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Sample records for cinnamomum zeylanicum bark

  1. Subcritical water extraction of flavoring and phenolic compounds from cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

    PubMed

    Khuwijitjaru, Pramote; Sayputikasikorn, Nucha; Samuhasaneetoo, Suched; Penroj, Parinda; Siriwongwilaichat, Prasong; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) powder was treated with subcritical water at 150 and 200°C in a semi-continuous system at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min) and pressure (6 MPa). Major flavoring compounds, i.e., cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol and coumarin, were extracted at lower recoveries than the extraction using methanol, suggesting that degradation of these components might occur during the subcritical water treatment. Caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic and vanillic acids were identified from the subcritical water treatment. Extraction using subcritical water was more effective to obtain these acids than methanol (50% v/v) in both number of components and recovery, especially at 200°C. Subcritical water treatment at 200°C also resulted in a higher total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the methanol extraction. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content linearly correlated but the results suggested that the extraction at 200°C might result in other products that possessed a free radical scavenging activity other than the phenolic compounds. PMID:22687781

  2. Ameliorative Effects of a Polyphenolic Fraction of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. Bark in Animal Models of Inflammation and Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Badal; Bodhankar, Subhash; Mohan, V.; Thakurdesai, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Syn C. verum, family: Lauraceae) is one of the oldest traditional medicines for inflammatory- and pain-related disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the polyphenol fraction from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (CPP) in animal models of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose-response studies of CPP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) used in a separate set of in vivo experiments were conducted in acute (carrageenan-induced rat paw edema), subacute (cotton pellet-induced granuloma), and sub-chronic (AIA, adjuvant-induced established polyarthrtis) models of inflammation in rats and the acetic acid-induced writhing model of pain in mice. Effects of CPP on cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from Concanavalin (ConA)-stimulated lymphocytes were also evaluated in vitro. CPP showed a strong and dose-dependent reduction in paw volume, weight loss reversal effects against carrageenan-induced paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. CPP (200 mg/kg p.o. for 10 days) showed a significant reduction in elevated serum TNF-α concentration without causing gastric ulcerogenicity in the AIA model in rats. CPP also demonstrated mild analgesic effects during acute treatment as evidenced by the reduction in the writhing and paw withdrawal threshold of the inflamed rat paw during the acetic acid-induced writhing model and Randall-Selitto test. CPP was found to inhibit cytokine (IL-2, IL-4, and IFNγ) release from ConA-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro. In conclusion, CPP demonstrated prominent action in animal models of inflammation and arthritis and therefore can be considered as a potential anti-rheumatic agent with disease-modifying action. PMID:23833722

  3. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ) in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg). For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day) and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%), total cholesterol (32.1%) and LDL-cholesterol (75.3%) while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4%) with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group). Conclusion MECZ possesses

  4. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. PMID:25605550

  5. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon. PMID:21929331

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2009-10-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important branch of nanotechnology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth as the reducing agent is reported. The morphology of the particles formed consists of a mixture of gold nanoprisms and spheres with fcc (1 1 1) structure of gold. At lower concentrations of the extract, formation of prism shaped Au particles dominates, while at higher concentrations almost spherical particles alone are observed. Good crystallinity of the nanoparticles with fcc phase is evident from XRD patterns, clear lattice fringes in the high resolution TEM image and bright circular rings in the SAED pattern. Au nanoparticles grown are observed to be photoluminescent and the intensity of photoemission is found to increase with increase in leaf broth concentration. The ability to modulate the shape of nanoparticles as observed in this study for gold nanoparticles opens up the exciting possibility of developing further synthetic routes employing ecofriendly sources.

  7. Supercritical CO2 extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: chemical characterization and antityrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Tuveri, Enrica; Sanjust, Enrico; Meli, Massimo; Sollai, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Rescigno, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The volatile oil of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of supercritical CO2 fluid extraction in different conditions of pressure and temperature. Its chemical composition was characterized by GC-MS analysis. Nineteen compounds, which in the supercritical extract represented >95% of the oil, were identified. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde (77.1%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (6.0%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), and eugenol (3.0%) were found to be the major constituents. The SFE oil of cinnamon was screened for its biological activity about the formation of melanin in vitro. The extract showed antityrosinase activity and was able to reduce the formation of insoluble flakes of melanin from tyrosine. The oil also delayed the browning effect in apple homogenate. (E)-Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol were found to be mainly responsible of this inhibition effect. PMID:17966976

  8. Effectiveness of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced damages on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Yüce, A; Türk, G; Çeribaşı, S; Güvenç, M; Çiftçi, M; Sönmez, M; Özer Kaya, Ş; Çay, M; Aksakal, M

    2014-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the likelihood of detrimental effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) on male reproductive system through oxidative stress mechanism and also protective effects of cinnamon bark oil (CBO). For this purpose, 28 healthy male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, seven rats in each. Group 1 received only olive oil daily; group 2 was treated with 100 mg kg(-1) CBO daily; group 3 was treated with only 0.25 ml kg(-1) CCl4 weekly; and group 4 received weekly CCl4 + daily CBO. All administrations were made by intragastric catheter and maintained for 10 weeks. Body and reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, testicular oxidative stress markers and testicular apoptosis were examined. CCl4 administration caused significant decreases in body and reproductive organ weights, testicular catalase (CAT) activity, sperm motility and concentration, and significant increases in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, abnormal sperm rate and apoptotic index along with some histopathological damages compared with the control group. However, significant improvements were observed in absolute weights of testis and epididymis, all sperm quality parameters, LPO level, apoptotic index and testicular histopathological structure following the administration of CCl4 together with CBO when compared to group given CCl4 only. The findings of this study clearly suggest that CBO has protective effect against damages in male reproductive organs and cells induced by CCl4 . PMID:23410011

  9. Profile of urinary and fecal proanthocyanidin metabolites from common cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) in rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Fuguet, Elisabet; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) bark is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine. Its oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins are believed to be partly responsible for the beneficial properties of the plant. We describe here the metabolic fate of cinnamon proanthocyanidins in the urine and feces of rats fed a suspension of the whole bark. The metabolites include ten mono-, di-, and tri- conjugated (epi)catechin phase II metabolites and more than 20 small phenolic acids from intestinal microbial fermentation. Some of these are sulfated conjugates. Feces contain intact (epi)catechin and dimers. This suggests that free radical scavenging species are in contact with the intestinal walls for hours after ingestion of cinnamon. The phenolic metabolite profile of cinnamon bark in urine is consistent with a mixture of proanthocyanidins that are depolymerized into their constitutive (epi)catechin units as well as cleaved into smaller phenolic acids during their transit along the intestinal tract, with subsequent absorption and conjugation into bioavailable metabolites. PMID:22383303

  10. Composition, antimicrobial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Unlu, Mehmet; Ergene, Emel; Unlu, Gulhan Vardar; Zeytinoglu, Hulya Sivas; Vural, Nilufer

    2010-11-01

    The essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Nine constituents representing 99.24% of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil were (E)-cinnamaldehyde (68.95%), benzaldehyde (9.94%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (7.44%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against 21 bacteria and 4 Candida species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on ras active (5RP7) and normal (F2408) fibroblasts were examined by MTT assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC(50) values less than 20 μg/mL for both cell lines. 5RP7 cells were affected stronger than normal cells. Morphological observation of apoptotic cells indicated the induction of apoptosis at the high level of the oil, especially in 5RP7 cells. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of cinnamon bark, indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections and neoplasms. PMID:20828600

  11. Effects of the polyphenol content on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts.

    PubMed

    IM, Krishnakumar; Issac, Abin; NM, Johannah; Ninan, Eapen; Maliakel, Balu; Kuttan, Ramadassan

    2014-09-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a popular kitchen spice widely investigated for insulin potentiating effects. Though a group of water soluble polyphenols belonging to the oligomeric procyanidins has been identified as the bioactive principle, the lack of systematic information on the effect of the polyphenol content on safety and anti-diabetic efficacy remains as a major limitation for the development of optimized and standardized cinnamon extracts for functional use. In the present paper, water soluble extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum containing 45 and 75% gallic acid equivalents (GAE) of polyphenol content were prepared by a novel process and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. The polyphenol enhanced extracts were shown to be safe and offered better antioxidant potential, hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidimic effect, and significant decrease in other biochemical parameters as compared to the standard aqueous extract containing 15% GAE, when administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 200 mg per kg b.w. for 30 days. The efficacy of polyphenol extracts in lowering blood glucose levels and ameliorating oxidative stress was further demonstrated in humans by administrating 'procynZ-45' containing 45% GAE polyphenols at a relatively low dosage of (125 mg × 2) per day for 30 days to 15 volunteers who had elevated fasting blood glucose levels; but not involved in any medication. PMID:25051315

  12. Photostimulated luminescence detection and radiation effects on cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) spice.

    PubMed

    Marcazzó, J; Sanchez-Barrera, C E; Urbina-Zavala, A; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2015-10-01

    The increase of disease borne pathogens in foods has promoted the use of new technologies in order to eliminate these pathogen microorganisms and extend the shelf-life of the foodstuffs. In particular, Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) contains an important number of pathogen microorganisms and it is frequently sterilized by gamma radiation. However, it is important to develop the detection methods for irradiated food in order to keep the dose control and also to analyze the radiation effects in their chemical property. This work reports (i) the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) detection of irradiated cinnamon and thermoluminescence (TL) detection of the inorganic polymineral fraction separated from this spice, and (ii) the proximate chemical analysis carried out on fat, protein and dietetic fiber contents. The detection limits using the PSL and TL methods were 500 Gy and 10 Gy, respectively, and the fat content was increased significantly with the gamma dose that could be related to the lipid oxidation in the cinnamon. PMID:26133665

  13. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS. PMID:25913274

  14. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. Methods A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: “Cinnamomum zeylanicum”, “Ceylon cinnamon”, “True cinnamon” and “Sri Lankan cinnamon”. To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. Results The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. Conclusions The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public

  15. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice. PMID:25612221

  16. Effect of cinnamomum zeylanicum blume essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. This study aimed to assess the interference of C. zeylanicum essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of some potentially pathogenic Aspergillus species. The essential oil presented strong antifungal effect causing the growth inhibition of the assayed strains and development of large growth inhibition zones. MIC50 and MIC90 values were 40 and 80 μL/mL, respectively. 80, 40 and 20 μL/mL of the oil strongly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus along 14 days. 80 and 40 μL/mL of the oil caused a 100% inhibition of the fungal spore germination. Main morphological changes observed under light microscopy provided by the essential oil in the fungal strains were decreased conidiation, leakage of cytoplasm, loss of pigmentation and disrupted cell structure indicating fungal wall degeneration. It is concluded that C. zeylanicum essential oil could be known as potential antifungal compound, particularly, to protect against the growth of Aspergillus species. PMID:24031186

  17. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  18. Increasing antibiotic activity against a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp by essential oils of Citrus limon and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Mendes, Juliana Moura; Sousa, Janiere Pereira de; Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter has gained importance in recent years due to involvement in serious infections and antimicrobial resistance. Many plants have been evaluated not only for direct antimicrobial activity, but also as resistance modifying agents. The Essential oil of Citrus limon (EOCL) addition at 156.25 µgmL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentration in the growth medium led to MIC decrease for amikacin, imipenem and meropenem. The Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (EOCZ) addition at 78.125 µg mL(-1) (MIC/8) sub-inhibitory concentrations in the growth medium caused drastic MIC reduction of amikacin. Results of combining antibiotics and essential oils had shown us a synergistic effect with both essential oils/amikacin combinations. An additive effect was observed with the combinations of both essential oils and gentamicin. The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. limon and C. zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity. PMID:22191514

  19. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  20. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  1. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  2. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages. PMID:25992249

  3. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin-uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Fukushima, Misato; Ito, Yoshimasa; Muraki, Etsuko; Hosono, Takashi; Seki, Taiichiro; Ariga, Toyohiko

    2010-01-01

    It has long been believed that an intake of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) alleviates diabetic pathological conditions. However, it is still controversial whether the beneficial effect is insulin-dependent or insulin-mimetic. This study was aimed at determining the insulin-independent effect of cinnamon. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups and orally administered with an aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) for 22 d. The diabetic rats that had taken CE at a dose of more than 30 mg/kg/d were rescued from their hyperglycemia and nephropathy, and these rats were found to have upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in their brown adipose tissues as well as in their muscles. This was verified by using 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which CE upregulates GLUT4 translocation and increases the glucose uptake. CE exhibited its anti-diabetic effect independently from insulin by at least two mechanisms: i) upregulation of mitochondrial UCP-1, and ii) enhanced translocation of GLUT4 in the muscle and adipose tissues. PMID:21150113

  4. Phyto-crystallization of palladium through reduction process using Cinnamom zeylanicum bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Sneha, K; Kwak, In Seob; Mao, Juan; Tripathy, S J; Yun, Y-S

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we studied the potential of nanocrystalline palladium particle production using Cinnamom zeylanicum bark extract (CBE) as the biomaterial for the first time. We studied the effects of biomaterial dosage, pH and temperature on nanoparticle formation; none of these factors had a major effect on the size and shape of the nanoparticles formed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations confirmed the synthesis of nano-sized palladium particles. More or less uniformly sized palladium nanoparticles were synthesized with an average size ranging from 15 to 20 nm. It was found that the zeta potential of these formed palladium nanoparticles was negative, and that it increased with an increase in pH. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis results confirmed the significant presence of palladium. Of the palladium ions, 60% were reduced to a zero valent form by CBE. Terpenoids are believed to play an important role in palladium nanoparticle biosynthesis through the reduction of palladium ions. Currently, however, the exact mechanism for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles is unclear. Our protocol for the phyto-synthesis of palladium nanoparticles under moderate pH and room temperature offers a new means to develop environmentally benign nanoparticles. PMID:19576689

  5. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Quale, J M; Landman, D; Zaman, M M; Burney, S; Sathe, S S

    1996-01-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida species are an emerging problem. In this report, the in vitro activity of C. zeylanicum against fluconazole-resistant and-susceptible Candida isolates is described. The MICs of the bark of C. zeylanicum ranged from < 0.05-30 mg/ml, and were slightly better than commercially available cinnamon powder. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and O-methoxycinnamaldehyde had MICs of 0.03-0.5 mg/ml. The MICs of selected cinnamon candies and gums generally ranged from 25-100 mg/ml. Five patients with HIV infection and oral candidiasis received a commercially available cinnamon preparation for one week. There of the five patients had improvement of their oral candidiasis. Clinical trials will be necessary to determine the usefulness of cinnamon for the treatment of mucosal candidiasis. PMID:8874667

  6. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  7. Neolignans with a Rare 2-Oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one Motif from the Stem Bark of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yongji; Liu, Tingting; Sa, Rongjian; Wei, Xialan; Xue, Yongbo; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xiang, Ming; Zhang, Yonghui; Yao, Guangmin

    2015-07-24

    Two pairs of racemic spirodienone neolignans with a rare 2-oxaspiro[4.5]deca-6,9-dien-8-one motif, named (±)-subaveniumins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum subavenium. The chiral separation of the (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers was accomplished via high-performance liquid chromatography on a chiral column. Their structures were elucidated using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by comparing the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroic spectra. The (+)-1, (-)-1, (+)-2, and (-)-2 enantiomers exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against NO production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values of 17.9, 5.6, 15.1, and 4.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26087384

  8. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The Σ15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. PMID:24480428

  9. Antibacterial Mode of Action of Cinnamomum verum Bark Essential Oil, Alone and in Combination with Piperacillin, Against a Multi-Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Krishnan, Thiba; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of the cinnamon bark essential oil (CB), when used singly and also in combination with piperacillin, for its antimicrobial and synergistic activity against beta-lactamase TEM-1 plasmid-conferred Escherichia coli J53 R1. Viable count of this combination showed a complete killing profile at 20 h and further confirmed its synergistic effect by reducing the bacteria cell numbers. Analysis on the stability of treated cultures for cell membrane permeability by CB when tested against sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that the bacterial cell membrane was disrupted by the essential oils. Scanning electron microscopy observation and bacterial surface charge measurement also revealed that CB causes irreversible membrane damage and reduces the bacterial surface charge. In addition, bioluminescence expression of Escherichia coli [pSB1075] and E. coli [pSB401] by CB showed reduction, indicating the possibility of the presence of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry of the essential oil of Cinnamomum verum showed that trans-cinnamaldehyde (72.81%), benzyl alcohol (12.5%), and eugenol (6.57%) were the major components in the essential oil. From this study, CB has the potential to reverse E. coli J53 R1 resistance to piperacillin through two pathways; modification in the permeability of the outer membrane or bacterial QS inhibition. PMID:25381741

  10. Identification of compounds from the water soluble extract of Cinnamomum cassia barks and their inhibitory effects against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi; Wang, Shu-Mei; Lu, Qing; Luo, Jie; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment makes prevention the best choice. Cinnamomum cassia barks, known as Chinese cinnamon or Chinese cassia, is one of the most popular natural spices and flavoring agents in many parts of the World. Since previous reports indicated that Chinese cinnamon extract could be used for the treatment of diabetes, we proposed that this spice may be beneficial for the prevention of DN. However, the responsible compounds need to be further identified. In this study, we isolated three new phenolic glycosides, cinnacassosides A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds from the water soluble extract of Chinese cinnamon. The structures of the new compounds were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic evidence. Eleven compounds (6-9, 11, 13-18) were isolated from this spice for the first time, despite extensive research on this species in the past, which added new facets for the chemical profiling of this spice. These isolates were purposely evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL-6 and extracellular matrix production in mesangial cells which are definitely implicated in DN. The results showed that compounds 4-8 could inhibit over secretion of IL-6, collagen IV and fibronectin against high-glucose-induced mesangial cells at 10 mM, suggesting that Chinese cinnamon could be used as a functional food against DN. PMID:24013407

  11. [Levels and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Wen-Long; Li, Ling-Ling; Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Fei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Thirty-three camphor tree bark samples were collected from Southern Jiangsu in August 2012. They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDTs (o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The concentrations of HCB, sigma6 DDTs and sigma Chlordanes ranged (dw) from 0.31 ng x g(-1) to 1.81 ng x g(-1), 0.40 ng x g(-1) to 17.3 ng x g(-1) and n. d. to 1.03 ng x g(-1), respectively. Due to the high volatility, the spatial distribution of HCB in Southern Jiangsu was uniform. Compared to the other results, the HCB concentration in Southern Jiangsu was lower. The historical usage of technical DDT mixture and the dicofol-type DDT were the major sources of DDTs in southern Jiangsu. The TC/CC ratio is usually used to distinguish between aged and fresh chlordane. According to the ratio of TC/CC, the chlordane in the urban area was derived from the fresh application of technical chlordane, and that in the rural area was attributed to the historical usage. PMID:24881411

  12. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  13. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicumon on Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: In modern countries today, herbal medicines are known to help in the treatment of various diseases, as rich sources of antioxidants and minerals. Objectives: To study the effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) on spermatogenesis in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Wistar male rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 10) and a Cinnamomum zeylanicum group (n = 10). The subjects in the cinnamon group received 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon by gavage for 28 days, while the controls received an equal volume of distilled water daily. Animals were kept in standardized conditions. On day 28, a 5 mL blood sample from each rat was taken from tail area to measure testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Testes were collected and were then prepared for sperm analysis by the WHO method. Results: Sperm quality parameters, total serum testosterone, SOD, CAT, and GPX levels were significantly increased in the cinnamon group in comparison to controls (P < 0.05). Also, rats in the cinnamon group showed a significant decrease in the level of plasma MDA (P < 0.05) in comparison to controls. There were no significant differences between the groups in testis weight (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The administration of 75 mg/kg/day cinnamon significantly increased the sperm population, motility and viability, which supports the theory that in mammalians, cinnamon has a beneficial effect on spermatogenesis. PMID:25838932

  14. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:25328205

  15. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities. PMID:26498626

  16. Aldehydic components of cinnamon bark extract suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro

    2008-10-15

    Several major bone diseases are directly attributable to bone loss, including osteoporosis, bone metastasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor, has recently been shown to play an essential role in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we found that of several herbs, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) exhibited the strong inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis and that its mechanism of action involves the suppression of NFATc1-mediated signal transduction. C. zeylanicum dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast-like cell formation at concentrations of 12.5-50 microg/ml without affecting cell viability. Resorption pit assays have shown that C. zeylanicum also inhibits the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Treatment with C. zeylanicum inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced NFATc1 and c-fos expression. Additionally, C. zeylanicum moderately inhibited phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha, suggesting that the c-fos/NFATc1 pathway, rather than the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway, is the primary target of C. zeylanicum during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Using an HPLC-DAD system, we identified three major peaks for four characteristic components in the C. zeylanicum extract and identified an unknown peak as 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde via HPLC and a 2D-COSY (1)H NMR study. We identified cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as active components reducing osteoclast-like cell formation and inhibiting NFATc1 expression. Notably, in a resorption pit assay, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde exhibited remarkable inhibition rates of 95% at 2 microM on bone resorption. In summary, this study points to the conclusion that C. zeylanicum inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. This finding raises prospects for the development of a novel approach in the treatment of osteopenic disease. PMID:18823786

  17. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions. Avoid use. Surgery: Willow bark might slow blood clotting. There is a concern it could cause extra ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Willow bark might slow blood ...

  18. Effects of irradiation on natural antioxidants of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum N.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazuru, E. R.; Moreira, A. V. B.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation to reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms and insects is an ionizing process that induces free radical formation in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other molecular structures in food. Antioxidants generally decrease the level of oxidation in such systems by transferring hydrogen atoms to the free radical structure. In the present paper, the effect of ionizing radiation on natural cinnamon antioxidants is studied. Cinnamon samples were purchased from retailers and irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed at IPEN (São Paulo, Brazil) using 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 kGy at room temperature. After irradiation 3 kinds of sequential extractions were performed. One was submitted to antioxidant extraction using ethyl ether, the second with ethanol and the last with water. The antioxidant activity was determined by β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation. Irradiation in the dose range applied did not have any effect on the antioxidant potential of the cinnamon compounds. Further studies will be performed to study the possibility to use cinnamon extracts in preserving food from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  19. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics. PMID:24902083

  20. Immunosuppressive Effects of A-Type Procyanidin Oligomers from Cinnamomum tamala

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Pulong; Yang, Yifu; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon barks extracts have been reported to regulate immune function; however, the component(s) in cinnamon barks responsible for this effect is/are not yet clear. The aim of this study is to find out the possible component(s) that can be used as therapeutic agents for immune-related diseases from cinnamon bark. In this study, the immunosuppressive effects of fraction (named CT-F) and five procyanidin oligomers compounds, cinnamtannin B1, cinnamtannin D1 (CTD-1), parameritannin A1, procyanidin B2, and procyanidin C1, from Cinnamomum tamala or Cinnamomum cassia bark were examined on splenocytes proliferation model induced by ConA or LPS. Then, the effects of activated compound CTD-1 on cytokine production and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were detected to evaluate the immunosuppressive activity of CTD-1. It was found that CT-F and CTD-1 significantly inhibited the splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA or LPS. CTD-1 dose-dependently reduced the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 and intensively suppressed DNFB-induced DTH responses. These findings suggest that the immunosuppressive activities of cinnamon bark are in part due to procyanidin oligomers. CTD-1 may be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases. PMID:25530780

  1. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  2. Anti-allergic effect of intranasal administration of type-A procyanidin polyphenols based standardized extract of cinnamon bark in ovalbumin sensitized BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Kandhare, Amit D; Mohan, Vishwaraman; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate anti-allergic effects of intranasal administration of type-A procynidines polyphenols (TAPP) based standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark (TAPP-CZ) in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic rhinitis (AR) in BALB/c mice. Sixty male BALB/c mice were divided into six groups of ten each (G1-G6). The mice from G1 were nonsensitized and maintained as normal group. Remaining mice (G2-G6) were sensitized with OVA (500 μL solution, intraperitoneal) on alternate days for 13 days and had twice daily intranasal treatment from day 14-21 as follows: G2 (AR control) received saline, G3 (positive control, XLY) received xylometazoline (0.5 mg/mL, 20 μL/nostril) and G4-G6 received TAPP-CZ (3, 10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril), respectively. On day 21, mice were challenged with OVA (5 μL/nostril, 5% solution) and assessments (nasal signs, biochemical and histopathological) were performed. Treatment with TAPP-CZ (10 and 30 µg/kg in nostril) showed significant attenuation in OVA-induced alterations of the nasal (number of nasal rubbing and sneezing), biochemical markers (serum IgE and histamine), haematological, morphological (relative organ weight of spleen and lung) and histopathological (nasal mucosa and spleen) parameters. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ showed anti-allergic efficacy in animal model of AR. PMID:25504814

  3. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities of Essential Oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2015-08-01

    The essential oils of Cinnamomum griffithii and C. macrocarpum were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. The essential oils of leaf and bark of C. grffithii were characterized by the presence of 30 components, with methyl eugenol (38.5-43.8%) as the major component. A total of 11 components were characterized in.the leaf and bark of C. macrocarpum essential oil with the most abundant component was safrole (54.5-59.5%). The bark oil of C. griffithii demonstrated significant activity on DPPH (IC50 73.4 microg/mL) and a high phenolic content (192.0%), while the leaf oil inhibited oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid with an inhibition value of 65.5 μg/mL. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition were assessed and the results showed that C. macrocarpun bark oil exhibited significant activity with inhibition values of 55.8% and 66.1%, respectively at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. PMID:26434143

  4. [Chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia].

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    Various column chromatography, such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from Cinnamomum cassia. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectral data analysis, together with the comparison with literature data. Fifteen compounds were isolated from the 85% aqueous ethanol extract of C. cassia, and their structures were identified as (2R, 3R)-5,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavan-3-ol( 1), (2R, 3R)-5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol (2), coumarin (3), cinnamic acid (4), (E)-2-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid cinnamoyl ester (5), 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrahydroxy biphenyl (6), methylstictic acid (7), epi-boscialin (8), (1R,2S,3S,4S)-2,3-epoxy-1, 4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-5-cyelohexene (9), 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl cyclohex-2-enone (10), cis-4-hydroxymellein (11), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamaldehyde (12). Compounds 5-11 were obtained from this genus plants for the first time. PMID:26983207

  5. Weaning off Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark is the primary potting component used in container nursery production. Shifts in the forest products industry and economy have resulted in a drastic decline in pine bark availability and increase in pine bark price. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit, Oregon ...

  6. Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2006-01-01

    Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed. PMID:16710900

  7. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QWToF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and 'avouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as ‘cinnamon’. ‘True cinnamon’ refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other ‘cinnamon’ species, C....

  8. Biological activities of aqueous extract from Cinnamomum porrectum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah, H. Siti; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate biological activities of an extract obtained from Cinnamomum porrectum under reflux using water. Aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was tested for antibacterial activity against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria as well as MRSA. The results confirmed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum porrectum was bactericidal. Cytotoxic tests on Vero cell culture revealed that Cinnamomum porrectum was non-toxic which IC50 value higher than 0.02 mg/mL. Antiviral activity was tested based on the above IC50 values together with the measured EC50 values to obtain Therapeutic Index. The result showed that Cinnamomum porrectum has the ability to inhibit viral replication of HSV-1 in Vero cells.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanson, M.H.; Hites, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in tree bark vary with proximity to a source. Higher total PCB bark/air ratios in areas near contamination show that bark may retain PCB from prior periods of high atmospheric concentrations. Bark is enriched in the more chlorinated PCB homologues relative to air. Congener-specific analyses show that, when compared with air, bark favorably accumulates the less volatile congeners. Lipophilicity is not a good indicator of bark PCB concentrations, but vapor pressure is.

  10. Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, J Suresh; Rao, P Rajeswara; Reddy, Mada S

    2002-02-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica were evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats. Wound healing activity was studied using excision and incision wound models in rats following topical application. Animals were divided into four groups with six in each group. Ten percent w/v extract of each plant was prepared in saline for topical application. H. indicum possesses better wound healing activity than P. zeylanicum and A. indica. Tensile strength results indicate better activity of H. indicum on remodeling phase of wound healing. PMID:11801388

  11. Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out in the last decade to assess the pharmaceutical potential and screen the phytochemical constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii. Databases such as PubMed (MEDLINE), Science Direct (Embase, Biobase, biosis), Scopus, Scifinder, Google Scholar, Google Patent, Cochrane database, and web of science were searched using a defined search strategy. This plant is a member of the genus Cinnamomum and is traditionally used as a spice. Cinnamomum burmannii have been demonstrated to exhibit analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-tumor activities. The chemical constituents are mostly cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils together with constituents of sugar, protein, crude fats, pectin, and others. This review presents an overview of the current status and knowledge on the traditional usage, the pharmaceutical, biological activities, and phytochemical constituents reported for C. burmannii. PMID:23055638

  12. Cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde as NF-kappaB inhibitors from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Alavala Matta; Seo, Jee Hee; Ryu, Shi Yong; Kim, Yeong Shik; Kim, Young Sup; Min, Kyung Rak; Kim, Youngsoo

    2004-09-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)-cB is a transcription factor regulating the expression of inflammatory and immune genes. In the present study, an extract from stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume(Lauraceae) was discovered to have an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NF-KB transcriptional activity, which was determined using macrophages RAW 264.7 transfected stably with an alkaline phosphatase reporter construct containing four copies of the NF-KB binding KB sequence. Following activity-guided fractionation, trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde were identified as the NF-KB inhibitors from C cassia with IC50 values of 43 MM and 31 pM, respectively. As a positive control, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) showed an IC50 value of 2 uM on NF-KB transcriptional activity. Both trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-KB in addition to NF-KB transcription-al activity. PMID:15503352

  13. Cinnamomum cassia: an implication of serotonin reuptake inhibition in animal models of depression.

    PubMed

    Zada, Wahid; Zeeshan, Sara; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Mahmood, Wajahat; Rauf, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the traditional use of Cinnamomum cassia against depression. The standardised methanolic extract of the bark of C. cassia was evaluated for antidepressant activity using various behavioural tests, i.e. tail suspension test (TST), forced swim test (FST) and locomotor activity test. The serotonergic and noradrenergic modulation was assessed using 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitches and yohimbine potentiation tests, respectively. The fluoxetine and phenelzine were used as positive controls in the study. The C. cassia extract significantly decreased the immobility time in TST (maximum effective dose tested was 50 mg/kg) while no effect was observed in FST and locomotor activity test. The extract significantly increased the 5-HTP-induced head twitches while yohimbine-induced lethality remained unaltered. The aforementioned results are similar to that caused by fluoxetine. The standardised methanolic extract of C. cassia demonstrated antidepressant activity that can be attributed to rise in serotonin levels. PMID:26134381

  14. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  15. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  16. [Determination of 235U/238U isotope ratios in camphor tree bark samples by MC-ICP-MS after separation of uranium from matrix elements].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ji-Long

    2007-07-01

    Twelve camphor (cinnamomum camphora) tree bark samples were collected from Hiroshima and Kyoto, and the matrix element composition and morphology of the outer surface of these camphor tree bark samples were studied by EDXS and SEM respectively. After a dry decomposition, DOWEX 1-X8 anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from matrix elements in these camphor tree bark samples. Finally, 235U/238 U isotope ratios in purified uranium solutions were determined by MC-ICP-MS. It was demonstrated that the outer surface of these camphor tree bark samples is porous and rough, with Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Si, C, O and S as its matrix element composition. Uranium in these camphor tree bark samples can be efficiently separated and quantitatively recovered from the matrix element composition. Compared with those collected from Kyoto, the camphor tree bark samples collected from Hiroshima have significantly higher uranium contents, which may be due to the increased aerosol mass concentration during the city reconstruction. Moreover, the 235 U/23.U isotope ratios in a few camphor tree bark samples collected from Hiroshima are slightly higher than 0.007 25. PMID:17944430

  17. Study on Cinnamomum oils: compositional pattern of seven species grown in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Son, Le C; Dai, Do N; Thang, Tran D; Huyen, Duong D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The leaf essential oils of seven Vietnamese species of the genus Cinnamomum were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the species fall into three groups in which one group contains aromatic components, while the second group contains both terpenes and aromatic constituents and the third group contains only terpene constituents. The first group had only Cinnamomum curvifolium as its member and produced oil rich in benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate. The second group producing mixture of phenylpropanoids and oxygenated monoterpene components includes leaves of Cinnamomum kunstleri (methyl eugenol, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole) and Cinnamomum mairei (eugenol, 1, 8-cineole, neryl acetate and eugenol acetate). The third group rich in terpene constituents could also be divided into two classes. The first class produced oils rich in monoterpene components and includes Cinnamomum damhaensis (linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene and 1,8-cineole), Cinnamomum cambodianum (linalool and terpinen-4-ol) and Cinnamomum caryophyllus (1,8-cineole, α-pinene and camphene). The second class contains oil with abundance of sesquiterpene compounds and peculiar to Cinnamomum rigidifolium (α-selinene, β-caryophyllene and α-copaene). This paper discusses further the chemotaxonomic importance of these results and previous data on essential oils of Cinnamomum species analysed from Vietnam. PMID:25274473

