

  17. Community composition of soilborne pathogens in an old field: Implications for Prunus serotina seedling survival and succession

    E-print Network

    Packer, Alissa A.

    Tagged cherry seedlings beneath a mature cherry tree (above). Seedlings showed higher mortality from composition in the recently abandoned agricultural field. Cherry frequently colonizes early during the course the environmental conditions characteristic of early successional communities may be allowing cherry seedlings

  18. Cryopreservation affects ROS-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Ren, Li; Zhang, Jie; Reed, Barbara M; Zhang, Di; Shen, Xiao-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Plant recovery status after cryopreservation by vitrification had a negative relationship to the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated for 48 h or 72 h with different survival tolerances were examined at five steps of cryopreservation, to determine the role of ROS (O2(-), H2O2 and OH) and antioxidant systems (SOD, POD, CAT, AsA and GSH) in cryo-injury. In addition, the effects of the steps on membrane lipid peroxidation were studied using malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator. The results indicated that H2O2-induced oxidative stress at the steps of dehydration and rapid warming was the main cause of cryo-injury of 48-h seedlings (high survival rate) and 72-h seedlings (no survival). The H2O2 was mainly generated in cotyledons, shoot tips and roots of seedlings as indicated by Amplex Red staining. Low survival of 72-h seedlings was associated with severe membrane lipid peroxidation, which was caused by increased OH generation activity and decreased SOD activity. The antioxidant-related gene expression by qRT-PCR and physiological assays suggested that the antioxidant system of 48-h seedlings were activated by ROS, and they mounted a defense against oxidative stress. A high level of ROS led to the weakening of the antioxidant system of 72-h seedlings. Correlation analysis indicated that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities contributed to the high survival rate of 48-h seedlings, which could reflect by cryopreservation of antioxidant mutant seedlings. This model system indicated that elevated CAT activity and AsA content were determinants of cryogenic stress tolerance, whose manipulation could improve the recovery of seedlings after cryopreservation. PMID:25489814

  19. Abscisic acid and hypoxic induction of anoxia tolerance in roots of lettuce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, H

    2000-11-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings were subjected to anoxic stress after ABA-pretreatment (ABA-PT) or hypoxic-pretreatment (H-PT). The H-PT increased the survivability of the anoxia in roots of the seedlings by 5.2-fold compared to that of non-pretreated (N-PT) seedlings. ABA-PT also increased the survivability at concentrations greater than 1 microM, and the survivability increased with increasing ABA doses. At 100 microM ABA, the survivability was 4.5-fold greater than that of N-PT seedlings. During pretreatment periods, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) activity in the roots became 3.1- and 3.4-fold greater than that of N-PT seedlings following 100 microM ABA-PT and H-PT seedlings, respectively. After the onset of anoxic stress, ADH activities in all roots increased, but the activities in H-PT and ABA-PT roots remained much greater than that in N-PT roots, and the average ethanol production rate for the initial 6 h was 5.3, 4.0 and 1.4 micromol g(-1) FW h(-1) for H-PT, ABA-PT and N-PT roots, respectively. Roots of the seedlings lost ATP rapidly under anoxic stress; however, the decrease in ATP was much slower in the ABA-PT and H-PT seedlings than in the N-PT seedlings. These results suggest that the ABA-PT and H-PT may maintain ATP levels due to activation of ethanolic fermentation, which may be one of the causes of the increasing anoxia tolerance in the seedling roots. Measurement of endogenous ABA levels, however, showed that ABA levels did not increase during the H-PT, suggesting that the H-PT does not increase tolerance through an increase in ABA levels. PMID:11113172

  20. Interannual variation in rainfall, drought stress and seedling mortality may mediate monodominance in tropical flooded forests.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    Flood tolerance is commonly regarded as the main factor explaining low diversity and monodominance in tropical swamps. In this study we examined seedling mortality in relation to seasonality, i.e., flooding versus drought, of the dominant tree species (Prioria copaifera), and three associated species (Pterocarpus officinalis, Carapa guianensis and Pentaclethra macroloba), in seasonally flooded forests (SFF) in Darien, Panama. Seedling mortality differed among species, years and seasons. Prioria seedlings experienced the lowest overall mortality, and after 3 years many more Prioria seedlings remained alive than those of any of the associated species. In general, within species, larger seedlings had greater survival. Seed size, which can vary by close to 2 orders of magnitude in Prioria, had a confounding effect with that of topography. Large-seeded Prioria seedlings experienced 1.5 times greater mortality than small-seeded seedlings, as large-seeded Prioria seedlings were more likely to be located in depressions. This finding suggests that seed size, plant size and topography are important in understanding SFF regeneration. For all species, seedling mortality was consistently greater during the dry season than during flooding. For Prioria, dry season seedling mortality was correlated with drought stress, that is, high mortality during the long El Niño dry season of 1998 and the normal dry season of 2000, but very low dry season mortality during the mild dry season of 1999. Prioria's ability to dominate in seasonally flooded forest of Central America is partly explained by its low drought-related mortality in comparison to associated species. PMID:17690914

  1. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Redondo; Soares, Anielca Nascimento; Bombo, Aline Bertolosi; Fidelis, Alessandra; Novembre, Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho; da Glória, Beatriz Appezzato

    2012-03-01

    Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30 degrees C and 20-30 degrees C) and light (presence/ absence), and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30 degrees C in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%), independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%). After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovate-elliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics. PMID:22458242

  2. Transformation of natural and synthetic estrogens by maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Card, Marcella L; Schnoor, Jerald L; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2013-05-21

    In agricultural fields, crop plants may transform or degrade hormonally active compounds in manure used as fertilizer and thereby affect the overall endocrine-disrupting activity of agricultural runoff. This study examined the transformation of two natural steroid estrogens [17?-estradiol (17?-E2) and estrone (E1)] and two synthetic estrogen mimics [zeranol (?-ZAL) and zearalanone (ZAN)] by maize seedlings. Growing whole maize seedlings in hydroponic solutions of target estrogens resulted in both oxidative (i.e., 17?-E2 to E1 and ?-ZAL to ZAN) and reductive (i.e., E1 to 17?-E2 and ZAN to ?-ZAL) transformations. Although all four estrogens accumulated in maize roots as both parents and products, the shoots contained only 17?-E2 and ?-ZAL, regardless of whether they were the parent or the product. Crude plant enzyme extracts led to substantial reductive transformations but created only trace amounts of oxidation products. In contrast, only oxidative transformations occurred in solutions exposed to plant-associated microbes. Thus, the combined effects of plant enzymes and plant-associated microbes account for the reversible transformations observed with whole plants. These effects are expected to generally decrease the overall estrogenicity of runoff from manure-fertilized fields. PMID:23488817

  3. Enrichment and Analysis of Intact Phosphoproteins in Arabidopsis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Uma K.; Ross, Andrew R. S.; Krochko, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation regulates diverse cellular functions and plays a key role in the early development of plants. To complement and expand upon previous investigations of protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis seedlings we used an alternative approach that combines protein extraction under non-denaturing conditions with immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment of intact phosphoproteins in Rubisco-depleted extracts, followed by identification using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of selected gel spots identified 144 phosphorylated peptides and residues, of which only18 phosphopeptides and 8 phosphosites were found in the PhosPhAt 4.0 and P3DB Arabidopsis thaliana phosphorylation site databases. More than half of the 82 identified phosphoproteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis/respiration or oxidative stress response mechanisms. Enrichment of intact phosphoproteins prior to 2-DE and LC-MS/MS appears to enhance detection of phosphorylated threonine and tyrosine residues compared with methods that utilize peptide-level enrichment, suggesting that the two approaches are somewhat complementary in terms of phosphorylation site coverage. Comparing results for young seedlings with those obtained previously for mature Arabidopsis leaves identified five proteins that are differentially phosphorylated in these tissues, demonstrating the potential of this technique for investigating the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during plant development. PMID:26158488

  4. Foliar soluble proline accumulation in sulfur dioxide-stressed seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Hordeum vulgare with 80 to 90% expanded first leaves were fumigated (F) with 1.0 to 10.0 ppM sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 0.25 to 4.00 h within a chamber. Non-fumigated (NF) seedlings (controls) were kept within a greenhouse. Leaves from both F and NF plants were harvested 0 to 168 h after fumigation. Visibly injured F leaves always contained more SP than did NF leaves. Proline within necrotic areas of F leaves was 15 to 30 times > that within NF leaves, while SP of non-necrotic areas of F leaves increased 1.5 to 18-fold above that in corresponding areas of NF leaves. Accumulation of SP occurred prior to the appearance of injury in those plants grown under short daylength, 18 to 21/sup 0/C, high relative humidity (winter greenhouse). In contrast, seedlings raised under long day-length, 21 to 32/sup 0/C, low relative humidity (summer greenhouse) accumulated SP following fumigation only if SO/sub 2/-induced visible foliar injury. These results suggest that foliar, SP accumulation within SO/sub 2/-stressed plants does not result from either proteolysis or synthesis from glutamate.

  5. Protective Effect of Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on Endotoxin-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice Associated with Suppressed Local Expression of Molecules in the Signaling Pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, interferon-?, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-?B, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  6. Protective effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira on endotoxin-induced intestinal injury in mice associated with suppressed local expression of molecules in the signaling pathways of TLR4 and NLRP3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Chien-Chun; Chen, Ke-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Endotoxin is a potent microbial mediator implicated in sepsis. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira (CO) of the linalool chemotype on endotoxin-injected mice. Mice were administered CO or vehicle by gavage before endotoxin injection and were killed 12 h after injection. Neither growth nor the organ weight or tissue weight to body weight ratio was affected by CO treatment. CO significantly lowered peripheral levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-18, interferon-?, and nitric oxide and inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88), myeloid differentiation factor 2, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, and Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). CO also inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-?B, inhibited the activity of caspase-1 in small intestine, and ameliorated intestinal edema. Our data provide strong evidence for a protective effect of CO of the linalool chemotype in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response in close association with suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in intestine. PMID:25794175

  7. Ethanolamide Oxylipins of Linolenic Acid Can Negatively Regulate Arabidopsis Seedling Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Keereetaweep, Jantana; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Chapman, Kent D.

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are fatty-acid derivatives with potent biological activities in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms. Polyunsaturated NAEs are among the most abundant NAE types in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, and they can be metabolized by either fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or by lipoxygenase (LOX) to low levels during seedling establishment. Here, we identify and quantify endogenous oxylipin metabolites of N-linolenoylethanolamine (NAE 18:3) in Arabidopsis seedlings and show that their levels were higher in faah knockout seedlings. Quantification of oxylipin metabolites in lox mutants demonstrated altered partitioning of NAE 18:3 into 9- or 13-LOX pathways, and this was especially exaggerated when exogenous NAE was added to seedlings. When maintained at micromolar concentrations, NAE 18:3 specifically induced cotyledon bleaching of light-grown seedlings within a restricted stage of development. Comprehensive oxylipin profiling together with genetic and pharmacological interference with LOX activity suggested that both 9-hydroxy and 13-hydroxy linolenoylethanolamides, but not corresponding free fatty-acid metabolites, contributed to the reversible disruption of thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts of seedling cotyledons. We suggest that NAE oxylipins of linolenic acid represent a newly identified, endogenous set of bioactive compounds that may act in opposition to progression of normal seedling development and must be depleted for successful establishment. PMID:24151297

  8. Mycorrhizal networks counteract competitive effects of canopy trees on seedling survival.

    PubMed

    Booth, Michael G; Hoeksema, Jason D

    2010-08-01

    The dynamics of forest ecosystems depend largely on the survival of seedlings in their understories, but seedling survival is known to be limited by preemption of light and soil resources by overstory trees. It has been hypothesized that "common mycorrhizal networks," wherein roots of seedlings are linked to overstory trees by symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, offset some or all of the negative effects of trees on seedlings. Here we report the results of an unambiguous experimental test of this hypothesis in a monodominant Pinus radiata forest. We also tested the hypothesis that adaptive differentiation among plant populations causes local plant genotypes to respond more positively to mycorrhizal networks than nonlocal plant genotypes. Our results demonstrate large positive effects of overstory mycorrhizal networks on seedling survival, along with simultaneous negative effects of tree roots, regardless of whether plant genotypes were locally derived. Physiological and leaf-chemistry measurements suggest that seedlings connected to common mycorrhizal networks benefited from increased access to soil water. The similar magnitude of the positive and negative overstory effects on seedlings and the ubiquity of mycorrhizal networks in forests suggest that mycorrhizal networks fundamentally influence the demographic and community dynamics of forest trees. PMID:20836451

  9. Establishment of Ulmus pumila seedlings on steppe slopes of the northern Mongolian mountain taiga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Hauck, Markus; Nyambayar, Suran; Osokhjargal, Dalaikhuu; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-09-01

    The potential of Siberian elm ( Ulmus pumila) to regenerate from seeds was experimentally studied on south-facing slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga. These slopes are covered with a vegetation mosaic of different steppe communities and small, savanna-like, U. pumila open woodlands. The hypothesis is tested that the xeric microclimate and high herbivore densities limit the success of seedling establishment in U. pumila and thereby prevent elm from complete encroachment of the grassland-dominated slopes. Seeds were sown and 2-yr-old seedlings were planted prior to the growing season. The water supply was manipulated by irrigation, as was the feeding pressure by caterpillars with an insecticide. Large herbivores were excluded by fencing. Seeds germinated throughout the summer, but the emerged seedlings did not survive for more than 2 or 3 weeks. Germination rates increased with increasing soil water content and decreasing soil temperatures. Many seeds were consumed by granivores. Most planted 2-yr-old seedlings survived the two growing seasons covered by the study. However, the seedlings suffered from feeding damage by insects (gypsy moth, grasshoppers) and small mammals, from nitrogen deficiency and, to a lesser degree, from drought. The results suggest that high susceptibility of newly emerged seedlings to environmental stresses is a serious bottle neck for U. pumila that prevents them from the formation of closed forests on northern Mongolia's steppe slopes, whereas the probability for seedling survival after this early stage is high.

  10. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions. PMID:23420205

  11. Physiological and transcriptomic characterization of submergence and reoxygenation responses in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Bishal G; Magliozzi, Joseph O; Maroof, M A Saghai; Fukao, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Complete inundation at the early seedling stage is a common environmental constraint for soybean production throughout the world. As floodwaters subside, submerged seedlings are subsequently exposed to reoxygenation stress in the natural progression of a flood event. Here, we characterized the fundamental acclimation responses to submergence and reoxygenation in soybean at the seedling establishment stage. Approximately 90% of seedlings succumbed during 3?d of inundation under constant darkness, whereas 10?d of submergence were lethal to over 90% of seedlings under 12?h light/12?h dark cycles, indicating the significance of underwater photosynthesis in seedling survival. Submergence rapidly decreased the abundance of carbohydrate reserves and ATP in aerial tissue of seedlings although chlorophyll breakdown was not observed. The carbohydrate and ATP contents were recovered upon de-submergence, but sudden exposure to oxygen also induced lipid peroxidation, confirming that reoxygenation induced oxidative stress. Whole transcriptome analysis recognized genome-scale reconfiguration of gene expression that regulates various signalling and metabolic pathways under submergence and reoxygenation. Comparative analysis of differentially regulated genes in shoots and roots of soybean and other plants defines conserved, organ-specific and species-specific adjustments which enhance adaptability to submergence and reoxygenation through different metabolic pathways. PMID:24433575

  12. Herbivory and seedling performance in a fragmented temperate forest of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Javier A.; Grez, Audrey A.; Celis-Diez, Juan L.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2007-11-01

    Forest fragmentation alters plant-animal interactions, including herbivory. Relying manipulative experiments, we test if the reduction in insect herbivory associated with forest fragmentation translates into increased seedling growth and survival of three tree common species ( Aristotelia chilensis, Cryptocarya alba and Persea lingue) in forest fragments and continuous forests in coastal Maulino forest, central Chile. Furthermore, we test if after protecting seedlings from herbivorous insects, plant performance is increased regardless of forest fragmentation. Nursery grown seedlings were transplanted into four forest fragments and a continuous forest during 2002. Insects, important herbivores in this forest, were excluded from half the seedlings by repeated applications of insecticides. Compared to continuous forests, in forest fragments, herbivory was reduced in all three species, seedling growth was greater in A. chilensis and C. alba but not in P. lingue, and survivorship was unaffected by herbivory or fragmentation in all three species. Protecting seedlings from insects reduced herbivory in the continuous forest to similar levels attained in the forest fragments. No change in herbivory results from by protecting seedlings in forest fragments. These results confirm that insects are important herbivores in the Maulino forest and also support the hypothesis that fragmentation can have strong indirect effects on plant communities as mediated through trophic interactions.

  13. Effects of cold storage and water stress on water relations and gas exchange of white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; MacDonald, S E; Zwiazek, J J

    1995-04-01

    To determine the effects of lifting time and storage on water-stress resistance of nursery-grown white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings, we compared gas exchange, water relations and mortality of 3-year-old seedlings lifted in October 1991 and stored at -2 degrees C for 3 months with seedlings lifted in January 1992. The seedlings were placed in nutrient solution and subjected to -1.1 or -2.7 MPa water stress induced by polyethylene glycol 3350 for 9 days. Water stress, but not lifting time, had a significant effect on seedling net assimilation, symplastic volume and turgor loss point. In a second experiment, seedlings lifted in October 1991 were stored at -2 degrees C for 7 months and compared with seedlings lifted in May 1992. The seedlings were planted in pots, and their gas exchange and water relation parameters measured in response to gradual water stress. The results suggest that prolonged cold storage retards photosynthetic recovery of seedlings after planting. Higher rates of net assimilation in seedlings lifted in May were not directly related to their water status. Nonstomatal limitations were the primary factor influencing photosynthetic rate. We conclude that the inferior ability of cold-stored seedlings to tolerate water stress was due to poor osmotic adjustment and a lag in recovery of photosynthesis. PMID:14965967

  14. Seedling–herbivore interactions: insights into plant defence and regeneration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Kasey E.; Hanley, Mick E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivores have the power to shape plant evolutionary trajectories, influence the structure and function of vegetation, devastate entire crops, or halt the spread of invasive weeds, and as a consequence, research into plant–herbivore interactions is pivotal to our understanding of plant ecology and evolution. However, the causes and consequences of seedling herbivory have received remarkably little attention, despite the fact that plants tend to be most susceptible to herbivory during establishment, and this damage can alter community composition and structure. Scope In this Viewpoint article we review why herbivory during early plant ontogeny is important and in so doing introduce an Annals of Botany Special Issue that draws together the latest work on the topic. In a synthesis of the existing literature and a collection of new studies, we examine several linked issues. These include the development and expression of seedling defences and patterns of selection by herbivores, and how seedling selection affects plant establishment and community structure. We then examine how disruption of the seedling–herbivore interaction might affect normal patterns of plant community establishment and discuss how an understanding of patterns of seedling herbivory can aid our attempts to restore semi-natural vegetation. We finish by outlining a number of areas where more research is required. These include a need for a deeper consideration of how endogenous and exogenous factors determine investment in seedling defence, particularly for the very youngest plants, and a better understanding of the phylogenetic and biogeographical patterns of seedling defence. There is also much still be to be done on the mechanisms of seedling selection by herbivores, particularly with respect to the possible involvement of volatile cues. These inter-related issues together inform our understanding of how seedling herbivory affects plant regeneration at a time when anthropogenic change is likely to disrupt this long-established, but all-too-often ignored interaction. PMID:23925939

  15. Seasonal differences in needle gas exchange between mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    In 1990, an interactive study was initiated to understand the differing physiological and morphological response of mature tissue and seedling tissue to stress. The study was conducted at the Air Pollution and Climate Change Exposure Facility in a Pinus ponderosa seed production orchard at the US Forest Service Tree Improvement Center in Chico, CA. The orchard consists of clonal trees and the authors have planted half-sibling seedlings which correspond to the mature clones which were measured. Both the mature trees and seedlings were regularly irrigated and fertilized. The result is that they have minimized the genetic and environmental differences that might otherwise influence the physiological differences between mature and seedling tissue. One of the physiological parameters which was measured was seasonal and diurnal gas exchange using a LICOR 6200. They measured gas exchange in November 1989, March, July, and October 1990. They found that throughout the year, all gas exchange components (eg. photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance) were significantly greater for seedling tissue. Photosynthetic differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 1.1 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and 0.5 {mu}mol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Transpiration differences were greater during early October, with diurnal mean rates of 2.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}2{sup {minus}1} and 1.2 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for seedling and mature tissue, respectively. Finally, gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue were greater for current needles than one-year old needles. The results of this study demonstrate that gas exchange differences between seedling and mature tissue observed in the field may be the result of inherent physiological differences, and not merely genetic and environmental differences.

