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1

Circumstellar habitable zones for deep terrestrial biospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habitable zone (HZ) is conventionally the thin shell of space around a star within which liquid water is thermally stable on the surface of an Earth-like planet (Kasting et al., 1993). However, life on Earth is not restricted to the surface and includes a “deep biosphere” reaching several km in depth. Similarly, subsurface liquid water maintained by internal planetary heat could potentially support life well outside conventional HZs. We introduce a new term,subsurface-habitability zone (SSHZ) to denote the range of distances from a star within which rocky planets are habitable at any depth below their surfaces up to a stipulated maximum, and show how SSHZs can be estimated from a model relating temperature, depth and orbital distance. We present results for Earth-like, Mars-like and selected extrasolar terrestrial planets, and conclude that SSHZs are several times wider and include many more planets than conventional surface-based habitable zones.

McMahon, Sean; O'Malley-James, Jack; Parnell, John

2013-09-01

2

Habitable Zones in the Universe  

E-print Network

Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe.

G. Gonzalez

2005-03-14

3

DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect

Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke [University of Vienna, Institute for Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)] [University of Vienna, Institute for Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-02-20

4

The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.  

PubMed

The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology. PMID:23035897

Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

2012-10-01

5

The Galactic Habitable Zone: Galactic Chemical Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the concept of a “Galactic Habitable Zone” (GHZ). Analogous to the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in the Milky Way where an Earth-like planet can retain liquid water on its surface and provide a long-term habitat for animal-like aerobic life. In this paper we examine the dependence of the GHZ on Galactic chemical evolution.

Guillermo Gonzalez; Donald Brownlee; Peter Ward

2001-01-01

6

The Habitable Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This illustration is an approximate representation of the planets in our solar system and their relation to what scientists call The Habitable Zone. The planet distances from the sun are measured in Astronomical Units (AU) and are not to scale.

2008-03-26

7

Habitable Zones with Stable Orbits for Planets around Binary Systems  

E-print Network

A general formulation to compute habitable zones for binary stars is presented. We extend the simple formulation of the known concept: {\\it circumstellar habitable zone} for single stars, to the case of eccentric stellar binary systems, where two sources of luminosity at different orbital phases contribute to the irradiance of their planetary circumstellar and circumbinary regions. Our approach considers binaries with eccentric orbits and guarantees that orbits in the computed habitable zone remain within it at all orbital phases. We apply this formulation to calculate habitable zones for binary stars of the solar neighborhood with known orbital parameters. Regions of stable, non-intersecting orbits, supported by invariant loops have been determined using the results of Pichardo, et al. 2005 and 2008, together with their habitable zones, are calculated for 51 cases, including some with discovered planets. Formulae and interpolating tables are provided, so the reader can compute the boundaries of the habitable...

Pichardo, L G Jaime L Aguilar B

2014-01-01

8

The Habitable Zone Gallery  

E-print Network

The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

Kane, Stephen R

2012-01-01

9

Habitable zone code (Valle+, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A C computation code that provide in output the distance dm (i for which the duration of habitability is longest, the corresponding duration tm (in Gyr), the width W (in AU) of the zone for which the habitability lasts tm/2, the inner (Ri) and outer (Ro) boundaries of the 4Gyr continuously habitable zone. The code read the input file HZ-input.dat, containing in each row the mass of the host star (range: 0.70-1.10M?), its metallicity (either Z (range: 0.005-0.004) or [Fe/H]), the helium-to-metal enrichment ratio (range: 1-3, standard value = 2), the equilibrium temperature for habitable zone outer boundary computation (range: 169-203K) and the planet Bond Albedo (range: 0.0-1.0, Earth = 0.3). The output is printed on-screen. Compilation: just use your favorite C compiler: gcc hz.c -lm -o HZ (2 data files).

Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

2014-06-01

10

Comparable Habitable Zones of Stars  

NASA Video Gallery

The habitable zone is the distance from a star where one can have liquid water on the surface of a planet. If a planet is too close to its parent star, it will be too hot and water would have evapo...

11

Exomoon Conditions in Circumbinary Habitability Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limits on the potential habitability of exomoons orbiting massive planets within circumbinary habitable zones are examined. Exomoons orbiting planets in the habitable zones of single stars and those orbiting circumbinary planets are subject to the, sometimes intense, tidal heating of the planet. So, exomoon orbits need to be sufficiently large and circular to avoid loss of water like Io. However, moons may be lost if their orbits are too large. We show that, in some cases, massive circumbinary planets have larger Hill radii than similar mass planets in single star habitable zones. The range of semimajor axes, beyond the habitable edge for moons is several times larger in some binaries as compared to single stars and is verified by numerical orbit experiments. We discuss implications of this result in the context of the binary habitability mechanism.

Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, J. I.; Clark, J.; Cuartas-Restrepo, P.

2014-01-01

12

The Habitable Zone Gallery and its Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table, a plot with the period and eccentricity of each of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ, a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits, and orbital movies. Here we discuss various educational and scientific applications of the site such as target selection, exploring planets with eccentric orbits, and investigating habitability.

Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, S. R.

2012-05-01

13

Habitable zone lifetimes of exoplanets around main sequence stars.  

PubMed

The potential habitability of newly discovered exoplanets is initially assessed by determining whether their orbits fall within the circumstellar habitable zone of their star. However, the habitable zone (HZ) is not static in time or space, and its boundaries migrate outward at a rate proportional to the increase in luminosity of a star undergoing stellar evolution, possibly including or excluding planets over the course of the star's main sequence lifetime. We describe the time that a planet spends within the HZ as its "habitable zone lifetime." The HZ lifetime of a planet has strong astrobiological implications and is especially important when considering the evolution of complex life, which is likely to require a longer residence time within the HZ. Here, we present results from a simple model built to investigate the evolution of the "classic" HZ over time, while also providing estimates for the evolution of stellar luminosity over time in order to develop a "hybrid" HZ model. These models return estimates for the HZ lifetimes of Earth and 7 confirmed HZ exoplanets and 27 unconfirmed Kepler candidates. The HZ lifetime for Earth ranges between 6.29 and 7.79×10? years (Gyr). The 7 exoplanets fall in a range between ?1 and 54.72 Gyr, while the 27 Kepler candidate planets' HZ lifetimes range between 0.43 and 18.8 Gyr. Our results show that exoplanet HD 85512b is no longer within the HZ, assuming it has an Earth analog atmosphere. The HZ lifetime should be considered in future models of planetary habitability as setting an upper limit on the lifetime of any potential exoplanetary biosphere, and also for identifying planets of high astrobiological potential for continued observational or modeling campaigns. PMID:24047111

Rushby, Andrew J; Claire, Mark W; Osborn, Hugh; Watson, Andrew J

2013-09-01

14

The Habitability of Our Earth and Other Earths  

E-print Network

zones, circumstellar habitable zones, terrestrial planets, life, abiogenesis Abstract For life), amino acids like those that make up our proteins, and all the other ingredients for life (PizzarelloThe Habitability of Our Earth and Other Earths: Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical

Lineweaver, Charles H.

15

Detection of Exomoons Inside the Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, those most adequate for life to begin and evolve have been sought. Due to observational bias, however, most of the discovered planets so far are gas giants, precluding their habitability. However, if these hot Jupiters are located in the habitable zones of their host stars, and if rocky moons orbit them, then these moons may be habitable. In this work, we present a model for planetary transit simulation considering the presence of moons around a planet. The moon orbit is considered to be circular and coplanar with the planetary orbit. The other physical and orbital parameters of the star, planet, and moon, can be adjusted in each simulation. It is possible to simulate as many successive transits as desired. Since the presence of spots on the surface of the star may produce a signal similar to that of the presence of a moon, our model also allows for the inclusion of starspots. The goal is to determine the criteria for detectability of moons using photometry with the CoRoT and Kepler telescopes taking into account the stellar activity.

Tusnski, Luis Ricardo M.; Valio, Adriana

2014-04-01

16

Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

Vukotic, B.

2012-12-01

17

Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity. Planets orbiting low-mass stars can be very old, due to the longevity of such stars, so they may be rendered sterile to life in this way. However, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf (Teff = 2670 K) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for current habitability.

Van Laerhoven, C.; Barnes, R.; Greenberg, R.

2014-07-01

18

Habitable Zone Dependence on Stellar Parameter Uncertainties  

E-print Network

An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with a HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

Kane, Stephen R

2014-01-01

19

Habitable Zone Dependence on Stellar Parameter Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important property of exoplanetary systems is the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ), defined as that region where water can exist in a liquid state on the surface of a planet with sufficient atmospheric pressure. Both ground- and space-based observations have revealed a plethora of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary candidates, most notably from the Kepler mission using the transit detection technique. Many of these detected planets lie within the predicted HZ of their host star. However, as is the case with the derived properties of the planets themselves, the HZ boundaries depend on how well we understand the host star. Here we quantify the uncertainties of HZ boundaries on the parameter uncertainties of the host star. We examine the distribution of stellar parameter uncertainties from confirmed exoplanet hosts and Kepler candidate hosts and translate these into HZ boundary uncertainties. We apply this to several known systems with an HZ planet to determine the uncertainty in their HZ status.

Kane, Stephen R.

2014-02-01

20

Tectonics and the photosynthetic habitable zone (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zone lies between an inner stellar radius where the surface of the planet becomes too hot for liquid water carbon-based life and on outer radius, where the surface freezes. It is effectively the zone where photosynthesis is feasible. The concept extends to putative life on objects with liquid methane at the surface, like Titan. As a practical matter, photosynthesis leaves detectable biosignatures in the geological record; black shale on the Earth indicates that sulfide and probably FeO based photosynthesis existed by 3.8 Ga. The hard crustal rocks and the mantle sequester numerous photosynthetic biosignatures. Photosynthesis can produce detectable free oxygen with ozone in the atmosphere of extrasolar planets. In contrast, there is no outer limit for subsurface life in large silicate objects. Pre-photosynthetic niches are dependable but meager and not very detectable at great antiquity or great distance, with global productivity less than 1e-3 of the photosynthetic ones. Photosynthetic organisms have bountiful energy that modifies their surface environment and even tectonics. For example, metamorphic rocks formed at the expense of thick black shale are highly radioactive and hence self-fluxing. Active tectonics with volcanism and metamorphism prevents volatiles from being sequestered in the subsurface as on Mars. A heat-pipe object, like a larger Io, differs from the Earth in that the volatiles return to the deep interior distributed within massive volcanic deposits rather than concentrated in the shallow oceanic crust. One the Earth, the return of water to the surface by arc volcanoes controls its mantle abundance at the transition between behaving as a trace element and behaving as a major element that affects melting. The ocean accumulates the water that the mantle and crust do not take. The Earth has the “right” amount of water that erosion/deposition and tectonics both tend to maintain near sea level surfaces. The mantle contains carbon (dioxide) that platform carbonates and the deep continental lithosphere do not take. Weathering and formation of carbonates in the oceanic crust dynamically buffers atmospheric CO2 at habitable levels. N2 is an indirect greenhouse gas in that the total pressure increases the effect of CO2. Photosynthetic life affects the nitrogen cycle as NH4+ replaces K+ in subducted black shale. N2 hence correlates with Ar-40 in volcanic gases. The net effect is that atmospheric pressure and hence the greenhouse effect decrease with time. Continents are in part the result of biological weathering. Their presence allows life to directly affect continental albedo as with “Daisy World” and to indirectly affect albedo as high global temperatures lead to reflective deserts.

Sleep, N. H.

2009-12-01

21

Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars  

E-print Network

Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

2014-01-01

22

NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

23

STABILIZING CLOUD FEEDBACK DRAMATICALLY EXPANDS THE HABITABLE ZONE OF TIDALLY LOCKED PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

The habitable zone (HZ) is the circumstellar region where a planet can sustain surface liquid water. Searching for terrestrial planets in the HZ of nearby stars is the stated goal of ongoing and planned extrasolar planet surveys. Previous estimates of the inner edge of the HZ were based on one-dimensional radiative-convective models. The most serious limitation of these models is the inability to predict cloud behavior. Here we use global climate models with sophisticated cloud schemes to show that due to a stabilizing cloud feedback, tidally locked planets can be habitable at twice the stellar flux found by previous studies. This dramatically expands the HZ and roughly doubles the frequency of habitable planets orbiting red dwarf stars. At high stellar flux, strong convection produces thick water clouds near the substellar location that greatly increase the planetary albedo and reduce surface temperatures. Higher insolation produces stronger substellar convection and therefore higher albedo, making this phenomenon a stabilizing climate feedback. Substellar clouds also effectively block outgoing radiation from the surface, reducing or even completely reversing the thermal emission contrast between dayside and nightside. The presence of substellar water clouds and the resulting clement surface conditions will therefore be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope.

Yang Jun; Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-07-10

24

Stability of inclined orbits of terrestrial planets in habitable zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term stability studies of terrestrial planets moving in the habitable zone (HZ) of a sun-like star, we distinguish four different configurations: (i) planets moving in binary star systems, (ii) the inner type (where the gas giant moves outside the HZ), (iii) the outer type (where the gas giant is closer to the star, than the HZ) and (iv) the

Barbara Funk; Richard Schwarz; Elke Pilat-Lohinger; Áron Süli; Rudolf Dvorak

2009-01-01

25

CANDIDATE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF KEPLER STARS  

SciTech Connect

A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in ''habitable zones'' where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p{sub HZ} that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p{sub HZ}. Sixty-two planets have p{sub HZ} > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone ({eta}{sub Circled-Plus }) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars.

Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-06-20

26

THESIS: the terrestrial habitable-zone exoplanet spectroscopy infrared spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THESIS, the Transiting Habitable-zone Exoplanet Spectroscopy Infrared Spacecraft, is a concept for a medium/Probe class exoplanet mission. Building on the recent Spitzer successes in exoplanet characterization, THESIS would extend these types of measurements to super-Earth-like planets. A strength of the THESIS concept is simplicity, low technical risk, and modest cost. The mission concept has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of conditions on extrasolar worlds and could serve as a stepping stone to more ambitious future missions. We envision this mission as a joint US-European effort with science objectives that resonate with both the traditional astronomy and planetary science communities.

Swain, Mark R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Henning, Thomas; Tinetti, Giovanna; Beaulieu, Jean-Phillippe

2010-07-01

27

Toward the Minimum Inner Edge Distance of the Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone for hot desert worlds can be as close as 0.38 AU around a solar-like star, if the greenhouse effect is reduced (~1% relative humidity) and the surface albedo is increased. We consider a wide range of atmospheric and planetary parameters such as the mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (water vapor and CO2), surface albedo, pressure, and gravity. Intermediate surface pressure (~1-10 bars) is necessary to limit water loss and to simultaneously sustain an active water cycle. We additionally find that the water loss timescale is influenced by the atmospheric CO2 level, because it indirectly influences the stratospheric water mixing ratio. If the CO2 mixing ratio of dry planets at the inner edge is smaller than 10-4, the water loss timescale is ~1 billion years, which is considered here too short for life to evolve. We also show that the expected transmission spectra of hot desert worlds are similar to an Earth-like planet. Therefore, an instrument designed to identify biosignature gases in an Earth-like atmosphere can also identify similarly abundant gases in the atmospheres of dry planets. Our inner edge limit is closer to the host star than previous estimates. As a consequence, the occurrence rate of potentially habitable planets is larger than previously thought.

Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; de Wit, Julien; Stamenkovi?, Vlada

2013-12-01

28

Habitable Zone Super-Earths with Non-Stabilised Spectrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting the small velocity amplitudes (<= 10 m/s) produced by habitable zone rocky planets around M Dwarfs requires radial velocity precisions of a few m s-1. However, an iodine absorption cell, commonly used as a high precision wavelength reference on non-stabilised spectrographs, is not efficient for very red and faint objects like M Dwarfs. Instead, arc lamps have to be used. With the exception of the ultra-stabilised HARPS spectrograph, achieving ~m s-1 calibration with arc lamps has not been possible because typical spectrographs experience drifts of several hundred m s-1 due to local atmospheric changes in pressure and temperature. We outline and present results from an innovative differential wavelength calibration method that enables ~m s-1 precision from non-stabilised, high-resolution spectrographs. This technique allows the detection of rocky planets with radial velocity amplitudes of a few m s-1.

Wright, Duncan J.; Tinney, Christopher G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

2014-04-01

29

ON THE HABITABLE ZONES OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the stellar flux on exoplanetary systems is becoming an increasingly important property as more planets are discovered in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler mission has recently uncovered circumbinary planets with relatively complex HZs due to the combined flux from the binary host stars. Here, we derive HZ boundaries for circumbinary systems and show their dependence on the stellar masses, separation, and time while accounting for binary orbital motion and the orbit of the planet. We include stability regimes for planetary orbits in binary systems with respect to the HZ. These methods are applied to several of the known circumbinary planetary systems such as Kepler-16, 34, 35, and 47. We also quantitatively show the circumstances under which single-star approximations break down for HZ calculations.

Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R., E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-01-01

30

Abiotic oxygen-dominated atmospheres on terrestrial habitable zone planets  

E-print Network

Detection of life on other planets requires identification of biosignatures, i.e., observable planetary properties that robustly indicate the presence of a biosphere. One of the most widely accepted biosignatures for an Earth-like planet is an atmosphere where oxygen is a major constituent. Here we show that lifeless habitable zone terrestrial planets around any star type may develop oxygen-dominated atmospheres as a result of water photolysis, because the cold trap mechanism that protects H2O on Earth is ineffective when the atmospheric inventory of non-condensing gases (e.g., N2, Ar) is low. Hence the spectral features of O2 and O3 alone cannot be regarded as robust signs of extraterrestrial life.

Wordsworth, Robin

2014-01-01

31

The Orbits of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zones of Known Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that terrestrial planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones of 47 Ursae Majoris, ? Eridani, and ? Coronae Borealis, but nowhere in the habitable zones of Gliese 876 and ? Andromedae. The first three systems between them are representative of a large proportion of the 90 or so extrasolar planetary systems discovered by mid-2002,

Barrie W Jones; P. Nick Sleep

32

Assessing circumbinary habitable zones using latitudinal energy balance modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous attempts to describe circumbinary habitable zones (HZs) have been concerned with the spatial extent of the zone, calculated analytically according to the combined radiation field of both stars. By contrast to these `spatial HZs', we present a numerical analysis of the `orbital HZ', an HZ defined as a function of planet orbital elements. This orbital HZ is better equipped to handle (for example) eccentric planet orbits, and is more directly connected to the data returned by exoplanet observations. Producing an orbital HZ requires a large number of climate simulations to be run to investigate the parameter space - we achieve this using latitudinal energy balance models, which handle the insolation of the planet by both stars (including mutual eclipses), as well as the planetary atmosphere's ability to absorb, transfer and lose heat. We present orbital HZs for several known circumbinary planetary systems: Kepler-16, Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-47 and PH-1. Generally, the orbital HZs at zero eccentricity are consistent with spatial HZs derived by other authors, although we detect some signatures of variability that coincide with resonances between the binary and planet orbital periods. We confirm that Earth-like planets around Kepler-47 with Kepler-47c's orbital parameters could possess liquid water, despite current uncertainties regarding its eccentricity. Kepler-16b is found to be outside the HZ, as well as the other circumbinary planets investigated.

Forgan, Duncan

2014-01-01

33

TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE  

E-print Network

We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...

Zsom, Andras

34

The habitable-zone planet finder calibration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design concept of the wavelength calibration system for the Habitable-zone Planet Finder instrument (HPF), a precision radial velocity (RV) spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around M-dwarfs. HPF is a stabilized, fiber-fed, R~50,000 spectrograph operating in the near-infrared (NIR) z/Y/J bands from 0.84 to 1.3 microns. For HPF to achieve 1 m s-1 or better measurement precision, a unique calibration system, stable to several times better precision, will be needed to accurately remove instrumental effects at an unprecedented level in the NIR. The primary wavelength calibration source is a laser frequency comb (LFC), currently in development at NIST Boulder, discussed separately in these proceedings. The LFC will be supplemented by a stabilized single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer reference source and Uranium-Neon lamp. The HPF calibration system will combine several other new technologies developed by the Penn State Optical-Infrared instrumentation group to improve RV measurement precision including a dynamic optical coupling system that significantly reduces modal noise effects. Each component has been thoroughly tested in the laboratory and has demonstrated significant performance gains over previous NIR calibration systems.

Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Terrien, Ryan; Roy, Arpita; Schwab, Christian; Bender, Chad; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Osterman, Steve; Ycas, Gabe; Diddams, Scott

2014-08-01

35

Kepler Mission: Detecting Earth-sized Planets in Habitable Zones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kepler Mission, which is presently in Phase A, is being proposed for launch in 5 years for a 4-year mission to determine the frequency of Earth-sized or larger planets in habitable zones in our galaxy. Kepler will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit to provide stable physical environments for the sensitive scientific instruments. The satellite is equipped with a photometric system with the precision of 10E-5, which should be sufficient for detecting the transits of Earth-sized or larger planets in front of dwarf stars similar to the Sun. Approximately 100,000 or more sun-like stars brighter than the 14th apparently magnitude will be monitored continuously for 4 years in a preselected region of the sky, which is about 100 square degrees in size. In addition, Kepler will have a participating scientist program that will enable research in intrinsic variable stars, interacting binaries including cataclysmic stars and X-ray binaries, and a large number of solar analogs in our galaxy. Several ten thousand additional stars may be investigated in the guest observer program open to the whole world.