  18. Headspace constituents of the tree remain of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Hashimoto, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Kubota, K

    2001-01-01

    The volatile ingredients isolated from a fresh tree of Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree) and from a tree remain of C. camphora were collected by using headspace techniques and analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). 99.77% of the constituents consisting 23 components from the fresh tree, 98.68% of the constituents consisting 24 components from the tree remain were identified. Of these ingredients, camphor was obtained as the most abundant component. PMID:11547425

  19. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  20. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  1. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Cinnamomum cassia and Its Nanoparticles Against H7N3 Influenza A Virus.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Munazza; Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf; Amraiz, Deeba; Afzal, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have wide-scale applications in various areas, including medicine, chemistry, electronics, and energy generation. Several physical, biological, and chemical methods have been used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants provide advantages over other methods as it is easy, efficient, and eco-friendly. Nanoparticles have been extensively studied as potential antimicrobials to target pathogenic and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Their applications recently extended to development of antivirals to inhibit viral infections. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamon) and evaluated their activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H7N3. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cinnamon bark extract and its nanoparticles were tested against H7N3 influenza A virus in Vero cells and the viability of cells was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. The silver nanoparticles derived from Cinnamon extract enhanced the antiviral activity and were found to be effective in both treatments, when incubated with the virus prior to infection and introduced to cells after infection. In order to establish the safety profile, Cinnamon and its corresponding nanoparticles were tested for their cytotoxic effects in Vero cells. The tested concentrations of extract and nanoparticles (up to 500 μg/ml) were found non-toxic to Vero cells. The biosynthesized nanoparticles may, hence, be a promising approach to provide treatment against influenza virus infections. PMID:26403820

  2. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  3. Cinnamomi Cortex (Cinnamomum verum) Suppresses Testosterone-induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-reductase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Myung; Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomi cortex (dried bark of Cinnamomum verum) is an important drug in Traditional Korean Medicine used to improve blood circulation and Yang Qi. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common chronic disease in aging men. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Cinnamomi cortex water extract (CC) on BPH. BPH was induced by a pre-4-week daily injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Six weeks of further injection with (a) vehicle, (b) TP, (c) TP + CC, (d) TP + finasteride (Fi) was carried on. As a result, the prostate weight and prostatic index of the CC treatment group were reduced. Histological changes including epithelial thickness and lumen area were recovered as normal by CC treatment. The protein expressions of prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), 5α-reductase (5AR), and steroid receptor coactivator 1 were suppressed by treatment of CC. Immunohistochemical assays supported the western blot results, as the expressions of AR and ERα were down-regulated by CC treatment as well. Further in vitro experiments showed CC was able to inhibit proliferation of RWPE-1 cells by suppressing 5AR and AR. These results all together suggest CC as a potential treatment for BPH. PMID:27549514

  4. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark of Shyonaka

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal; Ilanchezhian, R; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Patel, B. R.; Ravishankar, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda. Aim: Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark. Material and Methods: An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally. Conclusion Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction. PMID:23326090

  6. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    PubMed Central

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  7. Cinnamomum cassia Suppresses Caspase-9 through Stimulation of AKT1 in MCF-7 Cells but Not in MDA-MB-231 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour Rad, Sima; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is a popular culinary spice used for flavoring and in traditional medicine. C. cassia extract (CE) induces apoptosis in many cell lines. In the present study, particular differences in the mechanism of the anti-proliferative property of C. cassia on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, were elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings The hexane extract of C. cassia demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50, 34±3.52 and 32.42 ±0.37 μg/ml, respectively). Oxidative stress due to disruption of antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx and CAT) activity is suggested as the probable cause for apoptosis initiation. Though the main apoptosis pathway in both cell lines was found to be through caspase-8 activation, caspase-9 was also activated in MDA-MB-231 cells but suppressed in MCF-7 cells. Gene expression studies revealed that AKT1, the caspase-9 suppressor, was up-regulated in MCF-7 cells while down-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although, AKT1 protein expression in both cell lines was down-regulated, a steady increase in MCF-7 cells was observed after a sharp decrease of suppression of AKT1. Trans-cinnamaldehyde and coumarin were isolated and identified and found to be mainly responsible for the observed anti-proliferative activity of CE (Cinnamomum cassia). Conclusion Activation of caspase-8 is reported for the first time to be involved as the main apoptosis pathway in breast cancer cell lines upon treatment with C. cassia. The double effects of C. cassia on AKT1 gene expression in MCF-7 cells is reported for the first time in this study. PMID:26700476

  8. Antileukemic activity of lignans and phenylpropanoids of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon.

    PubMed

    Adfa, Morina; Rahmad, Rizki; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yudha S, Salprima; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of fractions and isolated constituents from Cinnamomum parthenoxylon woods against human leukemia HL-60 and U937 cells. The n-Hex, EtOAc, and MeOH-H2O fractions of the woods inhibited cell proliferation in both cell lines. Our phytochemical investigation of the n-Hex and EtOAc fractions led to the isolation of lignans and phenylpropanoids, whose chemical structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antileukemic activity; especially, hinokinin and cubebin exhibited strong inhibition toward U937 cell proliferation. Morphological observation indicated that these cytotoxic actions were mediated by apoptosis. Our findings suggested that an oxygenated functional group at the C-9 position in dibenzylfuran skeleton contributed their potency. In addition, these results enhanced the ethnopharmacological value of C. parthenoxylon. PMID:26774581

  9. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  10. Evaluation of the in vitro anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cinnamomum cassia derived phenolic phytochemicals, via carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kang, B-H; Racicot, K; Pilkenton, S J; Apostolidis, E

    2014-06-01

    Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) are believed to have anti-hyperglycemic potential via stimulation of insulin sensitivity. The present study investigates the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of cinnamon PACs. Five grams of cinnamon bark powder were extracted in 100 mL acetone solution (CAE) (acetone: water: hydrochloric acid, 70:29.9:0.01) for 2 h at room temperature and in 100 mL deionized water for 30 min at 90 °C (CWE). PACs were purified from CAE using LH-20 (CAE-PAC) to be further evaluated. PAC contents were evaluated by 4-Dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay and yielded 795, 177 and 123 mg/g, for CAE-PAC, CAE and CWE respectively. The total phenolic contents of CAE and CWE were determined to be 152 and 134 mg/g respectively. All extracts were adjusted to the same PAC content (180, 90, 45 and 20 μg) and the inhibitory activity against rat α-glucosidase was determined. The CAE-PAC fraction had very low rat α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, CAE had the highest (IC50 0.474 mg/mL total phenolic (TP) basis) followed by CWE (IC50 0.697 mg/mL TP basis). The specific maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities were determined and CAE (IC50 0.38 and 0.10 mg/mL TP basis) had higher inhibition than CWE (IC50 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL TP basis). Results suggest that the observed bioactivity is not PAC dependent and that CAE has a higher anti-hyperglycemic potential than CWE via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. PMID:24706251

  11. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  12. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  13. A geraniol-synthase gene from Cinnamomum tenuipilum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Li, Jing; Wang, Hao-Xin; Zeng, Ying

    2005-02-01

    Geraniol may accumulate up to 86-98% of the leaf essential oils in geraniol chemotypes of the evergreen camphor tree Cinnamomum tenuipilum. A similarity-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone that appeared to encode a terpene synthase and which could be phylogenetically grouped within the angiosperm monoterpene synthase/subfamily. After its expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with prenyl diphosphates as substrates, the enzyme encoded by the putative C. tenuipilum monoterpene synthase gene was shown to specifically convert geranyl diphosphate to geraniol as a single product by GC-MS analysis. Biochemical characterization of the partially purified recombinant protein revealed a strong dependency for Mg2+ and Mn2+, and an apparent Michaelis constant of 55.8 microM for geranyl diphosphate. Thus, a new member of the monoterpene synthase family was identified and designated as CtGES. The genome contains a single copy of CtGES gene. Expression of CtGES was exclusively observed in the geraniol chemotype of C. tenuipilum. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that CtGES mRNA was localized in the oil cells of the leaves. PMID:15680985

  14. The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Ho, Cheng-Kuen; Chang, Shu-Hwa

    2016-07-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of Cinnamomum kanehirae (Hayata), the first to be completely sequenced of Lauraceae family, is presented in this study. The total genome size is 152,700 bp, with a typical circular structure including a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/b) of 20,107 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 93,642 bp and 18,844 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content of the genome is 39.1%. The nucleotide sequence shows 91% identities with Liriodendron tulipifera in the Magnoliaceae. In total, 123 annotated genes consisted of 79 coding genes, eight rRNA genes, and 36 tRNA genes. Among all 79 coding genes, seven genes (rpoC1, atpF, rpl2, ndhB, ndhA, rps16, and rpl2) contain one intron, while two genes (ycf3 and clpP) contain two introns. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. kanehirae chloroplast genome is closely related to Calycanthus fertilis within Laurales order. PMID:26053940

  15. Extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jian-Ren; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Feng, Fong-Long; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-12-01

    83 acres of rice paddy fields in Taoyuan county, Taiwan, were polluted by cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) through a nearby irrigation channel, and rice plantation was ceased in 1987. Camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora) have been planted in 2 acre of the above fields since 1991. Heavy metal accumulation of roots, leaves, branches and heartwood of camphor trees were analyzed during 20-year afforestation. Averaged Cd contents of the roots were found larger than the ones of the branches, leaves, sapwood and heartwood of camphor trees growing in three polluted plots. Averaged diameters at breast height (DBH) of the planted camphor trees were 13-15 cm. Cd pollution did not significantly impact the growth of camphor trees, as similar DBH's were found from both polluted and control sites. Annual growths of DBH were from 0.63 to 0.77 cm year(-1). Planting camphor trees sequestered 68.8 ton biomass per acre. During 20-year period, 0.69-1.98 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) were sequestered on three polluted plots. The above numbers exceeded IPCC LULUCF reference values 0.31-0.53 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) for activities at forest lands. PMID:25204813

  16. Platelet anti-aggregation activities of compounds from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Young; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Koo, Ja Yong; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Kang, Sam Sik; Bae, KiHwan; Kim, Yeong Sik; Yun-Choi, Hye Sook

    2010-10-01

    Cinnamomum cassia is a well-known traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. An extract of this plant showed both platelet anti-aggregation and blood anti-coagulation effects in preliminary testing. Among the 13 compounds obtained from this plant, eugenol (2), amygdalactone (4), cinnamic alcohol (5), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (7), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (8), and coniferaldehyde (9) showed 1.5-73-fold greater inhibitory effects than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀] = 3.8, 5.16, 31.2, 40.0, 16.9, and 0.82 μM, respectively, vs. 60.3 μM) and 6.3-730-fold stronger effect than ASA on U46619 (a thromboxane A₂ mimic)-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 3.51, 33.9, 31.0, 51.3, 14.6, and 0.44 μM, respectively, vs. 321 μM). The other compounds, coumarin (3), cinnamaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (10), icariside DC (11), and dihydrocinnacasside (12), also inhibited (2.5 to four times greater than ASA) U46619-induced aggregation. In addition, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were 1.3-87 times more effective than ASA against epinephrine-induced aggregation (IC₅₀ = 1.86, 1.10, 37.7, 25.0, 16.8, 15.3, and 0.57 μM, respectively, vs. 50.0 μM). However, the 13 compounds were only very mildly effective against blood coagulation, if at all. In conclusion, compounds 2, 4, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory potencies than others on AA-, U46619-, and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Eugenol (2) and coniferaldehyde (9) were the two of the most active anti-platelet constituents of C. cassia. PMID:20828311

  17. Sulfur capture in combination bark boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Someshwar, A.V.; Jain, A.K. )

    1993-07-01

    A review of sulfur dioxide emission data for eight combination bark boilers in conjunction with the sulfur contents of the fuels reveals significant sulfur capture ranging from 10% to over 80% within the solid ash phase. Wood ash characteristics similar to activated carbon as well as the significant wood ash alkali oxide and carbonate fractions are believed responsible for the sulfur capture. Sulfur emissions from combination bark-fossil fuel firing are correlated to the sulfur input per ton of bark or wood residue fired.

  18. Photosynthetic bark: Use of chlorophyll absorption continuum index to estimate Boswellia papyrifera bark chlorophyll content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans; Schlerf, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Quantification of chlorophyll content provides useful insight into the physiological performance of plants. Several leaf chlorophyll estimation techniques, using hyperspectral instruments, are available. However, to our knowledge, a non-destructive bark chlorophyll estimation technique is not available. We set out to assess Boswellia papyrifera tree bark chlorophyll content and to provide an appropriate bark chlorophyll estimation technique using hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. In contrast to the leaves, the bark of B. papyrifera has several outer layers masking the inner photosynthetic bark layer. Thus, our interest includes understanding how much light energy is transmitted to the photosynthetic inner bark and to what extent the inner photosynthetic bark chlorophyll activity could be remotely sensed during both the wet and the dry season. In this study, chlorophyll estimation using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index (CACI) yielded a higher R2 (0.87) than others indices and methods, such as the use of single band, simple ratios, normalized differences, and conventional red edge position (REP) based estimation techniques. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index approach considers the increase or widening in area of the chlorophyll absorption region, attributed to high concentrations of chlorophyll causing spectral shifts in both the yellow and the red edge. During the wet season B. papyrifera trees contain more bark layers than during the dry season. Having less bark layers during the dry season (leaf off condition) is an advantage for the plants as then their inner photosynthetic bark is more exposed to light, enabling them to trap light energy. It is concluded that B. papyrifera bark chlorophyll content can be reliably estimated using the chlorophyll absorption continuum index analysis. Further research on the use of bark signatures is recommended, in order to discriminate the deciduous B. papyrifera from other species during the dry season.

  19. Locating POPs Sources with Tree Bark.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-12-01

    Locating sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the atmosphere can sometimes be difficult. We suggest that tree bark makes an excellent passive atmospheric sampler and that spatial analysis of tree bark POPs concentrations can often pinpoint their sources. This is an effective strategy because tree bark is lipophilic and readily adsorbs and collects POPs from the atmosphere. As such, tree bark is an ideal sampler to find POPs sources globally, regionally, or locally. This article summarizes some work on this subject with an emphasis on kriged maps and a simple power-law model, both of which have been used to locate sources. Three of the four examples led directly to the pollutant's manufacturing plant. PMID:25629888

  20. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  1. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.; Schneider, E.; Wudl, F. |

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown, for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.

  2. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  3. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  4. An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vasundhara; Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Dried leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, also known as Indian bay leaves, are a lesser-known spice used in the Indian subcontinent. It imparts a warm, peppery, clove-cinnamon like flavor to a variety of food preparations. Besides food applications, the leaves have also been traditionally used for curing a number of ailments and for other perceived health benefits. They find mention in the Aurvedic, Yunani, and other traditional medicinal literature. This review summarizes the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves on biological systems such as immune system, gastro-intestinal tract, liver and its antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity. Chemical components that may be responsible for its flavor as well as bioactivity, have also been discussed. PMID:24236996

  5. Development of an effective and efficient DNA isolation method for Cinnamomum species.

    PubMed

    Bhau, B S; Gogoi, G; Baruah, D; Ahmed, R; Hazarika, G; Ghosh, S; Borah, B; Gogoi, B; Sarmah, D K; Nath, S C; Wann, S B

    2015-12-01

    Different species of Cinnamomum are rich in polysaccharide's and secondary metabolites, which hinder the process of DNA extraction. High quality DNA is the pre-requisite for any molecular biology study. In this paper we report a modified method for high quality and quantity of DNA extraction from both lyophilized and non-lyophilized leaf samples. Protocol reported differs from the CTAB procedure by addition of higher concentration of salt and activated charcoal to remove the polysaccharides and polyphenols. Wide utility of the modified protocol was proved by DNA extraction from different woody species and 4 Cinnamomum species. Therefore, this protocol has also been validated in different species of plants containing high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA showed perfect amplification when subjected to RAPD, restriction digestion and amplification with DNA barcoding primers. The DNA extraction protocol is reproducible and can be applied for any plant molecular biology study. PMID:26041191

  6. 4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper Building. Processed bark was loaded into trucks for disposal at a pit on site. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. The bark, the howl and the bark-howl: Identity cues in dingoes' multicomponent calls.

    PubMed

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Charrier, Isabelle; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Dingoes (genus Canis) produce a stereotyped bark-howl vocalisation, which is a unimodal complex signal formed by the concatenation of two call types (a bark and a howl). Bark-howls may function as alarm signals, although there has been no empirical investigation of this vocalisation's structure or function. We quantified the content and efficacy of the bark and howl segments separately and when combined, using 140 calls from 10 individuals. We found that both segments are individually distinctive, although howl segments are more accurately classified, suggesting a higher level of individuality. Furthermore, howls convey signature characteristics that are conserved across different contexts of production, and thus may act as 'identity signals'. The individual distinctiveness of full bark-howls increases above that of isolated segments, which may be a result of selection on improved signal discriminability. Propagation tests revealed that bark-howls are best described as medium-range signals, with both segments potentially allowing for individual discrimination up to 200m regardless of environmental conditions. We discuss our findings regarding the fitness benefits of encoding identity cues in a potential alarm call and propose additional hypotheses for the function(s) of bark and howl segments. PMID:27343622

  8. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  9. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    PubMed

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  10. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  11. Antibacterial activity of Persea cordata stem barks.

    PubMed

    Schlemper, S R; Schlemper, V; da Silva, D; Cordeiro, F; Cruz, A B; Oliveira, A E; Cechinel-Filho, V

    2001-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of extracts obtained from Persea cordata stem bark, employed in Brazil to treat infectious diseases, were studied. The ethyl acetate fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract showed activity against pathogenic bacteria which may justify the popular use of the plant. PMID:11163947

  12. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26676220

  13. Discovery of a novel anti-cancer agent targeting both topoisomerase I and II in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Cinnamomum verum has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in the DNA content in sub G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis. 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against Hep 3B cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity, inflammatory responses involving COX-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26707867

  14. Development of infant baboons' responses to graded bark variants.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, J; Cheney, D L; Seyfarth, R M

    2000-01-01

    We studied the development of infant baboons' (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) responses to conspecific 'barks' in a free-ranging population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These barks grade from tonal, harmonically rich calls into calls with a more noisy, harsh structure. Typically, tonal variants are given when the signaller is at risk of losing contact with the group or a particular individual ('contact barks'), whereas harsh variants are given in response to predators ('alarm barks'). We conducted focal observations and playback experiments in which we presented variants of barks recorded from resident adult females. By six months of age, infants reliably discriminated between typical alarm and contact barks and they responded more strongly to intermediate alarm calls than to typical contact barks. Infants of six months and older also recognized their mothers by voice. The ability to discriminate between different call variants developed with increasing age. At two and a half months of age, infants failed to respond at all, whereas at four months they responded irrespective of the call type that was presented. At six months, infants showed adult-like responses by responding strongly to alarm barks but ignoring contact barks. We concluded that infants gradually learn to attach the appropriate meaning to alarm and contact barks. PMID:11413649

  15. Feeding stimulant in Cinnamomum camphora for the common bluebottle, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wakui, Ryu; Horie, Masanori; Nishimura, Yoshichika; Nishiyama, Yoshihide; Ikeno, Yasunori; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa

    2010-01-01

    The acceptance of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) as a host plant for the larvae of common bluebottle (Graphium sarpedon nipponum) was explained by the presence of feeding stimulants in the leaves. When the active methanol extract of C. camphora leaves was separated into hexane and water layers, both layers showed high feeding activities for the larvae of G. sarpedon nipponum. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane layer resulted in the isolation of a highly active compound, which was identified as a-linolenic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:21138058

  16. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS. PMID:26181048

  17. Direct Analysis in Real Time by Mass Spectrometric Technique for Determining the Variation in Metabolite Profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vineeta; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Singh, S. P.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. is an important traditional medicinal plant, mentioned in various ancient literatures such as Ayurveda. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proved. To characterize diversity in terms of metabolite profiles of Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm genotypes, a newly emerging mass spectral ionization technique direct time in real time (DART) is very helpful. The DART ion source has been used to analyze an extremely wide range of phytochemicals present in leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. Ten genotypes were assessed for the presence of different phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols. These constituents vary in the different genotypes of Cinnamomum tamala. Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART data of these Cinnamomum genotypes. The result shows that the genotype of Cinnamomum tamala could be differentiated using DART MS data. The active components present in Cinnamomum tamala may be contributing significantly to high amount of antioxidant property of leaves and, in turn, conditional effects for diabetic patients. PMID:22701361

  18. Enclosed bark as a pollen trap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Ferguson, C.W.; Lamarch, V.C., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Counts were made of pollen in traps formed by enclosed bark in two remnants of bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata Engelm., from the White Mountains of east-central California. The traps, dated by tree-rings at A.D. 350 and 1300 B.C., contained a major complex of pine-sagebrush pollen and traces of other species, representing the equivalent of the present vegetation.

  19. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) < Cd(2+) < Pb(2+) ≅ Cu(2+). Surface properties of the biomaterial were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques for their sorption mechanism. Whewellite (C2CaO4 · H2O) was identified in the biomaterial, which indicated that calcium ions are electrovalently bonded with carboxylate ions facilitating the ion exchange mechanism with metal ions. Bioaccumulation of metal ions was also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the presence of functional groups implicated in adsorbing metal ions. Biomaterial did not adsorb anionic As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), because of their electrostatic repulsion with carboxylic functional groups. Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment. PMID:26193837

  20. Potentiation of antifungal activity of amphotericin B by essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Giordani, R; Regli, P; Kaloustian, J; Portugal, H

    2006-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia, alone or combined with amphotericin B, a drug widely used for most indications despite side-effects was investigated. The composition of the oil was analysed by GC/MS and characterized by its very high content of cinnamaldehyde (92.2%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 80%), used to evaluate the antifungal activity against Candida albicans, was determined by a macrobroth dilution method followed by a modelling of fungal growth. The essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia exhibited strong antifungal effect (MIC 80% = 0.169 microL/mL and K(aff) = 18,544 microL/mL). A decrease of the MIC 80% of amphotericin B was obtained when the culture medium contained essential oil concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.1 microL/mL. The strongest decrease (70%) was obtained when the medium contained 0.1 microL/mL of essential oil. This potentiation of amphotericin B obtained in vitro may show promise for the development of less toxic and more effective therapies especially for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:16397923

  1. [Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangmei; Wu, Yanfang; Xiao, Fuming; Xiong, Zhenyu; Xu, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) is a representative species in Lauraceae family, and can be subdivided into five types: linalool, camphor, cineol, iso-nerolidol and borneol. In this paper, the leaves transcriptomes of Cinnamomum camphora were sequenced with the platform of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. Based on the GO (Gene Ontology), COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, the function classification, pathway annotation, and the coding sequence prediction of all-Unigenes were carried out. 156 278 Unigenes with an average length of 584 bp and N50 (N50 value is defined as the Unigene length where half the assembly is represented by Unigenes of this size or longer) of 1 023 bp were generated by de novo assembly. A total of 5 5955 Unigenes (35.80%) were annotated through similarity comparison, in which 24 717 and 21 806 Unigenes were assigned into GO and COG, respectively. By searching KEGG database, 3 350 Unigenes were involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in which 424 Unigenes were involved in monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The analysis of monoterpenoids biosynthesis pathway showed that 9 Unigenes likely encode (+)-linalool synthase, and their expression levels were higher in linalool type but lower in cineole type. This study provides a foundation for further characterizing the functional genes in C. camphora. PMID:24846919

  2. The 'WHY?' files: the case of the barking dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Barking Dogs.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of determining why dogs in the surrounding neighborhoods have unexpectedly started barking early in the morning and late at night. Using scientific inquiry, our detectives discover what is causing the neighborhood dogs to bark. In determining the 'why,' the detectives learn about sound: what it is, how it is transmitted, how people and animals hear, and NASA's research on noise. While solving the case, the tree house detectives learn that determining the source of the barking requires the use of logic and 'sound' reasoning.

  3. Use of tree bark to monitor radionuclide pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Brownridge, J.D.

    1985-08-01

    The outer surface bark of many trees is an excellent monitoring source of fallout radionuclides. The accumulation and retention of these pollutants is evident by the presence of /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 144/Ce and /sup 155/Eu in the outer layer of bark from many trees surveyed during this study. The accumulation and retention of these and other radionuclides suggest that tree bark is an ecosystem monitoring resource that should be exploited for these and possible other environmental pollutants. Therefore, the emphasis of this study was a broad survey of the detectability of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in and on tree bark rather than a narrow quantitative study.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:25629927

  5. Changes in aspen bark stored in outdoor piles

    SciTech Connect

    Zoch, E.L.; Rusch, J.J.; Springer, E.L.

    1982-06-01

    Increasing use of bark for fuel has led to questions as to the losses and other changes that occur during outdoor pile storage. The possibility of spontaneous ignition in bark piles is of special concern. This study examined the storage characteristics of aspen bark. Two aspen bark piles, 40 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet high, were built in October of 1974 and 1975 at a northern Wisconsin mill site. The 1974 pile contained bark which came directly from a ring debarker; the 1975 pile was built using bark that had been put through a hammermill after it came from the ring debarker. Temperatures were observed at the centers of the piles using thermistors placed at 5, 10 and 15 feet above the base. Bark substance losses (ovendry material) were determined by placing bark samples contained in nylon mesh bags at each of these locations in each pile and retrieving them after 1 year of storage. Maximum pile tempreatures were attained in about 3 weeks and were about 160 degrees F for both piles. Bark substance losses varied with height above the base of the pile, being greatest at the 15-foot level (about 25%) and least at the 5-foot level (about 5%). Moisture content also varied with the height and was greatest at the 15-foot level. The pH of the bark decreased during storage from an initial value of 4.6 to final values ranging between 2.6 and 3.3. Bark particle size did not significantly affect pile temperatures, weight losses or changes in pH and moisture content. (Refs. 8).

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-mei; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Mei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Hsu, Kwang-Ching; Ang, Yao-Uh; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the effects and the molecular mechanisms of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of Cinnamomum verum, on human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; cytotoxicity by LDH release; apoptosis was determined by Western blotting, and morphological analysis with, acridine orange and neutral red stainings and comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was assessed using assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VAC) were evaluated with neutral red staining. The results show that CuA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax and bak genes and a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of the plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, CuA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased VAC, cytotoxicity, as well as suppressions of both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study revealed the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of CuA against NCI-H520 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, and upregulation of lysosomal with increased VAC and cytotoxicity. Similar effects were found in other cell lines, including human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not

  8. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  9. Antinociceptive activity of Maytenus rigida stem bark.

    PubMed

    Dias, Kellyane S; Marques, Maxsuel S; Menezes, Igor A C; Santos, Thiago C; Silva, Aline B L; Estevam, Charles S; Sant'Ana, Antônio E G; Pizza, Cosimo; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Marçal, Rosilene M

    2007-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Maytenus rigida stem bark and its fractions were assessed for antinociceptive activity in tail-flick test in rats. The activity was located in the chloroform, ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions. Phytochemical screening revealed that catechin was the only common class of compounds present on the ethanol extract as well as on the active fractions. 4'-Methylepigallocatechin, isolated from the ethyl acetate and aq.methanol fractions, showed antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test (75 mg/kg; p.o.), which was reversed by the opiate antagonist naloxone (3 mg/kg; i.p.). PMID:17587510

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  11. Increasing hardwood fiber supplies through improved bark utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, D.W.; Harder, M.L.

    1980-09-01

    A promising approach to meeting increased demands for hardwood fiber is through the greater use of logging residues. A method of harvesting and more completely utilizing mixed hardwood stands is discussed. Most species that are difficult to debark contain fiberlike elements in the inner bark. Procedures are suggested for reducing the size of the chipped bark fraction and thus allowing removal of only bark that is low in fiber. The pulping of barks that are high in fiber will result in greater per-acre fiber production. Increases in per-acre pulp production are estimated at 50-90% for the suggested approach. Modest pulp strength increases are anticipated through the use of bark fibers.

  12. A new coumarin and cytotoxic activities of constituents from Cinnamomum cassia.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Tran Minh; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Son, Doan Cao; Hung, Tran Viet; Van Kiem, Phan

    2014-04-01

    A new coumarin derivative, coumacasia (1) and eight known compounds, coumarin (2), cinnamaldehyde (3), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (4), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (5), coniferaldehyde (6), cinnamic acid (7), 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (8), and cinnamic alcohol (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data and by comparison with the reported literature. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-9 were evaluated with two human cancer cell lines, HL-60 and A-549. Compound 1 showed growth inhibitory effects in the HL-60 and A-549 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.2 +/- 0.5 and 11.3 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Compounds 3-6, and 8 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 20.5 to 65.6 microM. PMID:24868863

  13. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiale; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Daohua; Lu, Yinghua; Su, Yuanbo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Huixuan; Wang, Yuanpeng; Shao, Wenyao; He, Ning; Hong, Jinqing; Chen, Cuixue

    2007-03-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystals is in the limelight in modern nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Not only could silver nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 80 nm in size be fabricated, but also triangular or spherical shaped gold nanoparticles could be easily modulated by reacting the novel sundried biomass of Cinnamomum camphora leaf with aqueous silver or gold precursors at ambient temperature. The marked difference of shape control between gold and silver nanoparticles was attributed to the comparative advantage of protective biomolecules and reductive biomolecules. The polyol components and the water-soluble heterocyclic components were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions or chloroaurate ions and the stabilization of the nanoparticles, respectively. The sundried leaf in this work was very suitable for simple synthesis of nanoparticles.

  14. Characterization of the leaf essential oils of an endemic species Cinnamomum perrottetii from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Sriramavaratharajan, Venkatraman; Sudha, Veerappan; Murugan, Ramar

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from the leaf of Cinnamomum perrottetii Meissn. collected from three distinct populations in the southern Western Ghats, India were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 56 volatile constituents representing 92.2-96.3% of the oils were identified. Variations in the chemical constituents of the oils were found. Only three major components namely, α-pinene (5.1-6.6%), tau-cadinol (8.7-20.5%) and α-cadinol (7.3-13%) out of 10 were found in all three samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical compositions of leaf essential oil of C. perrottetii. PMID:26453373

  15. Differentiating parts of Cinnamomum cassia using LC-qTOF-MS in conjunction with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Yu, Jhe-Wei; Lu, Fen-Ling; Lin, Mei-Chih; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2016-09-01

    Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA). From 125 samples of cinnamon, we identified the following eight compounds and their the detection ratios: coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Of these, 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde presented the largest variations in detection ratio, making up 64.0, 97.4 and 50.0% in cinnamon bark, cinnamon twig, and shaved cinnamon bark, respectively. The quantities of cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin and cinnamaldehyde also varied between the three parts of the plant. Chemical fingerprints of the three cinnamon samples were established using principal component analysis, the results of which indicate that cinnamon bark and shaved cinnamon bark could be easily differentiated, despite a marked similarity in outward appearance. Cinnamon twig was also shown to depart from the other clusters. The proposed method provides a fast and efficient means of identifying cinnamon herbs for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26873449

  16. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  17. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  18. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies... into publicly owned treatment works from the barking of logs by plants in SIC major group 24, and...

  19. Proceedings organic and fuel uses for bark and wood residues, No. P-80-27

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings begin with an introduction by Richard Allison. Papers on organic uses of bark are concerned with the future of the horticultural bark industry, accelerated composting of hardwood bark for use as a growing medium, use of hardwood bark in strip mine reclamation, and physical properties and sizing of bark for horticultural uses. Papers on fuel uses of bark discuss use of wood chips to supplement lignite as boiler fuel, gasification of mill residues with a downdraft gasifier, economics of burning wood, pelletized wood and bark residues for residential fuel, and utilization and disposal of wood ash. (Refs. 41).

  20. Process for the production of a fertilizer from bark

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlberg, A.O.

    1981-01-20

    The production of a fertilizer from tree bark is improved by a process of the type wherein crushed waste bark is treated together with waste molasses under elevated pressure and at a temperature of 75 to 140/sup 0/C. For a time of 10 min to 2 h. Said time is dependent on the treatment temperature, and the improvement comprises adding yeast to the waste molasses, and maintaining its temperature at 30 to 40/sup 0/C for 35 to 45 hours, whereby its ph value decreases to 3-4, before it is mixed with the ground waste bark.