  16. Early testing of loblolly pine based on seedling response to daylength variation within growth chamber environments 

    E-print Network

    Davison, Robert Marc

    1984-01-01

    ) with seedling height at week 12 (HT12), 16 (HT16), 20 (HT20), 24 (HT24), difference in height between we k week 12 and 16 (D16), 12 and 20 (D20), and 12 and 24 (D24) 43 APPENDIX TABLE A- l. A- 2. A- 4. A- 5. Page Par tially balanced incomplete block..., spli t- plot analysis of variance for seedling height at weeks 12 (HT12), 16 (HT16), and 20 (HT20) . . 53 Partially balanced incomplete block, split- plot analysis of variance for seedling height at week 24 (HT24), difference in height between...

  17. Mapping Salinity Tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response. PMID:21857956

  18. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  19. Effect of lanthanum on ion absorption in cucumber seedling leaves.

    PubMed

    Zeng, F L; Shi, P; Zhang, M F; Deng, R W

    2000-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used to study the tissular distributions of elements Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, and Fe in leaves of cucumber seedlings in the absence or presence of La3+. The results showed that the atomic percentages of Na, Mg, Cl, K, and Ca were basically reduced and those of Mn and Fe were increased in the presence of La3+; in addition, at 0.02 mM La3+, the reduced or increased degrees were higher than those at 2.0 mM La3+. The effects of La3+ on ion absorption were similar to those of Ca2+, suggesting that the rare earth element lanthanum affects the plant physiological mechanism by regulating the Ca2+ level in plant cell. PMID:11314984

  20. Measurement of seedling growth rate by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Stanwood, Phillip C.

    1993-05-01

    Seed vigor and germination tests have traditionally been used to determine deterioration of seed samples. Vigor tests describe the seed potential to emerge and produce a mature crop under certain field conditions and one measure is seedling growth rate. A machine vision system was developed to measure root growth rate over the entire germination period. The machine vision measurement technique was compared to the manual growth rate technique. The vision system provided similar growth rate measurements as compared to the manual growth rate technique. The average error between the system and a manual measurement was -0.13 for the lettuce test and -0.07 for the sorghum test. This technique also provided an accurate representation of the growth rate as well as percent germination.

  1. Growth Responses and Adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Seedlings to Flooding.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A R; Kozlowski, T T

    1980-08-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticels and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal closure as a result of flooding, stomata began to reopen progressively until stomatal aperture was similar in flooded and unflooded plants. Adventitious roots began to form at about the time stomatal reopening began. As more adventitious roots formed, elongated, and branched, the stomata opened further. The formation of adventitious roots was an important adaptation for flooding tolerance as shown by the high efficiency of adventitious roots in absorption of water and in high correlation between the production of adventitious roots and stomatal reopening. PMID:16661419

  2. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Sena Gomes, A.R.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticles and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal closure as a results of flooding, stomata began to reopen progressively until stomata aperture was similar in flooded and unflooded plants. Adventitious roots began to form at about the time stomatal reopening began. As more adventitious roots formed, elongated, and branched, the stomata opened further. The formation of adventitious roots was in important adaptation for flooding tolerance as shown by the high efficiency of adventitious roots in absorption of water and in high correlation between the production of adventitious roots and stomatal reopening. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism in seedling roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, A.; Takahashi, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kakimoto, Y.; Higashitani, A.; Fujii, N.; Takahashi, H.

    Roots display positive hydrotropism in response to a moisture gradient, which could play a role in avoiding drought stress. Because roots also respond to other stimuli such as gravity, touch and light and exhibit gravitropism, thigmotropism and phototropism, respectively, their growth orientation is determined by interaction among those tropisms. We have demonstrated the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism. For example, 1) agravitropic roots of pea mutant strongly respond to a moisture gradient and show positive hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism, 2) in wild type pea roots hydrotropism is weak but pronounced when rotated on clinostat, 3) cucumber roots are positively gravitropic on the ground but become hydrotropic in microgravity, and 4) maize roots change their growth direction depending on the intensities of both gravistimulation and hydrostimulation. Here we found that Arabidopsis roots could display strong hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism. It was discovered that amyloplasts in the columella cells are rapidly degraded upon exposure to a moisture gradient. Thus, degradation of amyloplasts could reduce the responsiveness to gravity, which could pronounce the hydrotropic response. In hydrotropically stimulated roots of pea seedlings, however, we could not observe a rapid degradation of amyloplasts in the columella cells. These results suggest that mechanism underlying the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism differs among plant species. To further study the molecular mechanism of hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism, we isolated unique mutants of Arabidopsis of which roots showed either ahydrotropism, reduced hydrotropism or negative hydrotropic response and examined their gravitropism, phototropism, waving response, amyloplast degradation and elongation growth. Based on the characterization of hydrotropic mutants, we will attempt to compare the mechanisms of the two tropisms and to clarify their cross talk for controlling the directional growth of seedling roots.

  4. Transpiration modulates phosphorus acquisition in tropical tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Turner, Benjamin L

    2011-08-01

    Several experiments were conducted with tropical tree and liana seedlings in which transpiration ratio and leaf phosphorus to carbon ratio (P:C) were measured. Transpiration ratio was expressed as kg H(2)O transpired g(-1) C incorporated into plant biomass, and leaf P:C as mg P g(-1) C. Leaf P:C was positively correlated with transpiration ratio across 19 species for plants grown under similar conditions (R(2)?=?0.35, P?seedlings. We suggest that this occurs through transport of inorganic phosphate and organic P compounds to root surfaces by transpiration-induced mass flow of the soil solution. The positive correlation between leaf P:C and transpiration ratio suggests that leaf P:C could decline in tropical forests as atmospheric CO(2) concentration rises, due to decreasing transpiration ratios. PMID:21856654

  5. Hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, hexenal and nonenal, inhibit soybean seedling growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.W.; Dornbos, D.L. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Hexanal, a product of hydroperoxide lyase, inhibited the germination and growth of soybean seeds. Hexanal was continuously delivered to germinating seeds as a vapor dissolved in air with a flow-through system (100 ml/min). Only 0.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air was required to inhibit seedling growth by 50%; nearly 100% inhibition occurred with a dose of 1.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air. In the absence of hexanal brown spots were often visible on the seedlings, but at sublethal doses of hexanal, the seedlings were largely devoid of these spots. The relative toxicity of three hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, trans-2-hexanal and trans-2-nonenal, were compared with a Petri-dish bioassay. The order of toxicity against seedling growth was hexenal>hexanal>nonenal.

  6. Multiple Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Transcription Factors Repress Premature Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Darkness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important contributing factor to the success of terrestrial flowering plants in colonizing the land was the evolution of a developmental strategy, termed skotomorphogenesis, whereby postgerminative seedlings emerging from buried seed grow vigorously upward in the subterranean darkness toward the ...

  7. Species-specific effects on topsoil development affect Quercus ilex seedling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta-Piñero, Carolina; Gómez, José María; Zamora, Regino

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate experimentally the importance of species-specificity in the soil-mediated interactions among plants inhabiting heterogeneous landscapes. Topsoils from nine microhabitats were used to experimentally grow Quercus ilex acorns in the laboratory. We recorded germination, emergence, acorn left and seedling performance (HGR, biomass and root allocation). Different topsoils had very contrasting physico-chemical properties, creating a heterogeneous arena. This heterogeneity translated to differences in seedling performance, since emergence and survival differed among topsoils. However, nutrient content in topsoils did not appear to benefit seedling performance. In addition, there were strong correlations among parameters of plant performance indicating a consistency of the effect of topsoil type on Q. ilex seedlings. This implies that it is crucial to consider the specificity of the interaction between plants to wholly understand the structure of plant communities. Species-specific interactions may play an important role in the organization and dynamic of plants spatial distribution.

  8. Plant Science Bulletin 56(1) 2010 Seedlings of Barro Colorado Island and the

    E-print Network

    Koptur, Suzanne

    (larger seeded species, like Inga, for example); there are more problems with smaller-seeded species (seedling morphology groups) encountered in each family and genus is enumerated, using APG classifications

  9. Factors affecting emergence and seedling vigor of kleingrass and Yuchi arrowleaf clover

    E-print Network

    Belkhiria, Mohsen Taoufik

    1981-01-01

    superior emergence percentages, greater overall leaf area and greater height than the smaller seed fractions. This very same rela- tionship was reported to exist between seeds and seedlings in smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis, Leyss. ) and other grasses...

  10. Two Approaches to Evaluate Drought Tolerance in Maize: Seedling Stress Response and Epicuticular Wax Accumulation 

    E-print Network

    Meeks, Meghyn

    2010-12-02

    We wanted to develop rapid and cost-effective drought tolerance screening methods for mass amounts of germplasm. In 2009 and 2010, we evaluated sixty-two maize inbred lines and their hybrid testcross progeny using seedling stress response...

  11. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential and photosynthetic light response.

  12. Seed-litter-position drives seedling establishment in grassland species under recurrent drought.

    PubMed

    Wellstein, C

    2012-11-01

    Changes in land use and climate interfere with grassland ecosystem processes. Here I experimentally investigated the combined effects of land-use change related litter cover and contrasting water supply on seedling emergence. In this context, the role of the initial relative position of seeds, i.e. seeds on top of the litter versus seeds beneath the litter in interaction with water supply has not been investigated so far. I hypothesised that facilitative effects of litter on seedling emergence occur when seeds are covered by litter and deteriorate when litter covers the ground and seeds fall on it (seeds on top of the litter). Further, I hypothesised that the importance of seed position for seedling emergence will increase under conditions of recurrent drought. I performed a controlled pot experiment on seedling emergence of three common European grassland species (Pimpinella saxifraga, Leontodon autumnalis, Sanguisorba officinalis) by experimental manipulations of litter and water availability. Seedling emergence under moist conditions showed no significant differences between each litter position compared to the control across species. In contrast, under recurrent drought, seedling emergence was significantly higher below the litter compared to seeds on top of the litter and the control (i.e. no litter). In abandoned land, seedling emergence may be limited when seeds fall on ground-covering litter. In contrast, in grasslands with regular low-intensity land use, seedling emergence may be enhanced when a moderate level of litter covers seeds at the end of the growing season. Protective mechanisms that occur with seeds positioned beneath litter are particularly important under recurrent drought. PMID:22822918

  13. Responses of Fraxinus excelsior seedlings to grass-induced above- and below-ground competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette M. G. Bloor; Paul W. Leadley; Laure Barthes

    2008-01-01

    The competitive interactions between woody seedlings and herbaceous vegetation have received increasing interest in recent\\u000a years. However, little is known about the relative contributions and underlying mechanisms of above- and below-ground competition\\u000a between species. We used a novel experimental approach to assess the responses of Fraxinus excelsior seedlings to different combinations of root and shoot competition imposed by the grass

  14. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kamada; N. Fujii; A. Higashitani; H. Takahashi

    2002-01-01

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side

  15. Influence of temperature on respiration of excised tissues from citrus seedlings 

    E-print Network

    Peynado, Ascension

    1970-01-01

    INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION OF EXCISED TISSUFS FROM CITRUS SEEDLINGS A Thesis by ASCENSION PEYNADO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1970 Major Subject: Plant Physiology INI'LUENCE OF TK'PERATURE ON RESPIRATION OF EXCISED TISSUES FROM CITRUS SEEDLINGS A Thesis by ASCENSION PEYNADO Approved as to style and content by: (Head of Department) /. d (Member) Pdmberf...

  16. Desiccation of white spruce seedlings planted in the southern boreal forest of British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Krasowski; T. Letchford; A. Caputa; W. A. Bergerud

    1995-01-01

    Three consecutive years of seedling injury evaluation data from two research sites established in the southern part of British Columbia boreal forest are presented. In 2 out of 3 years the injury was substantial. Planted white spruce is injured during its first overwintering while naturally established seedlings are not. A brief summary of 1992\\/93 post-winter assessments of 1-year old operationally

  17. Herbivory by Introduced Insects Reduces Growth and Survival of Melaleuca quinquenervia Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Franks; Andrea M. Kral; Paul D. Pratt

    2006-01-01

    We studied the inßuence of herbivory by two introduced insect herbivores on the survival and performance of seedlings of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (Myrtaceae), an invasive tree that threatens the Florida Everglades ecosystem. Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Moore) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) nymphs and Oxyops vitiosa (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae were transferred ontoMelaleuca seedlings within replicated 0.25-m2 caged plots in Palm Beach County, FL.

  18. Microcystin uptake inhibits growth and protein phosphatase activity in mustard ( Sinapis alba L.) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katriina Kurki-Helasmo; Jussi Meriluoto

    1998-01-01

    Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds were cultivated for seven days on a solid nutrient medium supplemented with 0–40?g microcystin-RR per ml. Microcystin-RR affected seedling growth (ic50 0.8?g\\/ml) and microcystin concentrations ?5.0?g\\/ml produced malformed plants. The inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity correlated with the growth inhibition. The seedlings were also shown to take up 3H-dihydromicrocystin-LR derived radioactivity up

  19. Raffinose in seedlings of winter vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth.) under osmotic stress and followed by recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Les?aw B. Lahuta; Ryszard J. Górecki

    2011-01-01

    During germination of winter vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) seeds, the degradation of raffinose family oligosaccharides and galactosyl pinitols occurred faster in axis than in\\u000a cotyledons. After 7 days of germination, all ?-d-galactosides disappeared and the soluble carbohydrates in seedling tissues consisted of d-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose and myo-inositol. Osmotic stress caused by incubation of seedlings in PEG 8000 solution (?0.5, ?1.0,

  20. PERFORMANCE TRADE-OFFS AMONG TROPICAL TREE SEEDLINGS IN CONTRASTING MICROHABITATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Baraloto; Deborah E. Goldberg; Damien Bonal

    2005-01-01

    We investigated performance trade-offs among seedlings of nine tropical tree species during a five-year field experiment. Seedlings were grown in eight microhabitat types composed of paired gap and shaded understory sites in each of four soil types. We defined performance trade-offs relevant to coexistence as significant pairwise rank reversals for species performance between contrasting situations, of which we characterize three

  1. In vitro biochemical evaluation of cadmium tolerance mechanism in callus and seedlings of Brassica juncea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyan Singh Shekhawat; Kusum Verma; Sonali Jana; Kusum Singh; Preeti Teotia; Archana Prasad

    2010-01-01

    In vitro grown callus and seedlings of Brassica juncea were treated with equimolar concentrations of cadmium and compared for their respective tolerance to cadmium. Calli cultures\\u000a were grown on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with ? 6-benzyl aminopurine (200 µg L?1, naphthalene acetic acid 200 µg L?1) and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxy acetic acid (65 µg L?1) while the seedlings grown on Hoagland's nutrient solution have

  2. Specificity of Phenolic Glycoside Induction in Willow Seedlings ( Salix sericea ) in Response to Herbivory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Fields; Colin M. Orians

    2006-01-01

    Salix sericea (Marsh.) (Salicaceae) seedlings were used to investigate phytochemical induction of phenolic glycosides following beetle herbivory. Seven-week-old full-sibling seedlings were subjected to one of three damage treatments: Plagiodera versicolora adults, P. versicolora larvae, or Calligrapha multipunctata bigsbyana adults. Salicylate concentrations were measured locally (within damaged leaves) and systemically (above and below damaged leaves) 4 d later. Herbivory caused differential salicylate

  3. Primate extirpation from rainforest fragments does not appear to influence seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Oscarm M; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Stoner, Kathryne E

    2015-04-01

    Primates are important seed dispersers, especially of large-seeded tree species, but the impact that these animals have on seedling recruitment is unclear. Evidence suggests that forest regeneration might be disrupted in forest fragments in which primates were extirpated. We tested this hypothesis by assessing seedling recruitment in 3 forest fragments occupied (OF) by primates, 3 fragments unoccupied (UF) by primates, and 3 areas within a continuous forest (CF) in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico. Species and stem densities of tree, palm and liana seedlings were recorded over 16 months. Individuals were classified according to dispersal mode: large-seeded animal-dispersed (LS), small- and medium-seeded animal-dispersed (SS), and abiotically-dispersed species (AD). We assessed the influence of primate presence, adult tree assemblage, and fragment spatial metrics (size, age, distance to nearest fragment, and distance to continuous forest) on seedling assemblages. We recorded 6879 seedlings belonging to 90 species, and 59 genera in 405 1-m(2) plots. Both seedlings and adults showed similar differences in species and stem densities of LS, SS and AD species among forest types, suggesting that seedling assemblages were strongly influenced by the adult assemblages. The recruitment of each LS species varied among study sites, but evidence supporting higher recruitment enhancement of these species in continuous forest and occupied fragments was weak. Distance to continuous forest was the unique fragment spatial metric related (negatively) to the recruitment of LS species. Thus, primate extirpation does not appear to disrupt seedling assemblages in the Lancandona rainforest. Nevertheless, we cannot reject the hypothesis that certain LS species such as Spondias radlkoferi may be affected by the extirpation of primates. PMID:25556633

  4. Effects of nitrate on nitrogen fixation and growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    N fertilization may affect the growth of black locust via effects on N fixation (NF) and N metabolism energy costs. This work examined the effects of nitrate (n) on NF and growth of black locust seedlings (BLS). Two experiments examined the effects of n on acetylene reduction, nodule biomass (NB), and n reductase activity of families using nodulated seedlings. Two additional experiments examined the effects of n using functional growth analysis. Nitrate was enriched with [sup 15]N and seedling N was partitioned into n and atmospheric N sources. Nitrate fertilization affected both NF and growth of BLS. High concentrations of n decreased both NB and activity. Nitrate additions generally increase total plant growth. Adjustments for seedling size via allometric principles are necessary to correctly interpret treatment effects on NF. Without such adjustments, n fertilization and family effects on general seedling growth confound analysis. Nitrate fertilization decreased NF primarily by decreasing dry matter partitioning to nodules. Low concentrations of n resulted in higher total seedling NB. Once, it was thought that low levels of soil N are needed to stimulate nodule growth and NF. Allometric analysis clearly indicated that low concentrations of n did not affect nodule growth directly but did so by increasing general seedling growth. Growth analyses were conducted to correct for confounding effects of differential plant size and internal N concentration resulting from different rates of n fertilization. These analyses showed that n fertilization increased BLS growth both by increasing seedling internal N concentrations and by increasing N productivity. The latter indicates that n utilization is more energy efficient than NF. High levels of n reductase activity were observed in leaves of BLS given n. Differences in energy costs might be partly attributable to photo-reduction of n and/or nitrite in the leaves.