Kondo, Yoji; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

36

The Habitable-zone Planet Finder Calibration System  

E-print Network

We present the design concept of the wavelength calibration system for the Habitable-zone Planet Finder instrument (HPF), a precision radial velocity (RV) spectrograph designed to detect terrestrial-mass planets around M-dwarfs. HPF is a stabilized, fiber-fed, R$\\sim$50,000 spectrograph operating in the near-infrared (NIR) z/Y/J bands from 0.84 to 1.3 microns. For HPF to achieve 1 m s$^{-1}$ or better measurement precision, a unique calibration system, stable to several times better precision, will be needed to accurately remove instrumental effects at an unprecedented level in the NIR. The primary wavelength calibration source is a laser frequency comb (LFC), currently in development at NIST Boulder, discussed separately in these proceedings. The LFC will be supplemented by a stabilized single-mode fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer reference source and Uranium-Neon lamp. The HPF calibration system will combine several other new technologies developed by the Penn State Optical-Infrared instrumentation group to...

Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Terrien, Ryan; Roy, Arpita; Schwab, Christian; Bender, Chad; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Osterman, Steve; Ycas, Gabe; Diddams, Scott

2014-01-01

37

HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: NEW ESTIMATES  

SciTech Connect

Identifying terrestrial planets in the habitable zones (HZs) of other stars is one of the primary goals of ongoing radial velocity (RV) and transit exoplanet surveys and proposed future space missions. Most current estimates of the boundaries of the HZ are based on one-dimensional (1D), cloud-free, climate model calculations by Kasting et al. However, this model used band models that were based on older HITRAN and HITEMP line-by-line databases. The inner edge of the HZ in the Kasting et al. model was determined by loss of water, and the outer edge was determined by the maximum greenhouse provided by a CO{sub 2} atmosphere. A conservative estimate for the width of the HZ from this model in our solar system is 0.95-1.67 AU. Here an updated 1D radiative-convective, cloud-free climate model is used to obtain new estimates for HZ widths around F, G, K, and M stars. New H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} absorption coefficients, derived from the HITRAN 2008 and HITEMP 2010 line-by-line databases, are important improvements to the climate model. According to the new model, the water-loss (inner HZ) and maximum greenhouse (outer HZ) limits for our solar system are at 0.99 and 1.70 AU, respectively, suggesting that the present Earth lies near the inner edge. Additional calculations are performed for stars with effective temperatures between 2600 and 7200 K, and the results are presented in parametric form, making them easy to apply to actual stars. The new model indicates that, near the inner edge of the HZ, there is no clear distinction between runaway greenhouse and water-loss limits for stars with T{sub eff} {approx}< 5000 K, which has implications for ongoing planet searches around K and M stars. To assess the potential habitability of extrasolar terrestrial planets, we propose using stellar flux incident on a planet rather than equilibrium temperature. This removes the dependence on planetary (Bond) albedo, which varies depending on the host star's spectral type. We suggest that conservative estimates of the HZ (water-loss and maximum greenhouse limits) should be used for current RV surveys and Kepler mission to obtain a lower limit on {eta}{sub Circled-Plus }, so that future flagship missions like TPF-C and Darwin are not undersized. Our model does not include the radiative effects of clouds; thus, the actual HZ boundaries may extend further in both directions than the estimates just given.

Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Eymet, Vincent [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux 1, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Robinson, Tyler D.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria [NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Mahadevan, Suvrath; Terrien, Ryan C.; Deshpande, Rohit [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2013-03-10

38

TERRESTRIAL, HABITABLE-ZONE EXOPLANET FREQUENCY FROM KEPLER  

SciTech Connect

Data from Kepler's first 136 days of operation are analyzed to determine the distribution of exoplanets with respect to radius, period, and host-star spectral type. The analysis is extrapolated to estimate the percentage of terrestrial, habitable-zone (HZ) exoplanets. The Kepler census is assumed to be complete for bright stars (magnitude <14.0) having transiting planets >0.5 Earth radius and periods <42 days. It is also assumed that the size distribution of planets is independent of orbital period and that there are no hidden biases in the data. Six significant statistical results are found: there is a paucity of small planet detections around faint target stars, probably an instrumental effect; the frequency of mid-size planet detections is independent of whether the host star is bright or faint; there are significantly fewer planets detected with periods <3 days, compared to longer periods, almost certainly an astrophysical effect; the frequency of all planets in the population with periods <42 days is 29%, broken down as terrestrials 9%, ice giants 18%, and gas giants 3%; the population has a planet frequency with respect to period which follows a power-law relation dN/dP {approx} P{sup {beta}-1}, with {beta} {approx_equal} 0.71 {+-} 0.08; and an extrapolation to longer periods gives the frequency of terrestrial planets in the HZs of FGK stars as {eta}{sub Circled-Plus} {approx_equal} (34 {+-} 14)%. Thus about one-third of FGK stars are predicted to have at least one terrestrial, HZ planet.

Traub, Wesley A., E-mail: wtraub@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2012-01-20

39

Habitable Evaporated Cores: Converting Mini-Neptunes into Super- Earths in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low masses and luminosities of M dwarfs make them ideal targets for thedetection of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). However, studies suggest that planets formed only from material in the HZs of these stars are likely to be small and dry (e.g., Raymond et al. 2007). As a result, many of the planets that will be detected in the HZ by upcoming missions are probably the result of migration from beyond the snow line, and may have formed with large H/He envelopes (so-called mini-Neptunes). Here we show that photoevaporation and Roche lobe overflow of these planets can lead to the complete loss of their gaseous envelopes, transforming them into potentially habitable worlds, which we call “habitable evaporated cores”. We couple the planet structure models of Lopez et al. (2012) with a simple Roche lobe overflow scheme and the X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-induced mass loss model of Erkaev et al. (2007). We also couple the orbital effects of anisotropic mass loss with tidal evolution and show that this coupling can lead to orbital changes that significantly enhance the mass loss rate.Habitable evaporated cores are most likely to form from small mini-Neptunes (?4 M?) with large (?50%) initial hydrogen fractions orbiting M4 stars and later. Given the steep decrease in stellar XUV flux with time (Ribas et al. 2005), mass loss is negligible after ~1 Gyr, at which point a habitable evaporated core is capable of degassing and maintaining a secondary atmosphere. This process may be the dominant formation mechanism for habitable planets around M dwarfs, and may be discovered by missions such as TESS and PLATO.

Luger, R.; Barnes, R.; Lopez, E.; Fortney, J.; Jackson, B.; Meadows, V.

2014-03-01

40

Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical and Biological Limits on Planet Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For life forms like us, the most important feature of the Earth is its habitability. Understanding habitability and using that knowledge to locate the nearest habitable planet may be crucial for our survival as a species. Over the past decade, expectations that the universe could be filled with habitable planets have been bolstered by the increasingly large overlap between terrestrial environments known to harbor life and the variety of environments on newly detected rocky exoplanets. The inhabited and uninhabited regions on Earth tell us that temperature and the presence of water are the main constraints that can be used in a habitability classification scheme for rocky planets. Our compilation and review of recent exoplanet detections suggests that the fraction of stars with planets is ~ 100%, and that the fraction with rocky planets may be comparably large. We review extensions to the circumstellar habitable zone including an abiogenesis habitable zone and the galactic habitable zone.

Lineweaver, C.

2014-03-01

41

The Habitability of Our Earth and Other Earths: Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical, and Biological Limits on Planet Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For life-forms like us, the most important feature of Earth is its habitability. Understanding habitability and using that knowledge to locate the nearest habitable planet may be crucial for our survival as a species. During the past decade, expectations that the universe could be filled with habitable planets have been bolstered by the increasingly large overlap between terrestrial environments known to harbor life and the variety of environments on newly detected rocky exoplanets. The inhabited and uninhabited regions on Earth tell us that temperature and the presence of water are the main constraints that can be used in a habitability classification scheme for rocky planets. Our compilation and review of recent exoplanet detections suggests that the fraction of stars with planets is ˜100%, and that the fraction with rocky planets may be comparably large. We review extensions to the circumstellar habitable zone (HZ), including an abiogenesis habitable zone and the galactic habitable zone.

Lineweaver, Charles H.; Chopra, Aditya

2012-05-01

42

INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION  

SciTech Connect

It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2012-09-10

43

EXPLORING THE HABITABLE ZONE FOR KEPLER PLANETARY CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

This Letter outlines a simple approach to evaluate habitability of terrestrial planets by assuming different types of planetary atmospheres and using corresponding model calculations. Our approach can be applied for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches. The resulting uncertainties and changes in the number of planetary candidates in the HZ for the Kepler 2011 February data release are discussed. To first order, the HZ depends on the effective stellar flux distribution in wavelength and time, the planet albedo, and greenhouse gas effects. We provide a simple set of parameters which can be used for evaluating future planet candidates from transit searches.

Kaltenegger, L. [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sasselov, D., E-mail: lkaltene@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-08-01

44

Planets Formed in Habitable Zones of M Dwarf Stars Probably Are Deficient in Volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical considerations, presented herein via analytic scalings and numerical experiments, imply that Earth-mass planets accreting in regions that become habitable zones of M dwarf stars form within several million years. Temperatures in these regions during planetary accretion are higher than those encountered by the material that formed the Earth. Collision velocities during and after the prime accretionary epoch are larger

Jack J. Lissauer

2007-01-01

45

Planets Formed in Habitable Zones of M Dwarf Stars Probably Lack Volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical considerations, presented herein via analytic scalings and numerical experiments, imply that Earth-mass planets accreting in regions that become habitable zones of M dwarf stars form within several million years. Collision velocities during and after the prime accretionary epoch are somewhat larger than for Earth. Temperatures in protoplanetary disks and during the star's pre-main sequence evolution are higher than those

Jack J. Lissauer; E. V. Quintana

2006-01-01

46

The stability of the orbits of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of known exoplanetary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated whether terrestrial planets can exist in orbits in known exoplanetary systems such that life could have emerged on those planets. Four contrasting systems have been examined in which giant planets have been detected. Mixed-variable symplectic numerical integration has been used to investigate the orbits of putative terrestrial planets within the habitable zone of each system (the range

B. W. Jones; P. N. Sleep; J. E. Chambers

2001-01-01

47

The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE)  

E-print Network

We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities ~ 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary circumstellar disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of steering mirror. EXCEDE will...

Guyon, Olivier; Belikov, Ruslan; Tenerelli, Domenick J

2012-01-01

48

TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION AROUND THE CIRCUMBINARY HABITABLE ZONE: INWARD MIGRATION IN THE PLANETESIMAL SWARM  

SciTech Connect

According to the core accretion theory, circumbinary embryos can form only beyond a critical semimajor axis (CSMA). However, due to the relatively high density of solid materials in the inner disk, a significant amount of small planetesimals must exist in the inner zone when embryos form outside this CSMA. Thus, embryo migration induced by the planetesimal swarm is possible after gas disk depletion. Through numerical simulations, we found that (1) the scattering-driven inward migration of embryos is robust and planets can form in the habitable zone if we adopt a mass distribution of an MMSN-like disk; (2) the total mass of the planetesimals in the inner region and continuous embryo-embryo scattering are two key factors that cause significant embryo migrations; and (3) the scattering-driven migration of embryos is a natural water-delivery mechanism. We propose that planet detections should focus on the close binary with its habitable zone near CSMA.

Gong Yanxiang; Zhou Jilin; Xie Jiwei, E-mail: yxgong@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoujl@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-01-20

49

The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows  

E-print Network

The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with "classical" (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the "classical" model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction process...

Spitoni, E; Sozzetti, A

2014-01-01

50

Exomoon Habitability Constrained by Illumination and Tidal Heating  

PubMed Central

Abstract The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets (“exomoons”) has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary “habitable edge.” We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extrasolar planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides. Astrobiology 13, 18–46. PMID:23305357

2013-01-01

51

A dynamical test for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of HD 204313  

E-print Network

With improvements in exoplanet detection techniques, the number of multiple planet systems discovered is increasing, while the detection of potentially habitable Earth-mass planets remains complicated and thus requires new search strategies. Dynamical studies of known multiple planet systems are therefore a vital tool in the search for stable and habitable planet candidates. Here, we present a dynamical study of the three-planet system HD 204313 to determine whether it could harbour an Earth-like planet within its habitable zone for a sufficient time to develop life. We found two semi-stable regions in the system, but neither prove stable for long enough for a terrestrial planet to develop life. Our investigations suggest that overlapping weak and high order resonances may be responsible for these semi-stable regions. This study established a framework for a larger project that will study the dynamical stability of the habitable zone of multiple planet systems, providing a list of interesting targets for futu...

Thilliez, E; Maddison, S T; Horner, J

2014-01-01

52

TRANSIT SURVEYS FOR EARTHS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs and show that it extends from {approx}0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4 to 0.9 M{sub sun}, temperatures less than {approx}10{sup 4} K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be deeply eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, and rotation period, and host star temperatures similar to the Sun. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could place even tighter constraints on the frequency of habitable Earths around white dwarfs. The confirmation and characterization of these planets might be carried out with large ground and space telescopes.

Agol, Eric, E-mail: agol@uw.edu [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2011-04-20

53

Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet—GJ 581g—is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the H? line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for H? modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

2014-07-01

54

ASTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND HABITABLE ZONE OF THE EXOPLANET HOSTING STAR GJ 581  

SciTech Connect

GJ 581 is an M dwarf host of a multiplanet system. We use long-baseline interferometric measurements from the CHARA Array, coupled with trigonometric parallax information, to directly determine its physical radius to be 0.299 {+-} 0.010 R{sub sun}. Literature photometry data are used to perform spectral energy distribution fitting in order to determine GJ 581's effective surface temperature T{sub EFF} = 3498 {+-} 56 K and its luminosity L = 0.01205 {+-} 0.00024 L{sub sun}. From these measurements, we recompute the location and extent of the system's habitable zone and conclude that two of the planets orbiting GJ 581, planets d and g, spend all or part of their orbit within or just on the edge of the habitable zone.

Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Institut de Ciencies de L'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat Ciencies, Torre C5 parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Subasavage, John P. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Mazingue, Jude; Turner, Nils H.; Farrington, Chris; Goldfinger, P. J. [CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ridgway, Stephen, E-mail: kaspar@caltech.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States)

2011-03-10

55

Stellar Activity Masquerading as Planets in the Habitable Zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581  

E-print Network

The M dwarf Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the H-alpha line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130+/-2 days and a correlation for H-alpha modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 sigma), while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g.

Robertson, Paul; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

2014-01-01

56

Validating the First Habitable-Zone Planet Candidates Identified by the NASA Kepler Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the beginning of Cycle 8, the NASA Kepler Mission will have completed two years of science observations, the minimum baseline sufficient to identify candidate transiting exoplanets orbiting within the habitable-zones of Sun-like stars. The principal task that lies ahead is to reject from this sample the false positives (blends of eclipsing binaries that precisely mimic the signal of a transiting exoplanet), and to confirm the planetary nature of the remaining candidates. For planets more massive than Neptune, the direct confirmation of their planetary status can be accomplished by radial-velocity measurements. However, such planets possess primordial envelopes of hydrogen and helium that make them unsuitable to life as we know it. The most exciting candidates -- and the ones that Kepler is specifically tasked with finding -- are super-Earth and Earth-sized planets orbiting within their stellar habitable zones. Kepler has just begun to identify such planet candidates, and it will identify many more as its baseline increases throughout the coming year. While the Kepler team has developed powerful tools to weed out the impostors, Spitzer possesses the unique ability to provide the final validation of these candidates as planets, namely by measuring the depth of the transit at infrared wavelengths. By combining the infrared and optical measurements of the transit depth with models of hypothetical stellar blends, we can definitively test the stellar-blend hypothesis. We propose to observe the transits of 20 candidate habitable-zone super-Earths to be identified by the Kepler Mission. The results from this Exploration Science Program will be twofold: First, we will definitively validate the first potentially habitable planets ever identified. Second, we will determine the rate of occurrence of impostors. This rate of false positives can then be applied to the much larger sample of candidates identified by Kepler, to deduce the true rate of planetary companions.

Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fressin, Francois; Ballard, Sarah; Borucki, William; Latham, David; Gilliland, Ronald; Seager, Sara; Knutson, Heather; Fortney, Jonathan; Brown, Timothy; Ford, Eric; Deming, Drake; Torres, Guillermo

2011-05-01

57

The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with `classical' (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the `classical' model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction processes. In particular, we find that in the Milky Way the maximum number of stars hosting habitable planets is at 8 kpc from the Galactic Centre, and the model with radial flows predicts a number which is 38 per cent larger than what was predicted by the classical model. For Andromeda we find that the maximum number of stars with habitable planets is at 16 kpc from the centre and that in the case of radial flows this number is larger by 10 per cent relative to the stars predicted by the classical model.

Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Sozzetti, A.

2014-05-01

58

THERMAL EVOLUTION AND LIFETIME OF INTRINSIC MAGNETIC FIELDS OF SUPER-EARTHS IN HABITABLE ZONES  

SciTech Connect

We have numerically studied the thermal evolution of different-mass terrestrial planets in habitable zones, focusing on the duration of dynamo activity to generate their intrinsic magnetic fields, which may be one of the key factors in habitability of the planets. In particular, we are concerned with super-Earths, observations of which are rapidly developing. We calculated the evolution of temperature distributions in the planetary interior using Vinet equations of state, the Arrhenius-type formula for mantle viscosity, and the astrophysical mixing-length theory for convective heat transfer modified for mantle convection. After calibrating the model with terrestrial planets in the solar system, we apply it for 0.1-10 M{sub +} rocky planets with a surface temperature of 300 K (in habitable zones) and Earth-like compositions. With the criterion of heat flux at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), the lifetime of the magnetic fields is evaluated from the calculated thermal evolution. We found that the lifetime slowly increases with planetary mass (M{sub p} ), independent of the initial temperature gap at the CMB ({Delta}T{sub CMB}), but beyond the critical value M{sub c,p} ({approx}O(1) M{sub +}) it abruptly declines from the mantle viscosity enhancement due to the pressure effect. We derived M{sub c,p} as a function of {Delta}T{sub CMB} and a rheological parameter (activation volume, V*). Thus, the magnetic field lifetime of super-Earths with M{sub p} >M{sub p,c} sensitively depends on {Delta}T{sub CMB}, which reflects planetary accretion, and V*, which has uncertainty at very high pressure. More advanced high-pressure experiments and first-principle simulation, as well as planetary accretion simulation, are needed to discuss the habitability of super-Earths.

Tachinami, C.; Ida, S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 1528551 (Japan); Senshu, H., E-mail: ctchnm@geo.titech.ac.jp [Planetary Exploration Research Center, Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Chiba 2750016 (Japan)

2011-01-10

59

The Instellation Habitable Zone: Liquid Water Stability on a Single Axis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habitable zone is the region around a star for which liquid water might be stable at the surface of a planet. This is roughly defined as orbital distances greater than those for which runaway greenhouses are triggered or water loss via H escape becomes rapid, yet less than those for which snowball Earth conditions are unavoidable. Both of these limits are inherently tied to surface temperature of the planet. Exoplanet observers have often defined habitable zones based on estimates of the equilibrium temperature for a planet, using that as a proxy for surface. However, the calculation of equilibrium temperature requires knowledge of the planet's albedo, which is usually not known. Furthermore, translating a planet's equilibrium temperature into a surface temperature requires estimations of greenhouse and anti-greenhouse effects that are also unknown. Venus presents both of these problems: it has a much-higher albedo than the value commonly assumed for Earth-like exoplanets, and yet its surface temperature is hundreds of degrees higher than its equilibrium temperature. Without knowledge of the albedo of a planet or the magnitude of the greenhouse effect, equilibrium temperature is an unknown quantity that provides unreliable estimates of the surface temperature of a planet. For these reasons, atmospheric modelers have incorporated the effects of albedo and of greenhouse effects into definitions of the habitable zone. Historically, these definitions have been based on the luminosity of the host star and the semi-major axis of the planet's orbit. This has served the community well, as planets are treated and analyzed on a case-by-base basis. However, the presence of two criteria for habitability (semi-major axis and stellar luminosity) presents an impediment to plotting planets in 2-dimensional diagrams that also include geophysical parameters such as planetary radius, mass, or density. While such plots were not previously warranted for ~Earth-sized planets because very few were known, the large number of ~Earth-sized planets currently being discovered by exoplanet surveys such as NASA's Kepler mission increase the need for a single metric that represents the possibility for liquid water to be stable at the surface of a planet. In this presentation, we propose the use of installation - the amount of energy reaching the top of a planet's atmosphere - as a metric for habitability that can be calculated strictly from measured properties and that also allows for display of "surface water stability" on the same chart as other geophysical parameters. The habitable zone presented here is primarily derived from information on planets in our solar system, including knowledge of the history of those planets. We compare this new definition of the habitable zone to traditional ones, and apply it to the February 2011 release of data from the Kepler data set and the database of confirmed extrasolar planets.

Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

2011-12-01

60

AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Georgakarakos, Nikolaos, E-mail: siegfried.eggl@univie.ac.at, E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at [128 V. Olgas str., Thessaloniki 546 45 (Greece)

2012-06-10

61

A New Paradigm for Habitability in Planetary Systems: the Extremophilic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a thousand exoplanets have been discovered so far. Planetary surface temperature may strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions. We have fed exoplanets from the Encyclopedia database with a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere and plate tectonics. As CO2 is the main agent responsible for the greenhouse effect, its partial pressure has been taken as a free parameter to estimate the surface temperature of some known planets. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets in the Habitable Zone capable of harbour dynamic stability, to retain an atmosphere and to keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Biological data on earthly micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell on the surface of many exoplanets and exomoons. We thus propose an extension of the mainly astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically one, the "Extremophililic Zone", that takes into account other parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms. This contribution comes from an ongoing project developed by a French-Brazilian colaboration in Astrophysics and Biophysics to search for living fingerprints in astrobiologically promising exoplanets.

Janot-Pacheco, E., Bernardes, L., Lage, C. A. S.