  1. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  2. Discovery of a novel anticancer agent with both anti-topoisomerase I and II activities in hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in vitro and in vivo: Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Perng, Daw-Shyong; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Cherng, Jonathan; Wang, Jeng-Shing; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Shih, Chia-Wen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for various applications. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell line. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, increase in the DNA content in sub-G1, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments, suppressions of nuclear transcription factors NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and both topoisomerase I and II activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against SK-Hep-1 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB-binding activity, inflammatory responses involving cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE2, and proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549, squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy. PMID:26792981

  3. α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed

  4. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  5. Antifungal activity of the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B C; Pandey, Anuj; Chaurasia, Leena; Pal, Mahesh; Sharma, R P; Khare, Anakshi

    2003-12-01

    The methanol extract of stem barks of Alianthus excelsa was partitioned with chloroform. The chloroform extract showed fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium frequentence, P. notatum and Botrytis cinerea. PMID:14630175

  6. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  7. Bioactivity of cinnamon with special emphasis on diabetes mellitus: a review.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Thushari; Uluwaduge, Inoka; Jansz, E R

    2012-05-01

    Cinnamon is the oldest spice and has been used by several cultural practices for centuries. In addition to its culinary uses, cinnamon possesses a rising popularity due to many stated health benefits. Out of the large number of cinnamon species available, Cinnamomum aromaticum (Cassia) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum have been subjected to extensive research. Available in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that cinnamon may have multiple health benefits, mainly in relation to hypoglycaemic activity. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of cinnamon is stated also to be brought about by its anti-microbial, anti-fungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-tumour, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol and lipid-lowering and gastro-protective properties. This article provides a summary of the scientific literature available on both C. aromaticum and C. zeylanicum. All studies reported here have used cinnamon bark and its products. Although almost all the animal models have indicated a pronounced anti-diabetic activity of both cinnamon species, conflicting results were observed with regard to the few clinical trials available. Therefore, the necessity of evaluating the effects of cinnamon for its therapeutic potential through well-defined and adequately powered randomized controlled clinical trials is emphasized, before recommendations are made for the use of cinnamon as an effective treatment for humans. PMID:22007625

  8. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  9. BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Spectral Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-08 team collected in-lab spectral reflectance data for aspen bark and leaves from three sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC 1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug-1994 (IFC 2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC 3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark spectral properties: BS, US, BR, BT, and BO. Additionally, a limited number of LV were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree and placed in ziplock bags for transport to UNH, where they were scanned with a spectroradiometer in a controlled environment. Each sample was scanned twice: the first set of measurements was made with the bark surface moistened, and the second set was made with the bark surface air-dried for a period of 30 minutes. These data represent continuous spectra of bark reflectance. Each sample was scanned three times, rotating the sample when possible. The reported values for each sample are an average over the three scans. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  11. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  12. Cinnamomum loureirii Extract Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Ameliorates Trimethyltin-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288

  13. MAPLE fabricated Fe3O4@Cinnamomum verum antimicrobial surfaces for improved gastrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Alina Georgiana; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chirea, Mariana; Grumezescu, Valentina; Socol, Gabriel; Iordache, Florin; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Anghel, Ion; Holban, Alina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of 9.4 nm in size were laser transferred by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique onto gastrostomy tubes (G-tubes) for antibacterial activity evaluation toward Gram positive and Gram negative microbial colonization. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticle powder showed a polycrystalline magnetite structure, whereas infrared mapping confirmed the integrity of C. verum (CV) functional groups after the laser transfer. The specific topography of the deposited films involved a uniform thin coating together with several aggregates of bio-functionalized magnetite particles covering the G-tubes. Cytotoxicity assays showed an increase of the G-tube surface biocompatibility after Fe3O4@CV treatment, allowing a normal development of endothelial cells up to five days of incubation. Microbiological assays on nanoparticle-modified G-tube surfaces have proved an improvement of anti-adherent properties, significantly reducing both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria colonization. PMID:24979402

  14. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jung-Chun; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Shie, Pei-Hsin; Huang, Guang-Jhong

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnamomum cassia constituents (cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) and carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with cinnamic aldehyde together with LPS, a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and IκBα, significantly. In the anti-inflammatory test, cinnamic aldehyde decreased the paw edema after Carr administration, and increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated cinnamic aldehyde attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the edema paw after Carr injection. Cinnamic aldehyde decreased the NO, TNF-α, and PGE2 levels on the serum level after Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that cinnamic aldehyde decreased Carr-induced iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB expressions in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that cinnamic aldehyde has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and thus has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22536283

  16. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oils from leaves of different Cinnamomum osmophloeum provenances.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2004-07-14

    Chemical compositions of leaf essential oils from eight provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses, the leaf essential oils of the eight provenances and their relative contents were classified into five chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type. The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from the five chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon trees were evaluated by mosquito larvicidal assay. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The LC(50) values for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A. aegypti larvae in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC(90) = 79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC(90) = 85 ppm), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, anethole, and cinnamyl acetate and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. aegypti larvae were <50 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde had the best mosquito larvicidal activity, with an LC(50) of 29 ppm (LC(90) = 48 ppm) against A. aegypti. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that cinnamaldehyde exhibited the strongest mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:15237942

  17. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  18. Evaluation of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Extracts on Tyrosinase Suppressor, Wound Repair Promoter, and Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Man-Gang; Kuo, Su-Yu; Yen, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira belongs to the Lauraceae family of Taiwan's endemic plants. In this study, C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract has shown inhibition of tyrosinase activity on B16-F10 cellular system first. Whether extracts inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity was tested, and a considerable inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity by in vitro assays was presented. Animal experiments of C. osmophloeum Kanehira were carried out by observing animal wound repair, and the extracts had greater wound healing power than the vehicle control group (petroleum jelly with 8% DMSO, w/v). In addition, the antioxidant capacity of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extracts in vitro was evaluated. We measured C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract's free radical scavenging capability, metal chelating, and reduction power, such as biochemical activity analysis. The results showed that a high concentration of C. osmophloeum Kanehira extract had a significant scavenging capability of free radical, a minor effect of chelating ability, and moderate reducing power. Further exploration of the possible physiological mechanisms and the ingredient components of skincare product for skin-whitening, wound repair, or antioxidative agents are to be done. PMID:25839053

  19. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) was found to reduce body fat deposition and improve blood lipid in both healthy and obese rats. The study was aimed to investigate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effects of CCSKO in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. The obese rats were treated with CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil, respectively, for 12 wk. The level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and P65 were compared among CCSKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. Our results showed that the level of T-AOC and activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased and the level of MDA was significantly decreased in CCSKO group. In addition, CCSKO treatment reduced the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and levels of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and P65 through raising the level of PPAR-γ. In conclusion, CCSKO has, for the first time, been found to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27003858

  20. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-10-01

    Bark has been considered a viable renewable energy resource. This paper focuses on our experimental and modeling efforts on the bark combustion kinetics. Combustion and pyrolysis experiments have been conducted by lowering a sample-containing basket into a preheated, 2.5{double_prime} fluidized sand bed. This fluidized bed provides both rapid heating and quenching to the samples. Fluidized sand bed provides a very effective heat transfer medium between the gas (air or nitrogen) and the sand. Rapid quenching has been accomplished by raising the basket into a water-cooled, reversed-nitrogen flow section. The basket is made of a 40 mesh stainless steel screen. Combustion and pyrolysis of 10 mm diameter bark particles have been performed in the temperature ranges 500 to 800{degrees}C, and 750 to 850{degrees}C, respectively. The gas velocity has been in the range of 5.4 to 10.8 cm/s. Weight loss of bark after the experiments has been used as an index of conversion in the kinetic study. The combustion/pyrolysis model contains three dynamic equations: bark pyrolysis, char combustion, and heat transfer to bark particles. It has been assumed that the volatiles disengagement from char is governed by temperature-dependent desorption in an exponential form. By fitting the model to the experimental data, the seven parameters in the model have been recovered. These parameters include the four Arrhenius parameters for pyrolysis and combustion, total volatile at infinite temperature and temperature sensitivity in the volatile desorption equation, and heat of pyrolysis. Good agreement with the experimental data for pyrolysis and combustion demonstrates that the present model is capable of depicting the bark weight remaining in the bed at any time during combustion or pyrolysis. In addition, the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis and heat of pyrolysis are in good accord with those in the literature.

  1. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  2. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  5. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. PMID:25997859

  6. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  7. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  8. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  9. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora *

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xing-Zheng; Wang, Gen-Xuan; Shen, Zhu-Xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-Qing

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  10. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing-zheng; Wang, Gen-xuan; Shen, Zhu-xia; Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Mu-qing

    2006-04-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO(2) concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO(2) concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO(2) concentrations (350 micromol/mol and 500 micromol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO(2) on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO(2) concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO(2) enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO(2) enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO(2) concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO(2) enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO(2) depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO(2) enrichment with sufficient water supply. PMID:16532530

  11. Antibacterial activity of leaf essential oil and its constituents from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Zheng-Wen; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Wei, Qin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Xu, Jiao; Song, Xu; Zhou, Yi; Du, Yong-Hua; Peng, Lian-Ci; Kang, Shuai; Yu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis CMCC (B) 50041, were used in the antibacterial tests of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its five chemical constituents. The effect of 1, 8-cineole on the ultrastructural structure of the bacteria (S. aureus and E. coli) was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and the five chemical constituents showed variable levels of inhibition. Their MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration ) and MBC (minimal bacteriocidal concentration) values were all in the range of 0.781 µL/mL~6.25 µL/mL and 0.781 µL/mL~12.5 µL/mL respectively except γ-terpinene. The MIC values of γ-terpinene against E. coli and S. aureus were all higher than 50 µL/mL, but the MIC and MBC values of γ-terpinene against S. enteritidis was only 3.125 µL/mL. Among them, α-terpineol possessed the best antibacterial activity. Under the transmission electron microscope, cell size of treated E. coli decreased, cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, and nucleoplasm was reduced and gathered onto the side. After the S. aureus was treated with 1, 8-cineole, the cell size and shape were damaged and nucleus cytoplasm was concentrated or reduced or agglomerated on the side. These results suggest that C. longepaniculatum leaf essential oil and its constituents have excellent antibacterial activities, the antibacterial mechanism of 1, 8-cineole against E. coli and S. aureus might attributable to its hydrophobicity. PMID:25126170

  12. Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tree bark

    SciTech Connect

    Douce, D.S.; Clench, M.R.; Cooke, M.

    1995-12-31

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are released into the environment from a variety of sources, including the combustion of diesel, gasoline and other organic fuels. The most important source or nitro`PAHs, is believed to be the emissions from diesel fuelled vehicles. Monitoring of this class of compound is important due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Sturaro et al have shown that tree bark acts as a passive absorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). They proposed that the use of a natural and passive sampler such as tree bark might lead to a less complex overall analytical strategy for environmental measurements. It was decided to modify the method proposed by Sturaro et al, in an attempt to monitor nitro-PAH levels absorbed into the tree bark from diesel emissions.

  13. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... electronic bark control collars. The complaint names as respondent Sunbeam Products, Inc. d/b/a...

  14. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  15. Relative density, equilibrium moisture content, and dimensional stability of western hemlock bark

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.W.; Kellogg, R.M.; Warren, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    The measurement of western hemlock bark samples from three coastal sites in British Columbia revealed that inner bark relative density (0.382) is less than that of the adjacent sapwood (0.413) and markedly less than that of outer bark (0.463). The equilibrium moisture content of the inner and outer bark are equivalent at both 70 and 30% relative humidity, and slightly higher than that of the sapwood. The generally higher shrinkage of bark compared with wood is the result of bark cell collapse during drying. In the outer bark, some collapse or crushing takes place in the standing tree. This compacting of tissue reduces the shrinkage of outer bark relative to the inner bark. The actual shrinkage per unit change in moisture content of the inner bark is the same as that for the sapwood. The outer bark appears to be more dimensionally stable. The longitudinal shrinkage of both inner (2.9%) and outer (2.2%) bark is markedly greater than that of the sapwood (0.1-0.2%). (Refs. 10).

  16. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  17. 40 CFR 429.20 - Applicability; description of the barking subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... barking subcategory. 429.20 Section 429.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Barking Subcategory § 429.20 Applicability; description of the barking subcategory. This subpart applies to...

  18. (BOREAS) BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Chemistry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-8 team collected pigment density data from aspen bark and leaves from four sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC-1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug- 1994 (IFC-2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC-3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark pigment properties: basal stem section, which was any bark sample taken below one-half the tree height; upper stem section, which was any bark sample taken from the main stem above one-half the tree height; bark taken from branches up to 3 years old; a 2-year-old branch segment, and a 1-year-old branch segment. Additionally, a limited number of leaves were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree, placed in ziplock bags, and transported to UNH, where they were processed and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. In each data file, samples are identified by Site, Date, Tree#, and Sample Location (see I st paragraph above. Pigment density values are normalized to mg/m2. Density values for the following pigments are provided: Chi a, Chi b, Total Chi (Chi a+b), Carotenoids, Chi a to b ratio, and the Total Chi to carotenoids ratio. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Historical overview of the cinnamon industry.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, R O

    1978-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nees in Wall) is one of the world's oldest spices. Sri Lanka is the main provider of cinnamon, mainly exported as "cinnamon quills." From a phytochemical viewpoint, cinnamon is q uniquely interesting plant. The volatile oils obtained from the bark, leaf, and root bark vary significantly in chemical composition. Each oil has a different primary constituent: cinnamaldehyde (in the bark oil), eugenol (in the leaf oil), and camphor (in the root-bark oil). Recent studies based on techniques such as gas-liquid chromatography and infrared spectrometry have revealed that the three oils possess the same array of monoterpene hydrocarbons in different proportions. Both gas-liquid chromatography and quantitative infrared spectrometry have recently been used to study changes in the chemical composition in the volatiles of cultivated and wild-growing cinnamons. As a result, some interesting biosynthetic speculations have evolved, and reliable methods of analytical assessment of quality have been developed. The technology of production of cinnamon oils has varied little from the methods introduced by the early Dutch settlers. They are based on variations on the general theme of steam distillation. Recently, new still designs have greatly enhanced the technological capability in Sri Lanka. Cinnamon bark and leaf oils form the basis of a variety of synthetically derived chemicals used in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:363362

  20. Scanning proton microprobe analysis applied to wood and bark samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. G.; Johansson, E.-M.; Johansson, S. A. E.; Pallon, J.

    1990-04-01

    In this study the feasibility of applying scanning micro-PIXE to analysis of wood and bark samples is demonstrated. Elemental mapping of the analysed sections show the patterns of Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Some of these patterns can be related to the annual tree ring structure. It is observed that the variation of elements having an environmental character can be rather large within a single tree ring, thus illuminating possible difficulties when using tree ring sections as a pollution monitor. The variations in elemental concentrations when crossing from bark to wood are also shown to be smooth for some elements but rather abrupt for others.

  1. Combined use of high-resolution α-glucosidase inhibition profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for investigation of antidiabetic principles in crude plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kongstad, Kenneth T; Özdemir, Ceylan; Barzak, Asmah; Wubshet, Sileshi G; Staerk, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, and new drug leads or functional foods containing selective α-glucosidase inhibitors are needed. Crude extract of 24 plants were assessed for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark, Rheum rhabarbarum peel, and Rheum palmatum root and ethyl acetate extracts of C. zeylanicum bark, Allium ascalonicum peel, and R. palmatum root showed IC50 values below 20 μg/mL. Subsequently, high-resolution α-glucosidase profiling was used in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of metabolites responsible for the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Quercetin (1) and its dimer (2), trimer (3), and tetramer (4) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in A. ascalonicum peel, whereas (E)-piceatannol 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), (E)-rhapontigenin 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), (E)-piceatannol (8), and emodin (12) were identified as main α-glucosidase inhibitors in R. palmatum root. PMID:25652946

  2. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion`s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sides of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  3. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion’s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sites of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides, while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  4. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  5. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  6. A sesquiterpene drimane with antinociceptive activity from Drimys winteri bark.

    PubMed

    Malheiros, A; Filho, V C; Schmitt, C B; Santos ARS; Scheidt, C; Calixto, J B; Monache, F D; Yunes, R A

    2001-05-01

    Along with three known drimanes, polygodial. 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl) polygodial and mukaadial, the sesquiterpene drimane named drimanial was isolated from the bark of Drimys winteri (Winteraceae). Its structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic evidence. Drimanial exhibited antinociceptive action against acetic acid induced pain, being about 3-fold less active than polygodial. PMID:11336250

  7. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Zizyphus lotus root barks.

    PubMed

    Borgi, W; Ghedira, K; Chouchane, N

    2007-01-01

    The root barks of Zizyphus lotus were extracted with water, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol to determine their antiinflammatory and analgesic activities. Aqueous extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) given intraperitoneally (i.p.) showed a significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. PMID:17107758

  8. The proteomics of nitrogen remobilization in poplar bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal nitrogen (N) cycling in temperate deciduous trees involves the accumulation of bark storage proteins (BSPs), a class of vegetative storage proteins in phloem parenchyma and xylem ray cells. BSPs are anabolized using recycled N in the form of amino acids after autumn leaf senescence and lat...

  9. Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids from the barks of Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ling-Tian; Chen, Pian; Zhang, Yan; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Ye, Xiao-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Two new tetracyclic triterpenoids, together with 21 known compounds, were isolated from the barks of Melia azedarach. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by the means of HRESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography analysis. PMID:26727712

  10. Rates of pyrolysis and combustion of bark by thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Yin

    1996-12-31

    Wood supplies approximately 3 percent of the U.S. energy consumption. Bark represents about 10-15% of the weight of the trunk cut in the forest. Wood combustion phenomena has been extensively reviewed. Recent technological development is reflected in an article by Barsin et al., and a report published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Fundamental understanding of wood pyrolysis has also grown substantially in the last two decades. Shafizadeh reviewed the wood pyrolysis and combustion kinetics based on weight loss profiles. About the same time, Hajaligol et al. reported the kinetics of the individual product species for rapid pyrolysis of cellulose, Boroson et al. observed that heterogeneous cracking ofwood pyrolysis tars takes place over flesh wood char surface. Pyrolysis kinetics of different lignocellulosic materials have been investigated by Bilbao et al. Heat and mass transfer limitations are inevitable during burning of large particles, and have been the target of a number of modeling efforts. Due to its lower physical strength and less uniform structure than interior wood, bark is usually burned along with wood waste as a fuel, particularly by sawmills and pulp mills. Bark has the heating value of 9,000 to 10,000 Btu/lb, which is higher than that of wood. The objective of this paper is to experimentally acquire information about the bark kinetics during pyrolysis and combustion conditions. A kinetic model is also developed for the comparison.

  11. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  12. The Bark Myxomycetes--Their Collection, Culture and Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique for isolating slime molds from tree bark and outlines projects for working with slime molds in the laboratory. Diagrams of 26 of the more common British species and a key to the Orders of Myxomcetes are given. (CS)

  13. Ursane Triterpenoids from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five ursane type triterpene glucosyl esters including a new one, 2a,3ß-dihydroxyurs-12,18-dien-28-oic acid 28-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1) were isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, along with two known phenolic compounds. It is the first report of ursane type of triterpenoids from this spi...

  14. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  15. Non-Stomatal Limitation to Photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora Seedings Exposed to Elevated O3

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv′/Fm′) was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may

  16. Activity of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing status of insecticide resistant mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa is a threatening alert to the existing control efforts. All sibling species of An. gambiae complex have evolved insecticide resistance in wild populations for different approved classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. An alternative compound for vector control is absolutely urgently needed. In this study, the larvicidal activity and chemical composition of the Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oils were investigated. Methods C. osmophloeum leaf essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 6 hours, and their chemical compositions identified using GC-MS. These oils were evaluated against An. gambiae s.s. in both laboratory and semi-field situations. The WHO test procedures for monitoring larvicidal efficacy in malaria vectors were used. Results The composition of C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil has been found to have 11 active compounds. The most abundant compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) and the least abundant was caryophyllene oxide (0.08%). The larvicidal activity was found to be dosage and time dependant both in laboratory and semi-field environments with mortality ranging from 0% to 100%. The LC50 value was found to vary from 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it was 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml. The LC90 value was found to range between 57.71 to 91.54 μg/ml in the laboratory while in semi-field environments was 52.07 to 173.77 μg/ml. Mortality ranged from 13% to 100% in the laboratory while in semi-field environments it ranged between 43% to 100% within mortality recording time intervals of 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Conclusions The larvicidal activity shown by C. osmophloeum leaf essential oil is a promising alternative to existing larvicides or to be incorporated in integrated larval source management compounds for An. gambiae s.s control. The efficacy

  17. Impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Tingxing; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hongling; Tu, Lihua; Jing, Liao

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the impact of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis saplings. The experimental design scheme was 0 (CK), 40 (A1), 80 (A2) and 120 g pot(-1) (A3) of E. grandis leaves, and changes in the volatile oil chemical composition during litter decomposition were assessed in the present study. The results showed that C. septentrionale leaf litter inhibited the growth of E. grandis saplings, as determined by the height, basal diameter and chlorophyll content, after 69 d (T1). Five months after transplantation (T2), the height growth rate of the E. grandis saplings increased and then gradually reduced (A1: 40 g pot(-1) > A2: 80 g pot(-1) > A3: 120 g pot(-1) > CK: 0 g pot(-1)). After eleven months (T3), the variations in the height and basal diameter were the same as observed at T2, and the inhibition on leaf, branch, root and stem biomass increased with increasing leaf litter content. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile compound composition. The results indicated that the C. septentrionale original leaf litter (S1) contained thirty-one volatile compounds, but the treated leaf litter S2 (which was mixed with soil for eleven months to simultaneously plant E. grandis saplings) only possessed fourteen volatile compounds, releasing many secondary metabolites in the soil during decomposition. Most of the volatile compounds were alcohols, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, alkanes, alkene, esters and ketones. Most of the allelochemicals of C. septentrionale might be released during the initial decomposing process, inhibiting the growth of other plants, whereas some nutrients might be released later, promoting the height growth of plants. In conclusion, decomposing C. septentrionale leaf litter release of many allelochemicals in the soil that significantly inhibit the growth of E. grandis. PMID:23835358

  18. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis. PMID:25842297

  19. The value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets for Thai goats.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Brian; Jones, Raymond J; Poathong, Somsak; Chobtang, Jeerasak

    2010-12-01

    The study assessed the value of Leucaena leucocephala bark in leucaena-grass hay diets fed to Thai goats. Thai goats in metabolism pens were fed diets containing leucaena leaf (55%) + pangola grass hay (hay, 45%); leucaena leaf (48%) + leucaena bark (9%) + hay (43%); leucaena bark (57%) + hay (43%); and hay only. Feed percentages are expressed on a dry weight basis. The digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were measured for the four diets. Leucaena bark had lower CP concentration than the leaf (11.7 vs. 25.9), and the leucaena bark + hay diet had lower DM and CP digestibility than the other diets. The calculated bark digestibilities of DM and CP of 44.1% and 38.2%, respectively, were much lower than the values for the leucaena leaf of 62.9% and 89.1%, respectively. The lower than expected CP digestibility was attributed to higher tannin levels in the bark compared to the leaves. Despite this, the bark was well accepted by the goats and was often preferred to the hay. Stripping of the bark by goats also results in stems that dry quicker and have higher calorific value as fuel. However, if leucaena branches are fed as a sole diet, the goats may consume up to 30% of bark on a DM basis and this would reduce nutritive value and animal productivity. PMID:20563643

  20. Bioactivities and compositional analyses of Cinnamomum essential oils from Nepal: C. camphora, C. tamala, and C. glaucescens.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Poudel, Ambika; Dosoky, Noura S; Pokharel, Kiran Kumar; Setzer, William N

    2013-12-01

    This work examines the biological activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum camphora leaves, C. glaucescens fruit, and C. tamala root from Nepal. The oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against lettuce and perennial ryegrass, brine shrimp lethality, and antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. C. camphora leaf essential oil was phytotoxic to lettuce, antifungal to Aspergillus niger, and insecticidal, particularly toward midge and butterfly larvae, fruit flies, and fire ants. C. camphora oil was also toxic to brine shrimp and human breast tumor cells. C. glaucescens fruit essential oil showed notable nematicidal activity, as well as termiticidal and mosquito larvicidal activity. The root essential oil of C. tamala was toxic to mosquito larvae and fire ants. PMID:24555298

  1. The Effects of Cinnamomum Cassia on Blood Glucose Values are Greater than those of Dietary Changes Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Ashley N.; Stockert, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen type II diabetics (9 women and 9 men) participated in a 12-week trial that consisted of 2 parts, a 3-week control phase followed by a 9-week experimental phase where half of the subjects received 1000 mg of Cinnamomum cassia while the other half received 1000 mg of a placebo pill. All of the subjects that were in the cinnamon group had a statistically significant decrease in their blood sugar levels with a P-value of 3.915 × 10−10. The subjects in the cinnamon group had an average overall decrease in their blood sugar levels of about 30 mg/dL, which is comparable to oral medications available for diabetes. All subjects were educated on appropriate diabetic diets and maintained that diet for the entire 12 week study. Greater decreases in blood glucose values were observed in patients using the cinnamon compared to those using the dietary changes alone. PMID:23882151

  2. Potency of Massoia Bark in Combating Immunosuppressed-related Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung; Yuswanto, Agustinus; Permanasari, Prisci

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of our search for new potential natural resources to eradicate infection, we have revealed the prominent potency of massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc, Lauraceae) in combating immunosuppressed-related infection. Materials and Methods: The extract was prepared by macerating the pulverized dried bark in ethanol 95%, followed by solvent evaporation. The oil was extracted from the dried bark by steam-hydrodistillation of which preparative thin-layer chromatography was performed on the oil to isolate the active constituent, C-10 massoia lactone (ML). Anti-biofilm assay against Candida albicans was conducted on polystyrene 96 wells microtiter plates, followed by a confocal laser scanning microscope observation to get three-dimensional profiles of the affected biofilms. Effects on the hyphae development inoculated on RPMI-1640 agar plates were observed for 7 days. Influences of samples on mice macrophage phagocytosis were examined by an in vitro technique. Samples concentration tested were in the range of 2.0–0.0625 mg/mL and done in triplicate. Results: Massoia bark extracts (oil and solid phase) and ML exhibited promising activities as anti-biofilm against C. albicans at IC50 0.074% v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL, respectively. The ML did not inhibit the hyphae development at the concentration tested; however, the extracts showed inhibition at 62.5 μg/mL. Macrophage phagocytosis stimulation was correlated to the ML content. Conclusion: Massoia bark is potential to be developed as anti-infective in immunosuppressed condition of which the C10 ML (C10H16O2) plays a major role in exerting activity. SUMMARY Massoia bark extracts (oily and solid phase) and C-10 Massoia lactone exhibited promising activities as antibiofilm against Candida albicans at IC50 are 0.074 %v/v, 271 μg/mL and 0.026 μg/mL respectively. The major constituent, C-10 Massoia lactone (C10H16O2) plays major role in exerting anticandida activity and potentially acts as an

  3. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  4. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed. PMID:22978211

  5. Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

  6. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  7. [Chemical constituents from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus L].

    PubMed

    Zhang, E J; Kang, Q S; Zhang, Z

    1993-01-01

    Seven constituents (I-VII) were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus and identified as nonanedioic acid (I), suberic acid (II), 1-octarcosanol (III), beta-sitosterol (IV), 1,22-docosanediol (V), betulin (VI) and erythrotriol (VII). VII was obtained from the plant for the first time, I, II, III and VI were isolated from Malvaceae plants for the first time. PMID:8323683

  8. A new bixanthone derivative from the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiu; Jiang, Yuyang; Li, Jiong; Qiu, Shengxiang; Chen, Tao

    2014-01-01

    A new bixanthone derivative, garciobioxanthone (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Garcinia oblongifolia, together with 11 known compounds. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR and other spectroscopic analysis. The structures of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the references. PMID:24079308

  9. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  10. Bioactive Constituents of the Stem Bark of Mitrephora glabra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Lee, Dongho; Graf, Tyler N.; Phifer, Sharnelle S.; Nakanishi, Yuka; Riswan, Soedarsono; Setyowati, Fransisca M.; Saribi, Achmad M.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Kroll, David J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Wani, Mansukh C.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the stem bark of Mitrephora glabra yielded nine compounds, comprising three ent-kaurenoids (1–3), five polyacetylenic acids/esters (4–8), and one aporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (9). The structures of the six new compounds (1–3, 5, 7, and 8) were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against a panel of cancer cell lines and a battery of microorganisms. PMID:19874044

  11. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    PubMed

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  12. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  15. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  16. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  17. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  18. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P < 0.0001), but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  19. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  20. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow (Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale. PMID:26253347

  1. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  2. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  3. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  4. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited supplies of pine bark (PB) due to a number of reasons over the past several years has caused concern among many nursery producers. This study was developed to evaluate varying ratios of pine bark (PB) with clean chip residual (CCR) or WholeTree substrate (WT), in order to assist growers with...

  5. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  6. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  7. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. PMID:26399165

  8. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  9. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  10. Nutrient Availability from Douglas Fir Bark in Response to Substrate pH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies were conducted to determine the influence of substrate pH on nutrient availability in douglas fir bark (DFB). Douglas fir bark was amended with either calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] at 13 rates to generate substrates with low to high pH. A non-amended control ...

  11. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    PubMed

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  12. Gniditrin is the main diterpenoid constituent in the bark of Daphne mezereum L.

    PubMed

    Görick, C; Melzig, M F

    2013-07-01

    The bark of Daphne mezereum L. is known as toxic drug due to the presence of diterpene esters. The phytochemical analysis of the bark used for preparation of homeopathic mother tinctures showed that gniditrin was the main diterpene constituent, only in the fruits of D. mezereum mezerein could be detected. The complete NMR data of gniditrin are published for the first time. PMID:23923651

  13. Contemporary use of bark for medicine by two Salishan native elders of southeast Vancouver Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Turner, N J; Hebda, R J

    1990-04-01

    Elders of the Saanich and Cowichan Coast Salish people of southern Vancouver Island treat, or have treated in the recent past, many ailments with bark preparations. Interviews with two elder Salishan women revealed that: respiratory ailments were treated with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Cornus nuttallii, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Quercus garryana; digestive tract ailments with the bark of Abies grandis, Alnus rubra, Arbutus menziesii, Malus fusca. Oemleria cerasiformis, Populus tremuloides, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Rhamnus purshianus and Rubus spectabilis; gynaecological problems with bark of Abies grandis, Arbutus menziesii, Populus tremuloides, Prunus emarginata, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Sambucus racemosa; and dermatological complaints with the bark of Mahonia spp., Rubus spectabilis, and Symphoricarpos albus. Tree barks have also been used to treat fevers, diabetes, kidney problems, sore eyes, and haemorrhaging, and also as general tonics. Two recipes for general-purpose multi-bark medicines are provided. In most cases, infusions or decoctions of barks are used. The medicines are drunk or applied externally as a wash. PMID:2345461

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  15. The layer-flame method of bark burning

    SciTech Connect

    Fincker, F.Z.; Rundygin, Y.A.; Kubyshkin, I.B.

    1995-11-01

    At the present time many countries including Russia have at their disposal a considerable number of abled boiler installations designed for an utilization of different biomasses and wastes of the timber industry (such as peat, bark, sawdust, chips and so on). The traditional technology of burning with the application of layer or flame processes, especially in case of unstable heat-technical characteristics of a fuel to be used does not guarantee a reliable and economical performance of a boiler installation. For example, dampness of bark used in enterprises of the pulp and paper industry as an energetic fuel may vary from 50 till 70 per cent during a short period of time. Operation of the boiler installation is also complicated by variable composition of a fuel. Fuel particles may be either very small or very coarse, that is, they may differ from one another, according to their sizes, by thousand times. To flatten the heat-technical and fractional characteristics of a fuel there is used a difficult and cumbersome equipment the performance of which is complicated by the possibility that some of coarse metallic or mineral fractions can penetrate together with a fuel into the process. There is needed a search for new ways of updating the efficiency of energetic application of such fuels. Investigations of this problem are being carried out in a few directions including different variations of thermal treatment of the described material (pyrolysis, gasification and so on). A lot of works is connected with the exploration of boiler installations equipped with diverse modifications of the fluid bed furnaces. However, as a result of their having proven to be too expensive, difficult to create, unreliable and for they also take too much electricity on their own needs, these furnaces have not yet found wider spreading as for the burning of such hard-combustible fuels as bark and other highly damp wastes of timber industry.