  5. Thidiazuron-Induced High-Frequency Shoot Regeneration from Root Region of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hosseini-Nasr; A. Rashid

    2003-01-01

    High-frequency regeneration of shoots was achieved at root region of seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia L. cultured from seeds on medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ, 1.0 µM). The roots of intact seedlings proliferated and formed a compact callus followed by differentiation of numerous shoots. Corresponding cultures on benzylaminopurine-containing medium exhibited much weaker response. Hypocotyl segments also formed shoots at a lower

  6. Seed Size Effects on Seedling Emergence of Desert Psammophytes in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tobe; Liping Zhang; Kenji Omasa

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of seed size on the behavior of seeds and seedlings in sand, seedling emergence from sand was examined in Caragana korshinskii (Fabaceae; mean seed weight 65 mg) and Atraphaxis bracteata (Polygonaceae; mean seed weight 5.7 mg), two shrubs with nonphotoblastic seeds that grow on desert sand dunes in China. Seeds were sown at depths of 0 to 50 mm

  7. Chilling stress suppresses chloroplast development and nuclear gene expression in leaves of mung bean seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Tzong Yang; Shu-Ling Chen; Chu-Yung Lin; Yih-Ming Chen

    2005-01-01

    Etiolated leaves of 28°C-dark-grown mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. 2937) seedlings fail to turn green after being shifted to a light and cold environment. At the visible phenotypic level, incapability of leaf greening is the only failure event for the de-etiolation of mung bean seedlings at low temperature. Ultrastructural studies revealed that chloroplast development was completely suppressed by chilling

  8. The role of stomata in sensitivity of Betula papyrifera seedlings to SO 2 at different humidities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Norby; T. T. Kozlowski

    1982-01-01

    Stomata of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were more open at high humidity than at low humidity and responded rapidly to changes in vapor pressure deficit. SO2 at 0.2 or 0.8 µl l-1 caused partial stomatal closure. Seedlings fumigated with SO2 at 0.2 or 0.5 µl l-1 for 30 h or 0.2 µl l-1 for 75 h took up

  9. Seedling establishment of vascular epiphytes on isolated and enclosed forest trees in an Andean landscape, Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian A. Werner; S. Robbert Gradstein

    2008-01-01

    The impact of human disturbance on colonisation dynamics of vascular epiphytes is poorly known. We studied abundance, diversity\\u000a and floristic composition of epiphyte seedling establishing on isolated and adjacent forest trees in a tropical montane landscape.\\u000a All vascular epiphytes were removed from plots on the trunk bases of Piptocoma discolor. Newly established epiphyte seedlings were recorded after 2 years, and their

  10. Vermicompost treatment differentially affects seed germination, seedling growth and physiological status of vegetable crop species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gederts Ievinsh

    Vermicompost preparations are increasingly used in agricultural practice. There is a possibility, that crop plants are sensitive\\u000a to negative effect of vermicompost at early stages of development. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of\\u000a vermicompost on seed germination and seedling growth of different vegetable crop species. Vermicompost substitution inhibited\\u000a seed germination and seedling growth with

  11. Lepidimoide Promotes Light-Induced Chlorophyll Accumulation in Cotyledons of Sunflower Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamada; H. Matsumoto; K. Ishizuka; K. Miyamoto; S. Kosemura; S. Yamamura; K. Hasegawa

    1998-01-01

    .   The effect of disaccharide lepidimoide on light-induced chlorophyll accumulation was studied in cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings and detached cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons. From studies on the structure-activity relationships of lepidimoide, its analogs, and sucrose with respect\\u000a to light-induced chlorophyll accumulation in the cotyledons of sunflower seedlings, both lepidimoide and the free carboxylic\\u000a acid of lepidimoide

  12. Forest soil community responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and spruce seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Shishido; C. P. Chanway

    1998-01-01

    The influence of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and spruce seedlings on the composition and activity of forest\\u000a soil microbial communities was studied in a microcosm experiment in which sterile, sand-filled 25mm×150mm glass tubes were\\u000a treated with a forest soil suspension containing Bacillus or Pseudomonas PGPR and 2-week-old spruce seedlings. Eighteen weeks after treatments were established, bacterial, actinomycete and fungal\\u000a population sizes

  13. Antioxidant responses to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition in birch seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Koricheva; Sashwati Roy; John A. Vranjic; Erkki Haukioja; Patrick R. Hughes; Osmo Hänninen

    1997-01-01

    This study measured the responses of different anti-oxidants in 2-year-old birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings subjected to simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) and heavy metals (CuNi), applied alone or in combination for 2 months. The applied concentrations of pollutants did not significantly affect seedling biomass or total glutathione levels. Acid rain alone increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity both in leaves

  14. Biomass production and allocation in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings under different levels of drought stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. J. Achten; W. H. Maes; B. Reubens; E. Mathijs; V. P. Singh; L. Verchot; B. Muys

    2010-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment we applied three levels of drought stress and monitored growth variables and biomass production of Jatropha curcas seedlings propagated from three seed accessions. We determined biomass allocation, allometric relationships and plant traits. Well-watered J. curcas seedlings grew 0.81±0.15cm day?1 in length and produced 1.49±0.31g dry biomass day?1. Under medium stress (40% plant available water) the plants

  15. Field performance of containerized black spruce seedlings with root systems damaged by freezing or pruning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine J. Bigras

    1998-01-01

    Roots of 2-year-old black spruce seedlings (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) were exposed to freezing temperatures to destroy 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the root systems. For comparison, other root systems were pruned to eliminate the same proportions of roots. Treated and control seedlings were planted in spring 1992 at Forêt Montmorency (the Université Laval forest research station, 50 km

  16. Estimating dispersibility of Acer , Fraxinus and Tilia in fragmented landscapes from patterns of seedling establishment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Carter Johnson

    1988-01-01

    Relative dispersibility of Tilia americana L., Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh, was inferred from the ratio among species-specific regression coefficients (ß) computed from seedling density-distance plots. Density counts were made in spatially-uniform old fields adjacent to single seed sources or monotypic fencerows. Resultant seedling shadow curves approximate the negative exponential form expected for many seeds (log y=a-ßX). This

  17. Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: a conceptual framework using mangroves

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Thorsten; Webb, Edward L; van den Elzen, Eva; Galli, Demis; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2013-01-01

    1. Vegetated biogeomorphic systems (e.g. mangroves, salt marshes, dunes, riparian vegetation) have been intensively studied for the impact of the biota on sediment transport processes and the resulting self-organization of such landscapes. However, there is a lack of understanding of physical disturbance mechanisms that limit primary colonization in active sedimentary environments. 2. This study elucidates the effect of sediment disturbance during the seedling stage of pioneer vegetation, using mangroves as a model system. We performed mesocosm experiments that mimicked sediment disturbance as (i) accretion/burial of plants and (ii) erosion/excavation of plants of different magnitudes and temporal distribution in combination with water movement and inundation stress. 3. Cumulative sediment disturbance reduced seedling survival, with the faster-growing Avicennia alba showing less mortality than the slower-growing Sonneratia alba. The presence of the additional stressors (inundation and water movement) predominantly reduced the survival of S. alba. 4. Non-lethal accretion treatments increased shoot biomass of the seedlings, whereas non-lethal erosion treatments increased root biomass allocation. This morphological plasticity in combination with the abiotic disturbance history determined how much maximum erosion the seedlings were able to withstand. 5. Synthesis and applications. Seedling survival in dynamic sedimentary environments is determined by the frequency and magnitude of sediment accretion or erosion events, with non-lethal events causing feedbacks to seedling stability. Managers attempting restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, dunes and riparian vegetation should recognize sediment dynamics as a main bottleneck to primary colonization. The temporal distribution of erosion and accretion events has to be evaluated against the ability of the seedlings to outgrow or adjust to disturbances. Our results suggest that selecting fast-growing pioneer species and measures to enhance seedling growth or temporary reduction in sediment dynamics at the restoration site can aid restoration success for vegetated biogeomorphic ecosystems. PMID:23894211

  18. Chilling responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings: root hydraulic conductance, abscisic acid, and stomatal conductance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Melkonian; Long-Xi Yu; Tim L. Setter

    2004-01-01

    Maize seedling water relations and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were measured over 24 h of root chilling (5.5 8C). At 2.5 h into chilling, leaf ABA levels increased by 403 and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased to 20% compared with prechill levels. Despite a rapid gs re- sponse to root chilling, leaf water potential (WL )o f chilled seedlings decreased to

  19. Seedling disease of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]: epidemiology, etiology and resistance

    E-print Network

    Forbes, Gregory Allan

    1984-01-01

    ) and moisture (-1 ? 0 bars matric potential) regimes in both non-pasteurized field soil (NFS) and pasteurized field soil (PFS). Three dependent variables were measured: leaf length, leaf weight and final seedling emergence. In the NFS, the moisture factor... of each fungus. In PFS, P. arrhenomanes reduced leaf length, final emergence and leaf weight of sorghum seedlings at the highest inoculum density (ID) and only leaf weight and leaf length at the lower ID. R. solani reduced leaf weight and leaf length...

  20. Seed storage oil mobilization is important but not essential for germination or seedling establishment in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amélie A; Quettier, Anne-Laure; Shaw, Eve; Eastmond, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a major storage reserve in many plant seeds. We previously identified a TAG lipase mutant called sugar-dependent1 (sdp1) that is impaired in TAG hydrolysis following Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination (Eastmond, 2006). The aim of this study was to identify additional lipases that account for the residual TAG hydrolysis observed in sdp1. Mutants were isolated in three candidate genes (SDP1-LIKE [SDP1L], ADIPOSE TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE-LIKE, and COMPARATIVE GENE IDENTIFIER-58-LIKE). Analysis of double, triple, and quadruple mutants showed that SDP1L is responsible for virtually all of the residual TAG hydrolysis present in sdp1 seedlings. Oil body membranes purified from sdp1 sdp1L seedlings were deficient in TAG lipase activity but could still hydrolyze di- and monoacylglycerol. SDP1L is expressed less strongly than SDP1 in seedlings. However, SDP1L could partially rescue TAG breakdown in sdp1 seedlings when expressed under the control of the SDP1 or 35S promoters and in vitro assays showed that both SDP1 and SDP1L can hydrolyze TAG, in preference to diacylglycerol or monoacylglycerol. Seed germination was slowed in sdp1 sdp1L and postgerminative seedling growth was severely retarded. The frequency of seedling establishment was also reduced, but sdp1 sdp1L was not seedling lethal under normal laboratory growth conditions. Our data show that together SDP1 and SDP1L account for at least 95% of the rate of TAG hydrolysis in Arabidopsis seeds, and that this hydrolysis is important but not essential for seed germination or seedling establishment. PMID:21825108

  1. Effects of artificial shade on early performance of white spruce seedlings planted on clearcuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongzhou ManKen; Ken J. Greenway

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll content, growth, and mortality of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings were monitored for 2 years after planting under three scenarios of artificial shade: no-shade (control),\\u000a shade in summer only, and shade all year. The shade frames allowed 50–60% light transmission, with limited effects on air\\u000a temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture around seedlings. Based

  2. Ectomycorrhizal development on pine by Pisolithus tinctorius in bare-root and container seedling nurseries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H. Marx; Charles E. Cordell; Stephen B. Maul; John L. Ruehle

    1989-01-01

    Vegetative inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) with carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios between 22 and 70 produced by Sylvan Spawn Laboratories were compared to inoculum produced by research methods in Athens, GA, in-forming ectomycorrhizae on pine in bare-root seedling nurseries in South Carolina and Indiana, and on seedlings in microplots and containers in Georgia. Nonleached Sylvan Spawn inoculum with C:N ratios of

  3. Selection for increased seed weight Panicum coloratum L. and its relationship to early seedling performance

    E-print Network

    Hussey, Mark Allen

    1979-01-01

    produced from light seed. Trupp and Carlson (40), in evaluating different seed weight genotypes in smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss), found that seed weight was highly correlated with seedling weight at Zl (r = . 95) ~ 39 (r = . 85), and 6Z... of the population were selected. Since increases in seed size have led to measurable increases in seedling vigor in species such as smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) (40) and blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz) (44), it was suggested that increases...

  4. Expression of functional traits during seedling establishment in two populations of Pinus ponderosa from contrasting climates.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kelly L; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E

    2015-05-01

    First-year tree seedlings represent a particularly vulnerable life stage and successful seedling establishment is crucial for forest regeneration. We investigated the extent to which Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson populations from different climate zones exhibit differential expression of functional traits that may facilitate their establishment. Seeds from two populations from sites with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes east (PIPOdry) and west (PIPOmesic) of the Oregon Cascade mountains were sown in a common garden experiment and grown under two water availability treatments (control and drought). Aboveground biomass accumulation, vegetative phenology, xylem anatomy, plant hydraulic architecture, foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (?(13)C), gas exchange and leaf water relations characteristics were measured. No treatment or population-related differences in leaf water potential were detected. At the end of the first growing season, aboveground biomass was 74 and 44% greater in PIPOmesic in the control and drought treatments, respectively. By early October, 73% of PIPOdry seedlings had formed dormant buds compared with only 15% of PIPOmesic seedlings. Stem theoretical specific conductivity, calculated from tracheid dimensions and packing density, declined from June through September and was nearly twice as high in PIPOmesic during most of the growing season, consistent with measured values of specific conductivity. Intrinsic water-use efficiency based on ?(13)C values was higher in PIPOdry seedlings for both treatments across all sampling dates. There was a negative relationship between values of ?(13)C and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity across populations and treatments, consistent with greater stomatal constraints on gas exchange with declining seedling hydraulic capacity. Integrated growing season assimilation and stomatal conductance estimated from foliar ?(13)C values and photosynthetic CO2-response curves were 6 and 28% lower, respectively, in PIPOdry seedlings. Leaf water potential at the turgor loss point was 0.33?MPa more negative in PIPOdry, independent of treatment. Overall, PIPOdry seedlings exhibited more conservative behavior, suggesting reduced growth is traded off for increased resistance to drought and extreme temperatures. PMID:25934987

  5. Interaction between large herbivore activities, vegetation structure, and flooding affects tree seedling emergence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Van Uytvanck; Tanja Milotic; Maurice Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Tree establishment in grazed vegetation mosaics involves a series of early bottlenecks, including seed dispersal, germination,\\u000a seedling emergence, survival and growth. In a field experiment, we studied seedling emergence of two species with contrasting\\u000a recruitment strategies, Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus robur, in five structurally different vegetations: grazed and ungrazed grassland, ruderal pioneer vegetation, soft rush tussocks,\\u000a tall sedge mats and

  6. Long-term variability in seed size and seedling establishment of Maianthemum bifolium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Kosi?ski

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies conducted in natural plants populations focus on the relationship between seed size and their germination\\u000a ability and seedling establishment. Maianthemum bifolium is a perennial herb that spreads vegetatively through rhizomatous growth and reproduces through seeds. However, this species\\u000a is characterized as seed and microsite limited, and under undisturbed conditions seedlings are not noted. The studies were\\u000a conducted

  7. Effects of Salinity and Specific Ions on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Onions

    E-print Network

    Miyamoto, S.; Martinez, I.; Niu, G.

    TR-2008-319 Effects of Salinity and Specific Ions on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Onions S. Miyamoto, I. Martinez and G. Niu Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center El Paso, Texas August... 2008 Effects of Salinity and Specific Ions on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Onions A Research Report Submitted to American Water Works Association U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and El Paso Water Utilities in Partial...

  8. Biology of spermoplane and seedling rhizoplane in relation to disease resistance in cotton

    E-print Network

    Tsai, Hung-Yien Liu

    1974-01-01

    , magnesium and sodium in the root leachate; the number of bacteria, CVG (coefficient of velocity of ger- mination), percent germination, moldy seed, CVE (coefficient of velocity of emergence), percent emergence, final stand in laboratory experiment, stand... of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizoplane of seedlings for the cultivars 20 6. CVG, percentage of f inal germi. nation, moldy seed and nub root for the cultivars 22 7. CVE, percentage of emergence, damping-off and seedling stand for the cultivars...

  9. Variable effects of emergence-promoting rhizobacteria on conifer seedling growth under nursery conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. O'Neill; R. A. Radley; C. P. Chanway

    1992-01-01

    Inoculation of white spruce (Picea glauca Voss.) seed with Bacillus polymyxa strain L5 under nursery conditions significantly increased the number of seedlings that emerged after sowing. No significant effects on seedling emergence were detected when white spruce seed was inoculated with Bacillus polymyxa strain L6, or when Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] seed was inoculated with either strain L5 or

  10. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J R; Scheld, H W; Lemay, R; Peterson, C

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings. PMID:11539752

  11. Resource availability and repeated defoliation mediate compensatory growth in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Galvez, David A; Zhang, Bin; Najar, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Plant ecologists have debated the mechanisms used by plants to cope with the impact of herbivore damage. While plant resistance mechanisms have received much attention, plant compensatory growth as a type of plant tolerance mechanisms has been less studied. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate compensatory growth for trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings under varying intensities and frequencies of simulated defoliation, with or without nutrient enriched media. For the purpose of this study, changes in biomass production and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC) of roots and leaves were considered compensatory responses. All defoliated seedlings showed biomass accumulation under low defoliation intensity and frequency, regardless of resource availability; however, as defoliation intensity and frequency increased, compensatory growth of seedlings was altered depending on resource availability. Seedlings in a resource-rich environment showed complete compensation, in contrast responses ranged from undercompensation to complete compensation in a resource-limited environment. Furthermore, at the highest defoliation intensity and frequency, NSC concentrations in leaves and roots were similar between defoliated and non-defoliated seedlings in a resource-rich environment; in contrast, defoliated seedlings with limited resources sustained the most biomass loss, had lower amounts of stored NSC. Using these results, we developed a new predictive framework incorporating the interactions between frequency and intensity of defoliation and resource availability as modulators of plant compensatory responses. PMID:25083352

  12. Acorn cotyledons are larger than their seedlings' need: evidence from artificial cutting experiments

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xianfeng; Wang, Zhenyu; Liu, Changqu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Although the consequences of cotyledon removal have been widely studied in oaks producing large acorns, we have little knowledge of at what level cotyledons can be removed without affecting acorn survival and seedling development. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the amount of energy reserves in cotyledons is more than the demands of seedlings and that large acorns can tolerate seed predation and/or attract seed predators for seed dispersal. Acorn germination rates were not affected even when 60% of cotyledons were cut off at the basal end, suggesting that the energy reserves contained in cotyledons are not essential for acorn survival. Post-cut acorn mass, more than initial acorn mass, appear to be a better predictor of seedling performance, indicating that the energy reserves in cotyledons are sufficient for seedlings. Acorns with large masses sustained cotyledon damage better than small ones with respect to seedling performance. Large acorns were more likely to be dispersed and cached by animals, implying that producing large acorns is more important for oaks to manipulate seed predators and dispersers rather than provide a seedling with cotyledonary reserves. PMID:25630843

  13. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J. (Laboratorium voor Plantenbiochemie K. U. Leuven (Belgium)); Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more ({sup 35}S)cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA.