2014-03-01

62

GJ 832c: A super-earth in the habitable zone  

E-print Network

We report the detection of GJ 832c, a super-Earth orbiting near the inner edge of the habitable zone of GJ 832, an M dwarf previously known to host a Jupiter analog in a nearly-circular 9.4-year orbit. The combination of precise radial-velocity measurements from three telescopes reveals the presence of a planet with a period of 35.68+/-0.03 days and minimum mass (m sin i) of 5.4+/-1.0 Earth masses. GJ 832c moves on a low-eccentricity orbit (e=0.18+/-0.13) towards the inner edge of the habitable zone. However, given the large mass of the planet, it seems likely that it would possess a massive atmosphere, which may well render the planet inhospitable. Indeed, it is perhaps more likely that GJ 832c is a "super-Venus," featuring significant greenhouse forcing. With an outer giant planet and an interior, potentially rocky planet, the GJ 832 planetary system can be thought of as a miniature version of our own Solar system.

Wittenmyer, R A; Butler, R P; Jones, H R A; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C G; Marshall, J P; Carter, B D; Bailey, J; Salter, G S; O'Toole, S J; Wright, D; Crane, J D; Schectman, S A; Arriagada, P; Thompson, I; Minniti, D; Jenkins, J S; Diaz, M

2014-01-01

63

55 CANCRI: STELLAR ASTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS, A PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE RADIUS OF A TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH  

SciTech Connect

The bright star 55 Cancri is known to host five planets, including a transiting super-Earth. The study presented here yields directly determined values for 55 Cnc's stellar astrophysical parameters based on improved interferometry: R = 0.943 {+-} 0.010 R{sub sun}, T{sub EFF} = 5196 {+-} 24 K. We use isochrone fitting to determine 55 Cnc's age to be 10.2 {+-} 2.5 Gyr, implying a stellar mass of 0.905 {+-} 0.015 M{sub sun}. Our analysis of the location and extent of the system's habitable zone (HZ; 0.67-1.32 AU) shows that planet f, with period {approx}260 days and Msin i = 0.155 M{sub Jupiter}, spends the majority of the duration of its elliptical orbit in the circumstellar HZ. Though planet f is too massive to harbor liquid water on any planetary surface, we elaborate on the potential of alternative low-mass objects in planet f's vicinity: a large moon and a low-mass planet on a dynamically stable orbit within the HZ. Finally, our direct value for 55 Cancri's stellar radius allows for a model-independent calculation of the physical diameter of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e ({approx}2.05 {+-} 0.15 R{sub +}), which, depending on the planetary mass assumed, implies a bulk density of 0.76 {rho}{sub +} or 1.07 {rho}{sub +}.

Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tabetha, S. Boyajian; McAlister, Harold A.; White, Russel [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P. O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Schaefer, Gail; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Farrington, Chris; Goldfinger, P. J. [The CHARA Array, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Van Belle, Gerard T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Raymond, Sean N. [Universite de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France); Lopez-Morales, Mercedes [Institut de Ciencies de L'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat Ciencies, Torre C5 parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ridgway, Stephen T., E-mail: kaspar@caltech.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P. O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States)

2011-10-10

64

Exomoon habitability constrained by illumination and tidal heating.  

PubMed

The detection of moons orbiting extrasolar planets ("exomoons") has now become feasible. Once they are discovered in the circumstellar habitable zone, questions about their habitability will emerge. Exomoons are likely to be tidally locked to their planet and hence experience days much shorter than their orbital period around the star and have seasons, all of which works in favor of habitability. These satellites can receive more illumination per area than their host planets, as the planet reflects stellar light and emits thermal photons. On the contrary, eclipses can significantly alter local climates on exomoons by reducing stellar illumination. In addition to radiative heating, tidal heating can be very large on exomoons, possibly even large enough for sterilization. We identify combinations of physical and orbital parameters for which radiative and tidal heating are strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse. By analogy with the circumstellar habitable zone, these constraints define a circumplanetary "habitable edge." We apply our model to hypothetical moons around the recently discovered exoplanet Kepler-22b and the giant planet candidate KOI211.01 and describe, for the first time, the orbits of habitable exomoons. If either planet hosted a satellite at a distance greater than 10 planetary radii, then this could indicate the presence of a habitable moon. PMID:23305357

Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

2013-01-01

65

Direct imaging of exoplanets in the habitable zone with adaptive optics  

E-print Network

One of the primary goals of exoplanet science is to find and characterize habitable planets, and direct imaging will play a key role in this effort. Though imaging a true Earth analog is likely out of reach from the ground, the coming generation of giant telescopes will find and characterize many planets in and near the habitable zones (HZs) of nearby stars. Radial velocity and transit searches indicate that such planets are common, but imaging them will require achieving extreme contrasts at very small angular separations, posing many challenges for adaptive optics (AO) system design. Giant planets in the HZ may even be within reach with the latest generation of high-contrast imagers for a handful of very nearby stars. Here we will review the definition of the HZ, and the characteristics of detectable planets there. We then review some of the ways that direct imaging in the HZ will be different from the typical exoplanet imaging survey today. Finally, we present preliminary results from our observations of t...

Males, Jared R; Guyon, Olivier; Morzinski, Katie M; Puglisi, Alfio; Hinz, Philip; Follette, Katherine B; Monnier, John D; Tolls, Volker; Rodigas, Timothy J; Weinberger, Alycia; Boss, Alan; Kopon, Derek; Wu, Ya-lin; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Pinna, Enrico

2014-01-01

66

The ultraviolet radiation environment in the habitable zones around low-mass exoplanet host stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EUV (200-911 Å), FUV (912-1750 Å), and NUV (1750-3200 Å) spectral energy distribution of exoplanet host stars has a profound influence on the atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. The stellar EUV radiation drives atmospheric heating, while the FUV (in particular, Ly ?) and NUV radiation fields regulate the atmospheric chemistry: the dissociation of H2O and CO2, the production of O2 and O3, and may determine the ultimate habitability of these worlds. Despite the importance of this information for atmospheric modeling of exoplanetary systems, the EUV/FUV/NUV radiation fields of cool (K and M dwarf) exoplanet host stars are almost completely unconstrained by observation or theory. We present observational results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of M dwarf exoplanet host stars, highlighting the importance of realistic UV radiation fields for the formation of potential biomarker molecules, O2 and O3. We conclude by describing preliminary results on the characterization of the UV time variability of these sources.

France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Parke Loyd, R. O.

2014-11-01

67

Radiative Convective Transfer Calculations for Effective Stellar Fluxes of Habitable and Life Supporting Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent fields of interest in exoplanetary research include studies of potentially habitable planets orbiting stars outside of our Solar System. Habitable Zones (HZs) are currently defined by calculating the inner and the outer limits of the mean distance between exoplanets and their central stars based on effective solar fluxes that allow for maintaining liquid water on the planet's surface. Kasting et al. (1993), Selsis et al. (2007), and recently Kopparapu et al. (2013) provided stellar flux limits for such scenarios. We compute effective solar fluxes for Earth-like planets using Earth-like and other atmospheric scenarios including atmospheres with high level and low level clouds. Furthermore we provide habitability limits for solvents other than water, i.e. limits for the so called Life Supporting Zone, introduced by Leitner et al. (2010). The Life Supporting Zone (LSZ) encompasses many habitable zones based on a variety of liquid solvents. Solvents like ammonia and sulfuric acid have been identified for instance by Leitner et al (2012) as possibly life supporting. Assuming planets on circular orbits, the extent of the individual HZ is then calculated via the following equation, d(i,o) = [L/Lsun*1/S(i,o)]**0.5 au, where L is the star's luminosity, and d(i,o) and S(i,o) are the distances to the central star for the inner and the outer edge and effective insolation for inner and the outer edge of the HZ, respectively. After generating S(i,o) values for a selection of solvents, we provide the means to determine LSZ boundaries for main sequence stars. Effective flux calculations are done using a one dimensional radiative convective model (Neubauer et al. 2011) based on a modified version of the open source radiative transfer software Streamer (Key and Schweiger, 1998). Modifications include convective adjustments, additional gases for absorption and the use of an offline cloud model, which allow us to observe the influence of clouds on effective stellar fluxes. Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., & Reynolds, R.T. 1993, Icar, 101, 108 Key JR, Schweiger AJ (1998) Geosci 24:443-451. Kopparapu, R.J., et al. 2013 ApJ 765, 131 Leitner, J. J., Schwarz, R., Firneis, M. G., Hitzenberger, R., and Neubauer, D., Astrobiology Science Conference 2010, 26-29 April 2010, League City, USA, 2010 Leitner, J.J., Schulze-Makuch, D., Firneis, M.G., Hitzenberger, R., Neubauer, D., 2012 Paleontology Journal 46 (9), 1091 Neubauer, D., Vrtala, A., Leitner, J.J., Firneis, M.G., Hitzenberger, R., 2011 Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 41, 545-552 Selsis, F., Kasting, J.F., Levrard, B., et al. 2007b, A&A, 476, 137

Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eggl, Siegfried; Neubauer, David; Leitner, Johannes; Firneis, Maria; Hitzenberger, Regina

2014-05-01

68

An Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone of a cool star.  

PubMed

The quest for Earth-like planets is a major focus of current exoplanet research. Although planets that are Earth-sized and smaller have been detected, these planets reside in orbits that are too close to their host star to allow liquid water on their surfaces. We present the detection of Kepler-186f, a 1.11 ± 0.14 Earth-radius planet that is the outermost of five planets, all roughly Earth-sized, that transit a 0.47 ± 0.05 solar-radius star. The intensity and spectrum of the star's radiation place Kepler-186f in the stellar habitable zone, implying that if Kepler-186f has an Earth-like atmosphere and water at its surface, then some of this water is likely to be in liquid form. PMID:24744370

Quintana, Elisa V; Barclay, Thomas; Raymond, Sean N; Rowe, Jason F; Bolmont, Emeline; Caldwell, Douglas A; Howell, Steve B; Kane, Stephen R; Huber, Daniel; Crepp, Justin R; Lissauer, Jack J; Ciardi, David R; Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Everett, Mark E; Henze, Christopher E; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Ford, Eric B; Adams, Fred C; Still, Martin; Hunter, Roger C; Quarles, Billy; Selsis, Franck

2014-04-18

69

An Earth-Sized Planet in the Habitable Zone of a Cool Star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for Earth-like planets is a major focus of current exoplanet research. Although planets that are Earth-sized and smaller have been detected, these planets reside in orbits that are too close to their host star to allow liquid water on their surfaces. We present the detection of Kepler-186f, a 1.11 ± 0.14 Earth-radius planet that is the outermost of five planets, all roughly Earth-sized, that transit a 0.47 ± 0.05 solar-radius star. The intensity and spectrum of the star’s radiation place Kepler-186f in the stellar habitable zone, implying that if Kepler-186f has an Earth-like atmosphere and water at its surface, then some of this water is likely to be in liquid form.

Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas; Raymond, Sean N.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bolmont, Emeline; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Howell, Steve B.; Kane, Stephen R.; Huber, Daniel; Crepp, Justin R.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Ciardi, David R.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Everett, Mark E.; Henze, Christopher E.; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Ford, Eric B.; Adams, Fred C.; Still, Martin; Hunter, Roger C.; Quarles, Billy; Selsis, Franck

2014-04-01

70

An Earth-sized Planet in the Habitable Zone of a Cool Star  

E-print Network

The quest for Earth-like planets represents a major focus of current exoplanet research. While planets that are Earth-sized and smaller have been detected, these planets reside in orbits that are too close to their host star to allow liquid water on their surface. We present the detection of Kepler-186f, a 1.11+\\-0.14 Earth radius planet that is the outermost of five planets - all roughly Earth-sized - that transit a 0.47+\\-0.05 Rsun star. The intensity and spectrum of the star's radiation places Kepler-186f in the stellar habitable zone, implying that if Kepler-186f has an Earth-like atmosphere and H2O at its surface, then some of this H2O is likely to be in liquid form.

Quintana, Elisa V; Raymond, Sean N; Rowe, Jason F; Bolmont, Emeline; Caldwell, Douglas A; Howell, Steve B; Kane, Stephen R; Huber, Daniel; Crepp, Justin R; Lissauer, Jack J; Ciardi, David R; Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Everett, Mark E; Henze, Christopher E; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Ford, Eric B; Adams, Fred C; Still, Martin; Hunter, Roger C; Quarles, Billy; Selsis, Franck

2014-01-01

71

CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

2013-11-10

72

Circumstellar chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent theoretical studies of circumstellar chemistry are discussed for both red-giant and protostellar winds. The generalized photochemical model is able to account for the recently discovered silicon-bearing molecules in the prototypical, C-rich, AGB star IRC + 10216. The surprising occurrence of CO in protostellar winds that are largely atomic is interpreted to be the result of the high density and the rapid decrease of the temperature with distance that is expected for such winds.

Glassgold, A. E.; Mamon, G. A.

1991-01-01

73

WISE Detections of Dust in the Habitable Zones of Planet-Bearing Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky release to explore the incidence of warm dust in the habitable zones around exoplanet-host stars. Dust emission at 12 and/or 22 microns (T(sub dust) approx.300 and/or approx.150 K) traces events in the terrestrial planet zones; its existence implies replenishment by evaporation of comets or collisions of asteroids, possibly stirred by larger planets. Of the 591 planetary systems (728 extrasolar planets) in the Exoplanet Encyclopedia as of 2012 January 31, 350 are robustly detected by WISE at > or = 5(sigma) level. We perform detailed photosphere subtraction using tools developed for Spitzer data and visually inspect all the WISE images to confirm bona fide point sources. We find nine planet-bearing stars show dust excess emission at 12 and/or 22 microns at > or = 3(sigma) level around young, main-sequence, or evolved giant stars. Overall, our results yield an excess incidence of approx.2.6% for stars of all evolutionary stages, but approx.1% for planetary debris disks around main-sequence stars. Besides recovering previously known warm systems, we identify one new excess candidate around the young star UScoCTIO 108.

Morales, Farisa Y.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, M. W.; Furlan, E.

2012-01-01

74

A method for coupling dynamical and collisional evolution of dust in circumstellar disks: the effect of a dead zone  

E-print Network

Dust is a major component of protoplanetary and debris disks as it is the main observable signature of planetary formation. However, since dust dynamics is size-dependent (because of gas-drag or radiation pressure) any attempt to understand the full dynamical evolution of circumstellar dusty-disks that neglect the coupling of collisional evolution with dynamical evolution is thwarted because of the feedback between these two processes. Here, a new hybrid lagrangian/eulerian code is presented that overcomes some of these difficulties. The particles representing "dust-clouds" are tracked individually in a lagrangian way. This system is then mapped on an eulerian spatial grid, inside the cells of which the local collisional evolutions are computed. Finally, the system is remapped back in a collection of discrete lagrangian particles keeping constant their number. An application example on dust growth in a turbulent protoplanetary disk at 1 AU is presented. First the growth of dust is considered in the absence of...

Charnoz, S

2012-01-01

75

A Y+J Band Laser Frequency Comb for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) scheduled for deployment to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in late 2015 will extend the radial velocity search for exoplanets into the near infrared by providing a high precision, stabilized near infrared spectrograph spanning the Y+J bands (0.98-1.3?m) with 50,000 resolution. Working in the near infrared will allow the HPF to study cooler, lower mass stars than is possible with the current generation of optical spectrographs. In order to extend the precision of the HPF to lower minimum RV signatures we are proposing to develop a deployable, fully autonomous version of the Y+J band laser frequency comb currently in operation at the NIST Time and Frequency Division in Boulder, Colorado. The Y+J comb is derived from the H band (1.45-1.7?m) comb which was successfully demonstrated at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in 2010. The deployed version will leverage off of existing hardware and demonstrated technology. We present instrument architecture and current performance as well as results of long term stability tests, filter modeling, modal noise reduction results and predicted end-to-end performance.

Osterman, Steve; Ycas, G. G.; Diddams, S. A.; Bender, C. F.; Donaldson, C. L.; Mahadevan, S.; Quinlan, F.; Ramsey, L. W.

2013-01-01

76

Habitable Zones Around Main-Sequence Stars: Dependence on Planetary Mass  

E-print Network

The ongoing discoveries of extrasolar planets are unveiling a wide range of terrestrial mass (size) planets around their host stars. In this letter, we present estimates of habitable zones (HZs) around stars with stellar effective temperatures in the range 2600 K - 7200 K, for planetary masses between 0.1 ME and 5 ME. Assuming H2O (inner HZ) and CO2 (outer HZ) dominated atmospheres, and scaling the background N2 atmospheric pressure with the radius of the planet, our results indicate that larger planets have wider HZs than do smaller ones. Specifically, with the assumption that smaller planets will have less dense atmospheres, the inner edge of the HZ (runaway greenhouse limit) moves outward (~10% lower than Earth flux) for low mass planets due to larger greenhouse effect arising from the increased H2O column depth. For larger planets, the H2O column depth is smaller, and higher temperatures are needed before water vapor completely dominates the outgoing longwave radiation. Hence the inner edge moves inward (...

Kopparapu, Ravi kumar; SchottelKotte, James; Kasting, James F; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Eymet, Vincent

2014-01-01

77

DIRECT IMAGING IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND THE PROBLEM OF ORBITAL MOTION  

SciTech Connect

High contrast imaging searches for exoplanets have been conducted on 2.4-10 m telescopes, typically at H band (1.6 {mu}m) and used exposure times of {approx}1 hr to search for planets with semi-major axes of {approx}> 10 AU. We are beginning to plan for surveys using extreme-AO systems on the next generation of 30 m class telescopes, where we hope to begin probing the habitable zones (HZs) of nearby stars. Here we highlight a heretofore ignorable problem in direct imaging: planets orbit their stars. Under the parameters of current surveys, orbital motion is negligible over the duration of a typical observation. However, this motion is not negligible when using large diameter telescopes to observe at relatively close stellar distances (1-10 pc), over the long exposure times (10-20 hr) necessary for direct detection of older planets in the HZ. We show that this motion will limit our achievable signal-to-noise ratio and degrade observational completeness. Even on current 8 m class telescopes, orbital motion will need to be accounted for in an attempt to detect HZ planets around the nearest Sun-like stars {alpha} Cen A and B, a binary system now known to harbor at least one planet. Here we derive some basic tools for analyzing this problem, and ultimately show that the prospects are good for de-orbiting a series of shorter exposures to correct for orbital motion.

Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Close, Laird M., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-07-01

78

Calculating the Habitable Zones of Multiple Star Systems with a New Interactive Web Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a comprehensive methodology and an interactive Web site for calculating the habitable zone (HZ) of multiple star systems. Using the concept of spectral weight factor, as introduced in our previous studies of the calculations of HZ in and around binary star systems, we calculate the contribution of each star (based on its spectral energy distribution) to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet, and use the models of the HZ of the Sun to determine the boundaries of the HZ in multiple star systems. Our interactive Web site for carrying out these calculations is publicly available at http://astro.twam.info/hz. We discuss the details of our methodology and present its application to some of the multiple star systems detected by the Kepler space telescope. We also present the instructions for using our interactive Web site, and demonstrate its capabilities by calculating the HZ for two interesting analytical solutions of the three-body problem.

Müller, Tobias W. A.; Haghighipour, Nader

2014-02-01

79

Scrambling and modal noise mitigation in the Habitable Zone Planet Finder fiber feed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the baseline fiber feed design for the Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF), a precision radial velocity (RV) spectrograph designed to detect Earth analogs around M-dwarfs. HPF is a stabilized, fiber-fed, R˜50,000 spectrograph operating in the near-infrared (NIR) from 0.82 to 1.3 µm, and will be deployed on the Hobby- Eberly Telescope (HET) in Texas. While the essential function of the optical fibers is to deliver high throughput, this mode of light transport also provides the opportunity to introduce radial and azimuthal scrambling, which boosts instrument stability and thereby RV precision. Based on the unique requirements of HPF on the HET, we present initial tests showing very high scrambling gains via a compact scrambler in conjunction with octagonal fibers. Conversely, the propagation of light through the fibers injects modal noise, which can limit achievable RV precision. Laboratory tests of a custom-built mechanical agitator show significant gains over a static fiber feed. Overall, the fiber feed is designed to provide high relative throughput, excellent scrambling, and reliable modal noise suppression. We will also attempt to minimize focal ratio degradation (FRD) to the extent possible with the chosen configuration. HPF inculcates several other new technologies developed by the Penn State Optical-Infrared instrumentation group, including a rigorous calibration system, which are discussed separately in these proceedings.

Roy, Arpita; Halverson, Samuel; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

2014-07-01

80

Calculating the Habitable Zone of Multiple Star Systems (http://astro.twam.info/hz)  

E-print Network

We have developed a comprehensive methodology and an interactive website for calculating the habitable zone (HZ) of multiple star systems. Using the concept of spectral weight factor, as introduced in our previous studies of the calculations of HZ in and around binary star systems, we calculate the contribution of each star (based on its spectral energy distribution) to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet, and use the models of the HZ of the Sun to determine the boundaries of the HZ in multiple star systems. Our interactive website for carrying out these calculations is publicly available at http://astro.twam.info/hz . We discuss the details of our methodology and present its application to some of the multiple star systems detected by the Kepler space telescope. We also present the instructions for using our interactive website, and demonstrate its capabilities by calculating the HZ for two interesting analytical solutions of the three-body problem.

Mueller, Tobias

2014-01-01

81

CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries ? Cen AB and HD 196886.

Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-11-10

82

Toward detection of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of our closest neighbor: proxima Centauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: The precision of radial velocity (RV) measurements to detect indirectly planetary companions of nearby stars has improved to enable the discovery of extrasolar planets in the Neptune and Super-Earth mass range. Detections of extremely low mass planets, even as small as 1 Earth mass or below, in short-period orbits now appears conceivable in ongoing RV planet searches. Discoveries of these Earth-like planets by means of ground-based RV programs will help to determine the parameter ??, the frequency of potentially habitable planets around other stars. Aims: In search of low-mass planetary companions we monitored Proxima Centauri (M5V) as part of our M dwarf program. In the absence of a significant detection, we use these data to demonstrate the general capability of the RV method in finding terrestrial planets. For late M dwarfs the classic liquid surface water habitable zone (HZ) is located close to the star, in which circumstances the RV method is most effective. We want to demonstrate that late M dwarfs are ideal targets for the search of terrestrial planets with the RV technique. Methods: Using the iodine cell technique we obtained differential RV measurements of Proxima Cen over a time span of 7 years with the UVES spectrograph at the ESO VLT. We determine upper limits to the masses of companions in circular orbits by means of numerical simulations. Results: The RV data of Proxima Cen have a total rms scatter of 3.1~m s-1 and a period search does not reveal any significant signals. In contrast to our earlier results for Barnard's star, the RV results for the active M dwarf Proxima Cen are only weakly correlated with H? line index measurements. As a result of our companion limit calculations, we find that we successfully recover all test signals with RV amplitudes corresponding to planets with m sin i ? 2-3 M_? residing inside the HZ of Proxima Cen with a statistical significance of >99%. Over the same period range, we can recover 50% of the test planets with masses of m sin i ? 1.5-2.5~M_?. Based on our simulations, we exclude the presence of any planet in a circular orbit with m sin i ? 1~M_Neptune at separations of a ? 1 AU. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, programmes 65.L-0428, 66.C-0446, 267.C-5700, 68.C-0415, 69.C-0722, 70.C-0044, 71.C-0498, 072.C-0495, 173.C-0606 and 078.C-0829. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Endl, M.; Kürster, M.

2008-09-01

83

The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities ~ 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary circumstellar disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of < 10E-8 and a 1.2 ?/D IWA or 0.14” with a wavefront control system utilizing a 2000-element MEMS DM and fast steering mirror. EXCEDE will provide 0.12” spatial resolution at 0.4 ?m with dust detection sensitivity to levels of a few tens of zodis with two-band imaging polarimetry. EXCEDE is a science-driven technology pathfinder that will advance our understanding of the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems, placing our solar system in broader astrophysical context, and will demonstrate the high contrast technologies required for larger-scale follow-on and multi-wavelength investigations on the road to finding and characterizing exo-Earths in the years ahead.

Guyon, Olivier; Schneider, Glenn; Belikov, Ruslan; Tenerelli, Domenick J.

2012-09-01

84

Exoplanet detection. Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.  

PubMed

The M dwarf star Gliese 581 is believed to host four planets, including one (GJ 581d) near the habitable zone that could possibly support liquid water on its surface if it is a rocky planet. The detection of another habitable-zone planet--GJ 581g--is disputed, as its significance depends on the eccentricity assumed for d. Analyzing stellar activity using the H? line, we measure a stellar rotation period of 130 ± 2 days and a correlation for H? modulation with radial velocity. Correcting for activity greatly diminishes the signal of GJ 581d (to 1.5 standard deviations) while significantly boosting the signals of the other known super-Earth planets. GJ 581d does not exist, but is an artifact of stellar activity which, when incompletely corrected, causes the false detection of planet g. PMID:24993348

Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Endl, Michael; Roy, Arpita

2014-07-25

85

The Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler (HEK). III. The First Search for an Exomoon around a Habitable-zone Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kepler-22b is the first transiting planet to have been detected in the habitable zone of its host star. At 2.4 R ?, Kepler-22b is too large to be considered an Earth analog, but should the planet host a moon large enough to maintain an atmosphere, then the Kepler-22 system may yet possess a telluric world. Aside from being within the habitable zone, the target is attractive due to the availability of previously measured precise radial velocities and low intrinsic photometric noise, which has also enabled asteroseismology studies of the star. For these reasons, Kepler-22b was selected as a target-of-opportunity by the "Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler" (HEK) project. In this work, we conduct a photodynamical search for an exomoon around Kepler-22b leveraging the transits, radial velocities, and asteroseismology plus several new tools developed by the HEK project to improve exomoon searches. We find no evidence for an exomoon around the planet and exclude moons of mass MS > 0.5 M ? to 95% confidence. By signal injection and blind retrieval, we demonstrate that an Earth-like moon is easily detected for this planet even when the time-correlated noise of the data set is taken into account. We provide updated parameters for the planet Kepler-22b, including a revised mass of MP < 53 M ? to 95% confidence and an eccentricity of 0.13_{-0.13}^{+0.36} by exploiting Single-body Asterodensity Profiling. Finally, we show that Kepler-22b has a >95% probability of being within the empirical habitable zone but a <5% probability of being within the conservative habitable zone. Based on archival data of the Kepler telescope.

Kipping, D. M.; Forgan, D.; Hartman, J.; Nesvorný, D.; Bakos, G. Á.; Schmitt, A.; Buchhave, L.

2013-11-01

86

THE HUNT FOR EXOMOONS WITH KEPLER (HEK). III. THE FIRST SEARCH FOR AN EXOMOON AROUND A HABITABLE-ZONE PLANET  

SciTech Connect

Kepler-22b is the first transiting planet to have been detected in the habitable zone of its host star. At 2.4 R{sub ?}, Kepler-22b is too large to be considered an Earth analog, but should the planet host a moon large enough to maintain an atmosphere, then the Kepler-22 system may yet possess a telluric world. Aside from being within the habitable zone, the target is attractive due to the availability of previously measured precise radial velocities and low intrinsic photometric noise, which has also enabled asteroseismology studies of the star. For these reasons, Kepler-22b was selected as a target-of-opportunity by the 'Hunt for Exomoons with Kepler' (HEK) project. In this work, we conduct a photodynamical search for an exomoon around Kepler-22b leveraging the transits, radial velocities, and asteroseismology plus several new tools developed by the HEK project to improve exomoon searches. We find no evidence for an exomoon around the planet and exclude moons of mass M{sub S} > 0.5 M{sub ?} to 95% confidence. By signal injection and blind retrieval, we demonstrate that an Earth-like moon is easily detected for this planet even when the time-correlated noise of the data set is taken into account. We provide updated parameters for the planet Kepler-22b, including a revised mass of M{sub P} < 53 M{sub ?} to 95% confidence and an eccentricity of 0.13{sub -0.13}{sup +0.36} by exploiting Single-body Asterodensity Profiling. Finally, we show that Kepler-22b has a >95% probability of being within the empirical habitable zone but a <5% probability of being within the conservative habitable zone.

Kipping, D. M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Forgan, D. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hartman, J.; Bakos, G. Á. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Nesvorný, D. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Schmitt, A.; Buchhave, L., E-mail: dkipping@cfa.harvard.edu [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University (Denmark)

2013-11-10

87

WATER-PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, OBSERVABLE FEATURES, AND THE CASE OF KEPLER-62e AND -62f  

SciTech Connect

Planets composed of large quantities of water that reside in the habitable zone are expected to have distinct geophysics and geochemistry of their surfaces and atmospheres. We explore these properties motivated by two key questions: whether such planets could provide habitable conditions and whether they exhibit discernable spectral features that distinguish a water-planet from a rocky Earth-like planet. We show that the recently discovered planets Kepler-62e and -62f are the first viable candidates for habitable zone water-planets. We use these planets as test cases for discussing those differences in detail. We generate atmospheric spectral models and find that potentially habitable water-planets show a distinctive spectral fingerprint in transit depending on their position in the habitable zone.

Kaltenegger, L. [Max Planck Institute of Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute of Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Sasselov, D.; Rugheimer, S., E-mail: kaltenegger@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-01

88

Detection of a Proto-planetary Clump in the Habitable Zone of GM Cephei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GM Cephei is an active T Tauri star in the young open cluster Trumpler 37, showing abrupt UX Orionis type of photometric variability. Its light curves exhibit frequent, sporadic brightening events, each of <0.5 mag and lasting for days, which must have been originated from unsteady circumstellar accretion. In addition, the star undergoes a brightness drop up to ~1 mag lasting for about a month, during which the star became bluer when fainter. Moreover, the brightness drops seem to have a recurrence timescale of about 300 days. It is proposed that the brightness drop arises from obscuration of the central star by an orbiting dust concentration, exemplifying disk inhomogeneity in transition between grain coagulation and planetesimal formation in a young circumstellar disk. GM Cep was found to show a few percent polarization in the optical wavelengths, and an enhanced level of polarization during the occultation phase.

Chen, W. P.; Hu, S. C.-L.

2014-04-01

89

The New Worlds Observer: Direct Detection and Study of Exoplanets from the Habitable Zone Outward  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct detection and spectroscopic study of the planets around the nearby stars is generally recognized as a prime goal of astronomy. The New Worlds Observer mission concept is being studied as an Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study for this purpose. NWO features two spacecraft: a general purpose 4m telescope that operates from the UV to the Near IR, and a starshade, a flower-shaped occulter about 50m in diameter flying in alignment about 70,000km away. Our study shows this is the most effective way to map nearby planetary systems. Images will show dust and debris down to a fraction of our zodiacal light level. Planets fainter than the Earth can be seen from the Habitable Zone outward, at distances up to 20pc. High throughput and low noise enable immediate follow-up spectroscopy of discovered planets. NWO can discover many more Earth-like planets than all competing approaches including astrometric, interferometric, and internal coronagraphic. Within hours of discovery, a high quality spectrum can determine the true nature of the exoplanet and open the search for biomarkers and life. Over half of the time will be spent with the starshade in transit to the next target. During those times the telescope will be available to for general astrophysics purposes. Operating from the ultraviolet to the near infrared, this will be a true HST follow-on. The study shows all needed technologies already exist. The cost scales primarily with telescope size. The mission is definitely within the financial and technical reach of NASA for the coming decade.

Cash, Webster C.; New Worlds Study Team

2009-01-01

90

Kepler Mission: A Mission to Find Earth-size Planets in the Habitable Zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs. It has a 0.95 m aperture and 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10(exp 5) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6 hr transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. An additional 250 stars can be monitored at a cadence of l/minute to do astro-seismology of stars brighter than 11.5 mv. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. When combined with ground-based spectrometric observations of these stars, the positions of the planets relative to the habitable zone can be found. The spectra of the stars are also used to determine the relationships between the characteristics of terrestrial planets and the characteristics of the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will also be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of Earth-size planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ are very rare and that life might also be quite rare.

Borucki, W. J.

2003-01-01

91

Observations of Interstellar Formamide: Availability of a Prebiotic Precursor in the Galactic Habitable Zone  

PubMed Central

Abstract We conducted a study on interstellar formamide, NH2CHO, toward star-forming regions of dense molecular clouds, using the telescopes of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The Kitt Peak 12?m antenna and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) were used to measure multiple rotational transitions of this molecule between 100 and 250?GHz. Four new sources of formamide were found [W51M, M17 SW, G34.3, and DR21(OH)], and complementary data were obtained toward Orion-KL, W3(OH), and NGC 7538. From these observations, column densities for formamide were determined to be in the range of 1.1×1012 to 9.1×1013 cm?2, with rotational temperatures of 70–177?K. The molecule is thus present in warm gas, with abundances relative to H2 of 1×10?11 to 1×10?10. It appears to be a common constituent of star-forming regions that foster planetary systems within the galactic habitable zone, with abundances comparable to that found in comet Hale-Bopp. Formamide's presence in comets and molecular clouds suggests that the compound could have been brought to Earth by exogenous delivery, perhaps with an infall flux as high as ?0.1?mol/km2/yr or 0.18?mmol/m2 in a single impact. Formamide has recently been proposed as a single-carbon, prebiotic source of nucleobases and nucleic acids. This study suggests that a sufficient amount of NH2CHO could have been available for such chemistry. Key Words: Formamide—Astrobiology—Radioastronomy—ISM—Comets—Meteorites. Astrobiology 13, 439–453. PMID:23654214

Adande, Gilles R.; Woolf, Neville J.

2013-01-01

92

Planet formation bursts at the borders of the dead zone in 2D numerical simulations of circumstellar disks  

E-print Network

As accretion in protoplanetary disks is enabled by turbulent viscosity, the border between active and inactive (dead) zones constitutes a location where there is an abrupt change in the accretion flow. The gas accumulation that ensues triggers the Rossby wave instability, that in turn saturates into anticyclonic vortices. It was suggested that the trapping of solids within them leads to a burst of planet formation on very short timescales. We perform two-dimensional global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a non-magnetized thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil Code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm, solving for the particles' gravitational interaction by a particle-mesh method. The dead zone is modeled as a region of low viscosity. Adiabatic and locally isothermal equations of state are used. We find that the Rossby wave instability is triggered under a variety of conditions, thus making vortex formation a robust process. Inside the vortices, fast accumulation...

Lyra, W; Zsom, A; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

2009-01-01

93

Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons  

E-print Network

The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the c...

Heller, René; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

2014-01-01

94

Extreme Water Loss and Abiotic O$_2$ Buildup On Planets Throughout the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs  

E-print Network

We show that terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs older than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr could have been in runaway greenhouses for several hundred Myr following their formation due to the star's extended pre-main sequence phase, provided they form with abundant surface water. Such prolonged runaway greenhouses can lead to planetary evolution divergent from that of Earth. During this early runaway phase, photolysis of water vapor and hydrogen/oxygen escape to space can lead to the loss of several Earth oceans of water from planets throughout the habitable zone, regardless of whether the escape is energy-limited or diffusion-limited. We find that the amount of water lost scales with the planet mass, since the diffusion-limited hydrogen escape flux is proportional to the planet surface gravity. In addition to undergoing potential desiccation, planets with inefficient oxygen sinks at the surface may build up hundreds to thousands of bars of abiotically produced O$_2$, resulting in potential false positives fo...

Luger, Rodrigo

2014-01-01

95

Evolution of the habitable zone of low-mass stars. Detailed stellar models and analytical relationships for different masses and chemical compositions  

E-print Network

We study the temporal evolution of the habitable zone (HZ) of low-mass stars - only due to stellar evolution - and evaluate the related uncertainties. These uncertainties are then compared with those due to the adoption of different climate models. We computed stellar evolutionary tracks from the pre-main sequence phase to the helium flash at the red-giant branch tip for stars with masses in the range [0.70 - 1.10] Msun, metallicity Z in the range [0.005 - 0.04], and various initial helium contents. We evaluated several characteristics of the HZ, such as the distance from the host star at which the habitability is longest, the duration of this habitability, the width of the zone for which the habitability lasts one half of the maximum, and the boundaries of the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) for which the habitability lasts at least 4 Gyr. We developed analytical models, accurate to the percent level or lower, which allowed to obtain these characteristics in dependence on the mass and the chemical composit...

Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

2014-01-01

96

The Loss of Nitrogen-rich Atmospheres from Earth-like Exoplanets within M-star Habitable Zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the first discovery of massive Earth-like exoplanets around M-type dwarf stars, the search for exoplanets which resemble more an Earth analogue continues. The discoveries of super-Earth planets pose questions on habitability and the possible origin of life on such planets. Future exoplanet space projects designed to characterize the atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets will also search for atmospheric species which are considered as bio-markers (e.g. O3, H2O, CH4, etc.). By using the Earth with its atmosphere as a proxy and in agreement with the classical habitable zone concept, one should expect that Earth-like exoplanets suitable for life as we know it should have a nitrogen atmosphere and a very low CO2 content. Whether a water bearing terrestrial planet within its habitable zone can evolve into a habitable world similar than the Earth, depends on the capability of its water-inventory and atmosphere to survive the period of high radiation of the young and/or active host star. Depending on their size and mass, lower mass stars remain at high X-ray and EUV (XUV) activity levels for hundreds of Ma's to Ga's. XUV flux values which are 10 or 20 times higher than that of the present Sun can heat the thermosphere and expand the exobase of N2-rich Earth-like exoplanets to altitudes well above their expected magnetopause distances. This results in magnetically non-protected upper atmospheres and high non-thermal escape rates. We studied this plasma induced N+ ion pick up escape and applied a numerical test-particle stellar wind plasma - exosphere interaction model. Our results indicate that Earth-analogue exoplanets with atmosphere compositions similar to that of present Earth will lose their nitrogen inventories if they are exposed over a sufficient period of time to XUV fluxes ? 10 times that of the present Sun. Because most M-type stars are active in XUV radiation we suggest that these planets will undergo a different atmospheric evolution than the Earth so that life as we know it may not evolve on their surfaces.

Lammer, H.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kulikov, Y. N.; Griessmeier, J.

2011-12-01

97

The EXoplanetary Circumstellar Disk Environments and Disk Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE), selected by NASA for technology development and maturation. EXCEDE will study the formation, evolution and architectures of exoplanetary systems, and characterize circumstellar environments into stellar habitable zones. EXCEDE provides contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities 1000x greater than HST or JWST coronagraphs at a much smaller effective inner working angle (IWA), thus enabling the exploration and characterization of exoplanetary CS disks in currently inaccessible domains. EXCEDE will utilize a laboratory demonstrated high-performance Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraph (PIAA-C) integrated with a 70 cm diameter unobscured aperture visible light telescope. The EXCEDE PIAA-C will deliver star-to-disk augmented image contrasts of < 10E-8 and a 1.2 lambda/D IWA of 0.14” with a wavefront control system utilizing a 64x64 element MEMS DM and fast steering mirror. EXCEDE will provide 144 mas spatial resolution at 0.4 microns with dust detection sensitivity to levels of a few tens of zodis with two-band imaging polarimetry. EXCEDE is a science-driven technology pathfinder that will advance our understanding of the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems, placing our solar system in broader astrophysical context, and will demonstrate the high contrast technologies required for larger-scale follow-on and multi-wavelength investigations on the road to finding and characterizing exo-Earths in the years ahead.

Schneider, Glenn; Guyon, O.; Science Mission, EXCEDE; Technology Team

2012-01-01

98

Strong Dependence of the Inner Edge of the Habitable Zone on Planetary Rotation Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary rotation rate is a key parameter in determining atmospheric circulation and hence the spatial pattern of clouds. Since clouds can exert a dominant control on planetary radiation balance, rotation rate could be critical for determining the mean planetary climate. Here we investigate this idea using a three-dimensional general circulation model with a sophisticated cloud scheme. We find that slowly rotating planets (like Venus) can maintain an Earth-like climate at nearly twice the stellar flux as rapidly rotating planets (like Earth). This suggests that many exoplanets previously believed to be too hot may actually be habitable, depending on their rotation rate. The explanation for this behavior is that slowly rotating planets have a weak Coriolis force and long daytime illumination, which promotes strong convergence and convection in the substellar region. This produces a large area of optically thick clouds, which greatly increases the planetary albedo. In contrast, on rapidly rotating planets a much narrower belt of clouds form in the deep tropics, leading to a relatively low albedo. A particularly striking example of the importance of rotation rate suggested by our simulations is that a planet with modern Earth's atmosphere, in Venus' orbit, and with modern Venus' (slow) rotation rate would be habitable. This would imply that if Venus went through a runaway greenhouse, it had a higher rotation rate at that time.

Yang, Jun; Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Abbot, Dorian S.

2014-05-01

99

Ultraviolet environment on planets in the habitable zone of F, G, K and M main sequence stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet radiation received by a planet is important not only for its possible effects on living organisms but because it drives the atmospheric chemistry. Given a constant production of a biogenic compound (e.g. methane, nitrous oxide) on a planet, the concentration of that compound in the planetary atmosphere will mostly depend on the chemistry driven by the ultraviolet radiation. This is relevant for the characterization of habitable planets using planned missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder (NASA) and Darwin (ESA). We performed a series of simulations using a photochemical 1-D model coupled to a radiative/convective 1-D model for planetary Earth-like atmospheres in the habitable zones of F, G (Sun), K, and M main sequence stars. Ultraviolet fluxes on the planetary surfaces and the steady state concentrations of some biogenic compounds were calculated (Segura et al. Astrobiology, 2003, 2005). Another set of experiments used a photochemical 1-D model to calculate the abiotic production of oxygen (O2 ) and ozone (O3 ) in planets with CO2 -N2 atmospheres (Segura et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2007). The results of these simulations will be discussed in the context of the surface ultraviolet environment for living organism and the possible detection of signatures of life from planets around F, G, K and M stars.