  16. Anticomplement monoterpenoid glucosides from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Hua; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-24

    Six new (1-6) and 19 known monoterpenoid glucosides were isolated from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa. The monoterpenoid glucosides 1, 2, 7, 10-19, and 22 exhibited anticomplement effects with CH50 and AP50 values ranging from 0.14 to 2.67 mM and 0.25 to 3.67 mM, respectively. In a mechanistic study, suffrupaeoniflorin A (1) interacted with C1q, C3, C5, and C9, while galloylpaeoniflorin (12) and galloyloxypaeoniflorin (19) acted on C1q, C3, and C5 components in the complement activation cascade. PMID:24377852

  17. Iridoid glucosides from leaves and stem barks of Parkia javanica.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chandra Mohanta, Bikas; Debnath, Sudhan; Ghosh, Biplab; Arima, Shiho; Sato, Noriko; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Two new iridoid glucosides, javanicosides A (1) and B (2) along with the known compounds, ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were isolated from the leaf and stem bark of Parkia javanica and the structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (MS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments). The new compounds were identified as 8-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-6'-O-p-coumaroyl-mussaenosidic acid (1) and 7-O-E-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl-6'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylloganic acid (2). PMID:19408146

  18. Bioactive constituents of the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Tringali, C; Spatafora, C; Longo, O D

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of a systematic analysis of African plants used for the 'cure salée', from the bark of Parkia biglobosa, a long-chain ester of trans-ferulic acid (1) has been isolated together with an unseparable mixture of long-chain cis-ferulates (2a-e). In addition, lupeol, 4-O-methyl-epi-gallocatechin, epi-gallocatechin, epi-catechin 3-O-gallate, and epi-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate were isolated. PMID:10727806

  19. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  20. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  1. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

    2012-08-01

    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

  2. Biotransformation of pink water TNT on the surface of a low-cost adsorbent pine bark.

    PubMed

    Chusova, O; Nõlvak, H; Odlare, M; Truu, J; Truu, M; Oopkaup, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-09-01

    This two-week anaerobic batch study evaluated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal efficiency from industrial pink water by (1) adsorption on low-cost adsorbent pine bark, and (2) adsorption coupled with TNT biotransformation by specialised microbial communities. Samples of the supernatant and acetonitrile extracts of pine bark were analysed by HPLC, while the composition of the bacterial community of the experimental batches, inocula and pine bark were profiled by high-throughput sequencing the V6 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Integrated adsorption and biotransformation proved to be the most efficient method for TNT removal from pink water. The type of applied inoculum had a profound effect on TNT removal efficiencies and microbial community structures, which were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The analysis of acetonitrile extracts of pine bark supported the hypothesis that the microbial community indigenous to pine bark has the ability to degrade TNT. PMID:26142875

  3. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  4. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  5. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  6. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bing-Ho; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool (土肉桂 tǔ ròu guì) is one chemotype of the indigenous cinnamons in Taiwan. This study examined the anxiolytic potency of leaf essential oil (LEO) from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its main constituent on 4-week ICR mice using an open field test (OFT), a light–dark test (LDT) and an elevated plus maze test (EPT). After oral administration of corn oil, LEO (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(−)-linalool (500 mg/kg), and trazodone hydrochloride (75 mg/kg) for 14 days, the anxiolytic effects on mice behavior were evaluated. The results showed that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves and S-(+)-linalool can significantly increase the time mice remained in the center area of the OFT, the illuminated area of the LDT and the open arms of the EPT without any side effects affecting motor activity, indicating excellent anxiolytic responses. Furthermore, results from the measurements of monoamines in mice brain revealed decreases in serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are consistent with their anxiolytic effects in animal models. The findings obtained suggest that LEO from C. osmophloeum ct. linalool and its major compound, S-(+)-linalool, possess anxiolytic properties without any side effects and thus support their potential use in treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:26151006

  7. In vivo antioxidant activities of essential oils and their constituents from leaves of the Taiwanese Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Fu-Lan; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Yu, Chan-Wei; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Yang, Ying-Fei; Liu, Jui-Tung; Shih, Justin; Chu, Yu-Ju; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2012-03-28

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and key constituents from the leaves of two C. osmophloeum clones were investigated. The two trees possess two chemotypes, which were classified as the cinnamaldehyde type and camphor type. We demonstrated that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves exerted in vivo antioxidant activities in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor, which respectively represent the major compounds in the cinnamaldehyde-type and camphor-type trees, exerted significant in vivo antioxidant activities against juglone-induced oxidative stress in C. elegans. Moreover, expressions of antioxidative-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were significantly induced by trans-cinnamaldehyde and D-(+)-camphor from C. osmophloeum leaves. Our results showed that the essential oils from C. osmophloeum leaves and their major compounds might have good potential for further development as nutraceuticals or antioxidant remedies. PMID:22380926

  8. Cleavage of supercoiled circular double-stranded DNA induced by a eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Zhong; Wei, Xu-Bin; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2004-09-01

    A eukaryotic cambialistic superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been purified to homogeneity from mature seeds of the disease- and insect-resistant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). Besides the known role of this SOD in protecting cells against oxidative stress, it can induce the cleavage of supercoiled double-stranded DNA into nicked and linear DNA. It can not cleave linear DNA or RNA, demonstrating there is no DNase or RNase in the purified cambialistic SOD. Furthermore, the SOD can linearize circular pGEM-4Z DNA that is relaxed by topoisomerase I. This result indicates that the DNA-cleaving activity requires substrates being topologically constrained. The supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity of the cambialistic SOD can be inhibited by either SOD inhibitor (azide) or catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers (ethanol and mannitol). The chelator of iron, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), also inhibits the supercoiled DNA-cleaving activity. These results show that the dismutation activity is crucial for the supercoiled DNA cleavage. The modification of tryptophan residue of the cambialistic SOD with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) shows that these two activities are structurally correlative. The reaction mechanism is proposed that the hydroxyl radical formed in a transition-metal-catalyzing Fenton-type reaction contributes to the DNA-cleaving activity. In addition, the cleavage sites in supercoiled pGEM-4Z DNA are random. PMID:15346198

  9. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  10. Antifungal effect of Allium tuberosum, Cinnamomum cassia, and Pogostemon cablin essential oils and their components against population of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Kocevski, Dragana; Du, Muying; Kan, Jianquan; Jing, Chengjun; Lačanin, Ines; Pavlović, Hrvoje

    2013-05-01

    Antifungal activity of Allium tuberosum (AT), Cinnamomum cassia (CC), and Pogostemon cablin (Patchouli, P) essential oils against Aspergillus flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and Aspergillus oryzae was tested at 2 water activity levels (aw : 0.95 and 0.98). Main components of tested essential oils were: allyl trisulfide 40.05% (AT), cinnamaldehyde 87.23% (CC), and patchouli alcohol 44.52% (P). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the plant essential oils against A. flavus strains 3.2758 and 3.4408 and A. oryzae was 250 ppm (A. tuberosum and C. cassia), whereas Patchouli essential oil inhibited fungi at concentration > 1500 ppm. The essential oils exhibited suppression effect on colony growth at all concentrations (100, 175, and 250 ppm for A. tuberosum; 25, 50, and 75 for C. cassia; 100, 250, and 500 for P. cablin essential oil). Results of the study represent a solution for possible application of essential oil of C. cassia in different food systems due to its strong inhibitory effect against tested Aspergillus species. In real food system (table grapes), C. cassia essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activity compared to cinnamaldehyde. PMID:23647469

  11. Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum, also called true cinnamon tree, is employed to make the seasoning cinnamon. Furthermore, the plant has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medication. We explored the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde, an ingredient of the cortex of the plant, as well as the molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed growth and induced apoptosis, as proved by depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, and morphological features of apoptosis. Moreover, cuminaldehyde also led to lysosomal vacuolation with an upregulated volume of acidic compartment and cytotoxicity, together with inhibitions of both topoisomerase I and II activities. Additional study shows that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde was observed in the model of nude mice. Our results suggest that the anticancer activity of cuminaldehyde in vitro involved the suppression of cell proliferative markers, topoisomerase I as well as II, together with increase of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with upregulated lysosomal vacuolation. On the other hand, in vivo, cuminaldehyde diminished the tumor burden that would have a significant clinical impact. Furthermore, similar effects were observed in other tested cell lines. In short, our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a drug for chemopreventive or anticancer therapy. PMID:27231935

  12. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  13. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  14. Anticonvulsant properties of saponins from Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Anuka, Joseph A; McNeil, Lilly; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Adamu, Simon S; Amos, Samson; Connelly, William K; Lees, George; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2009-03-30

    Preparations of Ficus platyphylla have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy for many years and their efficacy is widely acclaimed among the Hausa communities of northern Nigeria. The anticonvulsant properties of the saponin rich fraction (SFG) obtained from the methanol extract of F. platyphylla stem bark were studied on pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and maximal electroshock seizures in mice. Effects of SFG were also examined in murine models for neurological disease and on relevant in vitro targets for anticonvulsant drugs. SFG protected mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures. SFG failed to protect mice against maximal electroshock seizures at doses tested. SFG neither abolished the spontaneous discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in a neonatal rat brain slice model of tonic-clonic epilepsy nor could it modulate chloride currents through GABA(A) receptor channel complex in cultured cortical cells. However, it was able to non-selectively suppress excitatory and inhibitory synaptic traffic, blocked sustained repetitive firing (SRF) and spontaneous action potential firing in these cultured cells. Our results provide scientific evidence that F. platyphylla stem bark may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties. SFG impaired membrane excitability; a property shared by most anticonvulsants particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocking drugs, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this plant as anticonvulsant agents. PMID:19111909

  15. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V M; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-07-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  17. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  18. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  19. Characterisation of Polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anumita; Pawar, V. M.; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea. PMID:23626389

  20. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-30

    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes. PMID:24299798

  1. The origins of tannins and flavonoids in black-wattle barks and heartwoods, and their associated `non-tannin' components

    PubMed Central

    Saayman, H. M.; Roux, D. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. The distributions of flavonoid, carbohydrate, amino acid and imino acid components in the leaves, twig bark, stem bark, root bark and heartwoods of the black-wattle tree were compared by paper chromatography after their isolation from specific portions of the tree. 2. Wattle leaves contain mainly myricitrin, (+)-gallocatechin, an unknown myricetin glycoside and leuco-delphinidin tannins, together with smaller amounts of (+)-catechin, quercitrin and other flavonol glycosides. These are prominent in the twig bark, but decline progressively with age in the stem bark and are absent from root bark. 3. The non-phenolic components of the mature stem bark were shown to be (+)-pinitol, sucrose, glucose, fructose, l(−)-pipecolic acid, trans-4-hydroxy-l(−)-pipecolic acid, α-alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, l(−)-proline, serine, a `steroid' alcohol and a long-chain β-diketone. 4. Wattle bark and heartwood `tannins' consist of the analogues of closely related prototypes with common origins in the vascular tissues of the bark. Leaf `tannins' are superimposed on the bark components mainly during the initial stages of bark growth. 5. Origins of the pipecolic acids and the transformations of carbohydrates in the sap- and heart-woods are discussed. PMID:5881667

  2. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  3. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  4. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  5. Enhancing the hydrophobicity of mangrove bark by esterification for oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman Bin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Orji, Kalu Uka

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model. PMID:25325547

  6. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    PubMed

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  7. Hexachlorocyclohexanes in tree bark across Chinese agricultural regions: spatial distribution and enantiomeric signatures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-21

    The environmental issue caused by atmospheric hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) has been a worldwide concern due to their long-range transport potential. Tree bark is an excellent passive sampler for monitoring atmospheric pollutants. In this study, bark samples from agricultural regions across China were collected and analyzed to elucidate the contamination status of atmospheric HCHs and the enantiomeric composition of chiral α-HCH. Average contents of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, and ∑HCHs in bark were 1.16, 2.51, 1.67, 0.368, and 5.71 ng/g (dry basis), respectively. Jing-Jin-Tang region was identified as the "hot-spot" of bark HCHs in China. Their residues were likely from the combined sources of historical applications of technical HCHs and lindane through long-distance transport. HCH contents were found inversely correlated with annual precipitation and temperature, but positively correlated with PM10 or PM2.5 due to the bioaccumulation of both vapor- and particle-phase HCHs by tree bark. Most bark samples preferentially accumulated (+)-α-HCH, and the enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of α-HCH were positively correlated with α-HCH concentrations and the elevations of sampling locations. Compared to atmospheric analysis, tree bark analysis and enantiomeric signatures provide valuable time-integrated information on the spatial distribution and transport pathways of atmospheric HCHs on the national scale in China. PMID:25252210

  8. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20576561

  9. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application. PMID:20578284

  10. Pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS analysis for simultaneous determination of seven components in Cinnamomum cassia and the effect of sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guang-Ping; Huang, Wei-Hua; Yang, Feng-Qing; Li, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS method was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of the seven components, including cinnamaldehyde, copaene, cinnamic acid, coumarin, 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 2-methoxycinnamic acid and safrole in Cinnamomum cassia. The results showed that methanol and ethanol was not available for extraction of cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde due to aldol reaction. The developed method was validated to be sensitive, accurate and simple, and was successfully employed for the analysis of 15 samples of C. cassia. The contents of the investigated components were significantly variant and cinnamaldehyde is the most abundant compound, but safrole was not detected in all samples. PMID:20572266

  11. Cork Oak Vulnerability to Fire: The Role of Bark Harvesting, Tree Characteristics and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Catry, Filipe X.; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G.; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3–4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems. PMID:22787521

  12. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  13. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  14. Chemical polymorphism and antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves of different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from nine geographical provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) leaves were examined by GC-MS and their chemical constituents were compared. According to GC-MS and cluster analyses the leaf essential oils of the nine provenances and their relative contents were classified into six chemotypes-cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type and mixed type. In addition, the antifungal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon were investigated in this study. Results from the antifungal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Lenzites betulina and brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. The antifungal indices of leaf essential oils from these two chemotypes at the level of 200 micro/ml against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were all 100%. Among them, the IC(50) (50% of inhibitory concentrations) value of the essential oil of cinnamaldehyde type leaf against L. sulphureus was 52-59microg/ml. Cinnamaldehyde possessed the strongest antifungal activities in comparison with other constituents of the essential oils from cinnamaldehyde type leaf, at the level of 100microg/ml its antifungal indices against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 100%. The IC50 values of cinnamaldehyde against T. versicolor, L. betulina and L. sulphureus were 73, 74 and 73microg/ml, respectively. PMID:16171686

  15. Insulin sensitizer in prediabetes: a clinical study with DLBS3233, a combined bioactive fraction of Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Manaf, Asman; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Malinda, Desi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DLBS3233, a novel bioactive fraction derived from Cinnamomum burmanii and Lagerstroemia speciosa, in improving insulin resistance and preserving β-cell performance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Patients and methods Eighty adult subjects with IGT, defined as 2-hour postprandial glucose level of 140–199 mg/dL, were enrolled in this two-arm, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled preliminary study. Eligible subjects were randomly allocated to receive either DLBS3233 at a dose of 50–100 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The study mainly assessed the improvement of homeostatic model-assessed insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), the 15-minute and 2-hour plasma insulin levels, and the oral disposition index. Results After 12 weeks, DLBS3233 improved insulin resistance better than placebo as reflected by a reduced HOMA-IR (−27.04%±29.41% vs −4.90%±41.27%, P=0.013). The improvement of the first- and second-phase insulin secretion was consistently greater in DLBS3233 group than placebo group (−144.78±194.06 vs −71.21±157.19, P=0.022, and −455.03±487.56 vs −269.49±467.77, P=0.033, respectively). Further, DLBS3233 also significantly better improved oral disposition index than placebo. No serious hypoglycemia, edema, or cardiovascular-related adverse events were found in either groups. Conclusion This study has shown that DLBS3233 at the dose of 50–100 mg once daily was well tolerated, and promisingly efficacious in improving insulin sensitivity as well as preserving β-cell performance in subjects with IGT. PMID:27099473

  16. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  17. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Bandari Uma; Shrivastava, Shweta; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) hepatotoxicity is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and excessive oxidative stress; natural antioxidant compounds have been tested as an alternative therapy. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of an alcoholic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity. BO extract also demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as scavenger activity against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Administration of PCM caused a significant increase in the release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. Significant enhancement in hepatic lipid peroxidation and marked depletion in reduced glutathione were observed after parac intoxication with severe alterations in liver histology. BO treatment was able to mitigate hepatic damage induced by acute intoxication of PCM and showed a pronounced protective effect against lipid peroxidation, deviated serum enzymatic variables, and maintained glutathione status toward control. The results clearly demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of BO against the toxicity induced by PCM. PMID:25263977

  18. Three naphthalenes from root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, I D; Yun, B S; Lee, I K; Ryoo, I J; Choung, D H; Han, K H

    1998-03-01

    Three new naphthalenes, designated as syriacusins A-C, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. These compounds were identified as 2,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 1-carboxy-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxynaphthalenecarbolactone (1-->8), respectively, on the basis of various spectral studies. The compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50s of 0.54, 5.90 and 1.02 micrograms ml-1, respectively. The first compound also showed cytotoxicity against some human cancer cell lines with an ED50 of 1.5-2.4 micrograms ml-1. PMID:9542172

  19. A new coumarin from stem bark of Mesua hexapetala.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Thiruventhan; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Daud, Shaari; Mah, Siau Hui; Lim, Chan Kiang; Jong, Vivien Yi Mian; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-07-01

    A new alkylated coumarin derivative, hexapetarin (1) along with three other xanthones, trapezifolixanthone (2), cudraxanthone G (3) and 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di (3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (4), and four common triterpenoids, friedelin (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7) and gamma-sitosterol (8) were isolated from the stem bark of Mesua hexapetala (Clusiaceae), a plant, native to Malaysia. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and determined using spectroscopic techniques such as NMR and MS. Anti-inflammatory activity assay indicated hexapetarin (1) to possess moderate anti-inflammatory activity, while 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,4-di (3-methyl-2-butenyl)xanthone (4) gave very good activity. PMID:26710827

  20. Neolignans and glycosides from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Du, Dan; Ding, Guang-Zhi; Si, Yi-Kang; Yu, Shi-Shan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Xu, Song; Qu, Jing; Wang, Jia-Ming; Liu, Yu-Xi

    2010-05-28

    Five new neolignans (1-4 and 9), two pairs of neolignan epimers (5-8), and two new aromatic glycosides (10 and 11) have been isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, CD experiments, and chemical methods. The absolute configurations of the 3,4-diol moiety in 1 and 1,3-diol moiety in 2 were confirmed by Snatzke's method, observing the induced circular dichroism after addition of dimolybdenum tetraacetate in DMSO. Compounds 3, 4, and 11 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 1.62 to 24.4 microM, while compound 3 displayed antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value of 42.3 microM. PMID:20411974

  1. Authentication of true cinnamon (Cinnamon verum) utilising direct analysis in real time (DART)-QToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Smillie, Troy J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    The use of cinnamon as a spice and flavouring agent is widespread throughout the world. Many different species of plants are commonly referred to as 'cinnamon'. 'True cinnamon' refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum) (Lauraceae). Other 'cinnamon' species, C. cassia (Nees & T. Nees) J. Presl (syn. C. aromaticum Nees) (Chinese cassia), C. loureiroi Nees (Saigon cassia), and C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume (Indonesian cassia), commonly known as cassia, are also marketed as cinnamon. Since there is a prevalence of these various types of 'cinnamons' on the market, there is a need to develop a rapid technique that can readily differentiate between true cinnamon (C. verum) and other commonly marketed species. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds indicative of 'cinnamon' were analysed using DART-QToF-MS in various samples of cinnamon. This method involved the use of [M + H](+) ions in positive mode in addition to principal component analysis (PCA) using Mass Profiler Professional software to visualise several samples for quality and to discriminate 'true cinnamon' from other Cinnamomum species using the accurate mass capabilities of QToF-MS. PMID:25421162

  2. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-01-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  3. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-03-01

    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC(50) values, two cassia oils (0.084-0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064-0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, alpha-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114-0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl alpha-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224-0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  4. Fungi vectored by the bark beetle Ips typographus following hibernation under the bark of standing trees and in the forest litter.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ylva; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Långström, Bo; Ohrn, Petter; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The bark beetle Ips typographus has different hibernation environments, under the bark of standing trees or in the forest litter, which is likely to affect the beetle-associated fungal flora. We isolated fungi from beetles, standing I. typographus-attacked trees, and forest litter below the attacked trees. Fungal identification was done using cultural and molecular methods. The results of the two methods in detecting fungal species were compared. Fungal communities associated with I. typographus differed considerably depending on the hibernation environment. In addition to seven taxa of known ophiostomoid I. typographus-associated fungi, we detected 18 ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi, five wood-decaying basidomycetes, 11 yeasts, and four zygomycetes. Of those, 14 fungal taxa were detected exclusively from beetles that hibernated under bark, and six taxa were detected exclusively from beetles hibernating in forest litter. The spruce pathogen, Ceratocystis polonica, was detected occasionally in bark, while another spruce pathogen, Grosmannia europhioides, was detected more often from beetles hibernating under the bark as compared to litter. The identification method had a significant impact on which taxa were detected. Rapidly growing fungal taxa, e.g. Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Ophiostoma, dominated pure culture isolations; while yeasts dominated the communities detected using molecular methods. The study also demonstrated low frequencies of tree pathogenic fungi carried by I. typographus during its outbreaks and that the beetle does not require them to successfully attack and kill trees. PMID:19444498

  5. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  6. Elimination of As, Hg and Zn from synthetic solutions and industrial effluents using modified bark

    SciTech Connect

    Gaballah, I.; Kilbertus, G.

    1995-08-01

    Elimination of arsenic, mercury and zinc from synthetic solutions containing H{sub 3}AsO{sub 4}, HgCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} using modified barks was investigated. The pH range was varied from 1 to 10. The initial concentrations of individual element were 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm. More than 99% of mercury and 65% of zinc cations were removed by the modified bark. In this case, the modified bark reacts as a cation exchanger leading to the release of two protons for every Hg{sup II} or Zn{sup II} fixed by this material. About 30% of arsenic was eliminated from the solution. This low efficiency could be attributed to the presence of arsenic as anion. Decontamination of a treated industrial effluent containing 4 ppm of ion metals was performed on a pilot scale by the modified bark. More than 70% of these ion metals were eliminated.

  7. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes.

    PubMed

    Karnaouri, Anthi; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, (13)C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes. PMID:27043513

  8. Hypolipidaemic activity of Helicteres isora L. bark extracts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G

    2008-02-28

    In this study, the hypolipidaemic effect of an aqueous extract of the bark of Helicteres isora was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the bark extract of Helicteres isora (100 and 200 mg/kgb.w.) for 21 days resulted in significant reduction in serum and tissue cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids and triglycerides in STZ diabetic rats. In addition to that, significant (p<0.05) decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) whereas significant increase (p<0.05) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were observed in STZ diabetic rats, which were normalized after 21 days of bark extract treatment. The bark extract at a dose of 200 mg/kgb.w. showed much significant hypolipidaemic effect than at the dose of 100 mg/kgb.w. PMID:18191354

  9. Oak Bark Allometry and Fire Survival Strategies in the Chihuahuan Desert Sky Islands, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Gaetani, Maria S.; Poulos, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Trees may survive fire through persistence of above or below ground structures. Investment in bark aids in above-ground survival while investment in carbohydrate storage aids in recovery through resprouting and is especially important following above-ground tissue loss. We investigated bark allocation and carbohydrate investment in eight common oak (Quercus) species of Sky Island mountain ranges in west Texas. We hypothesized that relative investment in bark and carbohydrates changes with tree age and with fire regime: We predicted delayed investment in bark (positive allometry) and early investment in carbohydrates (negative allometry) under lower frequency, high severity fire regimes found in wetter microclimates. Common oaks of the Texas Trans-Pecos region (Quercus emoryi, Q. gambelii, Q. gravesii, Q. grisea, Q. hypoleucoides, Q. muehlenbergii, and Q. pungens) were sampled in three mountain ranges with historically mixed fire regimes: the Chisos Mountains, the Davis Mountains and the Guadalupe Mountains. Bark thickness was measured on individuals representing the full span of sizes found. Carbohydrate concentration in taproots was measured after initial leaf flush. Bark thickness was compared to bole diameter and allometries were analyzed using major axis regression on log-transformed measurements. We found that bark allocation strategies varied among species that can co-occur but have different habitat preferences. Investment patterns in bark were related to soil moisture preference and drought tolerance and, by proxy, to expected fire regime. Dry site species had shallower allometries with allometric coefficients ranging from less than one (negative allometry) to near one (isometric investment). Wet site species, on the other hand, had larger allometric coefficients, indicating delayed investment to defense. Contrary to our expectation, root carbohydrate concentrations were similar across all species and sizes, suggesting that any differences in below ground

  10. Antidiabetic properties of aqueous barks extract of Parinari excelsa in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Diatta, W; Sy, A N; Dièye, A M; Faye, B; Bassène, E

    2008-06-01

    The aqueous extract of the Parinari excelsa barks at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days has a significant antihyperglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. At the same dose the acute oral administration of aqueous extract of the P. excelsa barks (100 and 300 mg/kg) induced a significant decrease of blood glucose on glucose-loaded normoglycaemic rats. Our results seem to confirm the rational bases for its use in traditional medicine. PMID:18358635

  11. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa against enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, I P; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2008-01-01

    Hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaf and stem bark of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, Shigella dysenteriae CIP 54-51 and Enterococcus faecalis CIP 103 907. Discs of Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic were used as positive controls. The results showed that all the extracts possess antimicrobial activities. A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the leaves and that of the bark showed that for all the tested microorganisms, the hydroalcoholic extract of the bark is more active than the aqueous extract of the leaf. The hydroethanolic extract of the leaves is as effective as the aqueous extract of the stem bark prescribed by the traditional healer, suggesting it is possible to use leaves other than the roots and bark. The phytochemical screening showed that sterols and triterpenes, saponosides, tannins, reducing compounds, coumarins, anthocyanosides, flavonosides are present in both bark and leaf but in different concentrations. PMID:20161943

  12. Biomagnetic monitoring of traffic air pollution in Toulouse (France) using magnetic properties of tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, M.; Rousse, S.; Brulfert, F.; Durand, M.; Feida, N.; Durand, X.; Becaud, L.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic properties of various atmospheric samples represent rapid and economic proxies in the pollution studies based on their strong linkage to heavy metals and/or volatile organic carbons. We report a biomonitoring study of air pollution in Toulouse (France) based on the magnetic properties of tree (Platanus acerifolia) bark. More than 250 bark samples were taken at different areas of the city. Both mass specific magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) at 1 Tesla display relationships with the traffic intensity and the distance to the road. Urban roadside tree bark exhibit significant enhancement in their values of susceptibility and IRM reflecting surface accumulation of particulate pollutants, compared with tree growing at lower traffic sites. To estimate the deposition time and accumulation on bark, we have deposited 20 "clean" bark samples from low traffic area with susceptibility inferior to 10 SI, near the city ring road. Samples were then collected during three months. Samples were imparted a 1 Tesla IRM both prior the deposition and after the resampling. Results are useful to apprehend the process of magnetic particulates accumulation and to evaluate the potential of tree bark for the air quality monitoring.

  13. [Perchlorate removal from underground water by anaerobic biological reduction with bark].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Fei; Chen, Nan; Chen, Hong-Han

    2013-07-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to check the feasibility of perchlorate removal from underground water with bark as a carbon source and reaction media, the effect of bark dosage, temperature and initial perchlorate concentrations on perchlorate reduction were also investigated. The results indicated that compared to corn cob, sweet potato and potato, bark in combination with perchlorate reducing microorganisms (PRMs) can efficiently achieve perchlorate removal from underground water, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which was available to PRMs was the limiting factor that affected the perchlorate removal efficiency. Degradation of 10 mg perchlorate needed to consume 35-40 mg DOC when using bark as the solid carbon source. The removal rate of perchlorate was increased by about 3 fold when the bark dosage was increased from 1:500 to 3:500; however, further increase of solid-liquid ratio (over 5:500) provided no further benefit to the perchlorate reduction rate. The rate constant reached 1.365 mg x (L x d)(-1) at (38 +/- 1) degrees C which was the highest in the batch experiments. The activation energy was 31.08 kJ x mol(-1). Anaerobic biological reduction supported by bark had a good impact on the water quality; the high perchlorate concentration did not cause substrate inhibition. PMID:24028002

  14. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  15. Chronic treatment with bark infusion from Croton cajucara lowers plasma triglyceride levels in genetic hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Bighetti, Eliete J B; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; de Faria, Eliana C; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2004-06-01

    Aqueous infusion and preparations containing dehydrocrotonin (DHC) and essential oil from Croton cajucara bark were tested for plasma lipid-lowering effects in genetically modified hyperlipidemic mice. Two mouse models were tested: 1) primary hypercholesterolemia resulting from the LDL-receptor gene knockout, and 2) combined hyperlipidemia resulting from crosses of LDL-receptor knockout mice with transgenic mice overexpressing apolipo protein (apo) CIII and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein. Mice treated with bark infusion, DHC, essential oil, or placebos for 25 days showed no signals of toxicity as judged by biochemical tests for liver and kidney functions. The bark infusion reduced triglyceride plasma levels by 40%, while essential oil and DHC had no significant effects on plasma lipid levels. The bark infusion treatment promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among the lipoprotein fractions in combined hyperlipidemic mice. There was a marked reduction in the VLDL fraction and an increase in the HDL fraction, in such a way that the (VLDL + LDL)/HDL ratio was reduced by half. The bark infusion treatment did not modify cholesterol distribution in hypercholesterolemic mice. In conclusion, C. cajucara bark infusion reduced plasma triglycerides levels and promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins in genetically combined hyperlipidemic mice. These changes modify risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:15381962

  16. Utilizing NASA Satellite Missions to Identify Bark Beetle Infestation in Sequoia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Bird, J. E.; Sabatine, S. M.; Sady, G. C.; Stalzer, A. M.; Wheeler, T. A.; Skiles, J. W.; Schmidt, C.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetle-induced tree mortality has increased over the last few decades, exacerbated by below-average precipitation and a loss of soil nutrients, forcing park managers to improve bark beetle monitoring techniques. Bark beetle dynamics were investigated during summer 2009 at 32 sites within Sequoia National Park, California with the aim of correlating field data with satellite imagery to provide forest managers with a more efficient methodology for tracking, monitoring, and forecasting bark beetle outbreaks. Field parameters included visual assessments of the presence and degree of bark beetle-induced mortality and percent canopy cover. Ancillary data such as relative leaf chlorophyll concentration and soil nutrients including sodium [Na+], nitrate [NO3-], and potassium [K+] were collected for each 15 × 15 meter plot. The relationship between bark beetle attacks and potassium [K+] shows higher concentrations in healthy areas. Additionally, algorithms from three satellites were used to identify areas of moisture and vegetation stress; including the Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) from ASTER, Enhanced Wetness Difference Index (EWDI) from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM5), Disturbance Index (DI) from MODIS, and four other vegetation indices from Landsat TM5. Vegetation indices show uniform stress across various years.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark phenolics for health related effects.

    PubMed

    Vuorela, Satu; Kreander, Kari; Karonen, Maarit; Nieminen, Riina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Galkin, Anna; Laitinen, Leena; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia; Heinonen, Marina

    2005-07-27

    Rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark are promising bioactive sources of plant phenolics selected from among ca. 100 previously screened plant materials for in vitro preclinical evaluation of health related effects. Phenolic extracts and isolated fractions of the selected materials were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antimutagenic properties as well as for cell permeability. It was shown that rapeseed and pine bark phenolics and raspberry anthocyanins were good or excellent antioxidants toward oxidation of phosphatidylcholine membrane (liposomes), rapeseed oil (crude) phenolics were effective radical scavengers (DPPH test), and both raspberry and pine bark phenolics inhibited LDL oxidation. Rapeseed oil phenolics, principally vinylsyringol, raspberry anthocyanins, and pinoresinol and matairesinol, the principal components of pine bark phenolic isolate, were effective against formation of the proinflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E(2). Raspberry ellagitannins inhibited the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella oxytoca. Pine bark and rapeseed had minor effects on the permeability of model drugs in Caco-2 experiments. None of the tested extracts were mutagenic nor toxic to Caco-2 cells or macrophages. Thus, phenolic isolates from rapeseed, raspberry, and pine bark and are safe and bioactive for possible food applications including functional foods intended for health benefit. PMID:16028975

  18. Magnetic monitoring of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Jeleńska, M.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    We report preliminary results of magnetic study of pollution deposited on leaves, bark and soil in six locations in Warsaw of various level of contamination. Leaves and bark samples were taken at about 1.5m height from different spots of tree crown and at about 0.5m from surface, respectively. Top-soil samples were taken at a distance of no more than 2.5 m from a tree. Samples of leaves and bark were collected from horse chestnut trees in spring and autumn after few rainless days. In spring in several places lime tree leaves were sampled. Dry leaves were crashed and closely packed in plastic boxes. Mass specific susceptibility was measured in three frequency of magnetic filed as a detector of magnetic particles of pollution. Comparison of autumn and spring data provides information about the amount of pollution deposited during vegetation season. Data for horse chestnut and lime tree leaves show that horse chestnut is better collector of particulates. Because of that we decided not to collect leaves from lime tree in the autumn. The relationship of soil susceptibility (X) with X of leaves and bark reveal linear correlation with correlation coefficient R=0.97 and 0.5 for leaves and bark, respectively. Distribution of X values well agree with exposition on roadside particulate pollution. These preliminary results demonstrate that leaves and bark can be used for magnetic monitoring as detector of pollution level and can provide us with information about seasonal variation of this level.