  14. Seed Priming with Selenium: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth, and Biochemical Attributes of Rice.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Abdul; Aslam, Farhena; Matloob, Amar; Hussain, Saddam; Geng, Mingjian; Wahid, Abdul; Ur Rehman, Hafeez

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to appraise the role of selenium priming for improving emergence and seedling growth of basmati rice. Seeds of two fine rice cultivars (Super and Shaheen Basmati) were primed with concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 ?mol L(-1) selenium. Untreated dry- and hydro-primed seeds were maintained as the control and positive control, respectively. Selenium priming resulted in early commencement of emergence, triggered seedling growth irrespective of rice cultivar over untreated control, and was more effective than hydro-priming except at higher concentrations. Lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates, reduced lipid peroxidation, greater ?-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars, and enhanced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) were observed in seeds primed with selenium. Rice seedlings derived from selenium-primed seeds exhibited more chlorophyll contents, while total phenolics were comparable with those of the control seedlings. The improved starch metabolism, greater membrane stability, and increased activity of antioxidants were considered as possible mechanisms responsible for such improvements in emergence and seedling vigor of rice mediated by selenium priming. Priming with selenium (15-60 ?mol L(-1)) favored rice emergence and seedling growth. Nevertheless, soaking seeds in relatively concentrated (90 and 105 ?mol L(-1)) selenium solution had overall detrimental effects. PMID:25690516

  15. Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng

    1993-07-01

    A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice ( Oryza sativa), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea), maize ( Zeamays), soybean ( Glycine max), red bean ( Phaseolus angularis), mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea ( Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

  16. Hydraulic redistribution of water from Pinus ponderosa trees to seedlings: evidence for an ectomycorrhizal pathway.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2008-01-01

    While there is strong evidence for hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by trees, it is not known if common mycorrhizal networks (CMN) can facilitate HR from mature trees to seedlings under field conditions. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were planted into root-excluding 61-microm mesh barrier chambers buried in an old-growth pine forest. After 2 yr, several mature trees were cut and water enriched in D(2)O and acid fuchsin dye was applied to the stumps. Fine roots and mycorrhizal root tips of source trees became heavily dyed, indicating reverse sap flow in root xylem transported water from stems throughout root systems to the root hyphal mantle that interfaces with CMN. Within 3 d, D(2)O was found in mesh-chamber seedling foliage > 1 m from source trees; after 3 wk, eight of 10 mesh-chamber seedling stem samples were significantly enriched above background levels. Average mesh-chamber enrichment was 1.8 x greater than that for two seedlings for which the connections to CMN were broken by trenching before D(2)O application. Even small amounts of water provided to mycorrhizas by HR may maintain hyphal viability and facilitate nutrient uptake under drying conditions, which may provide an advantage to seedlings hydraulically linked by CMN to large trees. PMID:18298435

  17. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Lemay, R.; Peterson, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  18. [Enzymatic characterization of lysosome equivalents (spherosomes) in corn seedlings].

    PubMed

    Semadeni, E G

    1966-03-01

    1. The following acid hydrolases are partially sedimentable from cell-free extracts of corn seedlings: protease (pH-optimum 4,2), phosphatase (pH-optimum 5,0 and 6,5), unspecific esterase (pH-optimum 5,2), RNase (pH-optimum 6,5), arylsulphatase-C (pH-optimum 5,0) and ?- and ?-amylase (pH-optimum 7,0 and 5,0 respectively). 2. After differential centrifugation of cell-free extracts the sedimentable hydrolases are recovered mainly in the mitochondrial and microsomal fraction. 3. It could be demonstrated that the acid hydrolases protease, phosphatase, RNase, and esterase of the mitochondrial fraction are contained in membrane-bound particles. 4. Isopycnic centrifugation of cell-free extracts in sucrose gradients revealed the presence of three particulate fractions carrying hydrolases. The heaviest fraction has a relative density of 1,138 g\\sdcm(-3) and contains acid protease,-phosphatase,-RNase, and acid esterase. A lighter fraction (d=1,105 g\\sdcm(-3)) contains the same acid hydrolases. The specifically lightest cell fraction (d=1,070 g\\sdcm(-3)) contains the acid hydrolases glucose-6-phosphatase, arylsulphatase-C and small amounts of \\ga- and \\gb-amylase activity. This fraction also contains NADH-diaphorase activity. 5. By means of enzymatic characterization and staining with fluorochromes the structures carrying hydrolases were identified as two kinds of spherosomes and as fragments of the endoplasmatic reticulum. From these results it is concluded that the spherosomes represent organelles equivalent to the lysosomes of animal cells. 6. ?-Glucuronidase, phospholipase-C, lipase, and arylsulphatase A and-B, all of with are typical enzymes of animal lysosomes, are completely absent in cell-free extracts of corn seedlings. 7. The isolated spherosomes do not exhibit indophenoloxydase activity; thus the histochemical demonstration of this enzyme in spherosomes must be considered to be an artifact. 8. Isolated lipid droplets, spherosomes, prospherosomes, and mitochondria incorporate H(-3)-acetate into lipids. Consequently they contain all the nessesary enzymes for lipid synthesis. The high activity of lipid synthesis in the spheroromes points to a possible conversion of these organelles into lipid bodies. 9. Two transaminases are partially bound to the mitochondria; the rest of the activity is probably bound to fragments of membranes less dense than an 18% sucrose solution. PMID:24554160

  19. Seedling establishment at the alpine tree line - Can there be too much winter protection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, S.; Wardle, D.; Nilsson, M. C.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion relies on tree seedling survival above the tree line, where the environment is harsh and protection by snow during winter is essential. Above the tree line, bryophytes are dominant; they may act as thermal insulators but their insulating ability differs between species. Apart from these positive effects, both snow and bryophytes may have negative effects on seedlings via shortening of the growing season or competition, respectively. Snow depth and duration are expected to change due to climate change, leading in some places to more snow and in others to less. What is the role of bryophytes insulating properties for seedling establishment under changing winter conditions at the alpine tree line? We hypothesized that protecting effects of snow and bryophytes would be more important for seedling survival in harsh climate (high elevation) than in milder climate (low elevation) (interactions: bryophyte*elevation and snow*elevation) and that negative effects of less snow would be ameliorated by well-insulating bryophytes (interaction: bryophyte*snow). To test this, we transplanted cores of three bryophyte species of differing insulation capacity and bare soil (control) from the subarctic tree line (~600m asl.) to 700 and 350 m asl. We transplanted 10 seedlings of two common tree line tree species (Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) into each core in late summer. Cores were subjected to one of three snow treatments: autumn and spring snow removal or addition, or no manipulation. After the winter we scored seedling survival. The snow treatments had different effects at the two elevations (elevation* snow: P<0.0001) whereas bryophytes did not (elevation*bryophyte: n.s). In the harsh climate, snow addition generally enhanced seedling survival. In contrast, at the milder climate site, snow addition only increased survival in the bare soil treatment but decreased survival of seedlings in the bryophyte cores (bryophyte*snow: P=0.053). Our data show that snow cover is the dominant, positive control on winter survival of tree seedlings above the current tree line, irrespective of the bryophyte cover. In a milder climate, however, the role of snow cover depends on the bryophyte cover, with negative effects of extra snow on seedling survival in the presence of bryophytes and vice versa.

  20. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete adelgid development (crawler to egg-laying adult), and very little adelgid development occurred on A. vetchii branches. The fourth study compared infestation levels and gouting response on excised versus intact branches of 4 year-old A. fraseri seedlings from three different seed sources, and excised branches from 4 year-old and 25 year-old trees. There were no differences in infestation levels between excised versus intact branches nor in very young versus mature trees; gouting response was observed only on intact branches. PMID:22239164

  1. Fine-scale spatial heterogeneity and seed size determine early seedling survival in a desert perennial shrub ( Ericameria nauseosa: Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Balogh Benard; Catherine A. Toft

    2008-01-01

    In heterogenous landscapes, seeds settle in some microsites more readily than others, independently of whether those microsites\\u000a are suitable for germination and subsequent growth, and survival of seedlings. Wild seeds and seedlings of Ericameria\\u000a nauseosa var. oreophila in the sand-dune ecosystem near Mono Lake, California show both concordance and conflict in where seeds are retained and\\u000a where seedlings flourish. Using

  2. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m?2·s?1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality of the seedlings after removal from storage. PMID:25340859

  3. Trigonelline accumulation in leaves of Panicum virgatum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Wooda, Andrew J; Gibson, David J

    2014-08-01

    Panicum virgatum is a dominant, native, perennial species found in the tallgrass prairie. In this study, we report the biosynthesis and accumulation of trigonelline (TRG) in leaves of P. virgatum in response to water-deficit stress. Once established, half of the seedlings underwent a drought stress treatment while the other half were watered daily (control). Relative water content (RWC) and trigonelline (TRG) concentrations were determined. RWC showed an interaction between moisture treatment and time, in which upland cultivars had the highest mean RWC compared with the lowland cultivars. The moisture treatments showed a significant difference in TRG concentration across all P. virgatum cultivars, which ranged from 0.5-31.8 microg/gFW(-1). There was a divergence in TRG accumulation between upland and lowland cultivars in relation to RWC. This study is the first to report TRG accumulation in the grass P. virgatum, and to test for differences in TRG with respect to water-deficit stress among cultivars. The effect of soil moisture levels on cultivars may be important in making an informed selection and the response of P. virgatum and other dominant grasses should be considered as a potential filter in tallgrass prairies for restoration. Physiological markers such as TRG and RWC can aid in this decision making process. PMID:25233598

  4. Physiological responses of fenugreek seedlings and plants treated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Zayneb, Chaâbene; Bassem, Khemakhem; Zeineb, Kamoun; Grubb, C Douglas; Noureddine, Drira; Hafedh, Mejdoub; Amine, Elleuch

    2015-07-01

    The bioaccumulation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) was examined using different concentrations of CdCl2. The germination rate was similar to control except at 10 mM Cd. However, early seedling growth was quite sensitive to the metal from the lowest Cd level. Accordingly, amylase activity was reduced substantially on treatment of seeds with 0.5, 1, and 10 mM Cd. Cadmium also affected various other plant growth parameters. Its accumulation was markedly lower in shoots as compared to roots, reducing root biomass by almost 50 %. Plants treated with 1 and 5 mM Cd presented chlorosis due to a significant reduction in chlorophyll b especially. Furthermore, at Cd concentrations greater than 0.1 mM, plants showed several signs of oxidative stress; an enhancement in root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and in shoot malondialdehyde (MDA) content was observed. Conversely, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT)) increased in various plant parts. Likewise, total phenolic and flavonoid contents reached their highest values in the 0.5 mM Cd treatment, consistent with their roles in quenching low concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, maintaining oxidant and antioxidant balance may permit fenugreek to hyperaccumulate Cd and allow it to be employed in extremely Cd polluted soils for detoxification purposes. PMID:25752634

  5. Polyamines in rice seedlings under oxygen-deficit stress

    SciTech Connect

    Reggiani, R.; Hochkoeppler, A.; Bertani, A. (A.N.R., Milano (Italy))

    1989-11-01

    Incubation of 3-d-old seedlings of Oryza sativa L. cv Arborio under anaerobic conditions, leads to a large increase in the titer of free putrescine while aerobic incubation causes a slight decrease. After 2 days, the putrescine level is about 2.5 times greater without oxygen than in air. The rice coleoptile also accumulates a large amount of bound putrescine and, to a lesser extent, spermidine and spermine (mainly as acid-soluble conjugates). Accumulation of conjugates in the roots is severely inhibited by the anaerobic treatment. Feeding experiments with labeled amino acids showed that anoxia stimulates the release of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from tissues fed with ({sup 14}C)arginine and that arginine is the precursor in putrescine biosynthesis. After 2 d of anoxia, the activity of arginine decarboxylase was 42% and 89% greater in coleoptile and root, respectively, than in the aerobic condition. The causes of the differences in polyamine metabolism in anoxic coleoptiles and roots are discussed.

  6. Characterization of Tonoplast Polypeptides Isolated from Corn Seedling Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Min; Beevers, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were isolated by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation in the presence of Mg2+ from 5 day old corn (Zea mays L., Golden Cross Bantam) seedling roots. Marker enzyme assays indicated only a low degree of cross-contamination of tonoplast vesicles at the 10/23% (weight/weight) interface by other membrane components. Severalfold enrichment of tonoplast ATPase and pyrophosphatase was indicated in tonoplast fractions by dot blot studies with antibodies against an oat tonoplast ATPase and a mung bean tonoplast pyrophosphatase. Comparison of two-dimensional electrophoretic gels of tonoplast and microsomal membrane polypeptides revealed approximately 68 polypeptides to be specific to tonoplast by silver staining. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies against a tonoplast holoenzyme ATPase from oat roots revealed the presence of the 72, 60, and 41 kilodalton polypeptides in isolated tonoplast vesicles from corn roots. Affinity blotting with concanavalin A and secondary antibodies indicated the degree of glycosylation of tonoplast polypeptides, where 21 of 68 tonoplast-specific polypeptides contained detectable carbohydrate moieties. Salt and NaOH washes removed 38 of the tonoplast-specific polypeptides, indicating a peripheral association with the membrane. Thirteen of the peripheral polypeptides and eight of the integral polypeptides were identified as glycoproteins. This information on the polypeptide composition of the tonoplast of root cells will aid in gaining insight into the role of this membrane in controlling vacuolar functions. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668381

  7. Infrared light-emitting diode radiation causes gravitropic and morphological effects in dark-grown oat seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.

    1996-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.

  8. Development of ectomycorrhizae on containerized sweet birch and European alder seedlings for planting on low quality sites

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F.; West, D.C.; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    A study was initiated to assess the potential of Pisolithus tinctorius as an ectomycorrhizal associate of containerized sweet birch (Betula lenta) and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) seedlings and to determine the effect of this fungal symbiont on seedling growth. In a test of sweet birch and European alder grown in Leach tubes, P. tinctorius formed abundant ectomycorrhizae on sweet birch when introduced via a vegetative mycelial inoculum. Cenococcum geophilum, originating from sclerotia present in the potting medium, and Thelephora terrestris, introduced via wind-borne propagules, formed ectomycorrhizae on the sweet birch seedlings inoculated with P. tinctorius and on the sweet birch control seedlings. C. geophilum also formed ectomycorrhizae on the inoculated and control European alder seedlings, but an inoculation with P. tinctorius did not result in the formation of P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae on this host. Sweet birch seedlings infected with P. tinctorius had a greater dry weight, height, root collar diameter, and volume and a lower shoot/root ratio than the sweet birch control seedlings, and European alder seedlings with abundant C. geophilum ectomycorrhizae exhibited a similar improvement in growth in comparison with European alder with lesser C. geophilum infections. The inoculation of containerized sweet birch and European alder seedlings in the nursery with the appropriate ectomycorrhizal symbiont may facilitate the establishment of these species on harsh sites such as surface mine spoils. 57 references, 3 tables.

  9. The effects of methyl bromide alternatives on soil and seedling microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology in Oregon and Washington forest tree nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six fumigant treatments were evaluated at two forest tree nurseries in Oregon and one forest tree nursery in Washington for their effects on soil microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology during a 2-year study. Fusarium commune, F. oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi complex, P. irregulare,...

  10. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christine Y; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20-30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field experiments. PMID:25852717

  11. Flooding and SO/sub 2/ stress interaction in Betula papyrifera and B. nigra seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1983-12-01

    The effects of flooding of soil for 5 weeks and fumigation of shoots with 0.35 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 30 hours, alone and in combination, were studied on Betula papyrifera Marsh. (paper birch) and Betula nigra L. (river birch) seedlings. B. papyrifera, an upland species, was adversely affected by flooding more severely than B. nigra, a lowland species. Symptoms of flooding injury in both species included stomatal closure, chlorosis, deterioration of root systems, and greatly reduced dry matter accumulation. Flooding induced formation of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots in B. nigra but not B. papyrifera seedlings. Seedlings of both species recovered 1 to 2 wk after flooding ended and continued growing at a faster rate than unflooded seedlings, thereby partially or completely compensating for the growth-inhibiting effects of flooding. Fumigation with SO/sub 2/ at the end of the flooding period induced partial stomatal closure, injury to leaves, and reductions in mean relative growth rates in both species. Stomatal conductance and SO/sub 2/ uptake in B. nigra seedlings were reduced 40 to 45 percent by flooding, respectively, and consequently SO/sub 2/ caused less visible injury (17 vs. 44 percent of leaf area) and less growth inhibition (0 vs. 26 percent in mean relative root growth rate) in flooded than in unflooded seedlings. Stomatal conductance and SO/sub 2/ uptake were reduced even more in flooded B. papyrifera (75 and 77 percent, respectively), yet flooded and unflooded seedlings were similarly affected by SO/sub 2/. Flooding stress apparently affected mechanisms of pollution avoidance and pollution tolerance differently in the two species.

  12. Flooding and SO/sub 2/ stress interaction in Betula papyrifera and B. nigra seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, R.J.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of flooding of soil for 5 weeks and fumigation of shoots with 0.35 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 30 hours, alone and in combination, were studied on Betula papyrifera Marsh. (paper birch) and Betula nigra L. (river birch) seedlings. B. papyrifera, an upland species, was adversely affected by flooding more severely than B. nigra, a lowland species. Symptoms of flooding injury in both species included stomatal closure, chlorosis, deterioration of root systems, and greatly reduced dry matter accumulation. Flooding induced formation of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots in B. nigra but not B. papyrifera seedlings. Seedlings of both species recovered 1 to 2 wk after flooding ended and continued growing at a faster rate than unflooded seedlings, thereby partially or completely compensating for the growth-inhibiting effects of flooding. Fumigation with SO/sub 2/ at the end of the flooding period induced partial stomatal closure, injury to leaves, and reductions in mean relative growth rates in both species. Stomatal conductance and SO/sub 2/ uptake in B. nigra seedlings were reduced 40 and 45% by flooding, respectively, and consequently SO/sub 2/ caused less visible injury (17 vs. 44% of leaf area) and less growth inhibition (0 vs. 26% in mean relative root growth rate) in flooded than in unflooded seedlings. Stomatal conductance and SO/sub 2/ uptake were reduced even more in flooded B. papyrifera (75 and 77%, respectively), yet flooded and unflooded seedlings were similarly affected by SO/sub 2/. Flooding stress apparently affected mechanisms of pollution avoidance and pollution tolerance differently in the two species.

  13. Basal Transcription Factor 3 Plays an Important Role in Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3Ri) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200??M GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3Ri lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants. PMID:24971328

  14. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Methods Gibberellic acid (GA3), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. Key Results It was found that GA3 stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA3 stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. Conclusions The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus. PMID:22843341

  15. Salt stress-induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamines regulate a variety of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and stress-induced responses in plants. Present investigations report the effect of NaCl stress on endogenous serotonin and melatonin accumulation and their differential spatial distribution in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedling roots and cotyledons using HPLC and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments lead to variable effect on hypocotyl elongation and root growth under NaCl stress. NaCl stress for 48?h increases endogenous serotonin and melatonin content in roots and cotyledons, thus indicating their involvement in salt-induced long distance signaling from roots to cotyledons. Salt stress-induced accumulation of serotonin and melatonin exhibits differential distribution in the vascular bundles and cortex in the differentiating zones of the primary roots, suggesting their compartmentalization in the growing region of roots. Serotonin and melatonin accumulation in oil body rich cells of salt-treated seedling cotyledons correlates with longer retention of oil bodies in the cotyledons. Present investigations indicate the possible role of serotonin and melatonin in regulating root growth during salt stress in sunflower. Effect of exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments (15 ?M) on sunflower seedlings grown in the absence or presence of 120 mM NaCl substantiates their role on seedling growth. Auxin and serotonin biosynthesis are coupled to the common precursor tryptophan. Salt stress-induced root growth inhibition, thus pertains to partial impairment of auxin functions caused by increased serotonin biosynthesis. In seedling cotyledons, NaCl stress modulates the activity of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4), the enzyme responsible for melatonin biosynthesis from N-acetylserotonin. PMID:24799301

  16. Effects of Resource Availability on Carbon Allocation and Developmental Instability in Cloned Birch Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen; Martel; Lempa; Wilsey; Ossipov

    2000-01-01

    Abundant nitrogen improves seedling growth and establishment. Vigorous growth brings about changes in rates and patterns of plant development and changes in the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism, which may make seedlings more susceptible to herbivores and pathogens than are slow-growing seedlings. We studied how nitrogen fertilization and manual defoliation of source leaves affect growth, carbon allocation, and developmental instability in cloned seedlings of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Biomass was higher, whereas concentrations of most classes of phenolic compounds were lower in the nitrogen-rich environment. Interestingly, fertilization did not change the concentrations of cell wall-bound proanthocyanidins, which represent an important fraction of the group of phenolic compounds. Nitrogen enrichment increased levels of fluctuating asymmetry, an index of developmental instability. This result confirms that not only stress but also any deviation from normal resource availability may increase leaf developmental instability in birches. In contrast to fertilization, a one-time defoliation of source leaves did not shape seedling growth, development, or carbon allocation. This could be the result of compensatory growth or of the fact that the defoliation treatment was not strong enough to induce detectable effects until the end of the growing season. PMID:10648201

  17. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Myers, P N; Mitchell, C A

    1998-11-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation. PMID:11542673

  18. [Eco-physiological response of Quercus variabilis seedlings to increased atmospheric CO2 and N supply].