Segura, Antígona; Kasting, James; Scalo, John; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, David; Cohen, Martin

100

Whitewashed ground or real clouds? Explicit representation of the radiative properties of clouds brings the outer edge of the habitable zone inward and cools the early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the work of Kasting (1984) it has been customary to omit clouds from climate models addressing the habitable zone and early Earth climate and to balance the planetary energy budget with a high surface albedo. We compare models with explicit clouds to Kasting's whitewashed surface. We show that the whitewashed surface leads to a systematic bias in the calculated

C. Goldblatt; K. J. Zahnle

2009-01-01

101

Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) Activity of Low Mass M Stars as An Important Factor for The Habitability of Terrestrial Exoplanets. II. CME-Induced Ion Pick Up of Earth-like Exoplanets in Close-In Habitable Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric erosion of CO2 -rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for

Helmut Lammer; Herbert I. M. Lichtenegger; Yuri N. Kulikov; Jean-Mathias Grießmeier; N. Terada; Nikolai V. Erkaev; Helfried K. Biernat; Maxim L. Khodachenko; Ignasi Ribas; Thomas Penz; Franck Selsis

2007-01-01

102

Diagnosing Circumstellar Debris Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical model of a circumstellar debris disk is developed and applied to observations of the circumstellar dust orbiting ? Pictoris. The model accounts for the rates at which dust is produced by collisions among unseen planetesimals, and the rate at which dust grains are destroyed due to collisions. The model also accounts for the effects of radiation pressure, which is the dominant perturbation on the disk's smaller but abundant dust grains. Solving the resulting system of rate equations then provides the dust abundances versus grain size and dust abundances over time. Those solutions also provide the dust grains' collisional lifetime versus grain size, and the debris disk's optical depth and surface brightness versus distance from the star. Comparison to observations then yields estimates of the unseen planetesimal disk's radius, and the rate at which the disk sheds mass due to planetesimal grinding. The model can also be used to measure or else constrain the dust grain's physical and optical properties, such as the dust grains' strength, their light-scattering asymmetry parameter, and the grains' efficiency of light scattering Qs . The model is then applied to optical observations of the edge-on dust disk orbiting ? Pictoris, and good agreement is achieved when the unseen planetesimal disk is broad, with 75 <~ r <~ 150 AU. If it is assumed that the dust grains are bright like Saturn's icy rings (Qs = 0.7), then the cross section of dust in the disk is Ad ~= 2 × 1020 km2 and its mass is Md ~= 11 lunar masses. In this case, the planetesimal disk's dust-production rate is quite heavy, \\dot{M}_d˜ 9 M ? Myr-1, implying that there is or was a substantial amount of planetesimal mass there, at least 110 Earth masses. If the dust grains are darker than assumed, then the planetesimal disk's mass-loss rate and its total mass are heavier. In fact, the apparent dearth of any major planets in this region, plus the planetesimal disk's heavy mass-loss rate, suggests that the 75 <~ r < 150 AU zone at ? Pic might be a region of planetesimal destruction, rather than a site of ongoing planet formation.

Hahn, Joseph M.

2010-08-01

103

The Effect of Planets Beyond the Ice Line on the Accretion of Volatiles by Habitable-zone Rocky Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of planet formation have shown that giant planets have a large impact on the number, masses, and orbits of terrestrial planets that form. In addition, they play an important role in delivering volatiles from material that formed exterior to the snow line (the region in the disk beyond which water ice can condense) to the inner region of the disk where terrestrial planets can maintain liquid water on their surfaces. We present simulations of the late stages of terrestrial planet formation from a disk of protoplanets around a solar-type star and we include a massive planet (from 1 M ? to 1 M J) in Jupiter's orbit at ~5.2 AU in all but one set of simulations. Two initial disk models are examined with the same mass distribution and total initial water content, but with different distributions of water content. We compare the accretion rates and final water mass fraction of the planets that form. Remarkably, all of the planets that formed in our simulations without giant planets were water-rich, showing that giant planet companions are not required to deliver volatiles to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. In contrast, an outer planet at least several times the mass of Earth may be needed to clear distant regions of debris truncating the epoch of frequent large impacts. Observations of exoplanets from radial velocity surveys suggest that outer Jupiter-like planets may be scarce, therefore, the results presented here suggest that there may be more habitable planets residing in our galaxy than previously thought.

Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.

2014-05-01

104

A Campaign for the Detection of Earth-Mass Planets in the Habitable Zone of Alpha Centauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the possible formation and orbital stability of Earth-mass or super Earth-mass planets around either of the stars Alpha Centauri A or B and describe a program at Mt John University Observatory using the Doppler method that aims to detect such planets. From New Zealand, we are able to observe the Alpha Centauri system year-round. This is critical in order to acquire data of sufficient quantity and phase coverage to detect the orbit of a terrestrial-mass planet in the habitable zone. Our observations are being made at high resolution (R = 70,000) and high signal-to-noise with the Hercules vacuum echelle spectrograph attached to the 1-m McLellan telescope by a 25-m long optical fibre and using an iodine cell. We discuss the velocity precision and instrumental stability required for success and outline the progress of the observations so far. At present we are collecting about 10,000 observations of each star, A and B, per year with a typical precision of 2.5 m/s per observation.

Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Endl, Michael; Bergmann, Christoph; Hearnshaw, John; Barnes, Stuart I.; Wright, Duncan

2014-04-01

105

The habitable-zone planet finder: a stabilized fiber-fed NIR spectrograph for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the scientific motivation and conceptual design for the recently funded Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF), a stabilized fiber-fed near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph for the 10 meter class Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) that will be capable of discovering low mass planets around M dwarfs. The HPF will cover the NIR Y and J bands to enable precise radial velocities to be obtained on mid M dwarfs, and enable the detection of low mass planets around these stars. The conceptual design is comprised of a cryostat cooled to 200K, a dual fiber-feed with a science and calibration fiber, a gold coated mosaic echelle grating, and a Teledyne Hawaii-2RG (H2RG) *NIR detector with a 1.7?m cutoff. A uranium-neon hollow-cathode lamp is the baseline wavelength calibration source, and we are actively testing laser frequency combs to enable even higher radial velocity precision. We will present the overall instrument system design and integration with the HET, and discuss major system challenges, key choices, and ongoing research and development projects to mitigate risk. We also discuss the ongoing process of target selection for the HPF survey.

Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad; Terrien, Ryan; Wright, Jason T.; Halverson, Sam; Hearty, Fred; Nelson, Matt; Burton, Adam; Redman, Stephen; Osterman, Steven; Diddams, Scott; Kasting, James; Endl, Michael; Deshpande, Rohit

2012-09-01

106

The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. I. Very low-mass planets around HD 20794, HD 85512, and HD 192310  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. In 2009 we started an intense radial-velocity monitoring of a few nearby, slowly-rotating and quiet solar-type stars within the dedicated HARPS-Upgrade GTO program. Aims: The goal of this campaign is to gather very-precise radial-velocity data with high cadence and continuity to detect tiny signatures of very-low-mass stars that are potentially present in the habitable zone of their parent stars.

F. Pepe; C. Lovis; D. Ségransan; W. Benz; F. Bouchy; X. Dumusque; M. Mayor; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos; S. Udry

2011-01-01

107

The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES. A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radial velocity (RV) measurements of our sample of 40 M dwarfs from our planet search programme with VLT+UVES begun in 2000. Although with our RV precision down to 2-2.5 m\\/s and timebase line of up to 7 years, we are capable of finding planets of a few Earth masses in the close-in habitable zones of M dwarfs, there

M. Zechmeister; M. Kürster; M. Endl

2009-01-01

108

Circumstellar Dust Created by Terrestrial Planet Formation in HD 113766  

E-print Network

We present an analysis of the gas-poor circumstellar material in the HD 113766 binary system (F3/F5, 10 - 16 Myr), recently observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. For our study we have used the infrared mineralogical model derived from observations of the Deep Impact experiment. We find the dust dominated by warm, fine (~1 um) particles, abundant in Mg-rich olivine, crystalline pyroxenes, amorphous silicates, Fe-rich sulfides, amorphous carbon, and colder water-ice. The warm dust material mix is akin to an inner main belt asteroid of S-type composition. The ~440 K effective temperature of the warm dust implies that the bulk of the observed material is in a narrow belt ~1.8 AU from the 4.4 L_solar central source, in the terrestrial planet-forming region and habitable zone of the system (equivalent to 0.9 AU in the solar system). The icy dust lies in 2 belts, located at 4-9 AU and at 30 - 80 AU. The lower bound of warm dust mass in 0.1 - 20 um, dn/da ~ a^-3.5 particles is very large, at least 3 x 10^20 kg, equivalent to a 320 km radius asteroid of 2.5 g cm^-3 density. Assuming 10m largest particles present, the lower bound of warm dust mass is at least 0.5 M_Mars The dust around HD 113766A originates from catastrophic disruption of terrestrial planet embryo(s) and subsequent grinding of the fragments, or from collisions in a young, extremely dense asteroid belt undergoing aggregation. The persistence of the strong IR excess over the last two decades argues for a mechanism to provide replenishment of the circumstellar material on yearly timescales.

C. M. Lisse; C. H. Chen; M. C. Wyatt; A. Morlok

2007-10-03

109

A REVISED ESTIMATE OF THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES AROUND KEPLER M-DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

Because of their large numbers, low-mass stars may be the most abundant planet hosts in our Galaxy. Furthermore, terrestrial planets in the habitable zones (HZs) around M-dwarfs can potentially be characterized in the near future and hence may be the first such planets to be studied. Recently, Dressing and Charbonneau used Kepler data and calculated the frequency of terrestrial planets in the HZ of cool stars to be 0.15{sup +0.13}{sub -0.06} per star for Earth-size planets (0.5-1.4 R{sub Circled-Plus }). However, this estimate was derived using the Kasting et al. HZ limits, which were not valid for stars with effective temperatures lower than 3700 K. Here we update their result using new HZ limits from Kopparapu et al. for stars with effective temperatures between 2600 K and 7200 K, which includes the cool M stars in the Kepler target list. The new HZ boundaries increase the number of planet candidates in the HZ. Assuming Earth-size planets as 0.5-1.4 R{sub Circled-Plus }, when we reanalyze their results, we obtain a terrestrial planet frequency of 0.48{sup +0.12}{sub -0.24} and 0.53{sup +0.08}{sub -0.17} planets per M-dwarf star for conservative and optimistic limits of the HZ boundaries, respectively. Assuming Earth-size planets as 0.5-2 R{sub Circled-Plus }, the frequency increases to 0.51{sup +0.10}{sub -0.20} per star for the conservative estimate and to 0.61{sup +0.07}{sub -0.15} per star for the optimistic estimate. Within uncertainties, our optimistic estimates are in agreement with a similar optimistic estimate from the radial velocity survey of M-dwarfs (0.41{sup +0.54}{sub -0.13}). So, the potential for finding Earth-like planets around M stars may be higher than previously reported.

Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2013-04-10

110

Embryos grown in the dead zone: Assembling the first protoplanetary cores in low mass self-gravitating circumstellar disks of gas and solids  

E-print Network

In the borders of the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, the inflow of gas produces a local density maximum that triggers the Rossby wave instability. The vortices that form are efficient in trapping solids. We aim to assess the possibility of gravitational collapse of the solids within the Rossby vortices. We perform global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a low mass non-magnetized self-gravitating thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm. The dead zone is modeled as a region of low viscosity. The Rossby vortices excited in the edges of the dead zone are very efficient particle traps. Within 5 orbits after their appearance, the solids achieve critical density and undergo gravitational collapse into Mars sized objects. The velocity dispersions are of the order of 10 m/s for newly formed embryos, later lowering to less than 1 m/s by drag force cooling. After 200 orbits, 38 gravitationally bound embryos were formed inside the vortices, half of them being more massive than Mars. The embryos are composed primarily of same-sized particles. We conclude that the presence of a dead zone naturally gives rise to a population of protoplanetary cores in the mass range of 0.1-0.6 Earth masses, on very short timescales.

W. Lyra; A. Johansen; H. Klahr; N. Piskunov

2008-07-16

111

PLANET HUNTERS. V. A CONFIRMED JUPITER-SIZE PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND 42 PLANET CANDIDATES FROM THE KEPLER ARCHIVE DATA  

SciTech Connect

We report the latest Planet Hunter results, including PH2 b, a Jupiter-size (R{sub PL} = 10.12 ± 0.56 R{sub ?}) planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. PH2 b was elevated from candidate status when a series of false-positive tests yielded a 99.9% confidence level that transit events detected around the star KIC 12735740 had a planetary origin. Planet Hunter volunteers have also discovered 42 new planet candidates in the Kepler public archive data, of which 33 have at least 3 transits recorded. Most of these transit candidates have orbital periods longer than 100 days and 20 are potentially located in the habitable zones of their host stars. Nine candidates were detected with only two transit events and the prospective periods are longer than 400 days. The photometric models suggest that these objects have radii that range between those of Neptune and Jupiter. These detections nearly double the number of gas-giant planet candidates orbiting at habitable-zone distances. We conducted spectroscopic observations for nine of the brighter targets to improve the stellar parameters and we obtained adaptive optics imaging for four of the stars to search for blended background or foreground stars that could confuse our photometric modeling. We present an iterative analysis method to derive the stellar and planet properties and uncertainties by combining the available spectroscopic parameters, stellar evolution models, and transiting light curve parameters, weighted by the measurement errors. Planet Hunters is a citizen science project that crowd sources the assessment of NASA Kepler light curves. The discovery of these 43 planet candidates demonstrates the success of citizen scientists at identifying planet candidates, even in longer period orbits with only two or three transit events.

Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Barclay, Thomas [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Schwamb, Megan E. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Jek, Kian J.; Hoekstra, Abe J.; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; LaCourse, Daryll; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael; Lynn, Stuart [Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Schawinski, Kevin, E-mail: ji.wang@yale.edu [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

2013-10-10

112

Embryos grown in the dead zone: Assembling the first protoplanetary cores in low mass self-gravitating circumstellar disks of gas and solids  

E-print Network

In the borders of the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, the inflow of gas produces a local density maximum that triggers the Rossby wave instability. The vortices that form are efficient in trapping solids. We aim to assess the possibility of gravitational collapse of the solids within the Rossby vortices. We perform global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a low mass non-magnetized self-gravitating thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm. The dead zone is modelled as a region of low viscosity. The Rossby vortices excited in the edges of the dead zone are very efficient particle traps. Within 5 orbits after their appearance, the solids achieve critical density and undergo gravitational collapse into Mars sized objects. The velocity dispersions are of the order of 10 m/s for newly formed embryos, later lowering to less than 1 m/s by drag force cooling. After 200 orbits, 38 gravitationally bound embryos were formed inside t...

Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

2008-01-01

113

Stability of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zone of Gl 777 A, HD 72659, Gl 614, 47 Uma and HD 4208  

E-print Network

We have undertaken a thorough dynamical investigation of five extrasolar planetary systems using extensive numerical experiments. The systems Gl 777 A, HD 72659, Gl 614, 47 Uma and HD 4208 were examined concerning the question of whether they could host terrestrial like planets in their habitable zones (=HZ). First we investigated the mean motion resonances between fictitious terrestrial planets and the existing gas giants in these five extrasolar systems. Then a fine grid of initial conditions for a potential terrestrial planet within the HZ was chosen for each system, from which the stability of orbits was then assessed by direct integrations over a time interval of 1 million years. The computations were carried out using a Lie-series integration method with an adaptive step size control. This integration method achieves machine precision accuracy in a highly efficient and robust way, requiring no special adjustments when the orbits have large eccentricities. The stability of orbits was examined with a determination of the Renyi entropy, estimated from recurrence plots, and with a more straight forward method based on the maximum eccentricity achieved by the planet over the 1 million year integration. Additionally, the eccentricity is an indication of the habitability of a terrestrial planet in the HZ; any value of e>0.2 produces a significant temperature difference on a planet's surface between apoapse and periapse. The results for possible stable orbits for terrestrial planets in habitable zones for the five systems are summarized as follows: for Gl 777 A nearly the entire HZ is stable, for 47 Uma, HD 72659 and HD 4208 terrestrial planets can survive for a sufficiently long time, while for Gl 614 our results exclude terrestrial planets moving in stable orbits within the HZ.

N. Asghari; C. Broeg; L. Carone; R. Casas-Miranda; J. C. Castro Palacio; I. Csillik; R. Dvorak; F. Freistetter; G. Hadjivantsides; H. Hussmann; A. Khramova; M. Khristoforova; I. Khromova; I. Kitiashivilli; S. Kozlowski; T. Laakso; T. Laczkowski; D. Lytvinenko; O. Miloni; R. Morishima; A. Moro-Martin; V. Paksyutov; A. Pal; V. Patidar; B. Pecnik; O. Peles; J. Pyo; T. Quinn; A. Rodriguez; C. Romano; E. Saikia; J. Stadel; M. Thiel; N. Todorovic; D. Veras; E. Vieira Neto; J. Vilagi; W. von Bloh; R. Zechner; E. Zhuchkova

2004-03-05

114

Suppression of the water ice and snow albedo feedback on planets orbiting red dwarf stars and the subsequent widening of the habitable zone.  

PubMed

M stars comprise 80% of main sequence stars, so their planetary systems provide the best chance for finding habitable planets, that is, those with surface liquid water. We have modeled the broadband albedo or reflectivity of water ice and snow for simulated planetary surfaces orbiting two observed red dwarf stars (or M stars), using spectrally resolved data of Earth's cryosphere. The gradual reduction of the albedos of snow and ice at wavelengths greater than 1 ?m, combined with M stars emitting a significant fraction of their radiation at these same longer wavelengths, means that the albedos of ice and snow on planets orbiting M stars are much lower than their values on Earth. Our results imply that the ice/snow albedo climate feedback is significantly weaker for planets orbiting M stars than for planets orbiting G-type stars such as the Sun. In addition, planets with significant ice and snow cover will have significantly higher surface temperatures for a given stellar flux if the spectral variation of cryospheric albedo is considered, which in turn implies that the outer edge of the habitable zone around M stars may be 10-30% farther away from the parent star than previously thought. PMID:22181553

Joshi, Manoj M; Haberle, Robert M

2012-01-01

115

Kepler-62: a five-planet system with planets of 1.4 and 1.6 Earth radii in the habitable zone.  

PubMed

We present the detection of five planets--Kepler-62b, c, d, e, and f--of size 1.31, 0.54, 1.95, 1.61 and 1.41 Earth radii (R?), orbiting a K2V star at periods of 5.7, 12.4, 18.2, 122.4, and 267.3 days, respectively. The outermost planets, Kepler-62e and -62f, are super-Earth-size (1.25 R? < planet radius ? 2.0 R?) planets in the habitable zone of their host star, respectively receiving 1.2 ± 0.2 times and 0.41 ± 0.05 times the solar flux at Earth's orbit. Theoretical models of Kepler-62e and -62f for a stellar age of ~7 billion years suggest that both planets could be solid, either with a rocky composition or composed of mostly solid water in their bulk. PMID:23599262

Borucki, William J; Agol, Eric; Fressin, Francois; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Rowe, Jason; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra; Batalha, Natalie; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Fabrycky, Daniel; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bryson, Stephen T; Barclay, Thomas; Bastien, Fabienne; Boss, Alan; Brugamyer, Erik; Buchhave, Lars A; Burke, Chris; Caldwell, Douglas A; Carter, Josh; Charbonneau, David; Crepp, Justin R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Christiansen, Jessie L; Ciardi, David; Cochran, William D; DeVore, Edna; Doyle, Laurance; Dupree, Andrea K; Endl, Michael; Everett, Mark E; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gould, Alan; Haas, Michael; Henze, Christopher; Howard, Andrew W; Howell, Steve B; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M; Kjeldsen, Hans; Kolbl, Rea; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Latham, David W; Lee, Brian L; Lopez, Eric; Mullally, Fergal; Orosz, Jerome A; Prsa, Andrej; Quintana, Elisa V; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Sasselov, Dimitar; Seader, Shawn; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E; Torres, Guillermo; Twicken, Joseph D; Welsh, William F; Winn, Joshua N

2013-05-01

116

Interstellar and circumstellar fullerenes  

E-print Network

Fullerenes are a particularly stable class of carbon molecules in the shape of a hollow sphere or ellipsoid that might be formed in the outflows of carbon stars. Once injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), these stable species survive and are thus likely to be widespread in the Galaxy where they contribute to interstellar extinction, heating processes, and complex chemical reactions. In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent C70) have been detected in a wide variety of circumstellar and interstellar environments showing that when conditions are favourable, fullerenes are formed efficiently. Fullerenes are the first and only large aromatics firmly identified in space. The detection of fullerenes is thus crucial to provide clues as to the key chemical pathways leading to the formation of large complex organic molecules in space, and offers a great diagnostic tool to describe the environment in which they reside. Since fullerenes share many physical properties with PAHs, understand...

Bernard-Salas, J; Jones, A P; Peeters, E; Micelotta, E R; Otsuka, M; Sloan, G C; Kemper, F; Groenewegen, M

2014-01-01

117

Confirmation of Circumstellar Phosphine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphine (PH3) was tentatively identified a few years ago in the carbon star envelopes IRC +10216 and CRL 2688 from observations of an emission line at 266.9 GHz attributable to the J = 1-0 rotational transition. We report the detection of the J = 2-1 rotational transition of PH3 in IRC +10216 using the HIFI instrument on board Herschel, which definitively confirms the identification of PH3. Radiative transfer calculations indicate that infrared pumping in excited vibrational states plays an important role in the excitation of PH3 in the envelope of IRC +10216, and that the observed lines are consistent with phosphine being formed anywhere between the star and 100 R * from the star, with an abundance of 10-8 relative to H2. The detection of PH3 challenges chemical models, none of which offer a satisfactory formation scenario. Although PH3 holds just 2% of the total available phosphorus in IRC +10216, it is, together with HCP, one of the major gas phase carriers of phosphorus in the inner circumstellar layers, suggesting that it could also be an important phosphorus species in other astronomical environments. This is the first unambiguous detection of PH3 outside the solar system, and is a further step toward a better understanding of the chemistry of phosphorus in space.

Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Teyssier, D.

2014-08-01

118

Circumstellar dust emission models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient Klambda the scattering coefficient olambda, the albedo wlambda, and the average cosine of the scattering phase function glambda between 0.0912 micrometers and 1000 micrometers for four interstellar medium grain models. These grain models are used in a radiation transfer code to calculate the properties of dust shells surrounding a newly formed O star. For each shell model a distribution of 25 grain sizes and two compositions were used in our calculations. The spectral type of the central star (O6 ZAMS), the geometry (shell), and circumstellar density distribution (constant) are the same in all models, so that different model predictions result entirely from differences in grain properties. For each grain type the models predict the emergent spectral energy distribution with wavelength, the optical depth with wavelength, and the mean dust temperature with distance from the central star. In addition, we find the emitted envelope flux (total flux minus the direct stellar contribution) included within an angular radius theta for several wavelengths between 2.2 micrometers and 100 micrometers. It is found that large differences in the emitted spectrum can occur when grains with different optical constants and size distributions are used.