  19. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in the atmosphere and tree bark from Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Ma, Zhaohui; Zheng, Wanjing

    2011-06-01

    Air samples in four seasons at one site and tree bark samples from four districts were determined to investigate seasonal variation and regional distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in Beijing, China. The total concentrations of PBDEs (∑PBDE) and HBCD (∑HBCD) were in the range of 57-470 and 20-1800 pg m(-3) in the atmosphere, respectively. The ∑PBDE and ∑HBCD concentrations were significantly influenced by the total suspended particulate matter in atmosphere. The total concentrations of PBDEs and HBCD in tree bark samples were in the range of 99-3700 and 26-3400 ng g(-1) lipid weight. It was found that regional distribution of PBDEs and HBCD was related to the function of each district. In addition, the study found that weeping willow bark was an ideal atmospheric PBDEs and HBCD passive sampler. Finally, atmospheric levels of BDE-209 and HBCD at tree bark sampling districts were estimated via applying an established bark/air partitioning model, which had been verified by the measured concentrations in tree bark and atmosphere in Beijing. PMID:21546059

  20. Environmental monitoring of trace elements in bark of Scots pine by thick-target PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Rajander, J.; Lill, J.-O.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2002-04-01

    Bark samples were taken from Scots pines ( Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area near a metal plant and from a relatively non-polluted site. Thick-target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses after different types of prepreparation of the samples. The bark samples were analysed directly by radially scanning from inner to outer bark in order to study the variability of elemental concentrations in different layers. Some clear differences were found in the chemical composition of the inner and outer bark. The lowest detection limits for the analyses of heavy metal ions were obtained by combining dry ashing at 550 °C with the PIXE method. More than 100 times higher concentrations were found for the heavy metal ions Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As and Pb in the bark samples from a polluted area in comparison to samples from a non-polluted area. The work demonstrated that external-beam thick-target PIXE is a sensitive and reliable method for quantitative determination of heavy metals in tree bark samples.

  1. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  2. Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junxia; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jingjing; Liu, Yangcheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Dong, Liang; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-06-01

    The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2) = 0.906; P < 0.05) indicated that atmospheric PBDEs were the principle source for the accumulation of PBDEs in the barks. In this study, the log K BA (bark-air partition coefficient) of individual PBDE congeners at the four sites were in the range from 5.69 to 6.79. Finally, the total PBDE concentration in WL was 5 to 20 times higher than in the other three cities. The result indicated that crude household workshops contributed a heavy amount of PBDEs pollution to the environment, which had been verified by the spatial distribution of PBDEs levels in barks collected at Wenling (range, 26.53-1317.68 ng/g dw). The good correlation between the PBDE concentrations in the barks and the air samples and the variations of the PBDE concentrations in tree barks collected from different sites reflected that the bark could be used as a passive sampler to indicate the atmospheric PBDEs. PMID:24622985

  3. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Jönsson, Håkan; Hylander, Lars D; Hui, Nan; Yu, Dan; Pell, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the effects of greywater application on the dynamics and functions of biofilms developed in bark, activated charcoal and sand filters used for removal of organic matter and nitrogen. Duplicate columns (20 cm diameter, 60 cm deep) were packed with bark, charcoal or sand with effective size 1.4 mm and uniformity coefficient 2.2, and dosed with 32 L m(-2) day(-1) of an artificial greywater (14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1)) for 116 days. Potential respiration rate (PRR), determined in filter samples after addition of excess glucose, and bacterial diversity and composition, analysed by 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA, were measured at different times and depths in the filters. The bark and charcoal filters were more efficient in removing BOD5 than the sand (98, 97% and 75%, respectively). The highest PRR in the 0-2 cm layer of the columns on day 84 was found in the bark filters, followed by the charcoal and sand filters (632 ± 66, 222 ± 34 and 56 ± 2 mg O2 L(-1), respectively; n = 2). Bacterial community in the bark filters showed the highest richness. The charcoal and sand filters both developed more diverse and dynamic (changing over time and depth) bacterial communities than the bark. In addition to the greywater, the lignocelluosic composition of the bark and its lower pH probably selected for the bacterial community structure and the organic content provided additional substrate, as shown by its higher PRR and its different nitrifying bacterial genera. In the oligotrophic charcoal and sand, the composition of the greywater itself defined the bacterial community. Thus, the initially low bacterial biomass in the latter filters was enriched over time, allowing a diversified bacterial community to develop. The top layers of the bark and charcoal filters displayed a high dominance of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, which were less evident in the 60 cm layer, whereas in the sand filters these genera were

  4. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity of Indonesian herbal medicines and constituents of Cinnamomum burmannii and Zingiber aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    We screened water and methanol extracts of 28 Indonesian medicinal plants for their protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities. Nine water extracts, i.e., Alstonia scholaris leaf, Blumea balsamifera, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca leucadendra, Phyllanthus niruri, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Sy. polyanthum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL, whereas 11 methanol extracts, i.e., Als. scholaris, Andrographis paniculata, B. balsamifera, Ci. burmannii, Curcuma heyneana, Glycyrrhiza glabra, M. leucadendra, Punica granatum, Rheum palmatum, Sy. polyanthum, and Z. aromaticum, exhibited ≥70 % inhibition at 25 μg/mL. Water extracts of B. balsamifera (IC50, 2.26 μg/mL) and M. leucadendra (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL), and methanol extracts of Ci. burmannii (IC50, 2.47 μg/mL), Pu. granatum (IC50, 2.40 μg/mL), and Sy. polyanthum (IC50, 1.03 μg/mL) exhibited strong inhibitory activity, which was comparable with that of the positive control, RK-682 (IC50, 2.05 μg/mL). The PTP1B inhibitory activity of the constituents of Ci. burmannii and Z. aromaticum was then evaluated. 5'-Hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-4″,5″-methylenedioxy-1,2,3,4-dibenzo-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (2; IC50, 29.7 μM) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (5; IC50, 57.6 μM) were the active constituents of Ci. burmannii, while humulatrien-5-ol-8-one (21; IC50, 27.7 μM), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-methyl ether (32; IC50, 17.5 μM), and (S)-6-gingerol (33; IC50, 28.1 μM) were those of Z. aromaticum. These results suggest that these medicinal plants may contribute to the treatment and/or prevention of type II diabetes and/or obesity through PTP1B inhibition. PMID:22645080

  5. Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (Lauraceae) in Taiwan inferred from nuclear genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Species in the varied geographic topology of Taiwan underwent obvious demographic changes during glacial periods. Cinnamomum kanehirae has been exploited for timber and to obtain medicinal fungi for the past 100 years. Understanding anthropogenic factors influencing the demography of this species after the last glacial maximum (LGM) is critically important for the conservation of this species. Results Populations of C. kanehirae were classified into four geographic regions: northwestern (NW), west-central (WC), southwestern (SW), and southeastern (SE). In total, 113 individuals from 19 localities were sampled, and variations in the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) intron and leafy (Lfy) intron-2 sequences of nuclear DNA were examined in order to assess phylogeographic patterns, the timescales of demographic and evolutionary events, and recent anthropogenic effects. In total, 210 Chs and 170 Lfy sequences, which respectively constituted 36 and 35 haplotypes, were used for the analyses. Estimates of the migration rate (M) through time revealed a pattern of frequent gene flow during previous and the present interglacials. The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The level of among-region genetic differentiation was significant when comparing eastern to western populations. However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. Moreover, essentially no genetic structuring was found for the three regions west of the CMR. A fit of spatial range expansion was found for pooled and regional samples according to the non-significant values of the sum of squared deviations. Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. Conclusions Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic

  6. First Report of Stemonitis splendens Rostaf Causing Bark Decay of Oak Logs Used for Shiitake Cultivation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Da-Ran; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-09-01

    Severe bark decay disease was observed on oak logs at a shiitake cultivation farm in Geochang-gun, Gyeongnam province. The symptoms observed were fruiting bodies that had developed on the top and side surface of oak logs. As a result, the bark came off easily exposing the sapwood. Slime mold specimens collected from oak logs showed developing fruiting bodies comprising of stalks, hypothallus, capillitium, and columella, and the causal agent of bark decay disease was identified as Stemonitis splendens on the basis of morphological characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Stemonitis splendens causing bark decay of oak logs used for shiitake mushroom cultivation in Korea. PMID:25346606

  7. Organochlorine pesticides in soil, moss and tree-bark from North-Eastern Romania.

    PubMed

    Tarcau, Doina; Cucu-Man, Simona; Boruvkova, Jana; Klanova, Jana; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) have been determined in soil, mosses and tree bark samples collected from the same locations in North-Eastern Romania (region of Moldavia). PCBs and PBDEs were under the limit of quantification in all investigated samples. OCPs were the principal pollutants found in the analysed samples. In soil, moss and tree bark samples, DDT together with its metabolites, was the most abundant OCP ranging between 4.4-79, 5.8-95 and 11-440 ng g(-1) in the individual matrices, followed by HCH isomers with levels between 1.1-9.8, 8.9-130 and 12-130 ng g(-1) in soil, moss and bark respectively. To distinguish between the previous and current pollutant input and preferential biodegradation of DDT metabolites, the degradation ratios were calculated between the parent substances and their metabolites (DDT and HCH isomers). The investigation indicates no important pollution sources near sampling sites and reveals that OCPs originate mainly from long-range air transport processes and through atmospheric deposition of isomers volatilised from secondary sources. Discriminant function analysis was performed to determine whether OCPs uptake differ among the three matrices (soil, moss and tree bark). A good separation was observed between tree bark and the other two matrices. The most redundant variable appears to be p,p'-DDE (R(2)=0.336), while the most informative variable seems to be o,p'-DDT (R(2)=0.0361). Significant correlations were found between bark and moss concentrations for most α-HCH and p,p'-DDD (p<0.01). We have also investigated the enantiomeric signature of α-HCH. For bark and moss, EF values suggest preferential degradation of the (-)α-HCH enantiomer. PMID:23624005

  8. Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus in cortical bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sveshnikov, Dimitri; Malmberg, Gunilla; Gardeström, Per; Hurry, Vaughan; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-05-01

    Winter-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles is accompanied by a 65% reduction of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), measured as Fv/Fm, but relatively stable photosystem I (PSI) activity. In contrast, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in bark chlorenchyma of Scots pine twigs was shown to be well preserved, while PSI capacity was severely decreased. Low-temperature (77 K) chlorophyll fluorescence measurements also revealed lower relative fluorescence intensity emitted from PSI in bark chlorenchyma compared to needles regardless of the growing season. Nondenaturating SDS-PAGE analysis of the chlorophyll-protein complexes also revealed much lower abundance of LHCI and the CPI band related to light harvesting and the core complex of PSI, respectively, in bark chlorenchyma. These changes were associated with a 38% reduction in the total amount of chlorophyll in the bark chlorenchyma relative to winter needles, but the Chl a/b ratio and carotenoid composition were similar in the two tissues. As distinct from winter pine needles exhibiting ATP/ADP ratio of 11.3, the total adenylate content in winter bark chlorenchyma was 2.5-fold higher and the estimated ATP/ADP ratio was 20.7. The photochemical efficiency of PSII in needles attached to the twig recovered significantly faster (28-30 h) then in detached needles. Fluorescence quenching analysis revealed a high reduction state of Q(A) and the PQ-pool in the green bark tissue. The role of bark chlorenchyma and its photochemical performance during the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in Scots pine is discussed. PMID:16333639

  9. Isolation and identification of active compounds from Drimys winteri barks.

    PubMed

    Cechinel Filho, V; Schlemper, V; Santos, A R; Pinheiro, T R; Yunes, R A; Mendes, G L; Calixto, J B; Delle Monache, F

    1998-10-01

    The barks of Drimys winteri are used in folk medicine as a remedy to treat several diseases, including dolorous processes. Previous pre-clinical experiments carried out in our laboratories revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. Such promising results led us to determine the analgesic compounds present in D. winteri. Through conventional chromatographic procedures with fractions of CH2Cl2 and EtOAc obtained from methanolic extract, it was found that polygodial (1), 1-beta-(p-methoxycynnamyl) polygodial (2), taxifolin (3) and astilbin (4), are the main components of these fractions. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited marked antinociceptive action by intraperitoneal and oral routes against acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice, suggesting that they are responsible, at least partially, for the antinociceptive effects of this plant. In addition, both compounds were notably more potent than aspirin and acetaminophen, two well-known drugs used here as comparison. PMID:9849632

  10. Phenolic Derivatives from the Root Bark of Oplopanax horridus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Four new phenolic derivatives, including two phenylpropanoid glycosides, one benzoate glycoside, and one lignan glycoside, together with one known glyceride, were isolated from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 3-{4-[(6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) oxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenylpropanoic acid (1), (+)-[5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-7- (hydroxylmethyl)-10,11-dimehoxydibenzo[a,c][8]annulen-6-yl]methyl β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (+)-methyl 4-[6-O-{3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)oxy]-5-oxopentanoyl}-4-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-methoxybenzoate (3), and 2-methoxy-4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl]phenyl 6-O-{3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-[(1-methylpropyl)oxy]-5-oxopentanoyl-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including NMR and MS analyses. The known compound was identified as glycer-2-yl ferulate (5) by comparing its physical and spectral data with those reported in the literature.

  11. Experimental investigation of surface litter ignition by bark firebrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkov, Alexander; Kasymov, Denis; Zima, Vladislav; Matvienko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Probability and conditions for ignition of surface litter (pine needles) caused by firebrands is studied in the laboratory conditions. For modeling of firebrands, pine bark of various sizes 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30 mm2 and 5 mm in thickness is used. The experiment was conducted in the absence of wind and at different wind velocities: 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m/s. To conduct investigations, an experimental setup was constructed for generation of firebrands and their impact on surface litter. The results of experiments have shown that the increase in air velocity leads to the increase in probability of surface litter ignition. Thus, wind plays a role of catalyst in the ignition process, bringing an oxidizing agent to firebrands and supporting the process of smoldering. However, if the wind velocity is insufficient for ignition, then there is only the process of smoldering. The area of "uncertainty", where there is smoldering of surface litter without transition to ignition, is found to decrease with increasing the wind velocity. Based on the received results, it can be concluded that the ignition curve of surface liter by firebrands is nonlinear and depends on the wind velocity. At the same time, there is no smoldering and ignition of surface litter for all the wind velocities and the particles with a size of 10 × 10 mm2, regardless of their number.

  12. Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Tong, Woei-Yenn; Ibrahim, Darah

    2016-08-01

    A new xanthone, namely garcinexanthone G (1), along with eight known compounds, stigmasta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide (4), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (5), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone (6), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (7), kaempferol (8) and quercetin (9), were isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis. Their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-1D and 2D), UV, IR, and mass spectrometry. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties based on the DPPH radical scavenging activities. Results showed that 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone and quercetin showed significant antioxidant activities with EC50 values of 16.20 and 12.68 μg/ml, respectively, as compared to the control, ascorbic acid (7.4 μg/ml). PMID:26999039

  13. Novel tirucallane triterpenoids from the stem bark of Toona sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xie, Ning; Chen, Lei; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Toona sinensis was carried out by various chromatographic techniques resulting in the isolation and elucidation of two novel tirucallane triterpenoids, named (20S)-3-oxo-tirucalla-25-nor-7-en-24-oic acid (1) and (20S)-5α,8α-epidioxy-3-oxo-24-nor-6.9(11)-dien-23-oic acid (2), along with fifteen known triterpenoids (3-17), their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compound 2 is uncommon in nature, which possesses a peroxide bridge cross C-5 and C-8 in the triterpenoid skeleton. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines (A-549, Hela, HepG2, SGC-7901 and SW-480), among them, compound 17 displayed strongest cytotoxic activity against A-549 cells and the results indicated that its cytotoxicity against A-549 cells was mediated by the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, ROS production-inhibitory activities were also evaluated, but none of them was active. PMID:27215130

  14. Cough and Arabinogalactan Polysaccharide from the Bark of Terminalia Arjuna.

    PubMed

    Sivová, V; Bera, K; Ray, B; Nosáľ, S; Nosáľová, G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the antitussive activity of the medicinal tree Terminalia arjuna. We used the stem bark for extraction and preparation of water extracted isolate and its two fractions: acetone-soluble (TA-S) and acetone precipitated (TA-P) fraction. The presence of a pectic arabinogalactan was confirmed in TA-P fraction by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The antitussive activity of samples was assessed after oral administration in a dose of 50 mg.kg(-1) in healthy guinea pigs, in which cough was elicited by inhalation of citric acid (0.3 mol/L) in body plethysmograph. The water extracted isolate showed a significant ability to decrease the number of cough efforts by 64.2 %; the antitussive activity on par with that of codeine phosphate. The TA-P fraction showed the antitussive activity of 54.8 %. In contrast, TA-S fraction had only a mild antitussive activity. No changes in in vivo airway resistance were noted. We conclude that arabinogalactan is an essential component of Terminalia arjuna that underlies its antitussive action. PMID:27334729

  15. Glycosides from the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng; Wang, Sujuan; Liu, Mingtao; Gan, Maoluo; Li, Shuai; Yang, Yongchun; Wang, Yinghong; He, Wenyi; Shi, Jiangong

    2007-05-01

    A norditerpene glucopyranoside with a novel carbon skeleton (1), eight new aromatic glycosides (2-9), and 25 known glycosides have been isolated from a H2O-soluble portion of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Fraxinus sieboldiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Based on analysis of the NMR data of threo- and erythro-arylglycerols in different solvents, an application of Delta delta C8-C7 values to distinguish threo-arylglycerol and erythro-arylglycerol isomers was proposed. In the in vitro assays, compound 5 displayed TNF-alpha secretion inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.6 microM, compound 6 showed antioxidative activity inhibiting Fe+2-cystine-induced rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.9 microM, and plantasioside (10) showed selective activity against the human colon cancer cell line (HCT-8) with an IC50 value of 3.4 microM. PMID:17461599

  16. Antimicrobial triterpenes from the stem bark of Crossopteryx febrifuga.

    PubMed

    Chouna, Jean Rodolphe; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Nkeng-Efouet-Alango, Pépin; Lenta, Bruno Ndjakou; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga resulted in the isolation of epimeric mixtures of 3β-urs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid and 18-epi-3β-urs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (1), as well as: 3β-D-glucopyranosylurs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid and 18-epi-3β-D-glucopyranosylurs-12,20(30)-diene-27,28-dioic acid (2), together with some known compounds such as the monoglyceride of palmitic acid, as well as β-sitosterol and its glucoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by application of spectroscopic methods. The MeOH extract and compounds 1 and 2 were examined for antimicrobial activity in in vitro assays against bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13048, Escherichia coli ATCC8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC11296, Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi (Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans ATCC 9002 and Cryptococcus neoformans IP 90526). The tested samples showed selective activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of compound 2 (MIC=8-64 μg/mL) were in some cases equal to or even higher than those of the respective reference drugs chloramphenicol (MIC=16- 64 μg/mL) and nystatin (MIC=128-256 μg/mL). PMID:26352201

  17. High ice nucleation activity located in blueberry stem bark is linked to primary freeze initiation and adaptive freezing behaviour of the bark

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Hideyuki; Saruwatari, Atsushi; Murakawa, Hiroki; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Price, William S.; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Controlled ice nucleation is an important mechanism in cold-hardy plant tissues for avoiding excessive supercooling of the protoplasm, for inducing extracellular freezing and/or for accommodating ice crystals in specific tissues. To understand its nature, it is necessary to characterize the ice nucleation activity (INA), defined as the ability of a tissue to induce heterogeneous ice nucleation. Few studies have addressed the precise localization of INA in wintering plant tissues in respect of its function. For this purpose, we recently revised a test tube INA assay and examined INA in various tissues of over 600 species. Extremely high levels of INA (−1 to −4 °C) in two wintering blueberry cultivars of contrasting freezing tolerance were found. Their INA was much greater than in other cold-hardy species and was found to be evenly distributed along the stems of the current year's growth. Concentrations of active ice nuclei in the stem were estimated from quantitative analyses. Stem INA was localized mainly in the bark while the xylem and pith had much lower INA. Bark INA was located mostly in the cell wall fraction (cell walls and intercellular structural components). Intracellular fractions had much less INA. Some cultivar differences were identified. The results corresponded closely with the intrinsic freezing behaviour (extracellular freezing) of the bark, icicle accumulation in the bark and initial ice nucleation in the stem under dry surface conditions. Stem INA was resistant to various antimicrobial treatments. These properties and specific localization imply that high INA in blueberry stems is of intrinsic origin and contributes to the spontaneous initiation of freezing in extracellular spaces of the bark by acting as a subfreezing temperature sensor. PMID:25082142

  18. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  19. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  20. An Efficient Protocol for Plantlet Regeneration via Direct Organogenesis by Using Nodal Segments from Embryo-Cultured Seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora L.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Li, Yongpeng; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient plantlet regeneration protocol via direct organogenesis was established for camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.). Stem segments with one node (SN explants) from embryo-cultured seedlings (EC seedlings) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine was used to induce cotyledonary embryo germination. This medium was also used for EC seedlings propagation and adventitious bud induction from SN explants. Regenerated plantlets were cultured on hormone-free MS medium for elongation and root induction. The regeneration capability of SN explants was compared by using EC seedling lines established in this research. EC seedling line EL6 exhibited the highest adventitious bud induction frequency (91.7%) and the highest number of buds per responding explant (5.2), which was considered as the most efficient EC seedling line for further gene transformation research. PMID:25962170

  1. Cinnamomin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein, is a storage protein in the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-shui; Wei, Guo-qing; Yang, Qiang; He, Wen-jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2002-03-15

    Cinnamomin is a novel type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated in our laboratory from the seed of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora). In this paper the physiological role it plays in the plant cell was studied. Northern and Western blotting revealed that cinnamomin was expressed specifically in cotyledons. It accumulated in large amounts simultaneously with other proteins at the post-stages of seed development. Cinnamomin degraded rapidly during the early stages of seed germination. Endopeptidase was proved to play an important role in the degradation of cinnamomin. Western blotting of total proteins from the protein body with antibodies against cinnamomin demonstrated that it only existed in this specific cellular organelle as a storage protein. The similar properties of cinnamomin and other seed storage proteins of dicotyledons were compared. We conclude that cinnamomin is a special storage protein in the seed of C. camphora. PMID:11879193

  2. Propylene epoxidation over biogenic Au/TS-1 catalysts by Cinnamomum camphora extract in the presence of H2 and O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingming; Huang, Jiale; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-03-01

    The Au/TS-1 catalysts with different Au nanoparticles (NPs) sizes ranging from 3.1 to 8.4 nm but the same Au loading of 0.5 wt% were prepared by Cinnamomum camphora (CC) extract, and were used for propylene epoxidation. The results showed that the interaction between Au and TS-1 support surface is important for propylene epoxidation and much smaller Au NPs (<3 nm) are the dominant active sites. After reaction of 100 h, there is no decreasing in both the activity and the PO selectivity for the Au/TS-1 catalysts, and only 1.8 wt% of the carbonaceous deposits on the surface of the catalyst after reaction, suggesting that the desorption of the product from the modified catalysts surface by residual biomolecules is much easier.

  3. Characterization of milled wood lignin (MWL) in Loblolly pine stem wood, residue, and bark.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fang; Singh, Preet M; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2011-12-28

    Milled wood lignin samples from Loblolly pine stem wood, forest residue, and bark were isolated and characterized by quantitative (13)C and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for molecular weight determination. Results from (13)C NMR show the stem wood and forest residue samples have similar functional group contents. However, the bark has fewer methoxyl groups, β-O-4 structures, dibenzodioxocin, and side chains than the other two lignins. The bark lignin has the highest amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl (h) and C-5 condensed lignin, stem wood has the lowest, and the residue lies between. (31)P NMR analysis indicates that bark lignin contains more C-5 substituted phenolics and fewer aliphatic hydroxyl groups than the lignin isolated from stem wood or residue. The molecular weight distribution analysis indicates the bark lignin has higher weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) and polydispersity index than the lignin recovered from stem wood or residue. PMID:22141335

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

  5. Cinnamon bark oil and its components inhibit biofilm formation and toxin production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Jintae

    2015-02-16

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria, and pathogenic biofilms contribute to reduced susceptibility to antibiotics. In this study, 83 essential oils were initially screened for biofilm inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cinnamon bark oil and its main constituent cinnamaldehyde at 0.05% (v/v) markedly inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Furthermore, cinnamon bark oil and eugenol decreased the production of pyocyanin and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa. Also, cinnamon bark oil, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol at 0.01% (v/v) significantly decreased biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Transcriptional analysis showed that cinnamon bark oil down-regulated curli genes and Shiga-like toxin gene stx2 in EHEC. In addition, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) film incorporating biofilm inhibitors was fabricated and shown to provide efficient biofilm control on solid surfaces. This is the first report that cinnamon bark oil and its components, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol, reduce the production of pyocyanin and PQS, the swarming motility, and the hemolytic activity of P. aeruginosa, and inhibit EHEC biofilm formation. PMID:25500277

  6. The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark

    PubMed Central

    Kowallik, Vienna; Miller, Eric; Greig, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput environmental sequencing to show that S. paradoxus is a very rare member of the oak bark microbial community. We find that S. paradoxus can grow well on sterile medium made from oak bark, but that its growth is strongly suppressed when the other members of the community are present. We purified a set of twelve common fungal and bacterial species from the oak bark community and tested how each affected the growth of S. paradoxus in direct competition on oak bark medium at summer and winter temperatures, identifying both positive and negative interactions. One Pseudomonas species produces a diffusible toxin that suppresses S. paradoxus as effectively as either the whole set of twelve species together or the complete community present in nonsterilized oak medium. Conversely, one of the twelve species, Mucilaginibacter sp., had the opposite effect and promoted S. paradoxus growth at low temperatures. We conclude that, in its natural oak tree habitat, S. paradoxus is a rare species whose success depends on the much more abundant microbial species surrounding it. PMID:25706044

  7. A wood and bark fuel economics computer program (FEP). Forest service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Harpole, G.B.; Ince, P.J.; Tschernitz, J.L.; Bilek, E.

    1982-09-01

    Forest products harvesting and manufacturing processes are expected to provide large and continuing supplies of wood and bark residues. At the same time, the demand for wood residue-type materials for production of wood-fiber based products as well as wood and bark fuels is expected to create competing utilization alternatives. Primary objectives of the fuel economics computer program (FEP) presented here are: (1) to provide a means for assessing the relative energy values of fossil fuels and wood/bark fuels, and (2) to provide pre-engineering assessments of the potential investment that may be justified by benefits gained through modification of systems to burn wood/bark fuels. The FEP computer program utilizes readily available fuel and economics information, standard combustion equations, and discounted cash flow analytic techniques. Because the FEP program is designed for preliminary assessments of wood/bark fuel use opportunities it is suggested that more advanced engineering and financial analytic methods be used for further evaluation whenever favorable venture likelihoods are indicated by the FEP program.

  8. Apparatus and method to achieve gasification of bark and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, F.G.

    1987-04-07

    A system is described to achieve gasification of bark pieces, that comprises: a vessel to receive the bark pieces which are introduced at an upper region of the vessel and are burned at a lower region below the upper region. The bark pieces settle from the upper region downward to the lower region in the course of burning and tend to bridge as they settle to leave a bypass hole in the bulk thereof; means to effect combustion of the bark pieces at the lower region; a reciprocating chain mechanism comprising a pair of chains oriented across the vessel and interconnected such that when one chain of the pair moves transversely across the vessel in one direction the other chain of the pair moves transversely across the vessel in the opposite direction. The reciprocating movement of the chains serves to apply angular impelling forces on the bark pieces whereby the individual pieces thereof are turned through angles, first in one direction and then in the other direction, to disrupt the bridging.

  9. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  10. [Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in camphor bark from speedy developing urban in Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zeng, Liang-Zi; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Ting; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) were measured in camphor bark samples from 40 locations in Suzhou, Nantong and Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 8 PBDEs were detected in all samples and the average concentrations of total PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 100, 99, 153, 154, 183, 209) was 835 microg/kg lipid weight (ranged from 112 to 7 460 microg/kg lipid weight). The BDE209 was the main homologues and accounted for 65.7% -99.6% of sigma 8 PBDEs. The predominant commercial products source for PBDEs in bark was Deca-BDE commercial products. Concentration of sigma 8 PBDEs detected in central district of Nantong were significantly higher than those in industrial park, suggesting the discharge of industrial point source might be the main source of PBDEs in this city. No significant difference was found between the levels of sigma 8 PBDEs in camphor bark collected from Suzhou and Wuxi. It can be concluded that the two cities are contaminated interactionally by PBDEs through atmospheric dispersion. The homologue and congener profiles of penta-BDEs for camphor bark were not consistent with commercial products, atmosphere and dust soil, which related with adsorption effect of tree bark and degradation effect of PBDEs. PMID:22165235

  11. The interaction of Saccharomyces paradoxus with its natural competitors on oak bark.

    PubMed

    Kowallik, Vienna; Miller, Eric; Greig, Duncan

    2015-04-01

    The natural history of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is poorly understood and confounded by domestication. In nature, S. cerevisiae and its undomesticated relative S. paradoxus are usually found on the bark of oak trees, a habitat very different from wine or other human fermentations. It is unclear whether the oak trees are really the primary habitat for wild yeast, or whether this apparent association is due to biased sampling. We use culturing and high-throughput environmental sequencing to show that S. paradoxus is a very rare member of the oak bark microbial community. We find that S. paradoxus can grow well on sterile medium made from oak bark, but that its growth is strongly suppressed when the other members of the community are present. We purified a set of twelve common fungal and bacterial species from the oak bark community and tested how each affected the growth of S. paradoxus in direct competition on oak bark medium at summer and winter temperatures, identifying both positive and negative interactions. One Pseudomonas species produces a diffusible toxin that suppresses S. paradoxus as effectively as either the whole set of twelve species together or the complete community present in nonsterilized oak medium. Conversely, one of the twelve species, Mucilaginibacter sp., had the opposite effect and promoted S. paradoxus growth at low temperatures. We conclude that, in its natural oak tree habitat, S. paradoxus is a rare species whose success depends on the much more abundant microbial species surrounding it. PMID:25706044

  12. Bark and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence are linked to wood structural changes in Eucalyptus saligna

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Denise; Tausz, Michael; Moore, Gregory; Nicolas, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Wood structure and wood anatomy are usually considered to be largely independent of the physiological processes that govern tree growth. This paper reports a statistical relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and wood density. A relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantity of wood decay in a tree is also described. There was a statistically significant relationship between the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood density and the quantity of wood decay in summer, but not in spring or autumn. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence at 0.05 ms (the O step) could predict the quantity of wood decay in trees in spring. Bark chlorophyll fluorescence could predict wood density in spring using the Fv/Fm parameter, but not in summer or autumn. There was a consistent statistical relationship in spring, summer and autumn between the bark chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and wood decay. This study indicates a relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and wood structural changes, particularly with bark chlorenchyma. PMID:24790120

  13. Relationships of inside and outside bark diameters for young-growth mixed-conifer species in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Service research note (final). [Firs, cedars, pines

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L.