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Ran; Lei, Jing-Pin; Liu, Jian-Feng; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Pan, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of CO2 enhancement, nitrogen deposition and their interaction on the northern boundary (Zhuanghe in Liaoning Province) of Quercus variabilis seedlings was studied by controlling the CO2 concentration (700 micromol x mol(-1); 400 micromol x mol(-1)) and nitrogen level (non nitrogen fertilizer: CK; nitrogen fertilizer: 120 kg N x hm(-2)). The results showed that under elevated CO2 the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology, photosynthetic pigments and leaf nitrogen content tended to decrease, and the dark respiration rate decreased 63. 3% and soluble sugar increased 2.6%. Nitrogen deposition significantly promoted the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic pigments, leading to increased leaf nitrogen content, decreased potassium content, and 26.7% of increase in nitrogen to potassium ratio. CO2 and N interaction played a significant role on promoting the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic. The maximum net photosynthetic and light saturation point were 1.4 and 2.6 times of the control, while dark respiration and light compensation point decreased 65.9% and 50.0%, respectively. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition had a positive effect on Q. variabilis seedlings to some degree, which might result in the movement of distribution boundary of Q. variabilis to north. PMID:24765838

  19. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth. PMID:21670888

  20. Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-06-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 ?mole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro). PMID:24699829

  1. Females make tough neighbors: sex-specific competitive effects in seedlings of a dioecious grass.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Sarah M

    2006-01-01

    If males and females of a species differ in their effect on intraspecific competition then this can have significant ecological and evolutionary consequences because it can lead to size and mortality disparities between the sexes, and thus cause biased population sex ratios. If the degree of sexual dimorphism of competitive effect varies across environments then this variation can generate sex ratio variation within and between populations. In a California population of Distichlis spicata, a dioecious grass species exhibiting extreme within-population sex ratio variation (spatial segregation of the sexes), I evaluated the intraspecific competitive effects of male and female D. spicata seedlings in three soil types. The sex of seedlings was determined using a RAPD-PCR marker co-segregating with female phenotype. Distichlis spicata seedlings, regardless of sex, were six times larger when grown with male versus female conspecific seedlings in soil from microsites where the majority of D. spicata plants are female, and this sexual dimorphism of competitive effect was weaker or did not occur in other soil types. This study suggests that it is not just the higher costs of female versus male reproduction itself that cause spatial segregation of the sexes in D. spicata, but that differences in competitive abilities between the sexes--which occur as early as the seedling stage--can generate sex ratio variation. PMID:16341552

  2. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2014-01-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  3. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from extreme dehydration and oxidative stress in seedlings of transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Almoguera, Concepción; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Personat, José-María; Tejedor-Cano, Javier; Lindahl, Marika; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Jordano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9) has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII) maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI) membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation. PMID:23227265

  4. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  5. Low root reserve accumulation during drought may lead to winter mortality in poplar seedlings.

    PubMed

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2013-04-01

    Climate models suggest that more frequent drought events of greater severity and length, associated with climate change, can be expected in the coming decades. Although drought-induced tree mortality has been recognized as an important factor modulating forest demography at the global scale, the mechanisms underlying drought-induced tree mortality remain contentious. Above- and below-ground growth, gas exchange, water relations and carbon reserve accumulation dynamics at the organ and whole-plant scale were quantified in Populus tremuloides and P. balsamifera seedlings in response to severe drought. Seedlings were maintained in drought conditions over one growing and one dormant winter season. Our experiment presents a detailed description of the effect of severe drought on growth and physiological variables, leading to seedling mortality after an extended period of drought and dormancy. After re-watering following the dormant period, drought-exposed seedlings did not re-flush, showing that the root system had died off. The results of this study suggest a complex series of physiological feedbacks between the measured variables in both Populus species. Further, they reveal that reduced reserve accumulation in the root system during drought decreases the conversion of starch to soluble sugars in roots, which may contribute to the root death of drought-exposed seedlings during the dormant season by compromising the frost tolerance of the root system. PMID:23347066

  6. Exploring the Natural Variation for Seedling Traits and Their Link with Seed Dimensions in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Leo A. J.; van Heusden, Adriaan W.; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The success of germination, growth and final yield of every crop depends to a large extent on the quality of the seeds used to grow the crop. Seed quality is defined as the viability and vigor attribute of a seed that enables the emergence and establishment of normal seedlings under a wide range of environments. We attempt to dissect the mechanisms involved in the acquisition of seed quality, through a combined approach of physiology and genetics. To achieve this goal we explored the genetic variation found in a RIL population of Solanum lycopersicum (cv. Moneymaker) x Solanum pimpinellifolium through extensive phenotyping of seed and seedling traits under both normal and nutrient stress conditions and root system architecture (RSA) traits under optimal conditions. We have identified 62 major QTLs on 21 different positions for seed, seedling and RSA traits in this population. We identified QTLs that were common across both conditions, as well as specific to stress conditions. Most of the QTLs identified for seedling traits co-located with seed size and seed weight QTLs and the positive alleles were mostly contributed by the S. lycopersicum parent. Co-location of QTLs for different traits might suggest that the same locus has pleiotropic effects on multiple traits due to a common mechanistic basis. We show that seed weight has a strong effect on seedling vigor and these results are of great importance for the isolation of the corresponding genes and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:22952841

  7. Dynamics and partitioning of the ionome in seeds and germinating seedlings of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Kai; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-09-01

    Germination and seedling establishment are among the most critical phases in the development of plants, and seed vigour has become an important trait for the selection of robust crop cultivars. Little is known about the potentially limiting role of mineral nutrients in early metabolic and developmental processes during germination. Therefore, we assessed the ionome and relative distribution of mineral elements in different seed and seedling tissues of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and monitored the internal allocation of nutrients during germination. In seeds, cotyledons harboured the main pool of K, P, S, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, whereas the seed coat contained most of the Ca, Na, B, Cu and Mo. Although the early root and hypocotyl tissue expanded first, concentrations of most elements were initially low. Re-allocation of elements to the root/hypocotyl tissue from other pools set in two days after seed imbibition and was most rapid for K. Relative to the critical deficiency levels of vegetative tissues, seed tissues were particularly low in B, K and Fe. Further analyses of the ionome of seeds and seedlings, grouped according to their germination efficiency, indicated that in particular low S, Mg and Ca coincided with germination failure. This study documents highly dynamic changes in the ionome of seed and seedling tissues and provides evidence for potentially limiting elements during early germination and seedling establishment in rapeseed. PMID:23939714

  8. Colonization of tomato seedlings by bioluminescent Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under different humidity regimes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulan; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Paul, Pierce A; Miller, Sally A

    2012-02-01

    Tomato bacterial canker, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, is transmitted by infected or infested seed and mechanically from plant to plant. Wounds occurring during seedling production and crop maintenance facilitate the dissemination of the pathogen. However, the effects of environmental factors on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis translocation and growth as an endophyte have not been fully elucidated. A virulent, stable, constitutively bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strain BL-Cmm 17 coupled with an in vivo imaging system allowed visualization of the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis colonization process in tomato seedlings in real time. The dynamics of bacterial infection in seedlings through wounds were compared under low (45%) and high (83%) relative humidity. Bacteria multiplied rapidly in cotyledon petioles remaining after clip inoculation and moved in the stem toward both root and shoot. Luminescent signals were also observed in tomato seedling roots over time, and root development was reduced in inoculated plants maintained under both humidity regimes. Wilting was more severe in seedlings under high-humidity regimes. A strong positive correlation between light intensity and bacterial population in planta suggests that bioluminescent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of bactericides and host resistance. PMID:21936661

  9. Calcium Deficiency of Dark-grown Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Katie

    1971-01-01

    Hypocotyl collapse in dark-grown seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto was due to calcium deficiency. There was no evidence of an associated pathogen. The number of seedlings with hypocotyl collapse decreased and the mean hypocotyl length increased when increasing levels of calcium (0-100 micrograms per gram) were supplied in an external nutrient solution to seedlings grown under sterile conditions. When seedlings were supplied with a complete nutrient solution, containing calcium at 100 micrograms per gram, but minus potassium, magnesium, sulfur, nitrogen, or phosphorus, occasional plants developed hypocotyl collapse symptoms; however, the lengths of hypocotyls varied little from those of controls grown in complete nutrient. When the calcium level in the deficient nutrient solutions was raised to 200 micrograms per gram, the number of plants with hypocotyl collapse was reduced markedly. With complete nutrient solution minus calcium, seedlings developed symptoms of calcium deficiency irrespective of seed size, i.e., irrespective of whether or not the seed contained a total calcium content that was low or relatively high. An increase in hypocotyl length in response to an external supply of calcium was obtained with five cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and with one of Soja max Piper. A similar response to calcium was obtained for epicotyl growth of a cultivar of Vicia faba L., but not for a cultivar of Pisum sativum L. Images PMID:16657708

  10. Expression of stress-related genes in zebrawood (Astronium fraxinifolium, Anacardiaceae) seedlings following germination in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Peter W; Ciampi, Ana Y; Salomão, Antonieta N; Costa, Tânia da S A; Azevedo, Vânia C R

    2014-03-01

    Seeds of a tropical tree species from Brazil, Astronium fraxinifolium, or zebrawood, were germinated, for the first time in microgravity, aboard the International Space Station for nine days. Following three days of subsequent growth under normal terrestrial gravitational conditions, greater root length and numbers of secondary roots was observed in the microgravity-treated seedlings compared to terrestrially germinated controls. Suppression subtractive hybridization of cDNA and EST analysis were used to detect differential gene expression in the microgravity-treated seedlings in comparison to those initially grown in normal gravity (forward subtraction). Despite their return to, and growth in normal gravity, the subtracted library derived from microgravity-treated seedlings was enriched in known microgravity stress-related ESTs, corresponding to large and small heat shock proteins, 14-3-3-like protein, polyubiquitin, and proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. In contrast, the reverse-subtracted library contained a comparatively greater variety of general metabolism-related ESTs, but was also enriched for peroxidase, possibly indicating the suppression of this protein in the microgravity-treated seedlings. Following continued growth for 30 days, higher concentrations of total chlorophyll were detected in the microgravity-exposed seedlings. PMID:24688295

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  12. Ecophysiological responses of winter wheat seedling to aerosol wet deposition of Xi'an area, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol leads to 30% reduction in solar radiation reaching the earth's surface, and a similar reduction in crops yield for both wheat and rice. To determine the effect of aerosol wet deposition on crops, aerosol samples were collected in September, 2006 at Xi'an urban suburb (34 degrees 44'N, 109 degrees 49'E), and wheat seedlings were treated with aerosol of different concentrations in laboratory conditions. Changes in physiological and biochemical parameters of wheat seedlings were measured. In comparison with the control, the activities of superoxide dismudase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the concentration malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) of wheat seedlings increased progressively with increasing concentrations of added aerosol, while the opposite trend was seen for the activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO), and the ratio of GSH/GSSG. When the seedlings were treated with the aerosol of 1 and 2 mg/L, the coleoptile elongation, shoot elongation and biomass accumulation were increased, the effect at treatment of 2 mg/L was most significant. However, aerosol treatments with rates of 3 and 4 mg/L resulted in a decrease in coleoptile elongation, shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in seedlings, and significant effect was for the treatment of 4 mg/L. Hence, lower concentrations of aerosol wet deposition were in favor of crops growth, but its higher concentrations could result in deleterious effects for crops and decreased crops growth. PMID:21235168

  13. Combined effects of lead and acid rain on photosynthesis in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Liao, Chenyu; Fan, Caixia; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    To explore how lead (Pb) and acid rain simultaneously affect plants, the combined effects of Pb and acid rain on the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence reaction, Hill reaction rate, and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity in soybean seedlings were investigated. The results indicated that, when soybean seedlings were treated with Pb or acid rain alone, the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were decreased, while the initial fluorescence (F 0) and maximum quantum yield (Y) were increased, compared with those of the control. The combined treatment with Pb and acid rain decreased the chlorophyll content, Hill reaction rate, Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F(v)/F(m), and Y and increased F 0 in soybean seedlings. Under the combined treatment with Pb and acid rain, the two factors showed additive effects on the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings and exhibited antagonistic effects on the Hill reaction rate. Under the combined treatment with high-concentration Pb and acid rain, the two factors exhibited synergistic effects on the Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, F 0, F v/F m, as well as Y. In summary, the inhibition of the photosynthetic process is an important physiological basis for the simultaneous actions of Pb and acid rain in soybean seedlings. PMID:25069575

  14. Femtosecond laser-fabricated biochip for studying symbiosis between Phormidium and seedling root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Nobuaki; Hanada, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Ikuko; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-06-01

    We present the fabrication of a waveguide-like structure in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer substrate using a femtosecond laser to study the mechanism of symbiosis between filamentous cyanobacteria, Phormidium, and a seedling root. While symbiosis occurring underground promotes the growth of vegetable seedlings, the details of the mechanism remain unclear. Understanding the mechanisms of Phormidium gliding to the seedling root will facilitate improving the mat formation of Phormidium, which will lead to increased vegetable production. We assumed a symbiosis mechanism in which sunlight propagates through the seedling root and is scattered underground to guide the Phormidium gliding. Once attached to the root, Phormidium uses the scattered light for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic products, in turn, promote an increase in Phormidium mat formation and vegetable growth. To verify this assumption, the optical characteristics of the seedling root were investigated. A waveguide-like structure with the same optical characteristics of the root was subsequently fabricated by femtosecond laser in PDMS polymer to assess the light illumination effect on Phormidium behavior.

  15. Second year effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Potted native and phyton-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed for a second growing season to ozone and/or acid deposition in open-top field chambers on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1,680 m). Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient ozone (COE), (2) ozone with clouds excluded (CE), and (3) exposure to clouds and ozone, as control chambers (CO), and (4) open plots (AA). No differences were detected among treatments for biomass accumulation or for chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phyton seedlings in AA and CO treatments maintained high photosynthetic rates through October, whereas rates in CE and COE decreased, suggesting that dormancy and winter hardiness were delayed in AA and CO, possibly making seedlings susceptible to early frosts. Respiration of both seedling types was higher for AA and CO throughout most of the growing season, which could lead to depletion of carbohydrates, and eventually to a reduction in growth and vigor of the seedlings over time due to air pollution.

  16. Thresholds for Georesponse to Acceleration in Gravity-Compensated Avena Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Shen-Miller, J.; Hinchman, R.; Gordon, S. A.

    1968-01-01

    The magnitude of acceleration required to induce growth responses in Avena seedlings grown in the absence of tropic response to earth gravity has been investigated. For this purpose, a clinostat was developed that imposes accelerations from about 10?9 g to 3 g upon the seedling; simultaneously, it nullifies, or compensates for, response to the directional component of the gravitational-force vector by rotating the seedling on a horizontal axis. When accelerations less than 10?3 g are applied in either the acropetal or the basipetal direction, the growth in length and weight of the various organs is not materially different from that of compensated seedlings to which no longitudinal force is applied. At accelerations between 10?3 and 10?2 g, differences in growth become highly significant. When the centrifugal forces are transverse to the seedling during compensation, the threshold acceleration range for geoperception, as manifest by shoot reorientation, is again between 10?3 and 10?2 g. Geotropic reorientation of the root becomes apparent after exposures between 10?4 and 10?3 g. Images PMID:16656768

  17. Physiological aspects underlying the improved outplanting performance of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings associated with ectomycorrhizal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Majada, Juan; Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Gonzalez-Murua, Carmen; Ortega, Unai; Alonso-Graña, Manuel; Arana, Orats; Duñabeitia, Miren K

    2013-11-01

    Mycorrhizal inoculation of conifer roots is a key strategy to optimize establishment and performance of forest tree species under both natural and cultivated conditions and also to mitigate transplantation shock. However, despite being a common practice, inoculation in outdoor nursery conditions has been poorly studied. Here, we have evaluated effectiveness of four fungal species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius quieticolor, Pisolithus arhizus, and Suillus luteus) in the production of mycorrhizal Pinus pinaster seedlings in an outdoor commercial nursery and their ability to improve seedling physiology and field performance. All inoculated seedlings showed a significant increase in growth at the end of the nursery stage and these differences remained after 3 years of growth in the field. Differences observed in the content of malondialdehyde, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic compounds from needles of mycorrhizal and control seedlings may reflect a different sensitivity to photo-oxidative damage. We conclude that ectomycorrhizal inoculation improves adaptability to changeable growing conditions of an outdoor nursery and produces a higher quality nursery stock, thereby enhancing seedling performance after planting. PMID:23674120

  18. [Effects of light intensity on seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-fu; Cao, Min

    2007-01-01

    With shading experiment, this paper studied the seed germination and seedling early growth of Shorea wantianshuea, a representative species in Xishuangbanna seasonal rain forest under different light intensity and forest habitat. The results showed that both 100% light and deepest shading did not facilitate the germination of S. wantianshuea seed, while medium shading accelerated the seed germination. Gap center was more appropriate to the seed germination than gap edge and under-canopy. The seeds in gap center had the highest germination rate and rapid germination. Under partially shading, the seedling height, diameter of basal stem, and leaf area per seedling were in their peak, while the root-shoot ratio decreased with increasing shading and achieved its maximum under 100% light. The specific leaf area increased with increasing shading in a certain range, and peaked under 4.2% light. Gap center was beneficial to the early seedling growth, with all growth parameters except root-shoot ratio peaked there. The effects of environmental factors, mainly light intensity and quality, on the seed germination and seedling growth of S. wantianshuea were discussed. PMID:17396494

  19. Climate Change Alters Seedling Emergence and Establishment in an Old-Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Aimée T.; Norby, Richard J.; Campany, Courtney E.; Sides, Katherine E.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological succession drives large-scale changes in ecosystem composition over time, but the mechanisms whereby climatic change might alter succession remain unresolved. Here, we asked if the effects of atmospheric and climatic change would alter tree seedling emergence and establishment in an old-field ecosystem, recognizing that small shifts in rates of seedling emergence and establishment of different species may have long-term repercussions on the transition of fields to forests in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduced seeds from three early successional tree species into constructed old-field plant communities that had been subjected for 4 years to altered temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 regimes in an experimental facility. Our experiment revealed that different combinations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature, and soil moisture altered seedling emergence and establishment. Treatments directly and indirectly affected soil moisture, which was the best predictor of seedling establishment, though treatment effects differed among species. Conclusions The observed impacts, coupled with variations in the timing of seed arrival, are demonstrated as predictors of seedling emergence and establishment in ecosystems under global change. PMID:20976104