Wolfire, Mark G.; Churchwell, Ed

1994-06-01

119

Circumstellar dust emission models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient K(sub lambda) the scattering coefficient o(sub lambda), the albedo w(sub lambda), and the average cosine of the scattering phase function g(sub lambda) between 0.0912 micrometers and 1000 micrometers for four interstellar medium grain models. These grain models are used in a radiation transfer code to calculate the properties of dust shells surrounding a newly formed O star. For each shell model a distribution of 25 grain sizes and two compositions were used in our calculations. The spectral type of the central star (O6 ZAMS), the geometry (shell), and circumstellar density distribution (constant) are the same in all models, so that different model predictions result entirely from differences in grain properties. For each grain type the models predict the emergent spectral energy distribution with wavelength, the optical depth with wavelength, and the mean dust temperature with distance from the central star. In addition, we find the emitted envelope flux (total flux minus the direct stellar contribution) included within an angular radius theta for several wavelengths between 2.2 micrometers and 100 micrometers. It is found that large differences in the emitted spectrum can occur when grains with different optical constants and size distributions are used.

Wolfire, Mark G.; Churchwell, ED

1994-01-01

120

Interstellar and Circumstellar Fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fullerenes are a particularly stable class of carbon molecules in the shape of a hollow sphere or ellipsoid that might be formed in the outflows of carbon stars. Once injected into the interstellar medium (ISM), these stable species survive and are thus likely to be widespread in the Galaxy where they contribute to interstellar extinction, heating processes, and complex chemical reactions. In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent C70 ) have been detected in a wide variety of circumstellar and interstellar environments showing that when conditions are favourable, fullerenes are formed efficiently. Fullerenes are the first and only large aromatics firmly identified in space. The detection of fullerenes is thus crucial to provide clues as to the key chemical pathways leading to the formation of large complex organic molecules in space, and offers a great diagnostic tool to describe the environment in which they reside. Since fullerenes share many physical properties with PAHs, understanding how fullerenes form, evolve and respond to their physical environment will yield important insights into one of the largest reservoirs of organic material in space. In spite of all these detections, many questions remain about precisely which members of the fullerene family are present in space, how they form and evolve, and what their excitation mechanism is. We present here an overview of what we know from astronomical observations of fullerenes in these different environments, and discuss current thinking about the excitation process. We highlight the various formation mechanisms that have been proposed, discuss the physical conditions conducive to the formation and/or detection of fullerenes in carbon stars, and their possible connection to PAHs, HACs and other dust features.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Cami, J.; Jones, A.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E.; Otsuka, M.; Sloan, G. C.; Kemper, C.; Groenewegen, M.

121

Exoplanets, extremophiles and habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of the average surface temperature and CO2 partial atmospheric pressure of already discovered exoplanets supposed to be in their Habitable Zone of their stars were surveyed from the Exoplanet Encyclopedia database. Moreover, since planetary surface temperature strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions, we have been feeding exoplanetary data into a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere to get better estimations. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets capable of harbour dynamic stability and to retain atmospheric layers and keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Collected information on biological data of micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell in many of them. We thus propose an extension of the more astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically "Extremophile Zone", taking into account other refined parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms.

Janot Pacheco, E.; Bernardes, L.

2012-09-01

122

Coronal mass ejection (CME) activity of low mass M stars as an important factor for the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets. II. CME-induced ion pick up of Earth-like exoplanets in close-in habitable zones.  

PubMed

Atmospheric erosion of CO2-rich Earth-size exoplanets due to coronal mass ejection (CME)-induced ion pick up within close-in habitable zones of active M-type dwarf stars is investigated. Since M stars are active at the X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) wave-lengths over long periods of time, we have applied a thermal balance model at various XUV flux input values for simulating the thermospheric heating by photodissociation and ionization processes due to exothermic chemical reactions and cooling by the CO2 infrared radiation in the 15 microm band. Our study shows that intense XUV radiation of active M stars results in atmospheric expansion and extended exospheres. Using thermospheric neutral and ion densities calculated for various XUV fluxes, we applied a numerical test particle model for simulation of atmospheric ion pick up loss from an extended exosphere arising from its interaction with expected minimum and maximum CME plasma flows. Our results indicate that the Earth-like exoplanets that have no, or weak, magnetic moments may lose tens to hundreds of bars of atmospheric pressure, or even their whole atmospheres due to the CME-induced O ion pick up at orbital distances

Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Kulikov, Yuri N; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Terada, N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Biernat, Helfried K; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Ribas, Ignasi; Penz, Thomas; Selsis, Franck

2007-02-01

123

Submillimeter observations of circumstellar dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five late-type stars with circumstellar envelopes were observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on 1988 February 7-8. The stars IK Tauri, Alpha Orionis, VY Canis Majoris, CW Leonis, and RW Leonis Minoris were observed in the 450, 800, and 1100 micron wavebands. These data were combined with existing measurements at shorter wavelengths for each star. The combined data were fitted to a circumstellar-dust-shell model based on the computer code by Leung (1975). Derived parameters, including mass-loss rates, are presented for the observed stars.

Marshall, Caroline R.; Leahy, Denis A.; Kwok, Sun

1992-06-01

124

Circumstellar disks and planetary formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks are the the cradle of planetary systems. They are found around a large number of intermediate- and low-mass stellar objects in star forming regions and young clusters. Their study can provide important clues about the timescales and physical conditions for planet formation. In this paper, I review some properties of circumstellar disks that come from the analysis of multi-wavelength observational data, and that are important in the context of planet formation. In addition, I also present the first evidences of planetary formation within the so-called transitional disks.

Huélamo, N.

2013-05-01

125

Habitable Trinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new concept of a habitable environment in the search for life beyond Earth that goes beyond the follow-the-water paradigm, newly named Habitable Trinity. Habitable Trinity is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life to satisfy (1) formation of membrane, (2) metabolism, and (3) self-replication as we know it. A habitable planet, which has largely been defined as having an adequate climate, a sufficient atmosphere, and the presence of liquid water on its surface, is insufficient to meet the requirements to bear life. Also, material circulation driven by the Sun must be maintained with Habitable Trinity to continue the supply of elements necessary to sustain organic radical reactions that is the basis of life. The Sun is the major engine that links the three components primarily through hydrological cycling, including weathering, erosion, and transport of nutrient-enriched landmass materials to the ocean via far-reaching river systems. Habitable Trinity can be applied to other planets and moons to discuss the presence of extraterrestrial life. Mars is considered to be the best target to test the hypothesis of whether life exists elsewhere in our solar system, as it records an ancient Habitable Trinity (i.e., lakes and oceans which interacted with a landmass (cratered southern highlands) and an atmosphere). Other terrestrial planets, as well as satellites of the gaseous giants such as Europa and Titan, have little chance to harbor life as we know it because they lack Habitable Trinity. Going beyond 'the-follow-the-water-approach', the Habitable-Trinity concept provides an index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies beyond our solar system as the reconnaissance systems become increasingly autonomous and at higher resolution, affording greater perspective during this golden age of international and interdisciplinary exploration and discovery.

Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.

2013-12-01

126

Habitability in Binary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress towards understanding factors that contribute to habitability on planets in binary systems is summarized. In wide binaries, habitable zones (HZ) may contain so called S-type planets, a planet orbiting one of the stellar components. For most stable planetary orbits the HZ is dominated by the star being orbited, especially if it is the more luminous star. In circumbinary, P-type planets, UV may be reduced and planetary magnetic protection may be significantly enhanced, for orbital periods greater than 20 days, due to the rapid synchronization of the stellar rotation with the binary orbit. We suggest that estimates of the number of planets capable of sustaining complex life should include a significant number of potentially habitable circumbinary planets.

Mason, Paul A.; Clark, J.; Cuartas, P. A.; Zuluaga, J. I.; Bustamante, S.

2013-06-01

127

Kepler-22b: A 2.4 EARTH-RADIUS PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE OF A SUN-LIKE STAR  

SciTech Connect

A search of the time-series photometry from NASA's Kepler spacecraft reveals a transiting planet candidate orbiting the 11th magnitude G5 dwarf KIC 10593626 with a period of 290 days. The characteristics of the host star are well constrained by high-resolution spectroscopy combined with an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry, leading to an estimated mass and radius of 0.970 {+-} 0.060 M{sub Sun} and 0.979 {+-} 0.020 R{sub Sun }. The depth of 492 {+-} 10 ppm for the three observed transits yields a radius of 2.38 {+-} 0.13 Re for the planet. The system passes a battery of tests for false positives, including reconnaissance spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and centroid motion. A full BLENDER analysis provides further validation of the planet interpretation by showing that contamination of the target by an eclipsing system would rarely mimic the observed shape of the transits. The final validation of the planet is provided by 16 radial velocities (RVs) obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on Keck I over a one-year span. Although the velocities do not lead to a reliable orbit and mass determination, they are able to constrain the mass to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 124 M{sub Circled-Plus }, safely in the regime of planetary masses, thus earning the designation Kepler-22b. The radiative equilibrium temperature is 262 K for a planet in Kepler-22b's orbit. Although there is no evidence that Kepler-22b is a rocky planet, it is the first confirmed planet with a measured radius to orbit in the habitable zone of any star other than the Sun.

Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Batalha, Natalie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, 95192 (United States); Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas A.; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon M. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Geary, John C.; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Cochran, William D. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gautier, Thomas N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA, 91109 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gould, Alan [Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W., E-mail: William.J.Borucki@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

2012-02-01

128

Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. Historically, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, 'Dune' planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus-1.78, runaway greenhouse-1.04, moist greenhouse-1.01, maximum greenhouse-0.35, early Mars-0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late-K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5.

Kasting, J. F.; Kopparapu, R.; Ramirez, R. M.; Harman, C. E.

2014-09-01

129

On the stability of possible Trojan planets in the habitable zone: an application to the systems HD 147513 and HD 210277  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in the 1:1 mean-motion resonance with a gas giant moving in the habitable zone (HZ). We investigate the stability of Trojan planets both in a general study and for two specific known extrasolar planetary systems (HD 147513 and HD 210277). In the general study, we determine the stability of the Lagrangian point L4. The numerical simulations have been carried out using the spatial elliptic-restricted three-body problem, where we placed the test particles (TPs) exactly at L4, which is located 60° ahead of the gas giant at the same distance to the star. In the stability study, we have concentrated on the dependences between the eccentricity and the inclination of the Trojan planet. Going a step further, we have investigated two specific systems where the known gas giant moves in the HZ. The two specific extrasolar systems are investigated by using the general study to define the region in eccentricity and inclination where, in principle, stable motion is possible. To find out whether the existence of a Trojan planet is possible, in addition we have calculated the stable area in the semimajor axis (aTP) and the argument of perihelion (?TP) for an actual planetary mass (2 M?). Thus, we can conclude that the region around the Lagrangian points L4 and L5 allows stable motion in the system HD 147513, because the gas giant of this system has an eccentricity of 0.26, which lies well within the stable region. The known planet in the system HD 210277 has a much higher eccentricity and thus it cannot harbour any terrestrial planets in the Lagrangian points.

Funk, B.; Schwarz, R.; Süli, Á.; Érdi, B.

2012-07-01

130

Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars  

PubMed Central

The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet’s atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, “Dune” planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, Seff, the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus—1.78; runaway greenhouse—1.04; moist greenhouse—1.01; maximum greenhouse—0.35; and early Mars—0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4–0.5. PMID:24277805

Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M.; Harman, Chester E.

2014-01-01

131

A PLANETARY SYSTEM AROUND THE NEARBY M DWARF GJ 667C WITH AT LEAST ONE SUPER-EARTH IN ITS HABITABLE ZONE  

SciTech Connect

We re-analyze 4 years of HARPS spectra of the nearby M1.5 dwarf GJ 667C available through the European Southern Observatory public archive. The new radial velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new data analysis technique that derives the Doppler measurement and other instrumental effects using a least-squares approach. Combining these new 143 measurements with 41 additional RVs from the Magellan/Planet Finder Spectrograph and Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer spectrometers reveals three additional signals beyond the previously reported 7.2 day candidate, with periods of 28 days, 75 days, and a secular trend consistent with the presence of a gas giant (period {approx}10 years). The 28 day signal implies a planet candidate with a minimum mass of 4.5 M{sub Circled-Plus} orbiting well within the canonical definition of the star's liquid water habitable zone (HZ), that is, the region around the star at which an Earth-like planet could sustain liquid water on its surface. Still, the ultimate water supporting capability of this candidate depends on properties that are unknown such as its albedo, atmospheric composition, and interior dynamics. The 75 day signal is less certain, being significantly affected by aliasing interactions among a potential 91 day signal, and the likely rotation period of the star at 105 days detected in two activity indices. GJ 667C is the common proper motion companion to the GJ 667AB binary, which is metal-poor compared to the Sun. The presence of a super-Earth in the HZ of a metal-poor M dwarf in a triple star system supports the evidence that such worlds should be ubiquitous in the Galaxy.

Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Arriagada, Pamela; Minniti, Dante [Department of Astronomy, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Monoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Carter, Brad D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350 (Australia); Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); O'Toole, Simon J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping 1710 (Australia); Jones, Hugh R. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Jenkins, James S., E-mail: anglada@dtm.ciw.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

2012-05-20

132

A Planetary System around the nearby M Dwarf GJ 667C with At Least One Super-Earth in Its Habitable Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We re-analyze 4 years of HARPS spectra of the nearby M1.5 dwarf GJ 667C available through the European Southern Observatory public archive. The new radial velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new data analysis technique that derives the Doppler measurement and other instrumental effects using a least-squares approach. Combining these new 143 measurements with 41 additional RVs from the Magellan/Planet Finder Spectrograph and Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer spectrometers reveals three additional signals beyond the previously reported 7.2 day candidate, with periods of 28 days, 75 days, and a secular trend consistent with the presence of a gas giant (period ~10 years). The 28 day signal implies a planet candidate with a minimum mass of 4.5 M ? orbiting well within the canonical definition of the star's liquid water habitable zone (HZ), that is, the region around the star at which an Earth-like planet could sustain liquid water on its surface. Still, the ultimate water supporting capability of this candidate depends on properties that are unknown such as its albedo, atmospheric composition, and interior dynamics. The 75 day signal is less certain, being significantly affected by aliasing interactions among a potential 91 day signal, and the likely rotation period of the star at 105 days detected in two activity indices. GJ 667C is the common proper motion companion to the GJ 667AB binary, which is metal-poor compared to the Sun. The presence of a super-Earth in the HZ of a metal-poor M dwarf in a triple star system supports the evidence that such worlds should be ubiquitous in the Galaxy.

Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Arriagada, Pamela; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Thompson, Ian B.; Minniti, Dante; Haghighipour, Nader; Carter, Brad D.; Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Jenkins, James S.

2012-05-01

133

Remote life-detection criteria, habitable zone boundaries, and the frequency of Earth-like planets around M and late K stars.  

PubMed

The habitable zone (HZ) around a star is typically defined as the region where a rocky planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. That definition is appropriate, because this allows for the possibility that carbon-based, photosynthetic life exists on the planet in sufficient abundance to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that might be remotely detected. Exactly what conditions are needed, however, to maintain liquid water remains a topic for debate. In the past, modelers have restricted themselves to water-rich planets with CO2 and H2O as the only important greenhouse gases. More recently, some researchers have suggested broadening the definition to include arid, "Dune" planets on the inner edge and planets with captured H2 atmospheres on the outer edge, thereby greatly increasing the HZ width. Such planets could exist, but we demonstrate that an inner edge limit of 0.59 AU or less is physically unrealistic. We further argue that conservative HZ definitions should be used for designing future space-based telescopes, but that optimistic definitions may be useful in interpreting the data from such missions. In terms of effective solar flux, S(eff), the recently recalculated HZ boundaries are: recent Venus--1.78; runaway greenhouse--1.04; moist greenhouse--1.01; maximum greenhouse--0.35; and early Mars--0.32. Based on a combination of different HZ definitions, the frequency of potentially Earth-like planets around late K and M stars observed by Kepler is in the range of 0.4-0.5. PMID:24277805

Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravikumar; Ramirez, Ramses M; Harman, Chester E

2014-09-01

134

The effects of circumstellar gas on terrestrial planet formation: Theory and observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the evolution of circumstellar material from dust and gas to fully-formed planets has taken dramatic steps forward in the last decade, driven by rapid improvements in our ability to study gas- and dust-rich disks around young stars and the discovery of more than 200 extra-solar planetary systems around other stars. In addition, our ability to model the formation of both terrestrial and giant planets has improved significantly due to new computing techniques and the continued exponential increase in computing power. In this dissertation I expand on existing theories of terrestrial planet formation to include systems similar to those currently being detected around nearby stars, and I develop new observational techniques to probe the chemistry of gas-rich circumstellar disks where such planetary systems may be forming. One of the most significant characteristics of observed extrasolar planetary systems is the presence of giant planets located much closer to their parent star than was thought to be possible. The presence of "Hot Jupiters", Jovian-mass planets with very short orbital periods detected around nearby main sequence stars, has been proposed to be primarily due to the inward migration of planets formed in orbits initially much further from the parent star. Close-in giant planets are thought to have formed in the cold outer regions of planetary systems and migrated inward, passing through the orbital parameter space occupied by the terrestrial planets in our own Solar System; the migration of these planets would have profound effects on the evolution of inner terrestrial planets in these systems. I first explore this scenario with numerical simulations showing that a significant fraction of terrestrial planets could survive the migration process; damping forces could then eventually re-circularize the orbits at distances relatively close to their original positions. Calculations suggest that the final orbits of a significant fraction of the remaining planets would be located in the Habitable Zone, suggesting that planetary systems with close-in giant planets are viable targets for searches for Earth-like habitable planets around other stars. I then present more realistic dynamical simulations of the effects of a migrating giant planet on a disk of protoplanetary material embedded in a gaseous disk, and the subsequent post-scattering evolution of the planetary system. I numerically investigate the dynamics of several types of post-migration planetary systems over 200 million years: a model with a single migrating giant planet, a model with one migrating and one nonmigrating giant planet, and a model excluding the effects of the gas disk. Material that is shepherded in front of the migrating giant planet by moving mean motion resonances accretes into "hot Earths", but survival of these bodies is strongly dependent on dynamical damping. Furthermore, a significant amount of material scattered outward by the giant planet survives in highly excited orbits; the orbits of these scattered bodies are then damped by gas drag and dynamical friction over the remaining accretion time. In all simulations Earth-mass planets accrete on approximately 100 Myr timescales, often with orbits in the Habitable Zone. These planets range in mass and water content, with both quantities increasing with the presence of a gas disk and decreasing with the presence of an outer giant planet. I use scaling arguments and previous results to derive a simple recipe that constrains which giant planet systems are able to form and harbor Earth-like planets in the Habitable Zone, demonstrating that roughly one third of the known planetary systems are potentially habitable. Finally, I present results from a search for new molecular tracers of warm gas in circumstellar disks using the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck II telescope. I have detected emission from multiple ro-vibrational transitions in the v = 1--0 band of hydroxyl (OH) located in the inner circumstellar regions of two Herbig Ae stars, AB Aurigae and MWC 7

Mandell, Avram M.

135

Cosmological aspects of planetary habitability  

E-print Network

The habitable zone (HZ) is defined as the region around a star where a planet can support liquid water on its surface, which, together with an oxygen atmosphere, is presumed to be necessary (and sufficient) to develop and sustain life on the planet. Currently, about twenty potentially habitable planets are listed. The most intriguing question driving all these studies is whether planets within habitable zones host extraterrestrial life. It is implicitly assumed that a planet in the habitable zone bears biota. However along with the two usual indicators of habitability, an oxygen atmosphere and liquid water on the surface, an additional one -- the age --- has to be taken into account when the question of the existence of life (or even a simple biota) on a planet is addressed. The importance of planetary age for the existence of life as we know it follows from the fact that the primary process, the photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones. Therefore on...

Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

2014-01-01

136

Exoplanet Habitability: Effects of Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the 'habitable zone'. TVJ acknowledges government support at JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. NM acknowledges support from Yale University. JIL was supported by the JWST Project through NASA. O.M. acknowledges support from CNES.

Johnson, Torrence; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

2014-05-01

137

Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability  

E-print Network

With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

2014-01-01

138

Habitability of Brown Dwarf Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time during which the temperature of a terrestrial-like planet remains in the liquid water range during the fading of its parent brown dwarf is calculated as a function of brown dwarf mass and planetary semimajor axis using recent models for brown dwarf evolution and two criteria for habitable zone width. Durations of habitability range from 0.5--2 Gyr at a

Andrey Andreeshchev; John Scalo

2004-01-01

139

Microbial habitability of the Hadean Earth during the late heavybombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the thermal state and habitability of Hadean Earth during the late heavy bombardment using several thermal models of the lithosphere. Our analysis shows that there is no plausible scenario in which the habitable zone was fully sterilized.

Oleg Abramov; Stephen J. Mojzsis

2009-01-01

140

Constraints on the Habitability of Extrasolar Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detections of massive extrasolar moons are shown feasible with the Kepler space telescope. Kepler's findings of about 50 exoplanets in the stellar habitable zone naturally make us wonder about the habitability of their hypothetical moons. Illumination from the planet, eclipses, tidal heating, and tidal locking distinguish remote characterization of exomoons from that of exoplanets. We show how evaluation of an exomoon's habitability is possible based on the parameters accessible by current and near-future technology.

Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

2014-04-01

141

Habitable exoplanets statistics in the Milky Way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an exoplanet statistical analysis into the Milky Way. We use the Becanson galactic synthetic model to simulate the Milky Way and the galactic and stellar habitable zones to calculate habitable planets. To assess habitability on the Galactic scale, we model supernova rates and planet formation. Our study, models the SNII and SNIa sterilizations by selecting them from within this preexisting stellar population. Furthermore, we consider habitability on tidally locked and non-tidally locked planets separately, and study habitability as a function of height above and below the Galactic mid-plane. The number of total habitable planets makes Milky Way practically empty of habitable planets. Our results, from these simulations, agree very well with Kepler's discoveries. Finally, we apply our results to the PLATO future space mission.

Anagnos, Th.

2013-09-01

142

The M dwarf planet search programme at the ESO VLT + UVES. A search for terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of M dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radial velocity (RV) measurements of our sample of 40 M dwarfs\\u000afrom our planet search programme with VLT+UVES begun in 2000. Although with our\\u000aRV precision down to 2 - 2.5 m\\/s and timebase line of up to 7 years, we are\\u000acapable of finding planets of a few Earth masses in the close-in habitable\\u000azones of M

M. Zechmeister; M. Kürster; M. Endl

2009-01-01

143

Evolution of a Habitable Planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant planets have now been discovered around other stars, and it is only a matter of time until Earth-sized planets are detected. Whether any of these planets are suitable for life depends on their volatile abundances, especially water, and on their climates. Only planets within the liquid-water habitable zone (HZ) can support life on their surfaces and, thus, can be

James F. Kasting; David Catling

2003-01-01

144

Martian Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

Gómez, F.

2012-09-01

145

Exoplanet habitability.  

PubMed

The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world. PMID:23641111

Seager, Sara

2013-05-01

146

EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer technology demonstration: Experimental results in air and vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronagraph technology is advancing and promises to enable space telescopes capable of directly detecting and spatially resolving low surface brightness circumstellar debris disks as well as imaging giant planets as close as in the habitable zones of their host stars. One proposed mission capable of doing this is called EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), which in 2011 was selected by NASA's Explorer program for technology development A (Category Ill). EXCEDE is a 0.7 m space telescope concept designed to achieve raw contrasts of 1e-6 at an inner working angle of 1.2 l/D and 1e-7 at 2 l/D and beyond. In addition to doing fundamental science on debris disks, EXCEDE will also serve as a technological and scientific precursor for an exo-Earth imaging mission. EXCEDE uses a Starlight Suppression System (SSS) based on the PIAA coronagraph, enabling aggressive performance. In this presentation, we report on our continuing progress of developing the SSS for EXCEDE, and in particular the achievement of the first major milestone in our technology development program (1e-6 median raw contrast between a 1.2 l/D inner working angle and 2 l/D, simultaneously with 1e-7 median raw contrast between 2 l/D and 4 l/D, in monochromatic light and in a controlled and repeatable fashion). In addition, we will describe the upgrades to our system, such as (a) the Low Order Wavefront Sensor (LOWFS) which enabled achieving deep contrasts at aggressive inner working angles; (b) efficient model-based wavefront control algorithms; (c) a reconfiguration of our DM to be upstream of the coronagraph and the addition of the "inverse PIAA" system that enables better outer working angles. Finally, we report on preliminary demonstrations in a vacuum chamber. Even though this technology development is primarily targeted towards EXCEDE, it is also germane to any exoplanet direct imaging spacebased telescopes because of the many challenges common to different coronagraph architectures and mission requirements.

Lozi, J.; Belikov, R.; Bendek, E.; Davis, P. K.; Duncan, A.; Greene, T. P.; Guyon, O.; Hix, T.; Irwin, W.; Kendrick, R.; Lynch, D.; Mihara, R.; PIuzhnik, E.; Schneider, G.; Smith, E.; Thomas, S.; Witteborn, F. C.

2014-03-01

147

Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae appears ubiquitous among known young supernova remnants. These nebulae can be compared to those around evolved massive stars to assess the nature of their supernova progenitors. Three types of archeological artifacts of supernova progenitors have been observed in supernovae and/or young supernova remnants: (1) deathbed ejecta, (2) circumstellar nebulae, and (3) interstellar bubbles. Examples of these three types are given.

Y. -H. Chu

2000-12-29

148

HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.  

PubMed

Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms. PMID:23510083

Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira

2013-03-01

149

Internal morphology, habit and U-Th-Pb microanalysis of amphibolite-to-granulite facies zircons: geochronology of the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of growth morphologies and alteration mechanisms of zircon crystals in the high-grade metamorphic Ivrea Zone\\u000a (IZ) are distinguished and attributed to magmatic, metamorphic and fluid-related events. Anatexis of pelitic metasediments\\u000a in the IZ produced prograde zircon overgrowths on detrital cores in the restites and new crystallization of magmatic zircons\\u000a in the associated leucosomes. The primary morphology and Th-U

Gerhard Vavra; Rolf Schmid; Dieter Gebauer

1999-01-01

150

Effects of Exoplanet Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry on Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the ';habitable zone'. TVJ acknowledges government support at JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. NM acknowledges support from Yale University. JIL was supported by the JWST Project through NASA. O.M. acknowledges support from CNES.Planetesimal compositions for several stellar systems with a fraction, Csolid, of C in solid CHON particles

Johnson, T. V.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Madhusudhan, N.

2013-12-01

151

Effects of Exoplanet Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry on Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2 O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star’s C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the ‘habitable zone’. TVJ acknowledges government support at JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. NM acknowledges support from Yale University. JIL was supported by the JWST Project through NASA. O.M. acknowledges support from CNES.

Johnson, Torrence V.; Mousis, O.; Lunine, J. I.; Madhusudhan, N.

2013-10-01

152

The circumstellar disks of Beta Pictoris analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey using data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) of previously known B and A shell stars with IRAS detections has resulted in the identification of three stars, HD 93563, Sigma Her, and 51 Oph, which have spectral signatures of infalling circumstellar plasma similar to Beta Pic. Two of these systems have infrared flux distributions indicating the presence of circumstellar dust disks, while the other, HD 93563, has an infrared excess consistent with free-free emission from the plasma envelope. With the identification of three such systems, it is clear that infalling circumstellar plasma is more common than previously anticipated among late-type B shell stars. The absence of dust in one system, HD 93563, suggests that infalling plasma in these stars, and possibly also in Beta Pic itself, may not be due to either erosion of a dust disk or to high cometary bombardment rates, but may instead be linked to stellar activity.

Grady, Carol A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Kondo, Yoji

1991-01-01

153

Small carbon chains in circumstellar envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes were made using the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope to determine the abundance of small carbon chain molecules. Vibration-rotation lines of the ?3 antisymmetric stretch of C3 near 2040 cm-1 (4.902 ?m) have been used to determine the column density for four carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes: CRL 865, CRL 1922, CRL 2023 and IRC +10216. We additionally calculate the column density of C5 for IRC +10216, and provide an upper limit for five more objects. An upper limit estimate for the C7 column density is also provided for IRC+10216. A comparison of these column densities suggests a revision to current circumstellar chemical models may be needed.

Hargreaves, R. J.; Hinkle, K.; Bernath, P. F.

2014-11-01

154

Response of Atmospheric Biomarkers to NOx-Induced Photochemistry Generated by Stellar Cosmic Rays for Earth-like Planets in the Habitable Zone of M Dwarf Stars  

PubMed Central

Abstract Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N2), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O3). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NOx production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O3 formation proceeds via the reaction O+O2+M?O3+M. At high NOx abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO2 photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O2). For the flaring case, O3 is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O3?NO2+O2, and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O3, Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O2, N2, and CO2) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O3 survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong case, whereas the biomarker nitrous oxide (N2O) could survive in the planetary atmosphere under all conditions of stellar activity considered here, which clearly has important implications for missions that aim to detect spectroscopic biomarkers. Key Words: M dwarf—Atmosphere—Earth-like—Biomarkers—Stellar cosmic rays. Astrobiology 12, 1109–1122. PMID:23215581

Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A. Beate C.; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

2012-01-01

155

Response of atmospheric biomarkers to NO(x)-induced photochemistry generated by stellar cosmic rays for earth-like planets in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars.  

PubMed

Understanding whether M dwarf stars may host habitable planets with Earth-like atmospheres and biospheres is a major goal in exoplanet research. If such planets exist, the question remains as to whether they could be identified via spectral signatures of biomarkers. Such planets may be exposed to extreme intensities of cosmic rays that could perturb their atmospheric photochemistry. Here, we consider stellar activity of M dwarfs ranging from quiet up to strong flaring conditions and investigate one particular effect upon biomarkers, namely, the ability of secondary electrons caused by stellar cosmic rays to break up atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which leads to production of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) in the planetary atmosphere, hence affecting biomarkers such as ozone (O(3)). We apply a stationary model, that is, without a time dependence; hence we are calculating the limiting case where the atmospheric chemistry response time of the biomarkers is assumed to be slow and remains constant compared with rapid forcing by the impinging stellar flares. This point should be further explored in future work with time-dependent models. We estimate the NO(x) production using an air shower approach and evaluate the implications using a climate-chemical model of the planetary atmosphere. O(3) formation proceeds via the reaction O+O(2)+M?O(3)+M. At high NO(x) abundances, the O atoms arise mainly from NO(2) photolysis, whereas on Earth this occurs via the photolysis of molecular oxygen (O(2)). For the flaring case, O(3) is mainly destroyed via direct titration, NO+O(3)?NO(2)+O(2), and not via the familiar catalytic cycle photochemistry, which occurs on Earth. For scenarios with low O(3), Rayleigh scattering by the main atmospheric gases (O(2), N(2), and CO(2)) became more important for shielding the planetary surface from UV radiation. A major result of this work is that the biomarker O(3) survived all the stellar-activity scenarios considered except for the strong case, whereas the biomarker nitrous oxide (N(2)O) could survive in the planetary atmosphere under all conditions of stellar activity considered here, which clearly has important implications for missions that aim to detect spectroscopic biomarkers. PMID:23215581

Grenfell, John Lee; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; von Paris, Philip; Patzer, A Beate C; Lammer, Helmut; Stracke, Barbara; Gebauer, Stefanie; Schreier, Franz; Rauer, Heike

2012-12-01

156

Fullerenes in circumstellar and interstellar environments  

E-print Network

In recent years, the fullerene species C60 (and to a lesser extent also C70) has been reported in the mid-IR spectra of various astronomical objects. Cosmic fullerenes form in the circumstellar material of evolved stars, and survive in the interstellar medium (ISM). It is not entirely clear how they form or what their excitation mechanism is.

Cami, Jan

2012-01-01

157

Diurnal Habitability of Frozen Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we discuss effects allowing local habitability of some extraterrestrial planets of low average surface temperatures. We analyze the problem of diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature and biological productivity at different locations on a hypothetical Earth-like planet. We have found, that under some circumstances the temperature may locally rise well above the average value, allowing periods of enhanced biological activity. In this way, bioproductivity can become periodically possible on a planet that has an average temperature clearly below 0°C. Such thermal conditions are encountered on Mars (Smith et al. in Science 306:1750-1753, 2004) generally considered as inhabitable. In reality, an appropriate temperature is not sufficient for habitability. The presence of liquid water at the considered location is also necessary. We discuss how temperature oscillations affect habitability in the framework of a conceptual model. We find that the considered effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature oscillations can extend the outer boundary of the habitable zone up to 2 AU, while global average temperatures are below 0°C for heliocentric distances R h > 1.12 AU (dry atmosphere, low CO2 pressure), or R h > 1.66 AU (humid atmosphere, high CO2 pressure).

von Bloh, W.; Kossacki, K. J.; Franck, S.; Bounama, C.

2010-01-01

158

ABUNDANT CIRCUMSTELLAR SILICA DUST AND SiO GAS CREATED BY A GIANT HYPERVELOCITY COLLISION IN THE {approx}12 MYR HD172555 SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The fine dust detected by infrared (IR) emission around the nearby {beta} Pic analog star HD172555 is very peculiar. The dust mineralogy is composed primarily of highly refractory, nonequilibrium materials, with approximately three quarters of the Si atoms in silica (SiO{sub 2}) species. Tektite and obsidian lab thermal emission spectra (nonequilibrium glassy silicas found in impact and magmatic systems) are required to fit the data. The best-fit model size distribution for the observed fine dust is dn/da = a {sup -3.95{+-}}{sup 0.10}. While IR photometry of the system has stayed stable since the 1983 IRAS mission, this steep a size distribution, with abundant micron-sized particles, argues for a fresh source of material within the last 0.1 Myr. The location of the dust with respect to the star is at 5.8 {+-} 0.6 AU (equivalent to 1.9 {+-} 0.2 AU from the Sun), within the terrestrial planet formation region but at the outer edge of any possible terrestrial habitability zone. The mass of fine dust is 4 x 10{sup 19}-2 x 10{sup 20} kg, equivalent to a 150-200 km radius asteroid. Significant emission features centered at 4 and 8 {mu}m due to fluorescing SiO gas are also found. Roughly 10{sup 22} kg of SiO gas, formed by vaporizing silicate rock, is also present in the system, and a separate population of very large, cool grains, massing 10{sup 21}-10{sup 22} kg and equivalent to the largest sized asteroid currently found in the solar system's main asteroid belt, dominates the solid circumstellar material by mass. The makeup of the observed dust and gas, and the noted lack of a dense circumstellar gas disk, strong stellar X-ray activity, and an extended disk of {beta} meteoroids argues that the source of the observed circumstellar materials is a giant hypervelocity (>10 km s{sup -1}) impact between large rocky planetesimals, similar to the ones which formed the Moon and which stripped the surface crustal material off of Mercury's surface.

Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Chen, C. H. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wyatt, M. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Morlok, A. [Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Song, I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Bryden, G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sheehan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)], E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu, E-mail: wyatt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: A.Morlok@open.ac.uk, E-mail: song@uga.edu, E-mail: Geoffrey.Bryden@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: psheeha2@mail.rochester.edu

2009-08-20

159

Technology Demonstration Milestone #1 for the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) I. Laboratory/Experimental Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronagraph technology is advancing and promises to enable space telescopes capable of directly detecting and spatially resolving low surface brightness circumstellar debris disks as well as imaging giant planets as close as in the habitable zones of their host stars. One proposed mission capable of doing this is called EXCEDE (EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer), which in 2011 was selected by NASA's Explorer program for technology development (Category III). EXCEDE is a 0.7m space telescope concept designed to achieve raw contrasts of 1e6 at an inner working angle of 1.2 l/D and 1e7 at 2 l/D and beyond. In addition to doing fundamental science on debris disks, EXCEDE will also serve as a technological and scientific precursor for an exo-Earth imaging mission. EXCEDE uses a Starlight Suppression System (SSS) based on the PIAA coronagraph, enabling aggressive performance. In this presentation, we report on our continuing progress of developing the SSS for EXCEDE, and in particular the achievement of the first major milestone in our technology development program (1e6 median raw contrast between a 1.2 l/D inner working angle and 2 l/D, simultaneously with 1e7 median raw contrast between 2 l/D and 4 l/D, in monochromatic light and in a controlled and repeatable fashion - see companion paper by Schneider et al. for science drivers). In addition, we will describe the upgrades to our system, such as (a) the Low Order Wavefront Sensor (LOWFS) which enabled achieving deep contrasts at aggressive inner working angles; (b) efficient model-based wavefront control algorithms; (c) a reconfiguration of our DM to be upstream of the coronagraph and the addition of the “inverse PIAA” system that enables better outer working angles. Finally, we report on preliminary demonstrations in a vacuum chamber. Even though this technology development is primarily targeted towards EXCEDE, it is also germane to any exoplanet direct imaging space-based telescopes because of the many challenges common to different coronagraph architectures and mission requirements. This work was supported in part by the NASA Explorer program and Ames Research Center, University of Arizona, and Lockheed Martin SSC.

Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, E.; Davis, P.; Duncan, A.; Greene, T. P.; Guyon, O.; Hix, T.; Irwin, W.; Kendrick, R.; Lozi, J.; Lynch, D.; Mihara, R.; Pluzhnik, E.; Schneider, G.; Smith, E.; Thomas, S.; Witteborn, F. C.

2014-01-01

160

The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXIV. A planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GJ163, with a super-Earth possibly in the habitable zone  

E-print Network

The meter-per-second precision achieved by today velocimeters enables the search for 1-10 M_Earth planets in the habitable zone of cool stars. This paper reports on the detection of 3 planets orbiting GJ163 (HIP19394), a M3 dwarf monitored by our ESO/HARPS search for planets. We made use of the HARPS spectrograph to collect 150 radial velocities of GJ163 over a period of 8 years. We searched the RV time series for coherent signals and found 5 distinct periodic variabilities. We investigated the stellar activity and casted doubts on the planetary interpretation for 2 signals. Before more data can be acquired we concluded that at least 3 planets are orbiting GJ163. They have orbital periods of P_b=8.632+-0.002, P_c=25.63+-0.03 and P_d=604+-8 days and minimum masses msini = 10.6+-0.6, 6.8+-0.9, and 29+-3 M_Earth, respectively. We hold our interpretations for the 2 additional signals with periods P_(e)=19.4 and P_(f)=108 days. The inner pair presents an orbital period ratio of 2.97, but a dynamical analysis of th...

Bonfils, X; Correia, A C M; Laskar, J; Udry, S; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Astudillo-Defru, N; Benz, W; Bouchy, F; Gillon, M; Hébrard, G; Lovis, C; Mayor, M; Moutou, C; Naef, D; Neves, V; Pepe, F; Perrier, C; Queloz, D; Santos, N C; Ségransan, D

2013-01-01

161

Tides, Planetary Companions, and Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics to drive processes that regulate their atmosphere. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity. Planets orbiting low-mass stars can be very old, due to the longevity of such stars, so they may be rendered sterile to life in this way. However, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. We also analyze the extent to which systems with ideal parameters for heating will evolve over time. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for current habitability.

Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard

2014-05-01

162

Ultraviolet observations of hot stars with circumstellar dust shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absolute fluxes over the wavelength range 1200-3200 A are presented for 13 normal early-type stars and 12 early-type stars known to have large IR excess; the data were obtained to study the UV spectral modifications produced by absorbing circumstellar dust particles. It is found that all the Be/shell stars whose spectral types are later than B6 exhibit greatly enhanced line absorption due to circumstellar Fe II. The circumstellar gaseous line absorption in stars cooler than B6 severely complicates the study of circumstellar dust absorption. However, those B and A stars that exhibit the circumstellar 9.7-micron emission feature have a very large increase in circumstellar absorption for 1800 A; such absorption is expected from circumstellar silicate particles.

Sitko, M. L.; Meade, M. R.; Savage, B. D.

1981-01-01

163

Fullerenes in circumstellar and interstellar environments  

E-print Network

We recently identified several emission bands in the Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the unusual planetary nebula Tc 1 with the infrared active vibrational modes of the neutral fullerene species C60 and C70. Since then, the fullerene bands have been detected in a variety of sources representing circumstellar and interstellar environments. Abundance estimates suggest that C60 represents ~0.1%-1.5% of the available carbon in those sources. The observed relative band intensities in various sources are not fully compatible with single-photon heating and fluorescent cooling, and are better reproduced by a thermal distribution at least in some sources. The observational data suggests that fullerenes form in the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, and survive in the interstellar medium. Precisely how they form is still a matter of debate.

Cami, Jan; Peeters, Els; Malek, Sarah E

2011-01-01

164

Fullerenes in Circumstellar and Interstellar Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently identified several emission bands in the Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the unusual planetary nebula Tc 1 with the infrared active vibrational modes of the neutral fullerene species C60 and C70. Since then, the fullerene bands have been detected in a variety of sources representing circumstellar and interstellar environments. Abundance estimates suggest that C60 represents ~0.1%-1.5% of the available carbon in those sources. The observed relative band intensities in various sources are not fully compatible with single-photon heating and fluorescent cooling, and are better reproduced by a thermal distribution at least in some sources. The observational data suggests that fullerenes form in the circumstellar environments of evolved stars, and survive in the interstellar medium. Precisely how they form is still a matter of debate.

Cami, Jan; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Peeters, Els; Malek, Sarah E.

2011-12-01

165

The Circumstellar Environment of Rigel Probed at High Spatial and Spectral Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of highly structured circumstellar environments in late B- and early A-type supergiants is well established through extensive spectroscopic, photometric, and polarimetric time series observations. The circumstellar structures are located within a few stellar radii in the transition zone from the stellar photosphere to the inner wind region of the expanding envelopes of the stars. The physical mechanisms that generate the observed circumstellar structures remain subject of debate. Coupling of stellar surface structures into the inner wind regions combined with rotational modulation is generally favoured with the surface structure being results of multi-mode non-radial pulsation patterns or complex magnetic fields structures. However, little observational evidence is available to narrow down the underlying mechanisms. Optical and near-IR interferometry at high spectral resolution has high potential to shed new light on the circumstellar environments of massive supergiants. We present first results from spectro-interferometric studies of the prototypical late-B supergiant Rigel (? Orionis, B8 Ia). Rigel has for the first time been monitored over several rotational cycles with the AMBER 3-beam combiner instrument at the VLTI in 2006-2007 and 2009-2010. The observations targeted the photosphere- and wind-sensitive Br? line at a resolving power of R=12 000. The analysis of the measured interferometric visibilities provides constraints on the extension of the line-forming region in photosphere and wind; the observed variability of the differential phases across the line profile gives indications on the dynamics and the geometry of the circumstellar structures of Rigel. A possible link between high-velocity absorptions (HVA) and the observed S-shaped signals in the differential phases is discussed.

Kaufer, A.; Chesneau, O.; Stahl, O.; Colvinter, C.; Spang, A.; Dessart, L.; Prinja, R.; Chini, R.