    1984-09-01

    The linear relationship of inside to outside bark diameter at breast height provides a basis for estimating diameter inside bark from diameter outside bark. Estimates of diameter inside bark and past diameter outside bark are useful in predicting growth and yield. During field seasons 1979-1982, data were obtained from stem analysis of 931 trees in young-growth stands of the mixed-conifer type on the westside Sierra Nevada of California. Species included were coast Douglas-fir, California white fir, incense-cedar, sugar pine, ponderosa pine, and Jeffrey pine. This note provides equations for estimating inside bark diameters, double bark thickness, and past outside bark diameters for each of the species studied.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCI4-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Bazargan, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) is commonly used as a spice and has also been widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of cinnamon bark extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Administration with cinnamon extracts (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg) for 28 days significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. In addition, treatment of cinnamon extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in rats. The histopathological studies in the liver of rats also supported that cinnamon extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histoarchitecture of the liver tissue to near normal. Thus, the results suggest that cinnamon extract acts as a potent hepatoprotective agent against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27547174

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501256

  16. The effect of management systems and ecosystem types on bark regeneration in Himatanthus drasticus (Apocynaceae): recommendations for sustainable harvesting.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Cristina; Maës dos Santos, Flavio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bark and exudates are widely commercialized non-timber forest products. However, the ecological impacts of the harvesting of these products have seldom been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of tree resilience to harvesting intensity in Himatanthus drasticus, a tree that is highly exploited in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) for its medicinal latex. Although the traded product is the latex, the traditional harvesting systems involve the removal of the bark of the trees to allow exploitation. A 3-year experiment was conducted in two different Cerrado ecosystems (open savanna and savanna woodland). Trees were debarked at four debarking intensities to simulate the effects of traditional management systems. Measurements of bark growth were taken every 6 months, and quantitative and qualitative indexes of bark regeneration were obtained. The mortality of the debarked trees was low and could not be related to the intensity of harvesting. No signs of attack by fungi or insects were recorded. Compared with other species exploited for bark, H. drasticus is very resilient to harvesting; however, bark regeneration is relatively slow. In both analyzed ecosystems, the regeneration indexes showed higher values in the controls than in the treatments, indicating that 3 years is not sufficient for total recovery of the rhytidome. Bark regeneration occurred primarily by sheet growth and was more rapid in open savanna than in savanna woodland. No differences in the rate of bark recovery were found among management treatments. Based on the results, sustainable harvesting guidelines are suggested for the species. PMID:23959345

  17. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... governing safety zones contained in 33 CFR 165.23 apply. ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety...

  19. Identification and antennal electrophysiology of ash bark volatiles for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biologically active bark volatiles from ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) might be used as tools in monitoring the presence of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis. Two compounds have been identified from the volatile emissions from white ash bark. These two compounds were readily sen...

  20. Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was detected in the United States in 2003 and is now known to occur in 28 states and four Canadian Provinces. S. schevyrewi infests the same elm hosts as the long-established invasive, and smaller European elm bark be...

  1. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  2. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a... individual basis, by prior arrangement with the Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility,...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  6. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390 Section 334.1390 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility....

  7. The complex symbiotic relationships of bark beetles with microorganisms: a potential practical approach for biological control in forestry.

    PubMed

    Popa, Valentin; Déziel, Eric; Lavallée, Robert; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article. PMID:22566204

  8. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  9. Semiochemical-MediatedFlight Strategies of Two Invasive Elm Bark Beetles: A Potential Factor in Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent seven-state survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus was not as abundant. Behavioral trials were conducted by hanging sm...

  10. Antihyperglycemic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. bark extract on alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, S B; Jaybhaye, D L

    2010-07-01

    Tectona Grandis Linn.(saag - tick wood), an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk reputation among the Indian herbs as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of T. grandis Linn. bark extract in control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the bark suspension of T. grandis (2.5 and 5 g/kg body wt.) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose (from 250 ± 6.5 to 50 ± 2.5 mg/dL). Thus, the present study clearly shows that the T. grandis Linn. bark extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:21170208

  11. Impact of pretreatments on morphology and enzymatic saccharification of shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Santoso, Shella Permatasari; Tran-Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of subcritical water (SCW) and dilute acid pretreatments on the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (paper bark tree, PBT) biomass morphology, crystallinity index (CrI) and enzymatic saccharification were studied. The morphology of PBT bark was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SCW pretreatment mainly extracted amorphous parts of the biomass hence its CrI increased, partial decrystallization of cellulose and exposing of intact nanofibers of cellulose were observed for SCW pretreatment at 180°C. On the other hand, dilute acid pretreatment at 160°C exhibited a large decrease in CrI, an increase in surface area, a decrease in lignin content and decrystallization of cellulose as well as the peel-off and degradation of some nanofiber bundles. Dilute acid and SCW pretreatments of PBT biomass resulted in about 4.5 fold enhancement in glucose release relative to the untreated one. PMID:23697662

  12. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  13. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. PMID:26839823

  14. Development of a nested PCR detection procedure for Nectria fuckeliana direct from Norway spruce bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Langrell, Stephen R H

    2005-01-01

    A pair of primers specific for Nectria fuckeliana, a bark infecting pathogen predominantly of Norway spruce (Picea abies), were designed from comparisons of nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nine isolates from Norway, Lithuania, Switzerland, Austria, Slovakia, Scotland (Larix sp.) and New Zealand (Pinus radiata), and other closely related nectriaceous species, including Neo. Neomacrospora, and 'N'. mammoidea, to which it exhibits taxonomic similarities. Complete ITS sequence homology was observed between each of the nine N. fuckeliana isolates, regardless of geographic provenance, including a previously published Danish strain. Primers Cct1 and Cct2 consistently amplified a single product of 360 bp from DNA prepared from 20 isolates covering the principle range of the disease from Central and Northern Europe, but not from other Neonectria, 'Nectria' or a range of species commonly encountered in forest ecosystems, as well as P. abies or P. radiata DNA. A quick, simple and efficient mechanical lysis procedure for the extraction of high quality total DNA from bark, coupled with post-extraction polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) chromatography purification, is described to facilitate successful PCR detection of N. fuckeliana direct from bark extracts. Detection of N. fuckeliana from bark preparations was only possible following nested PCR of PVPP purified extracts using universal primers ITS5 and 4 in first round amplification. The identity of products from bark tissues was confirmed by Southern hybridisation and sequencing. Using the above procedure, positive diagnosis of N. fuckeliana was achievable within 5 h and has the potential for full exploitation as both a forest management and ecological research tool. As the DNA extraction procedure described here has been successful in application against other tree species, it has potential for incorporation into other molecular diagnostic systems for other

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of Broussonetia papyrifera stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Tung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Broussonetia papyrifera is used as a traditional medicine to treat few diseases. However, the antiinflammatory effect of B. papyrifera stem bark has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of n-hexane fraction from methanol extract of B. papyrifera stem bark on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammation using RAW 264.7 cells. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract was obtained from B. papyrifera stem bark and its sequential fractions (hexane, dichloromathane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) were obtained by extraction in solvents with increasing polarity and were examined in RAW 264.7 cells. Results: The secretion profiles of pro-inflammatory parameters, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were found to be significantly reduced in 10-80 μg/ml dose ranges of n-hexane fraction (BP-H) from methanol extract of B. papyrifera stem bark. The expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was also significantly inhibited by BP-H. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that BP-H treatment decreased LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that the B. papyrifera stem bark has anti-inflammatory activity which inhibits the NO production and proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells. B. papyrifera stem bark might act as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. PMID:22345865

  16. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  17. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  18. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  19. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  20. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049-0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  1. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 3: the chemical composition of wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract.

    PubMed

    Venter, Pieter B; Senekal, Nadine D; Kemp, Gabré; Amra-Jordaan, Maryam; Khan, Pir; Bonnet, Susan L; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2012-11-01

    Wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark extract is an important renewable industrial source of natural polymers for leather tanning and adhesive manufacturing. The wattle bark proanthocyanidin oligomers have 5-deoxy extender units that render the interflavanyl bonds resistant to acid catalysed hydrolysis and their composition cannot be determined via conventional thiolysis. We combined established phyto- and synthetic chemistry perspectives with an electrospray mass spectrometry investigation to establish that the flavan-3-ol based oligomers consist of a starter unit which is either catechin or gallocatechin, angularly bonded to fisetinidol or predominantly robinetinidol extender units. PMID:22917955

  2. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not yet known. To assess the risk for hepatotoxicity by Kampo medicines, we evaluated the daily coumarin intake of patients who were prescribed Kampo medicines and investigated the relation between hepatotoxicity and the coumarin intake. The clinical data of 129 outpatients (18 male and 111 female, median age 58 years) who had been prescribed keishibukuryogankayokuinin (TJ-125) between April 2008 and March 2013 was retrospectively investigated. Concurrent Kampo medicines and liver function were also surveyed. In addition to TJ-125, the patients took some of the other 32 Kampo preparations and 22 decoctions that include cinnamon bark. The coumarin content of these Kampo medicines was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TJ-125 had the highest daily content of coumarin (5.63 mg/day), calculated from the daily cinnamon bark dosage reported in the information leaflet inserted in each package of Kampo medicine. The coumarin content in 1g cinnamon bark decoction was 3.0 mg. The daily coumarin intake of the patients was 0.113 (0.049–0.541) mg/kg/day, with 98 patients (76.0%) exceeding the TDI. Twenty-three patients had an abnormal change in liver function test value, but no significant difference was found in the incidence of abnormal change between the group consuming less than the TDI value (6/31, 19.4%) and the group consuming equal to or greater than the TDI value (17/98, 17.3%). In addition, no abnormal change related to cinnamon bark was found for individual

  3. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  4. Free and chemically bonded phenolic acids in barks of Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.

    PubMed

    Turek, Sebastian; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Liquid column chromatography, planar chromatography (TLC) on modified and unmodified silica layers, reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as ESI-TOF MS and 1H-NMR have been used for separation, purification and identification of phenolic acids in the barks of Sambucus nigra and Viburnum opulus (Caprifoliaceae). By the use of these procedures three cinnamic acid derivatives: caffeic acid, p-coumaric, and ferulic acid, four benzoic acid derivatives: gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, two phenylacetic acid derivatives: 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid, and two depsides: chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid were detected and identified in the bark of Viburnum opulus. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were also detected and identified in the bark of Sambucus nigra. Except for chlorogenic acid, this is the first time these phenolic acids have been isolated, detected, and identified in the bark of V. opulus and S. nigra. PMID:18536165

  5. BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

  6. Nitrogen immobilization in plant growth substrates: clean chip residual, pine bark and peat moss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of nitrogen (N) immobilization and microbial respiration in a high wood-fiber content substrate (clean chip residual (CCR)). Control treatments of pine bark (PB) and peat moss (PM) were compared to two screen sizes (0.95 cm and 0.48 cm) of CCR for micro...

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF PLUM BARK NECROSIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete RNA genome of plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) was cloned and sequenced and was determined to be 14, 214 nts long. The genome structure revealed seven major open reading frames (ORFs), and nontranslated regions at the 5' abd 3' ends. PBNSPaV represents the si...

  8. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... behalf of Radio Systems Corporation of Knoxville, Tennessee. 78 FR 12788-89. The complaint alleges... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  9. First evidence for seasonal fluctuations in lichen- and bark-colonising fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of deciduous trees usually undergo pronounced seasonal changes. We hypothesised that such compositional shifts are predominantly caused by annuality of the leaves and therefore less pronounced in fungi colonising the perennial substrates bark and corticolous lichens. To test this hypothesis, thalli of the foliose lichen-forming fungal species Xanthoria parietina and Physconia distorta, along with the adjacent bark, were sampled during spring and autumn at two sides of a single tree in southern Germany. Analysis of clone libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed 588 singleton and 221 non-singleton RFLP-types of non-lichenised fungi. The communities differed significantly between host lichen species. Season and exposure had only a significant impact when the two factors were combined in the analysis. Accordingly, bark- and/or the lichen-associated fungal communities change throughout the year's course, a finding that rejects the initial hypothesis. This survey revealed valuable information for future broad-based studies, by indicating that a relatively high diversity of non-lichenised fungi is associated with corticolous lichen thalli and the adjacent bark. Furthermore, the structure of non-lichenised fungal assemblages associated with corticolous lichen communities obviously depends at least on the following factors: 'lichen species', 'exposure', and 'season'. PMID:24037543

  10. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  11. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. PMID:26547588

  12. ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

  13. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel in Grasshopper Mice Defends Against Bark Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2014-01-01

    Painful venoms are used to deter predators. Pain itself, however, can signal damage and thus serves an important adaptive function. Evolution to reduce general pain responses, although valuable for preying on venomous species, is rare, likely because it comes with the risk of reduced response to tissue damage. Bark scorpions capitalize on the protective pain pathway of predators by inflicting intensely painful stings. However, grasshopper mice regularly attack and consume bark scorpions, grooming only briefly when stung. Bark scorpion venom induces pain in many mammals (house mice, rats, humans) by activating the voltage-gated Na+ channel Nav1.7, but has no effect on Nav1.8. Grasshopper mice Nav1.8 has amino acid variants that bind bark scorpion toxins and inhibit Na+ currents, blocking action potential propagation and inducing analgesia. Thus, grasshopper mice have solved the predator-pain problem by using a toxin bound to a nontarget channel to block transmission of the pain signals the venom itself is initiating. PMID:24159039

  14. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  15. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  16. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  17. Phragmalin limonoids from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Fang, Xin; Liu, En-De; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Li, Shi-Fei; Zhang, Yu; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shun-Lin; Di, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Seven new phragmalin limonoids, chukvelutilides I-O (1-7), were isolated from the stem barks of Chukrasia tabularis var. velutina. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compound 1 showed moderate lethal activity against brine shrimp larvae, with an LC50 value of 84.1 µM. PMID:25153097

  18. Container Height and Douglas Fir Bark Texture Affect Substrate Physical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the effect of substrate texture on water holding capacity of douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] bark (DFB) in containers of varying height. Increasing container height resulted in a linear decrease in CC and a linear increase in AS. Fine texture DF...

  19. Evaluation Report of the Ontario Camp Leadership Centre at Bark Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Research Consulting House Ltd., Mississauga (Ontario).

    Both participants in the Ontario Camp Leadership Center at Bark Lake and their sponsoring organizations agreed on the benefits of the leadership development experience and enthusiastically endorsed the program. Researchers conducted a 19-question telephone survey of 202 program participants and a 32-question survey of 40 sponsors and 20…

  20. Solute transport through a pine-bark based substrate under saturated and unsaturated conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of how dissolved mineral nutrient ions (solutes) move through pine bark substrates during the application of irrigation water is vital to better understand nutrient transport and leaching from containerized crops during an irrigation event. However, current theories on solute transp...

  1. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to host bark volatiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bark volatiles from green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica were tested for electrophysiological activity by Agrilus planipennis using gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and for behavioral activity using baited purple traps in Michigan USA. GC-EAD analysis of the headspace volati...

  2. Prospect Point: Reflections on Bark Lake as a Private Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheedy, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    The director of the ropes course at the recently privatized Bark Lake (Ontario) summer camp discusses differences between nonprofit and for-profit organizations and describes the group-based year-round outdoor education programs that were developed when the facility became private. Working within a profit formula can be more liberating but can…

  3. Binary metal sorption by pine bark: Study of equilibria and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Asheh, S.; Duvnjak, Z.

    1998-06-01

    Pine bark was able to sorb cadmium, copper, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Binary equilibrium data from the combination of these metals were collected in this work using the sorbent. These data were modeled using three types of binary component equilibrium isotherms, all of which resulted in good fitting of the experimental data, with the Langmuir-Freundlich model resulting in their best representation. In general, the capacity of bark for each metal in the binary system was lower than in the single metal systems. The study also examined the mechanisms of metal biosorption by bark. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive c-ray (EDX) microanalyses revealed that metal ions were sorbed mainly at the cell wall of the bark and only a small amount of ions diffused into the cytoplasm. Both the EDX analysis and the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) measurements showed that ion exchange was an important mechanism in this sorption process. Electron spin resonance (ESR) tests demonstrated that free radicals from the sorbent also have a significant role in the sorption processes.

  4. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  5. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  6. Antimicrobial compounds from root, stem bark and seeds of Melia volkensii.

    PubMed

    Kamau, Rahab W; Juma, Benard F; Baraza, Lilechi D

    2016-09-01

    Three compounds, toosendanin (1), kulactone (2) and scopoletin (3), were isolated from either the root bark and/or the stem bark of Melia volkensii. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data generated and by comparison with data from the literature. 1 and 2, isolated for the first time from M. volkensii, exhibited significant (p < 0.05) activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/mL, close to that of neomycin (6.25 μg/mL). The compounds also exhibited high activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC 6.25 μg/mL compared to 2.5 μg/mL for clotrimazole). Dichloromethane and methanol seed, hexane stem bark and methanol root bark extracts exhibited activities towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the plant towards A. niger, P. falciparum and S. aureus is reported for the first time in the current work. PMID:26517430

  7. 7,7-Dimethylaporphine and Other Alkaloids from the Bark of Guatteria friesiana.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanoel V; Pinheiro, Maria Lúcia B; Maia, Beatriz Helena L N S; Marques, Francisco A; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Marchetti, Gabriela M; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Soares, Milena B P; Costa, Cinara O S; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Lopes, Norberto P; Koolen, Hector H F; Bezerra, Daniel P; Barison, Andersson

    2016-06-24

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Guatteria friesiana afforded 12 new aporphines (1-12), along with nine known alkaloids (13-21). The structures of the new alkaloids were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against a small panel of tumor cell lines was assessed using the Alamar blue assay. PMID:27300257

  8. Change in physical properties of pine bark and switchgrass substrates over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to pine bark for nursery crop substrates have been proposed, including the use of straw materials such as switchgrass. While straw substrates can be developed with suitable physical properties measured immediately after mixing, little is known about how the physical properties of straw...

  9. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  10. Exchange of organohalogen compounds between air and tree bark in the Yellow River region.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Wang, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Organohalogen compound concentrations in paired air and bark samples from the Yellow River region were determined. Overall, the organohalogen compound concentrations were higher in the samples from the lower than from the upper Yellow River region. The polybrominated diphenyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyl, and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were 310-5200, 0.92-3.8, and 120-6700 pg m(-3), respectively, in the air samples and 29,000-190,0000, 220-1400, and 49,000-220,0000 pg g(-1) lipid weight, respectively, in the bark samples. The concentrations in the air samples were significantly positively correlated with the concentrations in the bark samples. Constant B, related to the partitioning of a contaminant between the gas and particle phases in the air, was calculated for each compound. This was the first time constant B was simultaneously been determined for a range of different organohalogen compounds. An air-tree bark exchange model was calibrated and verified. The exchange coefficients (KBA) that were determined were compared with the model results, and the optimum KOA values for use in the model were found to be 10(9)-10(16). The compound of interest needed to be detected in more than 50% of the samples for the model results to be valid. PMID:27035385

  11. Acutangulosides A-F, monodesmosidic saponins from the bark of Barringtonia acutangula.

    PubMed

    Mills, Clive; Carroll, Anthony R; Quinn, Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Nine triterpene saponins, acutangulosides A-F (2-7), and acutanguloside D-F methyl esters (5a-7a) and a single triterpene aglycone (1) were isolated from a water extract of the bark of Barringtonia acutangula. Their structures were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:15787427

  12. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  13. Chemical ecology of bark beetles in regard to search and selection of host trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), especially pests in the genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus, Trypodendron, Tomicus, and Pityogenes of the Northern hemisphere are reviewed regarding aspects of their chemical ecology during host finding and selection. Most of the species covered here feed on con...

  14. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. PMID:22169208

  15. 18, 19-Secooleanane Type Triterpene Glycosyl Esters from the Bark of Terminalia arjuna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five novel 18,19-secooleanane type triterpene glycosides, 1-5, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the bark of Teminalia arjuna, along with nine known oleanane triterpenoids. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR, HRESIMS and CD spectra....

  16. Habitat use and spatial structure of a barking frog (Eleutherodactylus augusti) population in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking Frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are the northernmost ranging member of the large tropical family Leptodactylidae. We investigated the ecology of this saxicolous species at the northern edge of its range in a canyon in southern Arizona. We captured 54 frogs on discontinuous rock outcrops; eight of nine females and 39 of 45 males were on limestone outcrops. The remaining frogs were closer to limestone outcrops by more than 200 m than would be expected if they were distributed randomly with respect to limestone formations. Seven of 10 frogs radio-tracked had core home ranges (50% fixed kernel) from 94 to 100% on limestone; the other three frogs did not have any part of their home range on limestone outcrops. During five years of mark-recapture efforts, no frogs were found on a different outcrop from the one where they were originally captured; no radio-tracked frogs moved between outcrops during the breeding season. We estimated that four to 20 Barking Frogs occupied each outcrop; these groups probably are connected primarily by juvenile dispersal. As an organism living at the edge of its range, Barking Frogs in Arizona may rely heavily on extensive underground areas such as those found in limestone to protect them from a physiologically challenging environment. To manage for the persistence of Barking Frogs in southern Arizona, we must identify and protect habitat patches and movement pathways among them.

  17. Larvicidal activity of latex and stem bark of Euphorbia tirucalli plant on the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, V K; Chandra, Ramesh; Singh, Ajay

    2002-12-01

    The methanolic, chloroform and ether extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli latex and stem bark were evaluated for larvicidal activity against laboratory-reared larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of the brancroftian filariasis and worst urban nuisance mosquito. The latex extracts contain more potent larvicidal components (177.14 mg/L-326.37 mg/L) than the stem bark extracts (237.663 mg/L-513.39 mg/L). The order of toxicity (LC50) for the latex extracts was Methanol extract (177.14 mg/L) > Chloroform (200.76 mg/L) > Ether (326.37 mg/L) while the rank of order of toxicity (LC50) of stem bark extracts was Ether (237.66 mg/L) > Chloroform (343.515 mg/L) > Methanol (513.387 mg/L), Higher doses (LC90 24 h of mosquito larvae) of each extract did not cause any mortality among fishes after 24 h. The study gave a weight into the possibility of formulating suitable preparation from the latex and stem bark extracts of the plant for use in mosquito control programme. PMID:14710857

  18. Influence of pine bark particle size and pH on cation exchange capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) describes the maximum quantity of cations a soil or substrate can hold while being exchangeable with the soil solution. While CEC has been studied for peat-based substrates, relatively little work has documented factors that affect CEC of pine bark substrates. The ob...

  19. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world’s tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, along with potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labeling...

  20. Comparison of using polyurethane foam passive samplers and tree bark samples from Western China to determine atmospheric organochlorine pesticide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Lu, Yao; Jin, Jun; Li, Guangyao; Li, Peng; He, Chang; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were deployed and tree bark samples were collected at 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the samples were determined. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the PUF samples and tree bark samples. The mean DDTs, HCHs and HCB concentrations were 33, 22 and 18ng/sample in the PUF samples, and 428, 74, and 43ng/(g lipid weight (lw)) in the tree bark, respectively. The OCP concentrations in the air, calculated using PUF-air and tree-bark-air partitioning models, were of the same order of magnitude. Both sample types showed that relatively fresh inputs of DDT and HCHs to the environment have occurred in western China. Meanwhile, PUF passive samplers were compared with the use of tree bark samples as passive samplers. The OCP compositions in the PUF and tree bark samples were different. Only the relatively stable OCPs (such as HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE)) were consistent in the PUF and tree bark samples. PMID:26969054

  1. Effect of pine bark on the biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and on the bacterial community structure in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Chusova, Olga; Nolvak, Hiie; Nehrenheim, Emma; Truu, Jaak; Odlare, Monica; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Truu, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Pine bark, a low-cost industrial residue, has been suggested as a promising substitute for granular activated carbon in the on-site treatment of water contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the complex organic structure and indigenous microbial community of pine bark have thus far not been thoroughly described in the context of TNT-contaminated water treatment. This two-week batch study examined the removal efficiency ofTNT from water by (1) adsorption on pine bark and (2) simultaneous adsorption on pine bark and biotransformation by specialized TNT-biotransforming microbial inocula. The bacterial community composition of experimental batches, inocula and pine bark, was profiled by Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that the inocula and experimental batches were dominated by phylotypes belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and that the tested inocula had good potential for TNT biotransformation. The type of applied inocula had the most profound effect on the TNT-transforming bacterial community structure in the experimental batches. The indigenous microbial community of pine bark harboured phylotypes that also have a potential to degrade TNT. Altogether, the combination of a specialized inoculum and pine bark proved to be the most efficient treatment option for TNT-contaminated water. PMID:25145200

  2. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). PMID:21377193

  3. Decomposition of conifer tree bark under field conditions: effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina; Kapitsa, Ekaterina; Shorokhova, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    In forest ecosystems, the processes of decomposition of coarse woody debris (CWD) can contribute significantly to the emission component of carbon (C) cycle and thus accelerate the greenhouse effect and global climate change. A better understanding of decomposition of CWD is required to refine estimates of the C balance in forest ecosystems and improve biogeochemical models. These estimates will in turn contribute to assessing the role of forests in maintaining their long-term productivity and other ecosystems services. We examined the decomposition rate of coniferous bark with added nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers in experiment under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2015 during 17 weeks in Moscow region (54o50'N, 37o36'E) under continental-temperate climatic conditions. The conifer tree bark mixture (ca. 70% of Norway spruce and 30% of Scots pine) was combined with soil and placed in piles of soil-bark substrate (SBS) with height of ca. 60 cm and surface area of ca. 3 m2. The dry mass ratio of bark to soil was 10:1. The experimental design included following treatments: (1) soil (Luvisols Haplic) without bark, (S), (2) pure SBS, (3) SBS with N addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass (SBS-N), and (4) SBS with N and P addition in the amount of 1% of total dry bark mass for each element (SBS-NP). The decomposition rate expressed as CO2 emission flux, g C/m2/h was measured using closed chamber method 1-3 times per week from July to early November using LiCor 6400 (Nebraska, USA). During the experiment, we also controlled soil temperature at depths of 5, 20, 40, and 60 cm below surface of SBS using thermochrons iButton (DS1921G, USA). The pattern of CO2 emission rate from SBS depended strongly on fertilizing. The highest decomposition rates (DecR) of 2.8-5.6 g C/m2/h were observed in SBS-NP treatment during the first 6 weeks of experiment. The decay process of bark was less active in the treatment with only N addition. In this

  4. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress.

    PubMed

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knízek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10 x 50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O(3) level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O(3) levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. PMID:15046842

  5. Effect of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi larvae.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Jayaprasad; Subramanian, Sharavanan; Kaliyan, Veerakumar

    2015-11-01

    Mosquitoes are the vector of more diseases and cause major health problems like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and lymphatic filariasis. This article deals with the mosquito larvicidal activity of Chloroxylon swietenia Dc bark extracts against late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Methanolic crude extract of Ch. swietenia bark was obtained by soxhlet apparatus and aqueous crude extract by cold percolation method. The range of concentrations of the crude extracts used was 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. The mortality and lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) was calculated after a 24-h exposure period. Both the extracts showed trustworthy larvicidal activity. The larvicidal activity of the methanol extract of Ch. swietenia bark was higher than the aqueous extract, and the LC50 and the LC90 values of the methanol extract were found to be 124.70 and 226.26 μg/ml (Ae. aegypti), 130.57 and 234.67 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 137.55 and 246.09 ppm (An. stephensi). The LC50 and the LC90 values of the aqueous extract were found to be 133.10 and 238.93 ppm (Ae. aegypti), 136.45 and 242.47 ppm (Cu. quinquefasciatus), and 139.43 and 248.64 ppm (An. stephensi). No mortality was observed in the control. Methanolic crude extract Ch. swietenia bark shows higher activity against An. stephensi than the other two tested larvae and aqueous extract. The results of the present study propose a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the larvicidal activity of Ch. swietenia bark extracts. PMID:26246308

  6. Inhibitory effects of bark extracts from Ulmus laevis on endometrial carcinoma: an in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Daniel; Abarzua, Sibylle; Schlichting, André; Richter, Dagmar-Ulrike; Leinweber, Peter; Briese, Volker

    2009-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of elm tree have been shown in several studies. Besides this, protective effects of components of elm bark on damaged tissue have also been described. This study was carried out to investigate the antitumour potential of an ethanolic extract isolated from Ulmus laevis in the hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. A range of 2.5-500 microg/ml of elm bark extract was used as standard concentrations. The molecular-chemical composition of the bark extract was analysed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry. The influence of the bark extracts was determined on cell vitality [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test], cell proliferation (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test) and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase test) in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL 95-2. By pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry, the main substance classes of the extract as a composition of sterols/triterpenes, free fatty acids and a group of phenols, lignin monomers and flavonoids was identified. Our study showed a significant inhibition of cell vitality and proliferation measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test up to 5 microg/ml extract and up to 100 microg/ml according to the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine test. Concentrations of 500 microg/ml induced a significant inhibition of cell vitality up to 80% and cell proliferation up to 81.5%. A significant cytotoxity was not observed. The results lead to the assumption that the bark extract from Ulmus laevis has antiproliferation and anticancer potential in hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:19337064

  7. Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

  8. Auditory Discrimination of Natural and High-Pass Filtered Bark Vocalizations in a California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Jason; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    A California sea lion performed a psychophysical auditory discrimination task with a set of six stimuli: three barks recorded from conspecific males and high-pass filtered versions of the barks that removed the majority of energy at fundamental frequencies. Discrimination performance and subject reaction times (RTs) suggested that the vocalizations were all perceived as fairly dissimilar. This preliminary study hints that low-frequency components are a salient part of the California sea lion bark despite elevation of this species' aerial hearing thresholds and the potential for elevated environmental noise levels at frequencies below 1 kHz. PMID:26611026

  9. Enantioselective synthesis and vanilloid activity evaluation of 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial, an antinociceptive compound from Drymis winteri barks.

    PubMed

    Della Monica, Carmela; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Landi, Raffaella; Izzo, Irene; Spinella, Aldo

    2007-12-01

    A simple strategy is outlined for preparation of the antinociceptive 1-beta-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)polygodial, isolated from Drymis winteri barks. The synthesized compound showed vanilloid activity. PMID:17951058

  10. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar bark by combined use of gamma ray and dilute acid for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Jae Taek; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Kim, Ung-Jin; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Gon Wi, Seung; Cho, Jae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Pretreatment of poplar bark with a combination of sulfuric acid (3%, w/w, H2SO4) and gamma irradiation (0-1000 kGy) was performed in an attempt to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis for bioethanol production. The yields of reducing sugar were slightly increased with an increasing irradiation dose, ranging from 35.4% to 51.5%, with a 56.1% reducing sugar yield observed after dilute acid pretreatment. These results clearly showed that soluble sugars were released faster and to a greater extent in dilute acid-pretreated poplar bark than in gamma irradiation-pretreated bark. When combined pretreatment was carried out, a drastic increase in reducing sugar yield (83.1%) was found compared with individual pretreatment, indicating the possibility of increasing the convertibility of poplar bark following combined pretreatment. These findings are likely associated with cellulose crystallinity, lignin modification, and removal of hemicelluloses.

  11. Seeing with ears: Sightless humans' perception of dog bark provides a test for structural rules in vocal communication.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Csaba; Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám

    2010-05-01

    Prerecorded family dog (Canis familiaris) barks were played back to groups of congenitally sightless, sightless with prior visual experience, and sighted people (none of whom had ever owned a dog). We found that blind people without any previous canine visual experiences can categorize accurately various dog barks recorded in different contexts, and their results are very close to those of sighted people in characterizing the emotional content of barks. These findings suggest that humans can recognize some of the most important motivational states reflecting, for example, fear or aggression in a dog's bark without any visual experience. It is very likely that this result can be generalized to other mammalian species--that is, no visual experience of another individual is needed for recognizing some of the most important motivational states of the caller. PMID:19760535

  12. Bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang; Ho, Shang-Tse; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lin, Chien-Tsong; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2011-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactive phytochemicals of leaf essential oils of Cinnamomum osmophloeum on lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced acute hepatitis. The results revealed that post-treatment with 100 μmol/kg trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly decreased the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in serum. Moreover, both T-cadinol and α-cadinol treatments decreased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in the liver tissues when compared with the LPS/D-GalN group. Liver histopathology also showed that silymarin, trans-cinnamaldehyde, (-)-aromadendrene, T-cadinol, or α-cadinol significantly reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by LPS/D-GalN. These results suggest that the above phytochemicals exhibit potent hepatoprotection against LPS/D-GalN-induced liver damage in mice, and their hepatoprotective effects may be due to the modulation of anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21699244

  13. Cinnamomum camphora Seed Kernel Oil Improves Lipid Metabolism and Enhances β3-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Zeng, Cheng; Zeng, Zheling; Wang, Baogui; Wen, Xuefang; Yu, Ping; Gong, Deming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of dietary Cinnamomum camphora seed kernel oil (CCSKO) containing medium-chain triacylglycerols on lipid metabolism and mRNA and protein expression of β-3 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue were studied in diet-induced obese rats. High fat food-induced obese rats were randomly divided into CCSKO group, Lard group, Soybean oil (SOY) group and naturally restoring group (n = 10). Rats fed with low fat food were used as a normal control group. Significant decreases in body mass and abdominal fat mass/body mass after 12 weeks were found in CCSKO group as compared with Lard and SOY groups (p < 0.05). Levels of blood total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, free fatty acid, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the CCSKO group were decreased significantly, and noradrenaline level and insulin sensitivity index in the CCSKO group were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile liver TC and triglyceride levels in the CCSKO group were also decreased markedly. Expression levels of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein were higher in CCSKO group than in Lard and SOY groups. These results suggest that CCSKO may contribute to reduction of the body fat mass, promote lipid metabolism and up-regulate β3-adrenergic receptor expression in high fat diet-induced obese rats. PMID:27068065

  14. Purification of a new ribosome-inactivating protein from the seeds of Cinnamomum porrectum and characterization of the RNA N-glycosidase activity of the toxic protein.