  20. Tolerance to Cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) Seeds and Seedlings from Sites Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  1. Tolerance to cadmium of Agave lechuguilla (Agavaceae) seeds and seedlings from sites contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Hurtado, Alejandra; Rangel-Méndez, René; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if seeds of Agave lechuguilla from contaminated sites with heavy metals were more tolerant to Cd ions than seeds from noncontaminated sites. Seeds from a highly contaminated site (Villa de la Paz) and from a noncontaminated site (Villa de Zaragoza) were evaluated. We tested the effect of Cd concentrations on several ecophysiological, morphological, genetical, and anatomical responses. Seed viability, seed germination, seedling biomass, and radicle length were higher for the non-polluted site than for the contaminated one. The leaves of seedlings from the contaminated place had more cadmium and showed peaks attributed to chemical functional groups such as amines, amides, carboxyl, and alkenes that tended to disappear due to increasing the concentration of cadmium than those from Villa de Zaragoza. Malformed cells in the parenchyma surrounding the vascular bundles were found in seedlings grown with Cd from both sites. The leaves from the contaminated place showed a higher metallothioneins expression in seedlings from the control group than that of seedlings at different Cd concentrations. Most of our results fitted into the hypothesis that plants from metal-contaminated places do not tolerate more pollution, because of the accumulative effect that cadmium might have on them. PMID:24453802

  2. The impact of the herbicide atrazine on growth and photosynthesis of seagrass, Zostera marina (L.), seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaping; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Ren, Lihua; Mao, Yuze; Li, Bin; Zhang, Mingliang; Liu, Dinghai; Du, Meirong

    2011-08-01

    The impact of the widely used herbicide atrazine on seedling growth and photosynthesis of eelgrass was determined. The long-term impact of the herbicide atrazine (1, 10 and 100 ?g/L) on growth of eelgrass Zostera marina (L.) seedlings, maintained in outdoor aquaria, was monitored over 4 weeks. Exposure to 10 ?g/L atrazine resulted in significantly lower plant fresh weight and total chlorophyll concentration and up to 86.67% mortality at the 100 ?g/L concentration. Short-term photosynthetic stress on eelgrass seedlings was determined and compared with adult eelgrass using chlorophyll fluorescence. The effective quantum yield in eelgrass seedlings was significantly depressed at all atrazine concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 ?g/L) even within 2 h and remained at a lower level than for adult plants for each concentration. These results indicate that atrazine presents a potential threat to seagrass seedling functioning and that the impact is much higher than for adult plants. PMID:21724206

  3. Effects of Chemical Treatments upon Photosynthetic Parameters in Soybean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Manning, David T.; Chen, Tsong Meng; Campbell, Andrew J.; Tolbert, N. E.; Smith, E. Wayne

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various chemical treatments upon photosynthesis, soluble leaf protein, CO2 compensation point, and leaf light transmission in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., seedlings were examined following varying response periods after application at 14 to 17 days postemergence. The compounds N6-benzyladenine (BA), 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoic acid (CPMP), (4-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid (CPA), rhodanine-N-acetic acid (RAA), and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) significantly increased soluble protein and decreased senescence, measured by leaf light transmission, at CO2 concentrations below the compensation point in a survival chamber. All compounds except BA significantly decreased transmission values under ambient atmospheric conditions. In statistically significant experiments, applications of 3.49 millimolar CPMP increased net photosynthesis on a leaf area basis by an average of 14.4% at all trifoliolate positions with increases generally requiring response periods of 12 days or longer. RAA at 1.31 and 2.61 millimolar increased net photosynthesis by 19 to 36% following 13-day response periods. CPMP and other compounds tested had no effect upon the CO2 compensation point after 4- to 8-day response periods. The effects of CPMP and RAA upon net photosynthesis and soluble protein appeared to involve a combined stimulation of protein synthesis and an antisenescent effect. There were no indications that any of the photosynthetic changes observed resulted from direct differential effects upon ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. The assays for soluble protein and light transmission responded more consistently to the chemicals than did photosynthesis. PMID:16663948

  4. Effects of O/sub 2/ concentration on rice seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of rice, wheat, and oat seedlings to germinate and grow as the O/sub 2/ concentration was lowered to zero was compared. The germination of rice was completely unaffected by O/sub 2/ supply, whereas that of oats and wheat was strongly retarded at levels below 5% O/sub 2/. In contrast to the coleoptiles of oats and wheat and to roots of all three species where growth was progressively diminished as the O/sub 2/ concentration was lowered, that of the rice coleoptile was progressively increased. However, the dry weight and content of protein, sugars, and cellulose were all depressed in the rice coleoptile in anoxia, and the levels of several respiratory enzymes, particularly those of mitochondria, were also much lower than those of the coleoptiles grown in air. In 1% O/sub 2/, the growth of the rice coleoptile was similar to that in air. The effect of ethanol concentration on germination and growth of rice was measured. Coleoptile growth was reduced when the ethanol concentration exceeded 40 millimolarity, and root growth was somewhat more sensitive. Coleoptiles of all three species grown in air were transferred to N/sub 2/ and ethanol accumulation was measured over 24 hours. The rate of ethanol accumulation in oats was close to that in rice, and in all three species the amounts of ethanol lost to the surrounding medium were those expected from simple diffusion from the tissue. The ability of the rice coleoptile to grow in anoxia is apparently not due to a particularly low rate of ethanol formation or to unusual ethanol tolerance. Any explanation of the success of rice in anoxia must encompass the much lower rate of ATP synthesis than that in air and account for the biochemical deficiencies of the coleoptile.

  5. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with Pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of loss of ectomycorrhizae encountered during lifting of nursery seedlings to the capacity of the seedlings. Loblolly pine seedlings with abundant Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally occurring (NI) ectomycorrhizae were nursery grown. Seedlings from the 2 groups were graded to similar sizes and either 100, 66, 33 or 0% of the ectomycorrhizae were removed to simulate degrees of roughness in machine handling of seedlings. The 8 treatments were outplanted on an upland site in a complete randomized plot design. Although the results are only preliminary at this time, they do indicate that seedlings with intact Pt ectomycorrhizae survive better, regenerate more roots, and initiate more height growth than seedlings with their roots stripped to different degrees. Generally, seedlings with Pt ectomycorrhizae are doing better than those with NI ectomycorrhizae. 1 table.

  6. Effects of ectomycorrhizae removal on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings with pisolithus or natural ectomycorrhizae on an upland site in South Carolina. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the significance of physiological stress caused by mechanical loss of specific ectomycorrhizae (as done by seedling lifting machines) to the capacity of pine seedlings to regenerate roots, survive, and grow.

  7. A comparative field study of growth and survival of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1996-12-31

    This study is a comparison of seedling growth and survival of seven species of conifers that make up the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest--Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. The field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the study species` relatively shade and drought tolerances. Six discrete treatments were created in the first experiment by using three elevations (1,600 m, 1,900, m, and 2,200 m) and two natural light levels (closed canopy shade and open gap sun) at each elevation. One or two-year old seedlings were planted in the ground in replicate plots in each treatment and followed for two growing seasons. Four responses were analyzed--survival, height growth, diameter growth, and mass growth (total mass as well as root mass and shoot mass separately).

  8. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  9. Short term signaling responses in roots of young soybean seedlings exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chmielowska-B?k, Jagna; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lutts, Stanley; Deckert, Joanna

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, the expression of fourteen genes involved in various signal transduction pathways was examined in young soybean (Glycine max) seedlings exposed to cadmium at two concentrations (10 mg L(-1) and 25 mg L(-1)) for short time periods (3, 6 and 24 h). The results show that cadmium causes induction of genes encoding proteins involved in ethylene and polyamines metabolism, nitric oxide generation, MAPK cascades and regulation of other genes' expression. The bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequences of Cd-inducible genes revealed that their promoters possess several regulative motifs associated with the plant response to stress factors and abscisic acid and ethylene signaling. The involvement of ethylene in the response of soybean seedlings to cadmium stress was further confirmed by the real-time analysis of ethylene production during 24 h of CdCl2 treatment. The role of the described signaling elements in transduction of the cadmium signal in young soybean seedlings is discussed. PMID:23942356

  10. Modeling forest floor contribution to phosphorus supply to maritime pine seedlings in two-layered forest soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Jonard; Laurent Augusto; Emmanuel Hanert; David L. Achat; Mark R. Bakker; Christian Morel; Alain Mollier; Sylvain Pellerin

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative contribution of the forest floor to P nutrition of maritime pine seedlings was experimentally determined by Jonard et al. (2009) in a greenhouse experiment using the radio-isotopic labeling. To extend the results of the experiment on a known mineral soil, a modeling approach was developed to predict P uptake of maritime pine seedlings growing in a mineral soil

  11. Grass defoliation affects survival and growth of seedlings of Acacia karroo, an encroaching species in southwestern Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chirara; P. G. H. Frost; V. E. E. Gwarazimba

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those competing with moderately clipped grasses. Root\\/shoot ratios of A. karroo

  12. Rapid molecular typing of Tuber melanosporum , T. brumale and T. indicum from tree seedlings and canned truffles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Douet; M. Castroviejo; D. Mabru; G. Chevalier; C. Dupré; F. Bergougnoux; J. M. Ricard; B. Médina

    2004-01-01

    We have developed new DNA extraction and purification procedures for investigation of mycorrhized seedlings and canned truffles. Use of these procedures on approximately 100 mg initial material enabled good sample representation. For mycorrhized seedlings, Taq polymerase inhibitors were discarded irrespective of tree species. In routine analysis we systematically used consensus primers ITS1\\/ITS4 to check the absence of Taq polymerase inhibitors and

  13. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  14. Conifer seedling recruitment across a forest-to-alpine tundra gradient: effects of species, provenance, and site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Castanha; M. J. Germino; M. S. Torn; B. Weibel; L. M. Kueppers

    2012-01-01

    Background: Seedling germination and survival is a critical control on forest ecosystem boundaries, such as at the alpine-treeline ecotone. In addition, while it is known that species respond individualistically to the same suite of environmental drivers, the potential additional effect of local adaptation on seedling success has not been evaluated.Aims: To determine whether local adaptation may influence the position and

  15. Impacts of mechanical site preparation on foliar nutrients of planted white spruce seedlings on mixed-wood

    E-print Network

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Impacts of mechanical site preparation on foliar nutrients of planted white spruce seedlings on mixed-wood boreal forest sites in Alberta S. Ellen Macdonalda,* , Margaret G. Schmidtb , Richard L nutrition of planted white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings were examined at two mixed

  16. Stock Quality of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra) Seedlings as Affected by Half-Sib Seed Source and Nursery Sowing Density

    E-print Network

    375 Stock Quality of Black Walnut (Juglans Nigra) Seedlings as Affected by Half-Sib Seed Source identity, bareroot nursery production Abstract Morphological quality of black walnut (Juglans nigra L quality black walnut seedlings. INTRODUCTION Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an important component

  17. Effect of zinc and boron interaction on growth and mineral composition of lemon seedlings in a calcareous soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rajaie; A. k. Ejraie; H. r. Owliaie; A. r. Tavakoli

    Abstract The impact ,of different ,concentration ,of zinc (Zn) and ,boron (B) on growth ,and mineral composition,of lemon ,seedlings (Citrus Aurantifolia L.) was studied under greenhouse ,conditions. We used five concentration levelsof B (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 µg g, of soil. In above mentioned B levels, lemon seedlings displayed slight to severe B toxicity symptoms. ,Zn treatments ,reduced

  18. Effects of water deficit stress and recovery on the root water relations of trembling aspen ( Populus tremuloides) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Aurea Siemens; Janusz J. Zwaizek

    2003-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings were grown in sand culture and subjected to mild and severe water deficit stress by withholding watering. Severely-stressed seedlings were also rewatered for 24 h to determine the effects of water deficit stress and stress recovery on root water flow properties. Both stress levels and stress recovery treatment reduced leaf stomatal conductance and shoot water

  19. Relating leaf photosynthetic rate to whole-plant growth: drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Quero Perez; R. Villar; T. Marañón; R. Zamora; D. Vega; L. Sack

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of combined resource supplies on seedlings is critical to enable prediction of establishment growth, and forest dynamics. We investigated the effects of irradiance and water treatments on absolute growth, and relative growth rate (RGR) and its components, for seedlings of four Quercus species differing in leaf habit and with a wide variation in seed mass. Plants were

  20. VARIATION IN FLOOD TOLERANCE OF CONTAINER-GROWN SEEDLINGS OF SWAMP WHITE OAK, BUR OAK, AND WHITE OAK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Walsh; J. W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) grown from acorns collected from

  1. Fine mapping of the qCTS4 locus associated with seedling cold tolerance in rice (Orysa Sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures ('15°C) and under prolonged or repeated exposure, yellowing and stunting are commonly observed. Damage to seedlings results in poor stand establishment and delayed maturation, which can cause significant reductions in yield. In general, japonica rice ...

  2. INTEGRATING CONTINUOUS SOIL DEPTH DISTRIBUTIONS OF HYDROTHERMAL TIME, SEEDS, AND BURIAL TOLERANCES TO IMPROVE SEEDLING EMERGENCE MODELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in seedling emergence models may arise by accounting for variable and depth-specific accumulation of hydrothermal time in seed-bearing zones of soil, as well as tolerances of seed germination and seedling emergence in burial depth and, lastly, distribution of seed densities in soil, whi...

  3. South African Iridaceae with rapid and profuse seedling emergence are more likely to become naturalized in other regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK VAN KLEUNEN; STEVEN D. JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1 Plant invasions constitute a large biological problem and screening protocols are needed to assess the invasive potential of species considered for introduction. However, insufficient information is available on species characteristics associated with successful establishment outside their native range. 2 We tested experimentally whether seed and seedling emergence characteristics and early growth of seedlings are associated with naturalization of

  4. Evaluation of seedling cold tolerance in rice cultivars: a comparison of visual ratings and quantitative indicators of physiological changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is sensitive to prolonged exposure to low temperature, which at the seedling stage can result in significant chilling injury and mortality. The objective of this study was to quantify physiological and biochemical changes in rice seedlings undergoing chilling stress and compar...

  5. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade-tolerant woody seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawren Sack; Peter J. Grubb

    2002-01-01

    To test whether the impact of drought on the growth and biomass allocation of first-season shade-tolerant woody seedlings in low irradiance differs from that in high irradiance, seedlings of Viburnum lantana, V. opulus, V. tinus and Hedera helix were grown in pots at two watering frequencies 2 three irradiances. Hypotheses in the recent literature variously predict that drought will have

  6. Effects of Roads on Castanopsis carlesii Seedlings and Their Leaf Herbivory in a Subtropical Forest in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Jia-Sheng; Cai, Lu-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a forest road on Castanopsis carlesii (Hemsley) Hayata (Fagales: Fagaceae) seedlings and their leaf herbivory were investigated in a subtropical forest at Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China. A total of 1124 seedlings, 33949 leaves, 468 leaf mines, and 205 leaf galls were found. Generally, individual numbers, tree heights, and leaf numbers of C. carlesii seedlings became lower with increasing distances from the road. These results might indicate that old seedlings were fewer and survival rate of seedlings was lower in forest interiors. Leaf miners preferred the seedlings close to the forest road, while leaf gallers preferred the seedlings about 2 m from the road. Species diversity of leaf miners was higher in the forest interior area, while species diversity of leaf gallers was higher near the road. However, both leaf miners and leaf gallers decreased in general from the road to the interior forest. There were interspecific differences in the effects of roads on leaf miner species and leaf galler species. The effects of the road on seedlings and insects could be explained by varying microhabitat conditions and different ecological strategies. PMID:25373164

  7. Incident Irradiance and Cupric Hydroxide Container Treatment Effects on Early Growth and Development of Container-grown Pawpaw Seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk W. Pomper; Desmond R. Layne; Snake C. Jones

    2002-01-01

    The North American pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) has great potential as a fruit crop or as a landscape plant. The influence of incident irradiance on pawpaw seedling growth and development in containers was examined in the greenhouse and outdoors. Root spiraling can be a problem for container-grown pawpaw seedlings; therefore, the influence of paint containing cupric hydroxide (Cu(OH) 2)

  8. Applying the seedling-emergence method under waterlogged conditions to detect the seed bank of aquatic plants in submerged sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ger Boedeltje; Gerard N. J ter Heerdt; Jan P Bakker

    2002-01-01

    Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings from sediment samples from a freshwater canal, comparing a waterlogged treatment with a submerged treatment. From the sediment samples

  9. Abstract We evaluated feeding preference and damage by the slug, Arion subfuscus, on seedlings of two willow

    E-print Network

    Orians, Colin

    of two willow species, Salix sericea and S. eriocephala, and their F1 in- terspecific hybrids. Trays preferred feeding on and caused the most damage to S. eriocephala seedlings. S. sericea seedlings were least subfuscus · Fitness · Hybrid · Chemical defense · Salix Introduction Detailing the relationships between

  10. Altered allocation to roots and shoots in the endophyte-infected seedlings of Puccinellia distans (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Czarnoleski, M; Olejniczak, P; Górzy?ska, K; Koz?owski, J; Lembicz, M

    2013-03-01

    Endophytes play an important role in ecological and evolutionary processes in plants and have marked economic value. Seed-transmitted fungal endophytes are conventionally regarded as mutualistic symbionts, but their fitness consequences for the offspring of the host are not clear. Puccinellia distans infected with the fungus Epichloë typhina (E+) produces seeds that are several times smaller than normal (E-). This observation suggests that the E+ seedlings face a developmental disadvantage. Our growth chamber experiments compared the germination rates of the small E+ and large E- seeds of P. distans and examined the biomass allocation of seedlings to roots and shoots. The E+ seedlings germinated more slowly and maintained shorter shoots and a smaller root biomass for 30-50?days after sowing. Despite this disadvantage, the E+ plants more quickly increased their total size, attaining a larger shoot and whole-plant biomass. The shoot:root biomass ratio increased more rapidly through time in the E+ seedlings, attaining a value nine times higher in the E+ than the E- group 50?days after sowing. Such differences between the E+ and E- seedlings were not explained by the growth allometry between shoots and roots. The seedlings of P. distans infected with the Epichloë endophyte were initially handicapped by their postponed emergence, but this disadvantage was quickly overcome by their superior growth capacity. The decrease in the relative allocation to roots may indicate that endophytes increase the performance of roots as resource-acquiring organs and/or reduce the role of roots in protection against herbivores. PMID:22726626

  11. Mechanisms associated with tolerance to flooding during germination and early seedling growth in rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Ella, Evangelina S.; Vergara, Georgina V.; Mackill, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding slows seed germination, imposes fatalities and delays seedling establishment in direct-seeded rice. This study describes responses of contrasting rice genotypes subjected to flooding or low oxygen stress during germination and discusses the basis of tolerance shown by certain cultivars. Methods In one set of experiments, dry seeds were sown in soil and either watered normally or flooded with 10 cm of water. Seedling survival and shoot and root growth were assessed and seed portions of germinating seedlings were assayed for soluble sugars and starch concentrations. The whole germinating seedlings were assayed for amylase and peroxidase activities and for ethylene production. Activities of enzymes associated with anaerobic respiration were examined and gene expression was analysed separately with seeds germinating under different amounts of dissolved oxygen in dilute agar. Key Results Flooding during germination reduced survival but to a lesser extent in tolerant genotypes. Starch concentration in germinating seeds decreased while sugar concentration increased under flooding, but more so in tolerant genotypes. Amylase activity correlated positively with elongation (r = 0·85 for shoot and 0·83 for root length) and with plant survival (r = 0·92). Tolerant genotypes had higher amylase activity and higher RAmy3D gene expression. Ethylene was not detected in seeds within 2 d after sowing, but increased thereafter, with a greater increase in tolerant genotypes starting 3 d after sowing. Peroxidase activity was higher in germinating seeds of sensitive genotypes and correlated negatively with survival. Conclusions Under low oxygen stress, tolerant genotypes germinate, grow faster and more seedlings survive. They maintain their ability to use stored starch reserves through higher amylase activity and anaerobic respiration, have higher rates of ethylene production and lower peroxidase activity as germinating seeds and as seedlings. Relevance of these traits to tolerance of flooding during germination and early growth is discussed. PMID:19001425

  12. Effects of soil enrichment, watering and seedling age on establishment of Mediterranean woody species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siles, Gemma; Rey, Pedro J.; Alcántara, Julio M.; Bastida, Jesús M.; Herreros, Jose L.

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation restoration in strongly degraded lands has inherent limitations. Among the most relevant limitations in Mediterranean Mountains are severe drought and stressful levels of irradiance during summer. Thus, it is common that seedlings planted in open ground incur high rates of early mortality. In the context of a project of restoration of a burned area in Southern Spain, we evaluate the efficiency of watering and enrichment with native soil, and the influence of seedling age on survival and growth of 9 late-successional tall shrubs and trees planted in open ground. We also explore how small-scale variation in environmental variables relates to establishment success. Our results show an overall positive effect of watering on the survival of planted seedlings, while the effects of enrichment with native soil and age of planted seedlings were species-specific. Seedling establishment varied markedly with the presence of ravines, which duplicated seedling survival. This suggests that ravines may be more easily restored, improving their role as corridors in landscape designs of restoration. Independently of the treatment applied, Rosa sp. and Crataegus monogyna, both fleshy-fruited species, had the highest rates of establishment. In conclusion, this study shows the viability of low aggressive restoration techniques to assist vegetation recovery in fire-degraded environments. Specifically, watering and planting in ravines should be considered where restoration practices are applied in areas lacking vegetation cover. Some species highly attractive for animal dispersers and of easy establishment ( Rosa sp. and Crataegus sp.) could be used to enhance spontaneous regeneration within and beyond corridors through increasing seed attraction and dissemination.

  13. The Effects of Cadmium-Zinc Interactions on Biochemical Responses in Tobacco Seedlings and Adult Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tkalec, Mirta; Štefani?, Petra Peharec; Cvjetko, Petra; Šiki?, Sandra; Pavlica, Mirjana; Balen, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cadmium-zinc (Cd-Zn) interactions on their uptake, oxidative damage of cell macromolecules (lipids, proteins, DNA) and activities of antioxidative enzymes in tobacco seedlings as well as roots and leaves of adult plants. Seedlings and plants were exposed to Cd (10 µM and 15 µM) and Zn (25 µM and 50 µM) as well as their combinations (10 µM or 15 µM Cd with either 25 µM or 50 µM Zn). Measurement of metal accumulation exhibited that Zn had mostly positive effect on Cd uptake in roots and seedlings, while Cd had antagonistic effect on Zn uptake in leaves and roots. According to examined oxidative stress parameters, in seedlings and roots individual Cd treatments induced oxidative damage, which was less prominent in combined treatments, indicating that the presence of Zn alleviates oxidative stress. However, DNA damage found in seedlings, and lower glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity recorded in both seedlings and roots, after individual Zn treatments, indicate that Zn accumulation could impose toxic effects. In leaves, oxidative stress was found after exposure to Cd either alone or in combination with Zn, thus implying that in this tissue Zn did not have alleviating effects. In conclusion, results obtained in different tobacco tissues suggest tissue-dependent Cd-Zn interactions, which resulted in activation of different mechanisms involved in the protection against metal stress. PMID:24475312

  14. Organ-coordinated response of early post-germination mahogany seedlings to drought.

    PubMed

    Horta, Lívia P; Braga, Márcia R; Lemos-Filho, José P; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-04-01

    Water deficit tolerance during post-germination stages is critical for seedling recruitment. In this work, we studied the effect of water deficit on morphological and biochemical responses in different organs of newly germinated mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings, a woody species that occurs in the Amazon rainforest. The root : shoot ratio increased under water deficit. The leaf number and water potential were not altered, although reductions in leaf area and stomatal conductance were observed. Osmotic potential became more negative in leaves of seedlings under severe stress. Water deficit increased fructose, glucose, sucrose and myo-inositol levels in leaves. Stems accumulated fructose, glucose and l-proline. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the vascular cylinder of roots under severe stress while superoxide anion levels decreased due to augmented superoxide dismutase activity in this organ. Water deficit induced glutathione reductase activity in both roots and stems. Upon moderate or severe stress, catalase activity decreased in leaves and remained unaffected in the other seedling organs, allowing for an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in leaves. Overall, the increase of signaling molecules in distinct organs-NO in roots, l-proline in stems and H2O2 and myo-inositol in leaves-contributed to the response of mahogany seedlings to water deficit by triggering biochemical processes that resulted in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the establishment of osmotic adjustment. Therefore, this body of evidence reveals that the development of newly germinated mahogany seedlings may occur in both natural habitats and crop fields even when water availability is greatly limited. PMID:24690672

  15. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (p<0.05). Shoot to root ratio was lower in warming plots than in control plots with the precipitation decrease treatment (p<0.05). The seedling height growth observed in 2013 and 2014 might be explained by the previous year's fixed growth of P. densiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  16. The Fungicide Phosphonate Disrupts the Phosphate-Starvation Response in Brassica nigra Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Carswell, C.; Grant, B. R.; Theodorou, M. E.; Harris, J.; Niere, J. O.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1996-01-01

    The development of Brassica nigra seedlings over 20 d of growth was disrupted by the fungicide phosphonate (Phi) in a manner inversely correlated with nutritional inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. The growth of Pi-sufficient (1.25 mM Pi) seedlings was suppressed when 10, but not 5, mM Phi was added to the nutrient medium. In contrast, the fresh weights and root:shoot ratios of Pi-limited (0.15 mM) seedlings were significantly reduced at 1.5 mM Phi, and they progressively declined to about 40% of control values as medium Phi concentration was increased to 10 mM. Intracellular Pi levels generally decreased in Phi-treated seedlings, and Phi accumulated in leaves and roots to levels up to 6- and 16-fold that of Pi in Pi-sufficient and Pi-limited plants, respectively. Extractable activities of the Pi-starvation-inducible enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase were unaltered in Pi-sufficient seedlings grown on 5 or 10 mM Phi. However, when Pi-limited seedlings were grown on 1.5 to 10 mM Phi (a) the induction of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase activities by Pi limitation was reduced by 40 to 90%, whereas (b) soluble protein concentrations and the activities of the ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were unaffacted. It is concluded that Phi specifically interrupts processes involved in regulation of the Pi-starvation response in B. nigra. PMID:12226174

  17. Fertilization of Pinus pinea L. seedlings with a sewage sludge-based compost.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Henrique M; Vasconcelos, Ernesto; Cabral, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Dina

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a sewage sludge-based compost (SSC) on the growth and mineral composition of containerized Pinus pinea L. seedlings. In the first experiment, five different substrates were tested: four binary mixtures of SSC and peat (100% SSC, 75% SSC, 50% SSC and 25% SSC, by volume) without fertilization, and a control substrate (peat-based substrate + fertilizer). Seedlings growing in the 100% SSC substrate showed the lowest growth, a consequence of both the low water availability and the high electrical conductivity that made SSC unsuitable to be the only component of a growing-media for pine ;seedlings'. The 50% SSC substrate presented physical and chemical properties similar to the control substrate and near the acceptable range for a growing-media. Moreover, no significant differences were found between growth of seedlings from treatment 50% SSC (without mineral fertilization) and seedlings from control treatment (with mineral fertilization). In the second experiment, a fertilization assay was performed with two substrates selected from the first experiment (50% SSC and control). The two substrates were fertilized with three levels of a macronutrient fertilizer (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g L( -1)) and two levels of a micronutrient fertilizer (0 and 0.4 g L(-1) of fertilizer containing only micronutrients). Results obtained suggest that replacing 50% (by volume) of peat-based substrate by the sewage sludge-based compost allowed: maintenance of the commercial value of seedlings; reduction of the amount of peat used in the substrate; a need for only half the amount of macronutrient fertilizer applied in the basal fertilization; and omission of micronutrient fertilization. PMID:19244410

  18. Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Etiolated Maize Seedling Leaves during Greening*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhuo; Li, Ping; Ni, Rui-Juan; Ritchie, Mark; Yang, Chuan-Ping; Liu, Gui-Feng; Ma, Wei; Liu, Guan-Jun; Ma, Ling; Li, Shu-Juan; Wei, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Hong-Xia; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-01-01

    To better understand light regulation of C4 plant maize development, we investigated dynamic proteomic differences between green seedlings (control), etiolated seedlings, and etiolated seedlings illuminated for 6 or 12 h using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach based on nanoscale ultraperformance liquid chromatography-ESI-MSE. Among more than 400 proteins identified, 73 were significantly altered during etiolated maize seedling greening. Of these 73 proteins, 25 were identified as membrane proteins that seldom had been identified with two-dimensional electrophoresis methods, indicating the power of our label-free method for membrane protein identification; 31 were related to light reactions of chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and photosynthetic carbon assimilation. The expression of photosystem II subunits was highly sensitive to light; most of them were not identified in etiolated maize seedlings but drastically increased upon light exposure, indicating that the complex process of biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus correlates with the transition from a dark-grown to a light-grown morphology. However, transcriptional analysis indicated that most transcripts encoding these proteins were not regulated by light. In contrast, the levels of mRNAs and proteins for enzymes involved in carbon assimilation were tightly regulated by light. Additionally phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase C4 pathway, was more tightly regulated by light than the key enzymes of the NADP-malic enzyme C4 pathway. Furthermore phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1C, which was originally reported to be specifically expressed in roots, was also identified in this study; expression of this enzyme was more sensitive to light than its isoforms. Taken together, these results represent a comprehensive dynamic protein profile and light-regulated network of C4 plants for etiolated seedling greening and provide a basis for further study of the mechanism of gene function and regulation in light-induced development of C4 plants. PMID:19666873

  19. Root signalling and modulation of stomatal closure in flooded citrus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Ancillo, Gema; González-Mas, M Carmen; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Iglesias, Domingo J; Forner-Giner, M Angeles

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we studied the sequence of responses induced by flooding in citrus plants, with the aim of identifying the signals that lead to stomatal closure. One-year-old seedlings of Carrizo citrange, grown in sand under greenhouse conditions, were waterlogged for 35 d and compared with normally watered well-drained plants. Significant decreases in stomatal conductance and transpiration were detected between flooded and control seedlings from a week after the beginning of the experiment. However ABA concentration in leaves only started to increase after three weeks of flooding, suggesting that stomata closed in the absence of a rise in foliar ABA. Therefore, stomatal closure in waterlogged seedlings does not appear to be induced by ABA, at least during the early stages of flood-stress. The low levels of ABA detected in roots and xylem sap from flooded seedlings indicated that it is very unlikely that the ABA increase in the leaves of these plants is due to ABA translocation from roots to shoots. We propose that ABA is produced in old leaves and transported to younger leaves. Flooding had no effect on water potential or the relative water content of leaves. Soil flooding reduced root hydraulic conductance in citrus seedlings. This effect was already evident after a week of waterlogging, and at the end of the experiment, flood-stressed seedlings reached values of root hydraulic conductance below 12% of that of control plants. This reduction was related to down-regulation of the expression of PIP aquaporins. In addition, whole plant transpiration was reduced by 56% after 35 d under flooding conditions. Flood-stress also decreased the pH of sap extracted from citrus roots. Evidence is presented suggesting that acidosis induced by anoxic stress in roots causes gating of aquaporins, thereby decreasing hydraulic conductance. Additionally, stomatal closure finely balances-out low pH-mediated losses of root hydraulic conductance therefore maintaining stable leaf hydration. PMID:21459591

  20. 52 Richardson et al.: Drought Stress and Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) Seedlings To improve the health of urban and ornamental trees, it is

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    52 Richardson et al.: Drought Stress and Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera) Seedlings To improve, and leaf reflectance) to assess the level of drought stress in paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings by DROUGHT STRESS AND PAPER BIRCH (BETULA PAPYRIFERA) SEEDLINGS: EFFECTS OF AN ORGANIC BIOSTIMULANT ON PLANT

  1. Effect of litter, leaf cover and cover of basal internodes of the dominant species Molinia caerulea on seedling recruitment and established vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Lepš

    2005-01-01

    The effects of litter removal, leaf cover of established plants and cover of basal internodes of a dominant species Molinia caerulea on seedling germination and the dynamics of established plants were studied in a field experiment in an oligotrophic wet meadow. Although the negative influence of litter on total seedling number and seedling species composition was non-significant, litter significantly affected

  2. Effects of temperature on growth and water relations of cacao ( Theobroma cacao var. Comum ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Sena Gomes; T. T. Kozlowski

    1987-01-01

    Growth of 55-day-oldTheobroma cacao var.Comum seedlings varied with temperature regimes, various plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Over a 60-day\\u000a period the optimal day-temperature regimes were near 33.3C for dry weight increase and relative growth rates of seedlings\\u000a and leaves; 30.5C for increase in leaf area, height growth, and leaf abscission; 22.2C for dry weight increase of stems

  3. Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, and Photosynthetic Response to Water Stress in Peach Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Hand, J. Mark; Young, Eric; Vasconcelos, Aurea C.

    1982-01-01

    Individual groups of peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch) seedlings stressed to ?17, ?26 and ?36 bars recovered to control levels within 1, 3, and 4 days, respectively. Stomatal resistance was significantly correlated with both leaf water potential and net photosynthesis. In seedlings stressed to ?52 bars, leaf water potential and stomatal resistance recovered sooner than net photosynthesis, despite recovery of 02 evolution at a rate similar to leaf water potential. Therefore, some nonstomatal factor other than reduction in photochemical activity must be responsible for the lag in recovery of CO2 assimilation following irrigation. PMID:16662343

  4. Selenium as a novel regulator of porphyrin biosynthesis in germinating seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Padmaja, K; Prasad, D D; Prasad, A R

    1990-11-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid, porphyrin and chlorophyll contents as well the activities of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and PBG deaminase were studied in selenium treated mung bean seedlings. Selenium had no effect on 5-aminolevulinic acid synthetic ability but inhibited 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and PBG deaminase activities. Further, it was observed that selenium induced accumulation of protoporphyrin-IX and Mg-protoporphyrin ester and decreased chlorophyll levels in both light and dark-grown seedlings. The results suggest the possible regulatory role of selenium on chlorophyll synthesis by interacting with sulfhydryl containing enzymes 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase. PMID:2076102

  5. Herbivory on Temperate Rainforest Seedlings in Sun and Shade: Resistance, Tolerance and Habitat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    Differential herbivory and/or differential plant resistance or tolerance in sun and shade environments may influence plant distribution along the light gradient. Embothrium coccineum is one of the few light-demanding tree species in the temperate rainforest of southern South America, and seedlings are frequently attacked by insects and snails. Herbivory may contribute to the exclusion of E. coccineum from the shade if 1) herbivory pressure is greater in the shade, which in turn can result from shade plants being less resistant or from habitat preferences of herbivores, and/or 2) consequences of damage are more detrimental in the shade, i.e., shade plants are less tolerant. We tested this in a field study with naturally established seedlings in treefall gaps (sun) and forest understory (shade) in a temperate rainforest of southern Chile. Seedlings growing in the sun sustained nearly 40% more herbivore damage and displayed half of the specific leaf area than those growing in the shade. A palatability test showed that a generalist snail consumed ten times more leaf area when fed on shade leaves compared to sun leaves, i.e., plant resistance was greater in sun-grown seedlings. Herbivore abundance (total biomass) was two-fold greater in treefall gaps compared to the forest understory. Undamaged seedlings survived better and showed a slightly higher growth rate in the sun. Whereas simulated herbivory in the shade decreased seedling survival and growth by 34% and 19%, respectively, damaged and undamaged seedlings showed similar survival and growth in the sun. Leaf tissue lost to herbivores in the shade appears to be too expensive to replace under the limiting light conditions of forest understory. Following evaluations of herbivore abundance and plant resistance and tolerance in contrasting light environments, we have shown how herbivory on a light-demanding tree species may contribute to its exclusion from shade sites. Thus, in the shaded forest understory, where the seedlings of some tree species are close to their physiological tolerance limit, herbivory could play an important role in plant establishment. PMID:20628638

  6. In vitro biochemical evaluation of cadmium tolerance mechanism in callus and seedlings of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Gyan Singh; Verma, Kusum; Jana, Sonali; Singh, Kusum; Teotia, Preeti; Prasad, Archana

    2010-03-01

    In vitro grown callus and seedlings of Brassica juncea were treated with equimolar concentrations of cadmium and compared for their respective tolerance to cadmium. Calli cultures were grown on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with alpha 6-benzyl aminopurine (200 microg (-1), naphthalene acetic acid 200 microg L(-1)) and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxy acetic acid (65 microg L(-1)) while the seedlings grown on Hoagland's nutrient solution have been carried out. Cellular homeostasis and detoxification to cadmium in B. juncea were studied by analyzing the growth in terms of fresh weight and dry weight, lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT)). At 200 microM cadmium, callus and seedlings showed 73.61% and 74.76% reduction in tolerance, respectively. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content was found in both calli and seedlings; however, the amount of MDA content was more in seedlings. Proline content increased on lower concentration of cadmium (up to 50 microM), and it further decreased (up to 200 microM). But the accumulation of proline was higher in callus cultures. The overall activity of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and APX) was found to be higher in callus in comparison to seedlings of B. juncea. Callus and seedlings showed a significant (P seedlings exposed to equimolar concentrations of cadmium. Thus, from the present studies, it is concluded that calli were more tolerant toward cadmium-induced oxidative stress. Hence, it is suitable material for the study of cadmium tolerance mechanisms and for the manipulations within them for better understanding of cadmium detoxification strategies in B. juncea. PMID:19921394

  7. 2,3-Epoxybrassinosteroids are intermediates in the biosynthesis of castasterone in seedlings of Secale cereale.

    PubMed

    Antonchick, Andrey; Svatos, Ales; Schneider, Bernd; Konstantinova, Olga V; Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of the 2,3-epoxybrassinosteroids secasterone and 2,3-diepisecasterone in the biosynthesis of castasterone has been demonstrated in seedlings of Secale cereale by LC-ESI-MS. Deuterated secasterone, upon administration to rye seedlings, was incorporated into castasterone and its 2beta- and 3beta-epimers. Administration of deuterated 2,3-diepisecasterone resulted in castasterone and 2-epicastasterone. A biosynthetic subpathway from typhasterol/teasterone via 2,3-epoxybrassinosteroid intermediates to castasterone is discussed. PMID:15649512

  8. Liming effects on slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) seedlings growing on acid soils

    E-print Network

    Elzner, John Thomas

    1978-01-01

    LIMING FFFECTS ON SLASH PINE (PINUS ELLIQTTII ENGLll. ) SEEDLINGS GROWING ON ACID SOILS A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS ELZNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfi11ment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1978 Major Subject: Forestry LIMING EFFECTS Oahi SLASH PINE (PINUS ELLIOTTII ENGLM. ) SEEDLINGS GROWING ON ACID SOILS A Thesis by JOHN THOMAS ELZNER Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chai fC if~ Head o Dep tment...