    PubMed

    Li, X D; Liu, W Y; Niu, C L

    1996-12-01

    Porrectin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), was purified from the seeds of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum porrectum) by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose 4B. Porrectin is a glycoprotein (M(r)64,500, sugar content 2.5%) consisting of an A-chain (M(r)30,500) and a B-chain (M(r)33,500) linked by the disulfide bond. The terminal sugar of glycan in porrectin B-chain is determined to be mannose. By non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, porrectin displayed three isoforms that have different pl values with the same molecular weight. Porrectin is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The molecular mechanism of action of porrectin on rat liver ribosomes is demonstrated to be specific for RNA N-glycosidase. The cleavage site is the adenosine at position 4324 (rat liver 28S rRNA) embedded in the highly conserved ricin/alpha-sarcin ('R/S') domain. PMID:8997493

  15. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  16. Essential oil from leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Yang, C W; Liao, J W; Zhen, W W; Chu, F H; Chang, S T

    2008-11-01

    The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and anti-hyperuricemia effect in mice of Cinnamomum osmophloeum, which is an endemic tree in Taiwan, were evaluated in this study. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of C. osmophloeum leaves presented the strongest XOD inhibition activity (IC(50)=16.3 μg/ml); however, no significant XOD inhibition activities were found in ethanolic and hot water extracts. Furthermore, among the main compounds of essential oil, the cinnamaldehyde exhibited the potent XOD inhibition activity with an IC(50)=8.4 μg/ml. Besides, the reducing serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice by cinnamaldehyde were further investigated. The hyperuricemic mice were oral administrated cinnamaldehyde at a dosage of 150 mg/kg, the uric acid value in serum was reduced from 5.25±0.63 to 2.10±0.04 mg/dl, the levels of serum uric acid in mice was lowered down by 84.48% as compared to the hyperuricemic control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, cinnamaldehyde may be a potential lead compound for developing the pharmaceutic for anti-hyperuricemia agent. PMID:18693097

  17. Low-severity fire increases tree defense against bark beetle attacks.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Boutin, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Induced defense is a common plant strategy in response to herbivory. Although abiotic damage, such as physical wounding, pruning, and heating, can induce plant defense, the effect of such damage by large-scale abiotic disturbances on induced defenses has not been explored and could have important consequences for plant survival facing future biotic disturbances. Historically, low-severity wildfire was a widespread, frequent abiotic disturbance in many temperate coniferous forests. Native Dendroctonus and Ips bark beetles are also a common biotic disturbance agent in these forest types and can influence tree mortality patterns after wildfire. Therefore, species living in these disturbance-prone environments with strategies to survive both frequent fire and bark beetle attack should be favored. One such example is Pinus ponderosa forests of western North America. These forests are susceptible to bark beetle attack and frequent, low-severity fire was common prior to European settlement. However, since the late 1800s, frequent, low-severity fires have greatly decreased in these forests. We hypothesized that non-lethal, low-severity, wildfire induces resin duct defense in P. ponderosa and that lack of low-severity fire relaxes resin duct defense in forests dependent on frequent, low-severity fire. We first compared axial resin duct traits between trees that either survived or died from bark beetle attacks. Next, we studied axial ducts using tree cores with crossdated chronologies in several natural P. ponderosa stands before and after an individual wildfire and, also, before and after an abrupt change in fire frequency in the 20th century. We show that trees killed by bark beetles invested less in resin ducts relative to trees that survived attack, suggesting that resin duct-related traits provide resistance against bark beetles. We then show low-severity fire induces resin duct production, and finally, that resin duct production declines when fire ceases. Our results

  18. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  19. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lima, E O; Gompertz, O F; Giesbrecht, A M; Paulo, M Q

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:8015567

  20. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  1. Production and use of industrial wood and bark residues for 44 counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, and Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    An estimate is given of the tons of industrial wood and bark residues produced and left unused in 44 of the 170 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) power service area counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, and Mississippi. This report supplements the data appearing in TVA's Technical Note B45 Production and Use of Industrial Wood and Bark Residues in the Tennessee Valley, 1979. Together, these reports present residue estimates for all the 201-county Tennessee Valley region. 6 tables.

  2. Experimental evaluation of mimosa tenuiflora (willd.) poir. (Tepescohuite) I. Screening of the antimicrobial properties of bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Navarro, V; Arnason, J T; Kourany, E

    1989-01-01

    Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir, is a tree from the south areas of Mexico. This bark is popularly used as remedy to treat different skin lesions. The present study demonstrates the in vitro antimicrobial properties of the water and ethanolic extracts prepared with the dried and powdered bark of this plant. A clear inhibition growth effect was observed in all the gram positive and gram negative organisms, yeasts and dermatophytes used. PMID:2764672

  3. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting-associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  4. Information on the sulfur content of bark and its contribution to SO2 emissions when burned as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, H.S.; Blosser, R.O.

    1980-07-01

    The sulfur dioxide content of bark and wood residues that are used in wood energy boilers was analyzed. About 5% of the sulfur found in bark and wood is released into the atmosphere as SO2 during combustion; the 5% amounts to an emission rate of 0.001-0.02 lb SO2/million Btu energy. Sulfur content in wood is not stoichiometrically converted to SO2. (14 references, 2 tables)

  5. Effect of root bark extract of Berberis vulgaris L. on Leishmania major on BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Salehabadi, Alireza; Karamian, Mahdi; Farzad, Motevalli Haghi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important diseases transmitted by arthropod. This disease is present in 88 countries. Approximately 400 million people are at risk, and 12 million are involved. We aimed to examine the application of ethanolic extract of the root bark of Berberis vulgaris L. for treatment of mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis. At first, 40 BALB/c mice were infected to Leishmania major promastigotes and were divided in two groups A and B. Then, each of A and B groups were divided to two subgroups. Mice from subgroup A1 were treated with 10% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup A2 were treated with only alcohol (control). Mice from subgroup B1 were treated with 20% root bark alcoholic extract, and mice from subgroup B2 were treated with only alcohol (control). The 90% recovery was found in the mice treated with 20% root bark extract, and 55% recovery was found with 10% root bark extract, but in the control group, 0% recovery was found. The results of our study showed that the lotion of root bark extract has good suppression effects on parasites. Therefore, it might be a pro for developing new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:24337510

  6. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae).

    PubMed

    Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Mazzottini-Dos-Santos, Hellen C; Nery, Lays A; Ferreira, Peracio R B; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Royo, Vanessa A; de Oliveira, Dario A

    2014-09-01

    The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult.) A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species. PMID:25211103

  7. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems. PMID:26302987

  8. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-07-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb^{-1} of data collected at √{s}=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=(8.72 ± 0.07_stat. ± 0.18_sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ ), B(D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e), and the lifetimes of the D^0 and D^+ mesons with the value of B(D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ }) measured in this work, we determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ (D^0→ K^-μ ^+ν _μ )/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0μ +ν _{μ })=0.963± 0.044 and Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 μ +ν _{μ })/Γ (D+→ bar{K}^0 e+ν e)=0.988± 0.033.

  9. Characterizing noise in nonhuman vocalizations: Acoustic analysis and human perception of barks by coyotes and dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Mitchell, Brian R.; Tokuda, Isao; Owren, Michael J.

    2005-07-01

    Measuring noise as a component of mammalian vocalizations is of interest because of its potential relevance to the communicative function. However, methods for characterizing and quantifying noise are less well established than methods applicable to harmonically structured aspects of signals. Using barks of coyotes and domestic dogs, we compared six acoustic measures and studied how they are related to human perception of noisiness. Measures of harmonic-to-noise-ratio (HNR), percent voicing, and shimmer were found to be the best predictors of perceptual rating by human listeners. Both acoustics and perception indicated that noisiness was similar across coyote and dog barks, but within each species there was significant variation among the individual vocalizers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measures are discussed.

  10. HPTLC method for the estimation of alkaloids of Cinchona officinalis stem bark and its marketed formulations.

    PubMed

    Ravishankara, M N; Shrivastava, N; Padh, H; Rajani, M

    2001-04-01

    We report a sensitive method for the estimation of quinine (Qn), cinchonine (Cn), and cinchonidine (Cnd) and a new method based on fluorescence enhancement and detection and quantification of quinidine (Qnd) from Cinchona stem bark and its formulations, using HPTLC. Standard solutions of Qn, Qnd, Cn, and Cnd were applied on precoated HPTLC plates and developed with chloroform/diethylamine (9.6:1.4 v/v). The plates were scanned and quantified at 226 nm for Qn, Cn, Cnd and for Qnd at 366 nm in fluorescence and reflectance mode ([symbol: see text] K400 filter). The method was validated for precision, accuracy and repeatability. Further, the stem bark of Cinchona officinalis and some herbal and homeopathic formulations were evaluated for their individual alkaloid content applying the developed method. PMID:11345710

  11. Tannin signatures of barks, needles, leaves, cones, and wood at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.

    2004-03-01

    We analyzed 117 tissues from 77 different plant species for molecular tannin. Tannin was measured in 89 tissues (as high as 10.5 wt.% total tannin), including procyanidin (PC) tannin in 88 tissues, prodelphinidin (PD) tannin in 50, and propelargonidin (PP) tannin in 24. In addition to tannin, several flavones, flavanones, and triterpenoids were measured, the latter which yielded as much as 4.5 wt.%. Compositions varied considerably between species, including several that yielded comparatively rare tannin or triterpenoids. Conifer needles were distinguished by high yields of PD tannin overall and relative to PC tannin. Dicotyledon leaves were characterized by the presence of flavones and triterpenoids. Barks were marked by flavanones and tetracosanoic acid. Based on these trends, relationships that could be useful as geochemical parameters were developed for distinguishing needles, leaves, and barks as possible components of litter, soil, or sedimentary mixtures.

  12. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-03

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Three New Isoprenylated Flavonoids from the Root Bark of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Ji-Hae; Lee, Yeong-Geun; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dae-Young; Lim, Dong-Wook; Han, Daeseok; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the root bark of Morus alba has led to the isolation and identification of three new isoprenylated flavonoids, namely sanggenon U (1), sanggenon V (2), and sanggenon W (3), along with four known isoprenylated flavonoids: euchrenone a₇ (4), sanggenon J (5), kuwanon E (6), and kuwanon S (7). All compounds were isolated by repeated silica gel (SiO₂), octadecyl SiO₂ (ODS), and Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography. The structure of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), circular dichroism (CD), and infrared (IR). In addition, compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba in this study. PMID:27563860

  15. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antioxidative compounds from the bark of Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lelono, Raden Arthur Ario; Tachibana, Sanro

    2013-08-15

    Eugenia polyantha bark extracts were found to have potential antioxidative activities. This study is an effort to investigate the antioxidative compounds in E. polyantha. In vitro antioxidatve assay were used as guided tools for the isolation of antioxidative compounds. The methanol-water extracts showed the highest level of free radical-scavenging activity (ED50) = 180 microg mL(-1) and protection from beta-carotene bleaching (8.7 microg mL(-1)). The methanol-water (1:1) extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity and protection against beta carotene bleaching and was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography. The n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate solubles exhibited the highest antioxidative activities, derivatization was conducted to the isolated antioxidative compounds prior to identification. Catechin, gallic acid and rutin were isolated from those solubles as active compounds present in the Eugenia polyantha bark. PMID:24498834

  16. Production and use of industrial wood and bark residues in the Tennessee Valley region, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    Forest products industries in the 201-county Tennessee Valley region produced 8.7 million tons (initial condition) of industrial wood and bark residues in 1984. In the 125-county Tennessee Valley watershed, 4.8 million tons of residues were produced. Use of these residues was similar for both areas (201 area - 87.2% and 125 area - 86.8%). These residues were used chiefly for pulp and industrial fuel. This report highlights changes in the production and use of plant by-products since 1975. Detailed information is presented by industry and county on the type, condition, amount, and use of residues produced. The information is designed for use by firms plannng expansions or new developements using wood and bark residues as a raw material. 7 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils from Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil. barks.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Orlando V; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Alves, Maria S; Araújo, Aílson A L; Pinto, Míriam A O; Amaral, Maria P H; Rodarte, Mírian P; Kaplan, Maria A C

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils of Duguetia lanceolata barks, obtained at 2 (T2) and 4 h (T4), were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-elemene (12.7 and 14.9%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7%) and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4%) were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of D. lanceolata. PMID:22976469

  18. A new benzophenanthridine alkaloid and other bioactive constituents from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum heitzii.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Helle; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Tadesse, Margey; Miles, Christopher O; Moussavi, Nastaran; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2016-03-01

    Heitziquinone (7), a new benzophenanthridine alkaloid, together with five known compounds; isoarnottianamide (5), rhoifoline B (6), isobauerenol (8), 6-hydroxypellitorine (9) and sylvamide (10), were isolated as minor compounds from the hexane extract of stem bark from Zanthoxylum heitzii. Four previously reported compounds (1-4) were found, as well. Compounds 5 and 7 were both found to exist as 4:1 mixtures of two atropisomers. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. Compounds 5-10 were identified for the first time in this species, and they are all rare natural compounds. Pellitorine (4), one of the main compounds from the hexane bark extract, was found to be responsible for the brine shrimp larvae toxicity (LC50 37 μM, 8 μg/ml) of the crude extract (LC50 24 μg/ml). Low cytotoxicity against a macrophage cell line was observed. PMID:26802607

  19. Granular bed emission control of a fluid-bed bark combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Tollett, R.M.; Turchina, A.V.; Ostendorf, R.G.; Navratil, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Various additive mixtures were evaluated for effects on modifying resistivity of aspen bark ash. This had a direct effect on the efficiency of the Electroscrubber Filter (ESF) which is an electrically enhanced granular bed filter. Increased efficiencies were demonstrated in full scale testing at the Procter and Gamble plant in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Since July, 1984, emission tests have shown results below 0.04 number/MM BTU. The ESF was installed in 1983 on an EPI fluid-bed combuster burning aspen bark. In the first year of operation the ESF had trouble maintaining grid voltage. As with electrostatic precipitators, Electroscrubbers are sensitive to the resistivity of the ash collected but in an opposite way. Low resistivity is good for an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), but bad for an Electroscrubber. This paper discusses the importance of resistivity and the theoretical aspects of an Electroscrubber type of device.

  20. Biosorption of zinc from aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica bark: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    King, P; Anuradha, K; Lahari, S Beena; Prasanna Kumar, Y; Prasad, V S R K

    2008-03-21

    The removal of zinc ions from aqueous solutions on the biomass of Azadirachta indica bark has been studied by using batch adsorption technique. The biosorption studies were determined as a function of contact time, pH, initial metal ion concentration, average biosorbent size and biosorbent dosage. The equilibrium metal uptake was increased and percentage biosorption was decreased with an increase in the initial concentration and particle size of biosorbent. The maximum zinc biosorption occurred at pH 6 and percentage biosorption increases with increase in the biosorbent dosage. Experimental data obtained were tested with the adsorption models like Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. Biosorption isothermal data were well interpreted by Langmuir model with maximum biosorption capacity of 33.49mg/g of zinc ions on A. indica bark biomass and kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:17681426

  1. Bioactive properties of Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith bark extract, the Amazonian "clavo huasca".

    PubMed

    Morales, Lidia; Acero, Nuria; Galán, Antonio; Perez-García, Carmen; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2011-09-01

    Tynanthus panurensis (Bureau) Sanwith (Bignoniaceae) is a liana vine used in traditional Amazonian medicine as a tonic and energizer as well as a treatment for rheumatism. These traditional indications prompted this study of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. panurensis bark extract (ETP). Phytochemical analysis of ETP showed the presence of saponins and a high concentration of phenols and flavonoids. A battery of in vitro tests revealed that the extract has free radical-scavenging antioxidant properties and reduces microsomal lipid peroxidation, uric acid synthesis, and tumor necrosis factor-α production. The anti-inflammatory properties of ETP were further confirmed in vivo in a rat carrageenan edema model, in which the extract exhibited a potent activity. These results support the idea that T. panurensis bark extract could be beneficial for treating inflammation and are in agreement with one of the main traditional uses of this plant. PMID:21488753

  2. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Yunus; Unver, Mehmet C.; Ugulu, Ilker; Calis, Mesude; Durkan, Nazmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of heavy metals such as copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium and chromium concentrated in Juglans regia bark and leaf samples from different localities in Artvin, Turkey. Analysis of the heavy metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr in samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES; Perkin Elmer, Optima 8000 DV). Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The comparisons were performed in order to determine whether there were any differences between J. regia bark and leaf samples in terms of average heavy metal accumulation levels. As a result of this study, the following mean concentrations were determined for J. regia bark samples: the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 72.46 to 88.14, 14.40 to 628.0, 0.896 to 67.71, 7.000 to 28.52, 0.040 to 0.905, 1.031 to 2.744, 0.011 to 0.158 and 1.192 to 3.134, respectively. On the other hand, for J. regia leaf samples, the contents of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr (μg g−1, dry weight) ranged from 0.339 to 13.80, 12.72 to 698.2, 1.001 to 204.6, 7.362 to 56.03, 0.158 to 0.665, 0.130 to 2.744, 0.041 to 0.114 and 0.508 to 2.767, respectively. In the statistical analysis, heavy metal accumulation values of J. regia bark and leaf samples for Cu, Ni and Cr were significantly different (P < 0.05). PMID:26019552

  4. Acylated Triterpene Saponins from the Stem Bark of Acer nikoense (Aceraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Sasaki, Yu F; Suyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Three new acylated triterpene saponins, acernikoenosides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the stem bark of Acer nikoense, together with a known sterol glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. This study provided the first example of triterpene saponins isolated from this plant. The anti-genotoxic activity of 1, 3 and 4 against ultraviolet irradiation was evaluated by comet assay. PMID:27373647

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  6. Two bioactive pentacyclic triterpene esters from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yun, B S; Ryoo, I J; Lee, I K; Park, K H; Choung, D H; Han, K H; Yoo, I D

    1999-05-01

    Two new triterpene caffeates have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. Their structures were established through various spectral studies as 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 23-caffeate (1) and 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 3beta-caffeate (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and significant cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. PMID:10346965

  7. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs. PMID:8134409

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  9. Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

    1995-12-01

    The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified. PMID:8824955

  10. Large carbon release legacy from bark beetle outbreaks across Western United States.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A; Collatz, G James; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Rogan, John; Kulakowski, Dominik; Masek, Jeffrey G

    2015-08-01

    Warmer conditions over the past two decades have contributed to rapid expansion of bark beetle outbreaks killing millions of trees over a large fraction of western United States (US) forests. These outbreaks reduce plant productivity by killing trees and transfer carbon from live to dead pools where carbon is slowly emitted to the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration which subsequently feeds back to climate change. Recent studies have begun to examine the local impacts of bark beetle outbreaks in individual stands, but the full regional carbon consequences remain undocumented for the western US. In this study, we quantify the regional carbon impacts of the bark beetle outbreaks taking place in western US forests. The work relies on a combination of postdisturbance forest regrowth trajectories derived from forest inventory data and a process-based carbon cycle model tracking decomposition, as well as aerial detection survey (ADS) data documenting the regional extent and severity of recent outbreaks. We find that biomass killed by bark beetle attacks across beetle-affected areas in western US forests from 2000 to 2009 ranges from 5 to 15 Tg C yr(-1) and caused a reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of about 6.1-9.3 Tg C y(-1) by 2009. Uncertainties result largely from a lack of detailed surveys of the extent and severity of outbreaks, calling out a need for improved characterization across western US forests. The carbon flux legacy of 2000-2009 outbreaks will continue decades into the future (e.g., 2040-2060) as committed emissions from heterotrophic respiration of beetle-killed biomass are balanced by forest regrowth and accumulation. PMID:25826244

  11. Two new chemical constituents from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    See, Irene; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Teh, Soek Sin; Kadir, Arifah Abdul; Daud, Shaari

    2014-01-01

    A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1), one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2), and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3) and mangostenol (4). The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. PMID:24901833

  12. Design and operation of industrial boilers fired with wood and bark residue fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Junge, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    Most of the technical reference literature concerning the design and operation of industrial wood and bark-fired boilers and supporting facilities is out of date. This publication updates existing information and includes extensive research and development data that was generated at Oregon State University. Topics covered include the state of wood combustion technology; the basic characteristics of wood fuels; the principles of wood combustion and parameters that influence combustion; fuel receiving preparation, and storage; and pollution control.

  13. Utilization of bark pockets as time capsules of atmospheric-lead pollution in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Gøran; Abrahamsen, Gunnar; Steinnes, Eiliv; Hjelmseth, Harry

    The outer bark being enveloped by and grown into the tree trunk (bark pocket), acts as a passive biomonitor which readily accumulates pollution on its surface. Analysed with stable lead isotopes, these environmental historical archives are very strong candidates for unwinding pollution history. The Røros sulphide ore district, central Norway, has a well-documented mining activity which started in 1647 and the quarrying and smelting in Røros was easily monitored from the middle of the 18th century until the smelting stopped in 1977. Thereafter other sources, like the increase in use of leaded gasoline and further on its outphasing, can be followed. In southern Norway analyses of bark pockets show a good correlation with Pb isotope data from peat cores and tree rings. This region has not been dominated by a single source for many centuries. From the 17th century until about 1925 coal firing and ore smelting in England and on the continent were the dominating sources of pollution in southwestern Norway. From about 1925 and until about 1950 other sources like waste burning contributed, and from about 1950 onwards the pollution has been a mixture of mainly leaded gasoline, coal and coke firing, and incineration of waste. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the historical changes of environmental pollution in Norway during the last several hundred years up to the present time using tree bark pockets as pollution time capsules. Analyses of stable lead isotopes makes it possible to trace and identify lead from different sources of pollution and atmospherically transported lead deposited in central and southern Norway. Of special interest is the relationship between the industrialization of Europe and the global environmental pollution. Understanding this evolution is of considerable value for evaluating the present day situation.

  14. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  15. Four new prenylated flavonoids and xanthones from the root bark of Artocarpus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, U L B; Samarakoon, T B; Kumarihamy, B M M; Hara, N; Fujimoto, Y

    2008-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the n-butanol extract from the methanol extract of the root bark of Artocarpus nobilis furnished four new prenylated flavonoids together with artonin E 2'-methylether (4), isoartonin E 2'-methylether (5), dihydroisoartonin E 2'-methylether (6), artonin V 2'-methylether (7), artobiloxanthone (1), artonin E (2) and cycloartobiloxanthone (3). All these compounds showed strong radical scavenging properties towards DPPH radical. PMID:17855020

  16. Protective effects of Ficus racemosa stem bark against doxorubucin-induced renal and testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna; Karim, Alias A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits. Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the protective effects of sequential acetone extract of Ficus racemosa bark at two doses (FR250; 250 mg kg-1 and FR500; 500 mg kg-1 p.o.) against doxorubicin-induced renal and testicular toxicity in rats. Results: Doxorubicin administration resulted in significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in total protein and glutathione concentrations, while increased (P ≤ 0.05) serum urea, creatinine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Extract pretreatment restored biochemical parameters toward normalization. FR250 and FR500 decreased serum creatinine levels by 22.5% and 44%, while serum urea levels were decreased by 30.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Extract pretreatment (500 mg kg-1) decreased TBARS and increased glutathione levels in the kidney and testis to control levels. These observations were substantiated by histopathological studies, wherein normal renal and testicular architecture was restored in FR500 group. Conclusion: Doxorubicin exposure results in pronounced oxidative stress, and administration of F. racemosa stem bark extract offers significant renal and testicular protection by inhibiting lipidperoxidation-mediated through scavenging free radicals. PMID:23772108

  17. Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf and root bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Karunesh; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Tarun; Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Om

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacognostic characters of an important medicinal plant, Holoptelea integrifolia (H. integrifolia) Roxb. Methods The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, macroscopic and fluorescence analysis. Results The characteristic microscopic features of leaves were observed as trichomes, multicellular trichomes, xylem cells, phloem cells, collenchyma, vascular bundles, spongy parenchyma and palisade cells. The characteristic microscopic features of root bark included cork cambium, primary cortex, phloem fibers, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle and lignified fibers in the transverse section and longitudinal section. The characteristic microscopy of root bark powder showed the presence of cortex cells, sieve tubes, calcium oxalate crystals and lignified fibers. Macroscopic study showed that leaf shape-oval, apex-acute, base-cordate and leaf margin was entire with glabrous surface, bitter taste and characteristic odour. The morphological features of root bark showed deep fissured, rough and firm surface with rhitydome and the periderm parallel to cambium. Conclusions Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of H. integrifolia. PMID:23569892

  18. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  19. Effects of Pinus brutia bark extract and Pycnogenol in a rat model of carrageenan induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ince, I; Yesil-Celiktas, O; Karabay-Yavasoglu, N U; Elgin, G

    2009-12-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the anti-inflammatory activities of Pinus brutia bark extract and Pycnogenol in a rat model of carrageenan-induced inflammation. Firstly, the compositions of both samples were determined using HPLC. Then, carrageenan-induced paw edema was used to assess anti-inflammatory activity in mice. Paw volume was measured before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h after the injection of carrageenan. Intraperitoneal administration of both the extract and Pycnogenol inhibited paw swelling dose-dependently at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6h after carrageenan injection. Both samples exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activities at doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg body wt. between 2 and 4 hours after administration (p<0.05), respectively. Additionally, P. brutia bark extract showed significantly better activity at doses of 75 and 100mg/kg body wt. than indomethacine at the dose of 10mg/kg body wt. (p<0.05). No acute toxicity was identified in intraplantar injection of the extract at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body wt.. Therefore, P. brutia bark extract possessing 3.3-fold more total catechins and 9.8-fold more taxifolin than Pycnogenol can be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:19577447

  20. Avoidance of nonhost plants by a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in a forest of odors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Zhang, Qing-He; Birgersson, Göran

    The bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), searches in mixed conifer and deciduous forests of northern Europe for suitable branches of its host, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We tested whether odors from several diverse nonhost trees and plants common in the habitat (e.g., mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia; oak, Quercus robur; alder buckthorn, Frangula alnus; blueberry, Vaccinium myrtillus; raspberry, Rubus idaeus; and grass, Deschampsia flexuosa) would reduce the attraction of the bark beetle to traps releasing its aggregation pheromone components in the field. Volatiles from the leaves or bark of each of these plants significantly reduced the attraction of the beetles to their pheromone. Odors collected from these nonhosts and analyzed by GC/MS contained monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and ``green-leaf'' alcohols, several of which (e.g., 1-octene-3-ol and β-caryophyllene) reduced the attraction to pheromone in the field and elicited electroantennographic responses. In the laboratory, reproduction by the beetle was marginal in nonhost Norway spruce, Picea abies, and was absent in the other nonhost trees. Olfactory avoidance of unsuitable nonhosts may have evolved due to advantages in avoiding mistakes during host selection.

  1. Toxicological and hematological effect of Terminalia arjuna bark extract on a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Suely, A; Zabed, H; Ahmed, A B A; Mohamad, J; Nasiruddin, M; Sahu, J N; Ganesan, P

    2016-04-01

    Increasing demand for eco-friendly botanical piscicides and pesticides as replacements for harmful synthetic chemicals has led to investigation of new sources of plant materials. Stem bark of Terminalia arjuna, which has been used as a popular folk medicine since ancient time, was examined for its piscicidal activity. This study aims to determine toxicity of ethanol extract of T. arjuna bark on fresh water stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis), along with evaluation of changes in hematological parameters of the fishes exposed to a lethal concentration. The percent mortality of fishes varied significantly in response to concentrations of the extract and exposure times (between exposure time F = 36.57, p < 0.001; between concentrations F = 39.93, p < 0.001). The lethal concentrations (LC50) of ethanol extract were found to be 12.7, 8.94, 5.63 and 4.71 mg/l for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. During acute toxicity test, blood samples of treatment fishes showed significant decreases in the red blood cells count, hematocrit content, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and plasma protein level when compared to those of the control group, while there were significant increases in the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cells count and plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that T. arjuna bark extract could be considered as a potent piscicide due to its toxic effect on fish, particularly fish hematology. PMID:26501361

  2. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  3. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were < 2% of annual atmospheric inputs. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were unaffected by beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  4. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  5. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the stem bark of Synadenium grantii.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Antonio C M; Minozzo, Bruno R; Cruz, Luiza S; Oliveira, Thaís L; Machado, Willian M; Pereira, Airton V; Fernandes, Daniel; Manente, Francine A; Vellosa, José C R; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Beltrame, Flávio L

    2014-04-01

    Based on the fact that Synadenium grantii is used in folk medicine for the treatment of peptic ulcers and inflammatory diseases, this work describes its chemical and pharmacological properties. Pharmacological investigation of the crude bark extract showed a high antioxidant activity over several scavenger systems, such as 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)• +, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl•, O2 • - , and HOCl, as well as an enzymatic system with human myeloperoxidase and an ex vivo hemolysis system. Furthermore, the oral administration of the crude bark extract was able to reduce carrageenan-induced rat paw edema as effectively as ibuprofen. These biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids and terpenes, as revealed by HPLC and NMR analyses of the crude stem bark extract. The phytochemical investigations in this study resulted in the isolation of friedelin and 3β-friedelinol for the first time, while euphol and lanosterol were also isolated. PMID:24687740

  6. Toxicity and anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous of extract of the bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Chukwunyere O; Eneme, Tafarki A; Onyeyili, Patrick A; Ogugbuaja, Victor O

    2008-02-01

    The water extract of the stem bark of Sacoglottis gabonensis was evaluated for its preliminary acute toxicity and anthelmintic efficacy against gastro-intestinal nematodes of small ruminants and mice in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Intra-peritoneal administration of doses ranging from 400 to 3200 mg/kg of the aqueous stem bark extract produced varying degrees of toxicity manifested as depression, drowsiness and unsteady gait, paralysis of the hind limbs, dyspnoea, coma and death. The pathological lesions noted at necropsy were mainly congestion and edema of the lungs, bronchi and bronchioles and hepatomegally with focal necrosis of liver cells. The severity of the clinical symptoms and pathological lesions were dose-related. In the in vitro study, the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the hatching of strongyline nematode eggs from naturally infected small ruminants. The 100 mg/ml concentration of the extract produced the highest (94.4%) inhibition on nematode egg hatch and the result was comparable to similar effect produced by either levamisole (100% at 15 mg/ml) or albendazole (99.7% at 6.25 mg/ml). In rats experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus, treatment with the S. gabonensis stem bark aqueous extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced adult worm burden and completely inhibited faecal egg output 5 days post treatment. PMID:17850987

  7. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  8. The study of interactions between active compounds of coffee and willow (Salix sp.) bark water extract.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  9. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. PMID:26995269

  10. Organic compounds leached from fast pyrolysis mallee leaf and bark biochars.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Caroline; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Hu, Xun; Wang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of organic compounds leached from biochars is essential in assessing the possible toxicity of the biochar to the soils' biota. In this study the nature of the leached organic compounds from Mallee biochars, produced from pyrolysis of Mallee leaf and bark in a fluidised-bed pyrolyser at 400 and 580°C was investigated. Light bio-oil compounds and aromatic organic compounds were investigated. The 'bio-oil like' light compounds from leaf and bark biochars 'surfaces were obtained after leaching the chars with a solvent, suitable to dissolve the respective bio-oils. GC/MS was implemented to investigate the leachates. Phenolics, which are potentially harmful toxins, were detected and their concentration shown to be dependent on the char's origin and the char production temperature. Further, to simulate biochars amendment to soils, the chars were leached with water. The water-leached aromatic compounds from leaf and bark biochars were characterized using UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Those results suggested that biochars contain leachable compounds of which the nature and amount is dependent on the biomass feedstock, pyrolysis temperature and leaching time. PMID:25434266

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and new polybrominated flame retardants in tree bark from western areas of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuxu; Jin, Jun; Lu, Yao; Li, Guangyao; He, Chang; Wang, Ying; Li, Peng; Hu, Jicheng

    2016-06-01

    Tree bark samples were collected from 15 sites across western China in 2013, and the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and new polybrominated flame retardant (NBFR) concentrations in the samples were determined. The mean total PBDE concentration was 51.8 ng/g lipid weight, which was 85.2% to 99.4% lower than in Chinese eastern coastal areas and the E-waste recycling areas. The dominant PBDE congener was BDE209, and its mean concentration was 49 ng/g lipid weight. The mean 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene, pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and hexabromobenzene concentrations were 0.61 ng/g, 0.97 ng/g, 0.68 ng/g, and 0.68 ng/g lw, respectively. The PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the air at the sampling sites were estimated from the concentrations in the tree bark samples. The estimated mean total PBDE and total NBFR concentrations in air were 58.5 pg/m(3) and 2.76 pg/m(3) , respectively. The sources of NBFR emissions were found to be different from the sources of PBDE emissions, as no relationship was found between the NBFR and PBDE concentrations, and it appeared that sources of measured hexabromobenzene, pentabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene in tree bark in western China include industrial activity related to the aluminum industry. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1364-1370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26492098

  12. Repellent Constituents of essential oil from Citrus wilsonii stem barks against Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Wua, Yan; Chenb, Hai-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yu; Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Li, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Cai, Qian

    2014-10-01

    The essential oil obtained from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka stem barks with hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be nerol acetate (44.5%), nerol (13.6%), citronellyl propionate (13.5%) and α-terpineol (3.6%). Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol. It was found that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks possessed strong repellency (86% and 92%, respectively, at 78.6 nL/cm2, after 2 and 4 h treatment) against Tribolium castaneum adults. Repellency of the four active compounds was also determined. Nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol were strongly repellent (100%, 100%, 90% and 96%, respectively, at 15.7 nL/cm2, after 2h treatment) against T. castaneum. Nerol exhibited the same level of repellency as the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks and its active compounds have the potential to be developed as natural repellents for control of T. castaneum. PMID:25522550

  13. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  14. Accumulation of Mn and Pb in linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) bark and wood.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dragan M; Milošević, Ivana R; Vilotić, Dragica

    2013-01-01

    As an indicator of environmental pollution, we collected tree rings and bark of linden (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) from four sampling locations in Serbia. Mn and Pb were determined with a spectrochemical method that has an argon-stabilized U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply as excitation source. Increased concentrations of Mn in linden tree rings and bark were found at the Debeli Lug location, where the Mn transfer factors were largest. The availability of Mn in soil and tree rings was greatly influenced by pH. Since 1950, Mn level decreased more noticeably on acidic soils. Higher concentrations of Pb were found in linden tree rings and bark at the locations Fruška Gora and Zemun. Proximity of the road to Novi Sad at both sites may be a possible reason for this. The Pb transfer factor was highest at Fruška Gora. The ratio of bioavailable elements in soil for Mn and Pb were also calculated. Close correlations between Mn and Pb concentrations in linden tree rings and the ratio of bioavailable elements in soil were seen at all four locations. PMID:22711014

  15. Mapping aerial metal deposition in metropolitan areas from tree bark: a case study in Sheffield, England.

    PubMed

    Schelle, E; Rawlins, B G; Lark, R M; Webster, R; Staton, I; McLeod, C W

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the use of metals accumulated on tree bark for mapping their deposition across metropolitan Sheffield by sampling 642 trees of three common species. Mean concentrations of metals were generally an order of magnitude greater than in samples from a remote uncontaminated site. We found trivially small differences among tree species with respect to metal concentrations on bark, and in subsequent statistical analyses did not discriminate between them. We mapped the concentrations of As, Cd and Ni by lognormal universal kriging using parameters estimated by residual maximum likelihood (REML). The concentrations of Ni and Cd were greatest close to a large steel works, their probable source, and declined markedly within 500 m of it and from there more gradually over several kilometres. Arsenic was much more evenly distributed, probably as a result of locally mined coal burned in domestic fires for many years. Tree bark seems to integrate airborne pollution over time, and our findings show that sampling and analysing it are cost-effective means of mapping and identifying sources. PMID:18078698

  16. Bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei from Madagascar: investigation of steam-distillation conditions.