  9. Differential energization of the tonoplast in suspension cells and seedlings from Picea abies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Pfeiffer

    1998-01-01

    Vacuolar ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3) and PPase (EC 3.6.1.1) were studied in suspension cells and seedlings from spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst. Proton transport activity and uncoupler (1 µM nigericin) stimulated substrate hydrolysis were measured in tonoplast\\u000a enriched membrane vesicles. In suspension cells the vacuolar PPase exhibited 1.8-fold activity of the ATPase. In roots and\\u000a needles from 12-week-old spruce seedlings the

  10. On the Reversible Conjugation of [17-D 2 ]GA 20 in Seedlings of Phaseolus coccineus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schneider; M. Koch; P. Fuchs

    1999-01-01

    .   After administering [17-D2]GA20 to Phaseolus coccineus L. cv. Preisgewinner seedlings, [17-D2]GA20-O-glucoside was identified by liquid chromatography (LC)\\/ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Likewise, by LC\\/ESI-tandem MS\\u000a the metabolic formation of [17-D2]GA20 glucosyl ester was established. The application of both [17-D2]-labeled GA20 13-O-glucoside and GA20 glucosyl ester to Phaseolus coccineus L. seedlings resulted in free [17-D2]GA20 by gas chromatography\\/MS. The results demonstrate

  11. Wind-dispersed Seed Deposition Patterns and Seedling Recruitment of Artemisia halodendron in a Moving Sandy Land

    PubMed Central

    LI, FENG-RUI; WANG, TAO; ZHANG, AI-SHENG; ZHAO, LI-YA; KANG, LING-FEN; CHEN, WEN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Artemisia halodendron is a native sub-shrub that occurs mainly in moving and semi-fixed sandy lands in Inner Mongolia, China. Information on the spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron inhabiting moving sandy lands is very limited. The aim of this study was to examine wind-dispersed seed deposition patterns and post-dispersal recruitment of A. halodendron seedlings. •Methods The spatial patterns of wind-dispersed seed deposition and seedling recruitment of A. halodendron were examined by investigating the numbers of deposited seeds, emerged and surviving seedlings using sampling points at a range of distances from the parent plant in eight compass directions for two consecutive growing seasons. •Key Results Wind-dispersed seed deposition showed considerable variation between directions and years. Wind transported A. halodendron seeds only a few meters away from the parent plant in all eight directions. Seedling emergence and establishment also showed between-direction and between-year variability, but the spatial pattern of seedling distribution differed from that of seed deposition. Only a very small fraction (<1 %) of the deposited seeds emerged in the field and survived for long enough to be included in our seedling censuses at the end of the growing season. •Conclusions The spatial variation in wind speed and frequency strongly affects the pattern of seed deposition, although the variation in seed deposition does not determine the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment. Seeds of A. halodendron are not dispersed very well by wind. The low probability of recruitment success for A. halodendron seedlings suggests that this species does not rely on seedling recruitment for its persistence and maintenance of population. PMID:15857850

  12. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different plant species and fungal strains. PMID:24424508

  13. The Role of Reproductive Phenology, Seedling Emergence and Establishment of Perennial Salix gordejevii in Active Sand Dune Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiaoling; Liu, Zhimin; Ma, Junling; Jiang, Deming

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The function of sexual reproduction of perennials in restoration of vegetation of active dune fields frequently has been underestimated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of sexual reproduction of the perennial Salix gordejevii in the revegetation of active dunes. Methods Seedling emergence and establishment of S. gordejevii were examined both in controlled experiments (germination at different burial depths with different watering regimes) and in field observations in three dune slacks. The reproductive phenology and soil seed bank of S. gordejevii, the dynamics of soil moisture, the groundwater table and the landform level of three dune slacks were monitored. Key Results Seeds of S. gordejevii began maturation on 1 May, and seed dispersal lasted from 8 May to 20 May. Seeds on the soil surface germinated significantly faster than those buried in soil (P<0·05). Seedling emergence was negatively correlated with landform level. When most seedlings emerged, there was a significantly positive correlation between soil moisture and seedling emergence (P<0·01). Rainfall was negatively correlated with seedling emergence. Seedling establishment was significantly and positively correlated with seedling emergence (P<0·05), and 72·3 % of the emergent seedlings were established at the end of the growing season. These results indicated that (a) seeds matured and dispersed before the rainy season; (b) seeds germinated as soon as they contacted a moist surface and relied more on soil moisture than on rainfall; and (c) more seedlings emerged at lower sampling points in dune slacks. Conclusions In natural conditions, restoration of active sand dune fields generally commences with revegetation of dune slacks where sexual reproduction of perennials contributes greatly to species encroachment and colonization and hence plays an important role in restoration of active dune fields. Furthermore, aeolian erosion in dune slacks, leading to good soil moisture, facilitates seed germination, seedling emergence and establishment of S. gordejevii. PMID:17085475

  14. Responses of plant seedlings to hypergravity: cellular and molecular aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.

    Hypergravity produced by centrifugation has been used to analyze the responses of plant seedlings to gravity stimulus. Elongation growth of stem organs is suppressed by hypergravity, which can be recognized as a way for plants to resist gravitational force. The mechanisms inducing growth suppression under hypergravity conditions were analyzed at cellular and molecular levels. When growth was suppressed by hypergravity, a decrease in the cell wall extensibility was brought about in various plants. Hypergravity also induced a cell wall thickening and an increase in the molecular mass of the certain hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Both a decrease in the activities hydrolyzing such polysaccharides and an increase in the apoplast pH were involved in such changes in the cell wall constituents. Thus, the cell wall metabolism is greatly modified under hypergravity conditions, which causes a decrease in the cell wall extensibility, thereby inhibiting elongation growth in stem organs. On the other hand, to identify genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression, changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by differential display method. Sixty-two genes were expressed differentially: expression levels of 39 genes increased, whereas those of 23 genes decreased under hypergravity conditions. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. One of genes upregulated by hypergravity encoded hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor of hormones such as gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR activity, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water. These cellular and molecular changes appear to be involved in a series of events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  15. Growth relationships between root and shoot in walnut seedlings (Juglans regia L.)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Growth relationships between root and shoot in walnut seedlings (Juglans regia L.) J.S. Frossard A of root growth throughout the year may be the same as or different from that of shoot growth (Riedacker questions: 1) is the relative position within the annual cycle of root and shoot growth a general

  16. Effect of soil HHCB on cadmium accumulation and phytotoxicity in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cuihong; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat seedlings under single and joint stress of galaxolide (HHCB) and Cd was investigated, and their phytotoxicity and oxidation stress including chlorophyll (CHL), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, and perosidase were assessed. The results showed that the accumulation of Cd in wheat seedlings increased with an increase in the concentration of Cd in soil. The low concentration of HHCB inhibited the accumulation of Cd, while the high concentration of HHCB induced the accumulation of Cd. The content of CHL increased significantly in treatments with 1-50 mg kg(-1) Cd. However, the content of CHL under joint stress of Cd and HHCB was significantly lower than that in the control. Besides, the content of MDA in wheat leaves and roots was also significantly affected by HHCB and Cd, particularly by their joint stress. Co-contamination of HHCB significantly affected the activity of antioxidant enzymes in wheat seedlings stressed by Cd. In a word, HHCB could aggravate the phytotoxicity of Cd to wheat seedlings. PMID:25142349

  17. 96-well Format DNA Extraction Protocol for Freeze-dried Maize Seedling Leaves

    E-print Network

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    1 96-well Format DNA Extraction Protocol for Freeze-dried Maize Seedling Leaves (Last revised tape and lyopholize tissue using a freeze drier immediately after collection. Depending on the amount of tissue, samples are typically dried for 2-3 days. c. Briefly spin down samples. Remove airpore tape

  18. Salt influence on germination and seedling survival of six cool season turfgrass species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Harivandi; J. D. Butler; P. M. Soltanpour

    1982-01-01

    ‘Merion’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), ‘Pennfine’ perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), ‘Seaside’ creeping bent?grass (Agrostis palustris Huds.), ‘Dawson’ slender creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra trichophylla (L.) Gaud.), ‘Fults’ weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl.), and ‘common’ Lemmon alkaligrass (Puccinellia lemmoni (Vasey) Scribn.) were evaluated for germination and seedling survival in the greenhouse and laboratory under saline conditions. Overall results

  19. Effects of exogenous ABA on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of cut twigs from oak seedlings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of exogenous ABA on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of cut twigs from oak seedlings of the observed decline in net photosynthesis (Downton etal., 1988) or is there some direct ef- fect of ABA on mesophyll photosynthesis (Raschke and Hedrich, 1985)? Do forest trees display the same responses to ABA

  20. Water relation characteristics and photosynthesis of saline-stressed seedlings of non-halophyte species

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water relation characteristics and photosynthesis of saline-stressed seedlings of non of the present study was to ex- amine the distribution of salts and its effect on photosynthesis for non as relative values against 0% treatment. Photosynthesis by O. asiaticus var. aurantiacus decreased

  1. Endophyte Effect on Seedling Vigor in 19 Half-sib Familes of Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling mass and emergence force were studied in two greenhouse experiments using 19 half-sib families of ‘Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] each of which was produced from genotypes with or without the common toxic endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones ...

  2. Integration of light and abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Jingyu; Neff, Michael M.; Hong, Suk-Whan; Zhang, Huiyong; Deng, Xing-Wang; Xiong, Liming

    2008-01-01

    Seed germination is regulated by endogenous hormonal cues and external environmental stimuli such as water, low temperature, and light. After germination, the young seedling must rapidly establish its root system and the photoautotrophic capability appropriate to its surrounding environment. Light and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) both regulate seed germination and seedling development, although how light and ABA signals are integrated at the molecular level is not understood. Here, we found that the previously described light-signaling component HY5 also mediates ABA response in seed germination, early seedling growth, and root development in Arabidopsis. HY5 binds to the promoter of the transcription factor ABI5 gene with high affinity and is required for the expression of ABI5 and ABI5-targeted late embryogenesis-abundant genes in seeds. Chromatin immunoprecipitation also indicated that the binding of HY5 to the ABI5 promoter is significantly enhanced by ABA. Overexpression of ABI5 restores ABA sensitivity in hy5 and results in enhanced light responses and shorter hypocotyls in the wild type. Our studies identified an unexpected mode of light and ABA signal integration that may help young seedlings better adapt to environmental stresses. PMID:18332440

  3. Effects of environmental factors on the shoot development of Quercus petraea seedlings A methodological approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chaar; F. Colin; C. Collet

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if various morphological components of height growth were sensitive to environmental factors (i.e., grass root competition, frost and shading) and to see if these components could be used to quantify the effect of environmental stress on the height growth of sessile oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.) seedlings. The following components were measured: number

  4. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase expression in Citrus paradisi and Petunia hybrida seedlings.

    PubMed

    Pelt, Jennifer L; Downes, W Andrew; Schoborg, Robert V; McIntosh, Cecilia A

    2003-09-01

    Petunia hybrida and Citrus paradisi have significantly different flavonoid accumulation patterns. Petunia sp. tend to accumulate flavonol glycosides and anthocyanins while Citrus paradisi is known for its accumulation of flavanone diglycosides. One possible point of regulation of flavanone metabolism is flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression. To test whether this is a key factor in the different flavanone usage by Petunia hybrida and Citrus paradisi, F3H mRNA expression in seedlings of different developmental stages was measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Primers were designed to conserved regions of F3H and used to amplify an approximately 350 bp segment for quantitation by PhosphorImaging. Primary leaves of 32 day old grapefruit seedlings and a grapefruit flower bud had the highest levels of F3H mRNA expression. Petunia seedlings had much lower levels of F3H mRNA expression relative to grapefruit. The highest expression in petunia was in primary leaves and roots of 65 day old seedlings. These results indicate that preferential use of naringenin for production of high levels of flavanone glycosides in young grapefruit leaves cannot be attributed to decreased F3H mRNA expression. PMID:12943760

  5. Forest microhabitats differentially influence seedling1 phenology of two co-existing Mediterranean oak species2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Forest microhabitats differentially influence seedling1 phenology of two co are predicted to alter future species distribution by affecting the2 phenology of tree species. In Mediterranean conditions. We ask how forest microhabitats impact seasonal microclimatic4 conditions and phenological

  6. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  7. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been previously

  8. [Impacts of salt stress on the growth and physiological characteristics of Panicum virgatum seedlings].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xi-Feng; Hou, Xin-Cun; Zhu, Yi; Wu, Ju-Ying

    2012-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in an artificial climate chamber to study the growth and physiological characteristics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) seedlings exposed to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl solutions. With the increasing concentration of the NaCl, the seedling growth was obviously inhibited. The plant height decreased, leaves became smaller, photosynthetic leaf area and net photosynthetic rate reduced, and dry matter accumulation decreased significantly, presenting the general traits of glycophyte. Meanwhile, the seedlings also showed relatively high salt tolerance. After exposed to 200 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl for 30 days, the seedlings still survived, with the green leaf area per plant and net photosynthetic rate being 491.9 cm2 and 0.93 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. In this experiment, the salt tolerance threshold for P. virgatum was 178.6 mmol L(-1) when taking 50% drop in biomass as the standard. PMID:22937633

  9. Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Karen

    Salt Sensitivity and the Activities of the H+ -ATPases in Cotton Seedlings Howard Lin, Sandra S environ- ments. Sensitivityto high levels of salt in plants is associated with an inability to effectively+ -pumping ATPases may provide the driving force for Na+ transport via Na+ -H+ exchangers. In a salt

  10. Interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on seedling growth of Salix nigra and Taxodium distichum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, R.H.; Doyle, T.W.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.

    2006-01-01

    The large river swamps of Louisiana have complex topography and hydrology, characterized by black willow (Salix nigra) dominance on accreting alluvial sediments and vast areas of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) deepwater swamps with highly organic substrates. Seedling survival of these two wetland tree species is influenced by their growth rate in relation to the height and duration of annual flooding in riverine environments. This study examines the interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on growth rates of black willow and baldcypress seedlings. In a greenhouse experiment with a split-split-plot design, 1-year seedlings of black willow and baldcypress were subjected to two nutrient treatments (unfertilized versus fertilized), two hydroperiods (continuously flooded versus twice daily flooding/draining), and two substrates (sand versus commercial peat mix). Response variables included height, diameter, lateral branch count, biomass, and root:stem ratio. Black willow growth in height and diameter, as well as all biomass components, were significantly greater in peat substrate than in sand. Black willow showed a significant hydroperiod-nutrient interaction wherein fertilizer increased stem and root biomass under drained conditions, but flooded plants did not respond to fertilization. Baldcypress diameter and root biomass were higher in peat than in sand, and the same two variables increased with fertilization in flooded as well as drained treatments. These results can be used in Louisiana wetland forest models as inputs of seedling growth and survival, regeneration potential, and biomass accumulation rates of black willow and baldcypress.

  11. Seedling Stage Strategies as a Means of Habitat Specialization in Herbaceous Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk-Jan ten Brink; Hans Henrik Bruun

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration niche has been little investigated in studies of community assembly and plant distribution. We examined adaptive associations between seedling traits and habitat specialization. Two habitat contrasts were investigated across several evolutionary lineages of angiosperms: species specialized to forest vs. open habitats and to dry vs. wet habitats. We also tested whether effects of shade and drought vary independently

  12. Induction of Heat Stress Tolerance in Barley Seedlings by Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment with Glycinebetaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Wahid; Asma Shabbir

    2005-01-01

    Heat stress adversely affects plant growth and development, while glycinebetaine (GB) plays a protective role under stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the optimum level of GB for use as a presowing seed treatment and the subsequent effect on the heat tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haider-93) seedlings. Among a range of GB levels,

  13. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  14. Selective depredation of planted hardwood seedlings by wild pigs in a wetland restoration area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J Mayer; Eric A Nelson; Lynn D Wike

    2000-01-01

    Following the planting of several thousand hardwood seedlings in a 69-ha wetland restoration area in west-central South Carolina, USA, wild pigs (Sus scrofa) depredated a large percentage of the young trees. This planting was undertaken as part of a mitigation effort to restore a bottomland hardwood community in the corridor and delta of a third order stream that had been

  15. Effects of GA3 Pregerminative Treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca Germination and Seedlings Morphology

    PubMed Central

    González-López, Óscar; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz) M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. However, cold treatments produce low germination percentages and GA3 treatments may produce off-type seedlings. So, the objective was to determine, for the first time, the presowing treatments that allow high germination rate and good seedling morphology. The best pregerminative doses of GA3 to break seed dormancy were 100, 500, and 1000?ppm, while the best doses to optimize the seedling habit were 50 and 100?ppm. This study provides, for the first time, a 100?ppm GA3 dose that led to a high germination rate and good seedling morphology, as the starting point for gentian regular cultivation. PMID:25105167

  16. Effects of thermal wounding, shading and exogenous auxin on some sprouting responses of coast redwood seedlings.

    PubMed

    Finney, M A

    1993-04-01

    The effects of wounding, shading, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on sprouting responses were examined in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens D. Don (Endl)) seedlings. In August, two-year-old seedlings were given one of three thermal wounding treatments made with a blowtorch at the stem base. After 8 months, the heat-wounded seedlings were decapitated above the burl and IAA (0.00% to 1.00% by weight in lanolin) was applied to the cut surface every week for 8 weeks. Throughout the 8-week hormone treatment, the decapitated seedlings were subjected to one of three shading treatments (no shade, 70% shading and complete darkness). At the beginning of June, sprouts were harvested from each stump and measurements made of the length of the tallest sprout, number of sprouts, dry weight of all sprouts, and mean dry weight per sprout. All sprouting parameters showed negative responses to IAA. Shading decreased sprout number and sprout dry weight. Wounding increased maximum sprout length and dry weight per sprout but decreased the number of sprouts. Only the 2-way interaction between IAA and wounding was not significant for any of the responses. PMID:14969920

  17. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50?Hz frequency and ?500?µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22?°C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16?°C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22?°C and 13-16?°C. PMID:24123065

  18. Effect of earthworm casts on protein synthesis in radish ( Raphanus sativum ) and lettuce ( Lactuga sativa ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Tomati; E. Galli; A. Grappelli; G. Di Lena

    1990-01-01

    The protein-synthesizing capacity of 3-day-old seedlings of radish and lettuce grown in the presence of earthworm casts was investigated using L-14-C-leucine incorporation. The results showed that earthworm casts increased protein synthesis by 24% for lettuce and 32% for radish, althought no significant differences in protein content were evident.

  19. SEEDLING EXPRESSION OF CROSS-GENERATIONAL PLASTICITY DEPENDS ON REPRODUCTIVE ARCHITECTURE 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARJORIE R. LUNDGREN; SONIA E. SULTAN

    2005-01-01

    Through adaptive cross-generational plasticity, stressed plants can alter their offspring in specific ways that promote seedling success. As yet, very little is known about the expression of such plasticity, and whether it varies within a plant due to offspring position. The effects of parental light deprivation on distinct reproductive structures were tested in the annual Polygonum hydropiper, which produces both

  20. SEEDLING EXPRESSION OF CROSS-GENERATIONAL PLASTICITY DEPENDS ON REPRODUCTIVE ARCHITECTURE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARJORIE R. LUNDGREN; SONIA E. SULTAN

    Through adaptive cross-generational plasticity, stressed plants can alter their offspring in specific ways that promote seedling success. As yet, very little is known about the expression of such plasticity, and whether it varies within a plant due to offspring position. The effects of parental light deprivation on distinct reproductive structures were tested in the annual Polygonum hydropiper, which produces both