    PubMed

    Rakotobe, Miarantsoa; Menut, Chantal; Andrianoelisoa, Hanitriniaina Sahondra; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Tsy, Jean Michel Leong Pock; Rakotoarimanana, Vonjison; Ramavovololona, Perle; Danthu, Pascal

    2014-02-01

    The effect of the distillation time on the yield and chemical composition of the bark essential oil of Cedrelopsis grevei Baill. was investigated. Distillation kinetics were determined for three batches of bark sampled from two sites, i.e., Itampolo (batches IT1 and IT2) and Salary (SAL), located in a region in the south of Madagascar with characteristically large populations of C. grevei. The bark samples were subjected to steam distillation, and the essential oil was collected at 3-h intervals. The total yield (calculated after 14 h of distillation) varied from 0.9 to 1.7%, according to the batch tested. Moreover, the essential oils obtained were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. During the course of the distillation, the relative percentages of the most volatile components (monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) diminished progressively, whereas the least volatile ones (oxygenated derivatives) increased at a consistent rate. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis (AHC) of the results, performed on 13 principal components, allowed distinguishing three chemical groups, corresponding to the three batches, irrespective of the distillation time. This indicated that the chemical variability currently observed with commercial samples is not mainly linked to the experimental conditions of the extraction process, as the distillation time did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:24591320

  17. Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols, tannins and epigallocatechin gallate from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Jordana N.; Pedroso, Nathália B.; Borges, Leonardo L.; Oliveira, Gerlon A. R.; Paula, José R.; Conceição, Edemilson C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville is a native plant from Brazil, rich in phenolic compounds and used on popular medicine as a wound healing agent, in the treatment of gastric lesions and as antimicrobial. Materials and Methods: Ultrassound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to extraction of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), total polyphenols (TP) and total tannins (TT) content from barks of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mar.) Coville. Several operating parameters, namely extraction time (min), liquid to solid ratio (mg/mL), ethanolic strength (%, v/v), were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with a Box-Behnken design. Results: By using the desirability function approach, the optimum UAE conditions to obtain desirable extraction yields for all these metabolites simultaneously were found at the extraction time of 30 min, solid to liquid ratio of 4 mg/mL and ethanolic strength of 65. Under these conditions, the epigallocatechin gallate, total polyphenols and total tannins content were 0.31; 22.95 and 11.95 % (w/w), respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that knowledge gained from this study should be helpful to further exploit and apply this resource and also showed the feasibility of ultrasound-assisted extraction for obtaining GEGC, TP and TT from barks of S. adstrigens. PMID:24991110

  18. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  19. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P.; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

  2. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  3. Effect of Cinnamomum Verum Extract on the Amyloid Formation of Hen Egg-white Lysozyme and Study of its Possible Role in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramshini, Hassan; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Aryanejad, Sima; Rad, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosing and treating diseases associated with amyloid fibers remain a great challenge despite of intensive research carried out. One important approach in the development of therapeutics is the use of herbal extracts which are rich in aromatic small molecules. Cinnamomum verum extract (CE) contains proanthocyanidin and cinnamaldehyde, which have been suggested to be capable of directly inhibiting amyloid fibril formation in vitro. This study is aimed at characterizing the inhibitory activity of CE against the fibrillation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Methods: Acidic pH and high temperatures were used to drive the protein towards amyloid formation. Lysozyme was dissolved at 2 mg/mL in 50mM glycine buffer (pH 2.5), and then incubated at 57 °C for the specified durations while stirred gently by Teflon magnetic bars. Various techniques including thioflavin T, fluorescence, Congo red absorbance assay and AFM micrography were used to characterize the HEWL fibrillation processes. Results: In the absence of CE typical amyloid fibrils (like amyloids formed in Alzheimer disease) became evident after 48 h of incubation. Upon incubation with various extract concentrations in the range of 0.1–1 mg/ml, formation of fibrillar assemblies were significantly inhibited (P<0.05). AFM analysis and MTT assay also confirmed the role of the extract in amyloid inhibition. Our studies showed that the presence of CE did not have any effect on protein stabilization and thus directly interact with amyloid structure and inhibit formation of these structures. Furthermore, a docking experiment showed that a pi-pi interaction may occur between the aromatic component of cinnamaldehyde and W62. Interestingly, W62 is one of the principal aromatic residues that interact with glycine amide, which is an aggregation suppressor of HEWL. Discussion: These observations suggest that aromatic small molecules of CE may directly insert into amyloidogenic core of early aggregates and

  4. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuen-daw; Cherng, Jonathan; Liu, Yi-Heng; Chen, Ta-Wei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Yang, Shu-mei; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs) were determined by neutral red staining. Results The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown). Our data implicate that 2-MCA could be a

  5. Antiinflammatory effects of essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum cassia and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

    PubMed

    Pannee, Chinjarernpan; Chandhanee, Itthipanichpong; Wacharee, Limpanasithikul

    2014-10-01

    Cassia oil (CO) from different parts of Cinnamomum cassia have different active components. Very few pharmacological properties of cassia leaf oil have been reported. This study investigated and compared effects of cassia leaf oil and cinnamaldehyde on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 cells. Volatile compositions in cassia leaf oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. Effects of CO and cinnamaldehyde on LPS-activated J774A.1 cells were investigated by determining nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess reaction assay; expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes involve in inflammatory mediators; antiinflammatory cytokines, and iron exporter ferroportin1 (Fpn1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-10 using ELISA. The main component of CO was cinnamaldehyde. Both oils at 1-20 μg/ml markedly inhibited NO production in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells with IC50 value of 6.1 ± 0.25 and 9.97 ± 0.35 μg/ml, respectively. They similarly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These mediators included TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in LPS-activated cells. They also significantly decreased expression of inducible enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1. In the opposite way, they increased mRNA expression and the production of antiinflammatory cytokines IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. In addition, they promoted the expression of Fpn1. These results demonstrated that inhibitory effects of cassia leaf oil from C. cassia mainly came from cinnamaldehyde. This compound not only inhibited inflammatory mediators but also activated antiinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated J774A.1 cells. It may also have an effect on iron regulatory proteins in activated macrophages. PMID:25364694

  6. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. PMID:21893402

  7. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with Cinnamomum camphora seed oil to produce zero-trans medium-chain triacylglycerols-enriched plastic fat.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Zhu, Xue-mei; Luo, Li-ping; Lei, Lin; Deng, Ze-yuan; Lee, Ki-Teak

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Cinnamomum camphora seed oil (CCSO) is rich in medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) or medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs). The purpose of the present study was to produce zero-trans MCTs-enriched plastic fat from a lipid mixture (500 g) of palm stearin (PS) and CCSO at 3 weight ratios (PS:CCSO 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, wt/wt) by using lipase (Lipozyme TL IM, 10% of total substrate) as a catalyst at 65 °C for 8 h. The major fatty acids of the products were palmitic acid (C16:0, 42.68% to 53.42%), oleic acid (C18:1, 22.41% to 23.46%), and MCFAs (8.67% to 18.73%). Alpha-tocopherol (0.48 to 2.51 mg/100 g), γ-tocopherol (1.70 to 3.88 mg/100 g), and δ-tocopherol (2.08 to 3.95 mg/100 g) were detected in the interesterified products. The physical properties including solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), and crystal polymorphism of the products were evaluated for possible application in shortening or margarine. Results showed that the SFCs of interesterified products at 25 °C were 9% (60:40, PS:CCSO), 18.50% (70:30, PS:CCSO), and 29.2% (80:20, PS:CCSO), respectively. The β' crystal form was found in most of the interesterified products. Furthermore, no trans fatty acids were detected in the products. Such zero-trans MCT-enriched fats may have a potential functionality for shortenings and margarines which may become a new type of nutritional plastic fat for daily diet. PMID:22515238

  8. Antiproliferative Activity of Cinnamomum cassia Constituents and Effects of Pifithrin-Alpha on Their Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Hep G2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lean-Teik; Wu, Shu-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (Cin), cinnamic acid (Ca) and cinnamyl alcohol (Cal), major constituents of Cinnamomum cassia, have been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and other activities. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of these compounds in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and examine the effects of pifithrin-alpha (PFTα; a specific p53 inhibitor) on their apoptotic signaling transduction mechanism. The antiproliferative activity was measured by XTT assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blotting. Results showed that at a concentration of 30 μM, the order of antiproliferative activity in Hep G2 cells was Cin > Ca > Cal. Cin (IC50 9.76 ± 0.67 μM) demonstrated an antiproliferative potency as good as 5-fluorouracil (an anti-cancer drug; IC50 9.57 ± 0.61 μM). Further studies on apoptotic mechanisms of Cin showed that it downregulated the expression of Bcl-XL, upregulated CD95 (APO-1), p53 and Bax proteins, as well as cleaving the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent pattern. PFTα pre-incubation significantly diminished the effect of Cin-induced apoptosis. It markedly upregulated the anti-apoptotic (Bcl-XL) expression and downregulated the pro-apoptotic (Bax) expression, as well as effectively blocking the CD95 (APO-1) and p53 expression, and PARP cleavage in Cin-treated cells. This study indicates that Cin was the most potent antiproliferative constituent of C. cassia, and its apoptotic mechanism in Hep G2 cells could be mediated through the p53 induction and CD95 (APO-1) signaling pathways. PMID:20038571

  9. The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses Bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kang, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Woo; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Jasin-hwan-gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin-hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β-estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX-induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy. In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-telopeptide type 1 collagen, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10-treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN-treated or E2-treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25230217

  10. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals suppression of bark chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in citrus plants affected by the citrus sudden death disease.

    PubMed

    Cantú, M D; Mariano, A G; Palma, M S; Carrilho, E; Wulff, N A

    2008-10-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a disease of unknown etiology that greatly affects sweet oranges grafted on Rangpur lime rootstock, the most important rootstock in Brazilian citriculture. We performed a proteomic analysis to generate information related to this plant pathogen interaction. Protein profiles from healthy, CSD-affected and CSD-tolerant stem barks, were generated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein spots were well distributed over a pI range of 3.26 to 9.97 and a molecular weight (MW) range from 7.1 to 120 kDa. The patterns of expressed proteins on 2-DE gels made it possible to distinguish healthy barks from CSD-affected barks. Protein spots with MW around 30 kDa and pI values ranging from 4.5 to 5.2 were down-regulated in the CSD-affected root-stock bark. This set of protein spots was identified as chitinases. Another set of proteins, ranging in pI from 6.1 to 9.6 with an MW of about 20 kDa, were also suppressed in CSD-affected rootstock bark; these were identified as miraculin-like proteins, potential trypsin inhibitors. Down-regulation of chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in CSD-affected plants is relevant since chitinases are well-known pathogenesis-related protein, and their activity against plant pathogens is largely accepted. PMID:18943454

  12. Response of native and exotic bark beetles to high-energy wind event in the Tian Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamadiev, N.; Lynch, A.; O'Connor, C.; Sagitov, A.; Panyushkina, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    On May 17, 2011, the spruce forest of Yile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks in southeast Kazakhstan was surged by a high-energy cyclonic storm. Severe blowdown damaged several thousand hectare of Tian Shan spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana), with over 90% of trees killed in extensive areas. Bark beetle populations are increasing rapidly, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographis, I. sexdentatus, and Pityogenes perfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Little is known about the frequency or extent of either large storm events or bark beetle outbreaks in the Tian Shan Mountains, nor about associations between outbreaks of these species and temperature and precipitation regimes. Local managers are concerned that triggering bark beetle outbreaks during current unusually warm, dry conditions will have devastating consequences for the residual forest and forest outside of the blowdown. We characterize the bark beetle population response to the 2011 event to date, and reconstruct the temporal and spatial dynamics of historical disturbance events in the area using dendrochronology. Additionally temperature and precipitation-sensitive tree-ring width chronologies from the Tian Shan Mountains are analyzed to determine high- and low-frequency variability of climate for the past 200 years. Catastrophic windstorm disturbances may play a crucial role in determining forest structure across the mountains. We hypothesize that the Tian Shan spruce forest could be prone to severe storm winds and subsequent bark beetle outbreaks and never reach an old-growth phase between events.

  13. Determination of Yohimbine in Yohimbe Bark and Related Dietary Supplements Using UHPLC-UV/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Bryden, Noella

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation was performed on a practical ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)/tandem MS method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The method can separate corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract, which is critical for accurate quantitation of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements. Accuracy of the method was demonstrated using standard addition methods. Both intraday and interday precisions of the method were good. The method can be used without MS since yohimbine concentration in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements are usually high enough for DAD detection, which can make it an easy and economical method for routine analysis of yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. On the other hand, the method can be used with MS if desired for more challenging work such as biological and/or clinical studies. PMID:26268969

  14. Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities from Grapes, Leaves, Bark and Soil of Grapevine Plants Grown, and Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Guilherme; Lauga, Béatrice; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Mercier, Anne; Lonvaud, Aline; Soulas, Marie-Louise; Soulas, Guy; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance in plant health and crop quality, the diversity of epiphytic bacteria on grape berries and other plant parts, like leaves and bark, remains poorly described, as does the role of telluric bacteria in plant colonization. In this study, we compare the bacterial community size and structure in vineyard soils, as well as on grapevine bark, leaves and berries. Analyses of culturable bacteria revealed differences in the size and structure of the populations in each ecosystem. The highest bacteria population counts and the greatest diversity of genera were found in soil samples, followed by bark, grapes and leaves. The identification of isolates revealed that some genera – Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Bacillus – were present in all ecosystems, but in different amounts, while others were ecosystem-specific. About 50% of the genera were common to soil and bark, but absent from leaves and grapes. The opposite was also observed: grape and leaf samples presented 50% of genera in common that were absent from trunk and soil. The bacterial community structure analyzed by T-RFLP indicated similarities between the profiles of leaves and grapes, on the one hand, and bark and soil, on the other, reflecting the number of shared T-RFs. The results suggest an interaction between telluric bacterial communities and the epiphytic bacteria present on the different grapevine parts. PMID:24023666

  15. The multi-element content of the lichen Parmelia sulcata, soil, and oak bark in relation to acidification and climate.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Dubbin, W; Chimonides, P D J; Jones, G C; Read, H

    2008-02-15

    Understanding how biodiversity is influenced by changing atmospheric conditions is important for conservation, public policy and environmental health. In a recent study, an impact on two of the most abundant lichens in Europe (Parmelia sulcata and Hypogymnia physodes) was recorded at Burnham Beeches lying 40 km west of London (UK) during unusual atmospheric conditions whilst other species remained unaffected. Bark and soil chemistry also influence lichen vitality and community composition. Correlations between element concentrations and element ratios in different samples help understand element cycling. To study this further, the multi-element content of the lichen P. sulcata and bark sampled in 2000 from 16 oak (Quercus robur) trees at Burnham Beeches was compared with the same elements determined in 24 surface soils sampled in 2005 from beneath the same trees. Soil pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.7. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) for Mn/Ca ratios in lichen versus bark, soil versus bark and soil versus lichen samples confirmed cycling via the soil-tree-lichen system. Similar Mn/Ca ratios were reported in coniferous forests where high Mn concentrations were shown to limit epiphytic lichen abundance. Soil acidification influences element bioavailability and bark chemistry in Burnham Beeches with implications for lichen diversity and health. Recovery was recorded in P. sulcata, including regeneration within monitoring quadrats. Biological systems are well known to be influenced by pollution episodes. PMID:18045659

  16. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  17. Biomolecule-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induce apoptosis and molecular changes in cancer cell line (SiHa).

    PubMed

    Sujima Anbu, Anbu; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Byung-Taek; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports on the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) using methanol extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark. Biomolecule-loaded nanoparticles induced apoptosis in a human cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line, and experiments were carried out to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. FT-IR and XRD showed possible functional groups of the biomolecules and the crystalline nature of CNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs had a smooth spherical shape with average sizes of about 58-80 and 60-120nm, respectively. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated that both GSCNPs and CZCNs were structurally stable with homogenous and heterogeneous natures, respectively. Furthermore, synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against the SiHa cancer cell line, with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 102.17μg/ml, 87.75μg/ml, 132.74μg/ml and 90.35μg/ml for GS leaf extract, GSCNPs, CZBE and CZCNPs, respectively. PMID:27016087

  18. Determination of the volatile fraction of Polygonum bistorta L. at different growing stages and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity against two major honeybee (Apis mellifera) pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Roberto; Carpana, Emanuele; Falchero, Luca; Paoletti, Renato; Tava, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    The composition of the volatile fraction of Polygonum bistorta L. (also known as bistort or snakeroot) was investigated. Fresh aerial parts of this plant species were collected in the Western Italian Alps during the summer at three different phenological stages, namely vegetative, flowering, and fruiting, and steam-distilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The oils accounted for 0.004 to 0.010% of the fresh plant material, and their compositions were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The composition of the oils during the vegetative period varied both in quantity and quality; several classes of compounds were found with a predominance of alcohols in the vegetative phase, terpenes and linear-chained saturated hydrocarbons in the flowering phase, while saturated aliphatic acids and their methyl esters were predominant in fruiting phase. The most abundant compounds were 3-methylbut-3-en-1-ol in the vegetative phase, linalool in the flowering phase, and dodecanoic acid and its methyl ester in the fruiting phase. The obtained essential oils were then tested against two major bee pathogens, i.e., Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius, and against a reference bacterial species, Bacillus subtilis. Data were compared to those obtained with reference standards used against those pathogens such as the essential oils obtained from leaves and bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and the antibiotic oxytetracyclin. PMID:22344911

  19. Host Acceptance and Larval Competition between the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles, Scolytus schevyrewi and S. multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Potential Mechanisms for Competitive Displacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent survey revealed that the newly invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi, was much more abundant than the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus, in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, USA. This study sought to determine whether competitive displacement of S. mul...

  20. Antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from Trilepisium madagascariense stem bark

    PubMed Central

    Teke, Gerald Ngo; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Kueté, Victor; Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Vilarem, Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue) and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound) were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined. Results: The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1)]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min) compared to the saline control (60.80 min). The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control. Conclusion: The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities. PMID:20871767

  1. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management. PMID:23460417

  2. Catchment response to bark beetle outbreak and dust-on-snow in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livneh, Ben; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Buma, Brian; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Schneider, Dominik; Molotch, Noah P.; Wolter, K.; Wessman, Carol A.

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, the headwaters of the Colorado River and nearby basins have experienced extensive changes in land cover at sub-annual timescales. Widespread tree mortality from bark beetle infestation has taken place across a range of forest types, elevation, and latitude. Extent and severity of forest structure alteration have been observed through a combination of aerial survey, satellite remote-sensing, and in situ measurements. Additional perturbations have resulted from deposition of dust from regional dry-land sources on mountain snowpacks that strongly alter the snow surface albedo, driving earlier and faster snowmelt runoff. One challenge facing past studies of these forms of disturbance is the relatively small magnitude of the disturbance signals within the larger climatic signal. The combined impacts of forest disturbance and dust-on-snow are explored within a hydrologic modeling framework. We drive the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with observed meteorological data, time-varying maps of leaf area index and forest properties to emulate bark beetle impacts, and parameterizations of snow albedo based on observations of dust forcing. Results from beetle-killed canopy alteration suggest slightly greater snow accumulation as a result of less interception and reduced canopy sublimation and evapotranspiration, contributing to overall increases in annual water yield between 8% and 13%. However, understory regeneration roughly halves the changes in water yield. A purely observation-based estimate of runoff coefficient change with cumulative forest mortality shows comparable sensitivities to simulated results; however, positive water yield changes are not statistically significant (p ⩽ 0.05). The primary hydrologic impact of dust-on-snow forcing is an increased rate of snowmelt associated with more extreme dust deposition, producing earlier peak streamflow rates on the order of 1-3 weeks. Simulations of combined bark beetle and dust

  3. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu Dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24-48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg(-1) and DXR - 5 mg.kg(-1)) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5-2 g.kg(-1)), GEZJ (2 g.kg(-1)) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg(-1)) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg(-1) and 1-2 g.kg(-1) and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg(-1)). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  4. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  5. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    PubMed

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest. PMID:26694348

  6. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae) alien to Europe

    PubMed Central

    R. Kirkendall, Lawrence; Faccoli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (9/19). Italy, France and Spain have the largest numbers of alien species (14, 10 and 7, respectively). We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania. PMID:21594183

  7. Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, R; de Beer, Z W; Ahtiainen, J; Sidorov, E; Niemelä, P; Pappinen, A; Wingfield, M J

    2010-12-01

    The timber and pulp industries of Finland rely heavily on importations from Russia as source of raw timber. These imports raise the risk of accidentally importing forest pests and pathogens, especially bark beetles and their associated fungi, into Finland. Although ophiostomatoid fungi have previously been reported from Finland and Russia, the risks of accidentally moving these fungi has prompted a first survey to compare the diversity of conifer-infesting bark beetles and associated fungi from boreal forests on both sides of the Finnish-Russian border. The aim of the present study was to identify and characterise Ophiostoma species isolated in association with 11 bark beetle species infesting Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during this survey in the eastern parts of Finland and neighbouring Russia. Fungal isolates were grouped based on morphology and representatives of each morphological group were subjected to DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spaced region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and β-tubulin gene region. A total of 15 species of Ophiostoma were identified, including seven known species, five new species, and three species for which the identity remains uncertain. In the O. piceae-complex we identified O. canum, O. floccosum, O. karelicum and O. rachisporum sp. nov., and related to these, some isolates belonging to the European clade of O. minus in the O. minus-complex. Ophiostoma bicolor and O. fuscum sp. nov. were identified in the O. ips-complex, while O. ainoae, O. brunneo-ciliatum, O. tapionis sp. nov. and O. pallidulum sp. nov. were shown to group close to, but not in a strict monophyletic lineage with species of the O. ips-complex. Together with a single O. abietinum-like isolate, the only species that grouped close to the Sporothrix schenckii- O. stenoceras complex, was O. saponiodorum sp. nov. PMID:21339968

  8. Use of tree bark for comparing environmental pollution in different sites from Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

    PubMed

    Faggi, Ana Maria; Fujiwara, Fabian; Anido, Carlos; Perelman, Patricia E

    2011-07-01

    Multi-elemental profiles in bark of green ash trees collected in three representative areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were assessed as potential air pollution indicators. Ten elements: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emissions spectrometry from 70 samples collected in different environments: central, residential and rural (reference site), in order to compare spatial patterns of metal concentration. The samples used as a control were collected from a nature reserve situated far away from any significant influences, not even a nearby road. The reference site (RF) exhibited the lowest concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, Ba and Mn showed similar concentrations in all measured sites. Magnesium is the only element that had a greater concentration in RF than at the other sites. Copper did not show any clear pattern. The Centre of Montevideo (MVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn than the Centre of Buenos Aires (BA). In the A sectors, Montevideo (SAMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Cu, Mg, Ni, and Zn and lower concentrations of Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pb than Buenos Aires (SABA). In the B sectors, Montevideo (SBMVD) showed higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn and lower concentrations of Cr and Mg than Buenos Aires (SBBA), but similar concentrations of Mn and Ni. The use of bark for biomonitoring metals allowed us to detect concentration differences related to the urban fabric and the different kinds of vehicles and their fuels. In the cities, the differences in metal concentrations detected in bark were more striking between the sectors than between centers, despite CBA being much larger than CMVD in population, extension and vehicular traffic. PMID:20844948

  9. Scots pine bark, topsoil and pedofauna as indicators of transport pollutions in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Marko-Worłowska, Maria; Chrzan, Anna; Łaciak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the motorway on pollution was evaluated by determining chosen heavy metals and acid reaction (pH) in the pine bark, in forest and meadow topsoil. The content of these environmental contaminants was determined in the topsoil and in the bark of around 40 year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing right next to the soil analyzed. The pollutants were examined at localities situated around 5, 200, 1500 m away from the motorway. To evaluate influence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and the topsoil pH on pedofauna, five meadows localities situated 1, 20, 40, 150, 1550 m away from the motorway were examined. It was detected that in the forest habitats analyzed the bark was characterized by considerably higher acidity (pH 3.14-3.88) than the topsoil of the pines analyzed (pH 5.45-7.22). Except of Cd at locality 200 m and Cu at 1500 m from motorway, the higher concentration of heavy metals was noted in topsoil. In the meadow soil of the locality 150 m from the motorway the highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were detected. The greatest diversity of the meso and macrofauna and trophic relations the most resembling natural were detected in the area furthest away from the motorway, where the content of the heavy metals was the lowest. The lowest density and diversity of meso- and macrofauna were detected in the area situated 40 m, where the concentration of heavy metals was higher than at 1, 20 and 1550 m from the motorway situated localities. PMID:21170775

  10. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  11. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extract and bark powder of Yucca schidigera Roezl.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2011-08-10

    Steroidal saponins in commercial stem syrup and in extract of a bark of Yucca schidigera were identified with high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry and quantitated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Fragmentation patterns of yucca saponins were generated using collision-induced dissociation and compared with fragmentation of authentic standards as well as with published spectrometric information. In addition to detection of twelve saponins known to occur in Y. schidigera, collected fragmentation data led to tentative identifications of seven new saponins. A quantitation method for all 19 detected compounds was developed and validated. Samples derived from the syrup and the bark of yucca were quantitatively measured and compared. Obtained results indicate that yucca bark accumulates polar, bidesmosidic saponins, while in the stem steroidal glycosides with middle- and short-length saccharide chains are predominant. The newly developed method provides an opportunity to evaluate the composition of yucca products available on the market. PMID:21721553

  13. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used. PMID:17462882

  14. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    PubMed

    Spier, L; van Dobben, H; van Dort, K

    2010-12-01

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 × 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. PMID:20832152

  15. Bark derived submicron-sized and nano-sized cellulose fibers: From industrial waste to high performance materials.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandeep S; Yan, Ning

    2015-12-10

    In this study, the use of bark as a natural source for the production of cellulose nanofibers has been explored for the first time. The fibrillation using bleached and unbleached cellulose fibers from the bark yielded sub-micron scale (<1 μm) and nanoscale fibers (<100 nm). Previous attempts to break the cross-linked lignin barrier to produce fibrillated submicron sized or nano sized cellulose fibers with high lignin content (>20%) have never been possible from any other sources. The maximum elastic modulus value of 15.6 GPa and tensile strength value of 76 MPa were obtained for the films made from fibrillated bark cellulose fibers. The water vapour barrier efficiency for these films is comparable to nanocellulose films from other studies. PMID:26428123

  16. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    PubMed

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  17. Diarylheptanoids from green alder bark and their potential for DNA protection.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Miroslav; Stanković, Miroslava; Vučković, Ivan; Todorović, Nina; Trifunović, Snežana; Apostolović, Danijela; Mandić, Boris; Veljić, Milan; Marin, Petar; Tešević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljević, Slobodan

    2014-06-01

    Nine diarylheptanoids, 1-9, catechin (11), and a phenolic glucoside, 10, were isolated from the bark of green alder (Alnus viridis). Four of the isolated compounds, i.e., 2, 5, 8, 10, are new. The structures of 1-11 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Almost all of them exerted a pronounced effect of decreasing DNA damage of human lymphocytes, acting stronger than the known synthetic protector amifostine. PMID:24934673

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Machindra J; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

    2012-01-01

    The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25 mg kg⁻¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50 mg kg⁻¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments. PMID:22007723

  19. A new steroidal glycoside and fatty acid esters from the stem bark of Tectona grandis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeba; Ali, M; Bagri, Priyanka

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the bark of Tectona grandis Linn. afforded a new steroidal glycoside identified as beta-sitosterol-beta-D-[4'-linolenyl-6'-(tridecan-4'''-one-1'''-oxy)] glucuranopyranoside and three new fatty esters, 7'-hydroxy-n-octacosanoyl n-decanoate, 20'-hydroxy eicosanyl linolenate and 18'-hydroxy n-hexacosanyl n-decanoate, along with the known compounds n-docosane, lup-20(29)-en-3beta-ol, betulinic acid and stigmast-5-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions. PMID:20552529

  20. Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora bark extracts on WI38 and KB human cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, M L; Nicasio, P; Alonso-Cortés, D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of three extracts from barks of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd) Poir, Leguminosae, on the growth rate of two human cell lines were investigated. The plant material was extracted with petroleum ether, ethylacetate and butanol, and the obtained products were evaluated in their ability to modify growth of WI38 normal embryonic fibroblasts, and KB cells from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma in tissue culture conditions. The ethylacetate and butanol extracts produced growth rate inhibition with a different pattern depending on the cell line studied; in contrast, the petroleum ether extract markedly increased proliferation of the same cells in vitro. PMID:1819991