2012-12-01

166

Technology Demonstration Milestone #1 for the EXoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) II. Science Drivers and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EXoplanetary Circumstellar (CS) Environments and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) is an EX class Explorer mission proposed to study the formation, evolution, architectures, and diversity of exoplanetary systems by characterizing suspected planet-hosting CS environments into and beyond host-star habitable zones using a small (0.7 m diameter) off-axis telescope. EXCEDE was selected by NASA (as a Class III Explorer program) for technology demonstration and maturation to advance key elements of its proposed starlight suppression system (SSS) combining the use of a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized coronagraph, MEMS Deformable Mirror, closed-loop Low-Order Wavefront Sensing and Control, and mid-spatial frequency wavefront error correction and control using the science camera for electric field conjugation and speckle suppression for image contrast enhancement. To meet the science goals of the EXCEDE mission, the SSS must simultaneously, repeatably, and stably, deliver disk-to-starlight raw image contrast per resel of 1E-6 from 1.2 to 2 lambda/D, and 1E-7 from 2 to ~ 20 lambda/D in optical light, which has now been laboratory demonstrated for monochromatic light in an in-air environment (see paper I. by Belikov et al.) This level of performance when extended to 10% - 20% broadband light (technology demonstration milestone #2 to be pursued over the next year) will enable the EXCEDE mission. Here we discuss the applicability of these performance metrics to studying the current "here be dragons" regions of light-scattering CS debris disks, including those now well-observed as revealed at larger stellocentric angular distances with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph's coronagraph with multiple-roll PSF-template subtracted coronagraphy as imaged in HST GO program 12228 in the context of the EXCEDE science mission goals. This investigation is funded in part by NASA grant NNX12AH39G, and STScI grant GO-12228.

Schneider, Glenn; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.; Lozi, J.; Eduardo, B.; Davis, P.; Greene, T. P.; Lynch, D.; Eugene, P.; Sandrine, T.; Witteborn, F.; Duncan, A.; Kendrick, R.; Hix, T.; Mihara, R.; Smith, E.; Irwin, W.; Debes, J. H.; Carson, J.; Hines, D. C.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Silverstone, M. D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Hinz, P.; Moro-Martin, A.; Henning, T.; Tamura, M.; Jang-Condell, H.; Weinberger, A. J.; Woodgate, B. E.; Goto, M.; Serabyn, G.; Rodigas, T.; Kuchner, M. J.; Stark, C. C.; EXCEDE Project Technology Development Team; HST GO 12228 Team

2014-01-01

167

Millimeter wave studies of circumstellar chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter wave studies of molecules in circumstellar envelopes and a planetary nebula have been conducted. Using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) on Mt. Graham, a comparative spectral survey from 215-285 GHz was carried out of the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216 and the oxygen-rich supergiant VY Canis Majoris. A total of 858 emission

Emily Dale Tenenbaum

2010-01-01

168

SiS2 in circumstellar shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid state SiS2 is proposed as the material responsible for the recently discovered 21 micrometer emission feature that is observed in the carbon-rich circumstellar shells of certain protoplanetary nebulae. Sulfurized SiC, or SiS2 mantles on grains of either SiC or a:C-H are discussed as possible forms for which no spectroscopic laboratory observations yet exist. The identification with a relatively minor species and required special abundance ratios are consistent with the low incidence rate that the 21 micrometer feature presents in the population of carbon rich objects. It is also consistent with the lack of a good correlation between the 21 micrometer feature and the other solid-state spectroscopic features that have been observed in protoplanetaries that would be expected if the feature arose from molecules composed of H, C, N, and O. SiS2 condensate is consistent with the circumstellar shell temperature range, T(sub CS) approximately equal to or less than 150 K, at which the feature appears, and the available mass of SiS2, M(sub SiS2) approx. = 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass, that is possible in the circumstellar shell.

Goebel, J. H.

1993-01-01

169

Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.  

PubMed

The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere. PMID:20307182

Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

2010-01-01

170

Space Station habitability research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

Clearwater, Y. A.

1986-01-01

171

Space Station Habitability Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

Clearwater, Yvonne A.

1988-01-01

172

Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.  

PubMed

The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries). PMID:20307181

Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

2010-01-01

173

TIDAL LIMITS TO PLANETARY HABITABILITY  

SciTech Connect

The habitable zones (HZs) of main-sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurfaces the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO{sub 2} may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with the range of the traditional HZ for main-sequence, low-mass stars. We propose a revised HZ that incorporates both stellar insolation and tidal heating. We apply these criteria to GJ 581 d and find that it is in the traditional HZ, but its tidal heating alone may be insufficient for plate tectonics.

Barnes, Rory [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Jackson, Brian; Greenberg, Richard [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Raymond, Sean N. [Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States)

2009-07-20

174

Millimeter wave studies of circumstellar chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter wave studies of molecules in circumstellar envelopes and a planetary nebula have been conducted. Using the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) on Mt. Graham, a comparative spectral survey from 215-285 GHz was carried out of the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10216 and the oxygen-rich supergiant VY Canis Majoris. A total of 858 emission lines were observed in both objects, arising from 40 different molecules. In VY Canis Majoris, AlO, AlOH, and PO were detected for the first time in interstellar space. In IRC +10216, PH3 was detected for the first time beyond the solar system, and C3O, and CH2NH were found for the first time in a circumstellar envelope. Additionally, in the evolved planetary nebula, the Helix, H2CO, C2H, and cyclic-C3H2 were observed using the SMT and the Kitt Peak 12 m telescopes. The presence of these three molecules in the Helix suggests that relatively complex chemistry occurs in planetary nebulae, despite the harsh ultraviolet field. Overall, the research on molecules in circumstellar and planetary nebulae furthers our understanding of the nature of the material that is fed back into the interstellar medium from evolved stars. Besides telescope work, laboratory research was also conducted -- the rotational spectrum of ZnCl was measured and its bond length and rotational constants were determined. Lastly, in partial fulfillment of a graduate certificate in entrepreneurial chemistry, the commercial applications of terahertz spectroscopy were explored through literature research.

Tenenbaum, Emily Dale

2010-06-01

175

Circumstellar Magnetic Field Diagnostics from Line Polarization  

E-print Network

Given that dynamically significant magnetic fields in at least some massive stars have now been measured, our contribution addresses the question, to what extent can fields be directly detected in circumstellar gas? The question speaks directly to the very interesting topic of line-driving physics coupled with magnetized plasmas, and how this coupling produces structure in the wind flow. We focus our attention on weak-field diagnostics. These come in two main types: the Hanle effect, which pertains to coherence effects for linear polarization from line scattering, and the weak longitudinal Zeeman effect, which pertains to circular polarization in lines.

Richard Ignace; Kenneth G. Gayley

2007-08-14

176

Defining and measuring habit  

E-print Network

is necessary, even for well-practiced acts, when contexts are unstable. The present research uses participants' reports of their thoughts during performance of habits and non-habits to demonstrate that habitual performance emerges in stable contexts with well-practiced...

Quinn, Jeffrey M.

2012-06-07

177

Teenagers Media Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

Campbell, Laurence R.

178

Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.  

PubMed

The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

2005-06-01

179

Tidally Induced Brown Dwarf and Planet Formation in Circumstellar Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most stars are born in clusters and the resulting gravitational interactions between cluster members may significantly affect the evolution of circumstellar disks and therefore the formation of planets and brown dwarfs (BDs). Recent findings suggest that tidal perturbations of typical circumstellar disks due to close encounters may inhibit rather than trigger disk fragmentation and so would seem to rule out

Ingo Thies; Pavel Kroupa; Simon P. Goodwin; Dimitrios Stamatellos; Anthony P. Whitworth

2010-01-01

180

Physical conditions in the circumstellar gas surrounding supernova 1987A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supernovae are stellar explosions. They come from massive stars which cannot support their gravitational core-collapse. Heavy elements are ejected and shock waves are produced from supernova explosions. The shock waves ignite the circumstellar gas lost by these massive stars before the explosion thereby making them luminous. Studying the radiation from the circumstellar medium can enhance our understanding of the stellar

Sui Chi Woo

2005-01-01

181

X-ray and Hubble/COS UV Measures of Kapteyn's Star: A Crucial Proxy of X-UV Irradiances for Old Red Dwarf Stars that May Host Habitable Zone Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red dwarfs (dM) stars make up over 80% of the local stellar population and a significant fraction of them are old (age > 4 Gyr). Because of the high frequency of red dwarfs and their longevity, there is a greater possibility of more advanced life in red dwarf planet systems. MEarths, UVES, SDSS-III, and the upcoming TESS mission are some surveys that are targeting these objects. As part of Villanova’s Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained HST/COS spectra and Chandra X-ray observations of Kapteyn's star (M1V, V = 8.853, d = 12.76 +/- 0.05 ly, P_rot = 195 days). This star is crucial to the study of old red dwarfs as it is the nearest halo star with a radial velocity of +245.2 km/s and an estimated age of 10-12 Gyr. In our program, Kapteyn's star is the oldest red dwarf and as such serves as an anchor for our age, rotation, and activity relations. The spectra obtained from HST/COS provide one of the cleanest measurements of Lyman-alpha emission for red dwarfs. This is due to Doppler shift from the high radial velocity, separating the Lyman-alpha line from emission produced by the ISM and geocoronal sources. These observations further provide calibration at the old age/low rotation/low activity extremes for our relations. They also provide insights into the magnetic properties as investigating coronal x-ray and UV emission in very old, slowly rotating dM stars. Kapteyn’s star also serves as a proxy for metal-poor old disk/Pop II M dwarfs by providing information about X-UV emissions. This information is crucial for determining X-UV irradiances of possible habitable zone planets hosted by old red dwarfs. We gratefully acknowledge the support from NSF/RUI Grant AST-1009903, NASA/Chandra Grants GO1-12124X and GO2-13020X, and HST-GO-13020.

Durbin, Allyn J.; Guinan, E. F.; Engle, S. G.

2014-01-01

182

Variable Circumstellar Disks of “Classical” Be Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks are common among many stars, all spectral types, and at different stages of their lifetimes. Among the near-main sequence “Classical” Be stars, there is growing evidence that these disks can form, dissipate, and reform, on timescales that are differ from case to case. We present data for a subset of cases where observations have been obtained throughout the different phases of the disk cycle. Using data obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF, we examine the IR spectral line variability of these stars to better understand the timescales and the physical mechanisms involved. The primary focus in this study are the V/R variations that are observed in the sample. The second stage of our project is to examine a sample of star clusters known to contain Be stars, with the goal to develop a more statistically significant sample of variable circumstellar disk systems. With a robust multi-epoch study we can determine whether these Be stars exhibit disk-loss or disk-renewal phases. The larger sample will enable a better understanding of the prevalence of these disk events.

Gerhartz, Cody; Bjorkman, K. S.; Wisniewski, J. P.

2013-06-01

183

Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar disks.  

PubMed

During the initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas disks, dust grains collide and build up larger and larger bodies. How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem: boulders are expected to stick together poorly, and to spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits owing to a 'headwind' from the slower rotating gas. Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier. But even low levels of turbulence will inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer, and turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar disks. Here we report that boulders can undergo efficient gravitational collapse in locally overdense regions in the midplane of the disk. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressure regions in the turbulent gas, and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar disks. PMID:17728751

Johansen, Anders; Oishi, Jeffrey S; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klahr, Hubert; Henning, Thomas; Youdin, Andrew

2007-08-30

184

Accretion from the ISM onto Circumstellar Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual stars and their disks orbit through young clusters and can continue to accrete gas from the interstellar medium (ISM) onto their disks well after formation. Recent studies show that this `tail-end' accretion is as high as 1 minimum-mass solar nebula (MMSN) per Myr. Thus, several times the original disk mass may be deposited onto circumstellar disks after planetesimal formation begins, making substantial impact on the architecture and composition of planetary systems. However, no existing work considers the effects of this accretion on young disks, or its implications for planet formation. We propose a focused three-year project to investigate the effects of accretion of the interstellar gas from the cluster environment onto young circumstellar disks during their first 1-10 Myr. We will 1. Modify an existing numerical grid code to model ISM-disk accretion. 2. Perform simulations of a protoplanetary disks immersed in the ISM in order to determine when and where mass and angular momentum are deposited onto the disk, and what the consequences are for disk structure and lifetimes. 3. Search existing data for the observational signatures of late accretion onto proto-planetary disks passing through molecular clouds.

Throop, Henry

185

Circumstellar Disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine our previous optical spectroscopic and photometric analysis of ~1600 stars located in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) with our own and published near-infrared photometric surveys of the region in order to investigate the evidence for and properties of circumstellar disks. We use the near-infrared continuum excess as our primary disk diagnostic, although we also study sources with Ca ii triplet emission and those designated as ``proplyds.'' The measured near-infrared excess is influenced by (1) the presence or absence of a circumstellar disk, (2) the relative importance of disk accretion and inner disk holes, (3) the relative contrast between photospheric and disk emission, and (4) system inclination. After attempting to understand the effects of these influences, we estimate the frequency of circumstellar disks and discuss the evidence for trends in the disk frequency with stellar mass (over the mass range <0.1-50 M_?), stellar age (over the age range <0.1-2 Myr), and projected cluster radius (over the radial range 0-3 pc). We find that the fraction of stars retaining their inner (<0.1 AU) circumstellar disks to the present time is at least 55% and probably no more than 90%, averaged over the entire range in stellar mass and stellar age represented in the ONC and over the entire area of our survey. We find no trend in the disk fraction with stellar age, at least not over the limited age range of the cluster. We find that more massive stars are less likely to have disks, consistent with a scenario in which the evolutionary timescales are more rapid for disks surrounding more massive stars than for disks surrounding less massive stars. We also find that the disk frequency begins to decrease toward the lowest masses, although objects of all masses (including those that appear to be substellar) can have disks. We find that the disk frequency increases toward the cluster center. We then argue, using several lines of evidence, that a large fraction of the disks associated with stars in the ONC are accretion disks. The observed trends with stellar age, stellar mass, and projected cluster radius in the disk frequency may, in fact, be driven primarily by trends in the disk accretion properties. From the magnitude of the near-infrared excess above that expected from pure irradiation disks, we find an accretion disk fraction among the stars identified as having disks of 61%-88%. In addition, approximately 20% of the stars in our optical spectroscopic sample show broad (several hundred km s^-1 FWHM) Ca ii emission lines, which are features often associated with accretion disk/wind phenomena; another 50% of the sample have Ca ii lines that (at our spectral resolution) are ``filled in,'' indicating an independently derived accretion disk frequency of ~70%. Finally, we discuss the near-infrared and optical emission-line properties of that portion of our sample identified from Hubble Space Telescope imaging as having a dark silhouette or an externally ionized structure. This sample, proposed in the literature to have accretion disks, appears to be no different in terms of its stellar or circumstellar properties from the rest of the ONC population. The only feature distinguishing these objects from their ONC siblings thus may be their current (but short-lived) proximity to the massive stars near the cluster center.

Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Strom, Stephen E.; Calvet, Nuria; Merrill, K. Michael; Gatley, Ian; Makidon, Russell B.; Meyer, Michael R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

1998-10-01

186

Circumstellar Atomic Hydrogen in Evolved Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new results of a spectroscopic survey of circumstellar H I in the direction of evolved stars made with the Nançay Radiotelescope. The H I line at 21 cm has been detected in the circumstellar shells of a variety of evolved stars: asymptotic giant branch stars, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich stars, semiregular and Mira variables, and planetary nebulae. The emissions are generally spatially resolved, i.e., larger than 4', indicating shell sizes on the order of 1 pc, which opens the possibility of tracing the history of mass loss over the past ~104-105 yr. The line profiles are sometimes composite. The individual components generally have a quasi-Gaussian shape; in particular, they seldom show the double-horn profile that would be expected from the spatially resolved optically thin emission of a uniformly expanding shell. This probably implies that the expansion velocity decreases outward in the external shells (0.1-1 pc) of these evolved stars. The H I line profiles do not necessarily match those of the CO rotational lines. Furthermore, the centroid velocities do not always agree with those measured in the CO lines and/or the stellar radial velocities. The H I emissions may also be shifted in position with respect to the central stars. Without excluding the possibility of asymmetric mass ejection, we suggest that these two effects could also be related to a nonisotropic interaction with the local interstellar medium. H I was detected in emission toward several sources (? Per, ? Her, ?2 Lyr, U CMi) that otherwise have not been detected in any radio lines. Conversely, it was not detected in the two oxygen-rich stars with substantial mass-loss rate, NML Tau and WX Psc, possibly because these sources are young, with hydrogen in molecular form, and/or because the temperature of the circumstellar H I gas is very low (<5 K). This paper is dedicated to the memory of Marie-Odile Mennessier (1940-2004).

Gérard, E.; Le Bertre, T.

2006-12-01

187

WHERE TO FIND HABITABLE ''EARTHS'' IN CIRCUMBINARY SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Six P-type planets have been found thus far around five binary systems, i.e., Kepler-16b, 34b, 35b, 38b, and 47b and c, which are all Neptune- or Jupiter-like planets. The stability of planets and the habitable zones are influenced by the gravitational and radiative perturbations of binary companions. In this Letter, we check the stability of an additional habitable Earth-mass planet in each system. Based on our simulations in 10 Myr, a habitable ''Earth'' is hardly stable in Kepler-16, while a stable ''Earth'' in Kepler-47 close to the boundaries of the habitable zone is possible. In contrast, Kepler-34, 35, and 38 seem to have high probabilities of being able to tolerante a stable ''Earth'' in their habitable zones. The affects of transit time variations are quite small due to the small mass of an undetected ''Earth,'' except that of Kepler-16b. With a time precision of 10{sup -3} day ({approx}88 s), an ''Earth'' in the corotational resonance with Kepler-16b can be detected in three years, while habitable ''Earths'' in the Kepler-34 and 38 systems can be detected in 10 yr. Habitable ''Earths'' in Kepler-35 and 47 are not likely to be detected in 10 yr under this precision.

Liu Huigen; Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin, E-mail: huigen@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science and Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics in Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-04-20

188

Habitability design for spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability is understood to mean those spacecraft design elements that involve a degree of comfort, quality or necessities to support man in space. These elements are environment, architecture, mobility, clothing, housekeeping, food and drink, personal hygiene, off-duty activities, each of which plays a substantial part in the success of a mission. Habitability design for past space flights is discussed relative to the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab spacecraft, with special emphasis on an examination of the Shuttle Orbiter cabin design from a habitability standpoint. Future projects must consider the duration and mission objectives to meet their habitability requirements. Larger ward rooms, improved sleeping quarters and more complete hygiene facilities must be provided for future prolonged space flights

Franklin, G. C.

1978-01-01

189

Habitability study shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

1972-01-01

190

Motivation and study habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of the article reviews the literature (mainly British) on the relationships between academic performance in higher education and motivation and study habits. The distinction between goal-orientated and intrinsic motivation is used to clarify the meaning of previous studies. Among the investigations of study habits, the dimension of syllabus-boundness\\/syllabus-freedom helps to relate psychiatric work on study difficulties to

N. J. Entwistle; Jennifer Thompson; J. D. Wilson

1974-01-01

191

Chemistry and evolution of gaseous circumstellar disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the chemical and physical processes which determine the composition and evolution of gas-rich circumstellar disks is reported. Strong mixing in a thermoclinic environment like an accretion disk leads to thermochemical disequilibration due to 'kinetic inhibition' induced by chemical time constants becoming longer than outward mixing time constants. In this case, species thermodynamically stable at high temperatures but not at low temperatures dominate at all temperatures in the disk. Nonaxisymmetric accretion of material at hypersonic speeds is a major forcing mechanism for mixing in the disk and can produce eddy speeds of 1 percent of the sound speed. The implications kinetic inhibition in the carbon, nitrogen, and anhydrous/hydrous silicate families has for the compositions of the terrestrial planets, giant planets, ice-rich satellites, Pluto, comets, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed.

Prinn, Ronald G.

192

Changing food habits in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planning for the improvement of Nutrition in Africa there is a need to change food habits. This paper reports on studies of food taboos and food habits in Nigeria and discusses their implication in the present?day eating habits of the people. The great interest of Africans in education will play a great part in helping to change food habits

A. Omololu

1972-01-01

193

Kepler Mission: A Search for Habitable Planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kepler Mission was selected by NASA as one of the next two Discovery Missions. The mission design is based on the search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars, but does not preclude the discovery of larger or smaller planets in other orbits of non-solar-like stars. An overview of the mission, the scientific goals and the anticipated results will be presented.

Koch, David; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

194

What Grain Alignment can Tell about Circumstellar Disks and Comets  

E-print Network

Grain alignment theory suggests that grains should be aligned in circumstellar regions and the observational data available supports this conclusion. We discuss the alignment of grains via (1) magnetic relaxation, (2) mechanical processes, and (3) radiative torques. We show that ferromagnetic relaxation is likely to be more important than superparamagnetic relaxation if the dust in circumstellar regions is similar to species recently captured in Earth atmosphere. Outflows and stellar winds provide grain streaming along magnetic field lines and therefore mechanical alignment competes with the ferromagnetic and radiative alignments. We estimate measures of grain alignment in circumstellar regions, comets and interplanetary space and conclude that in many circumstellar regions and in the interplanetary space radiative torques may constitue the major alignment mechanism which aligns grain longer axes perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field. Observations in submillimeter and microwave ranges are suggested as a means of disentangling effects of multiple scattering from those related to aligned grains.

Lazarian A

1998-11-03

195

ASTROMETRY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MASERS H.J. van Langevelde  

E-print Network

ASTROMETRY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MASERS H.J. van Langevelde Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands langevelde@jive.nl W.H.T. Vlemmings Sterrewacht Leiden Niels Bohr

van Langevelde, Huib Jan

196

Application of the Titius-Bode Rule to the 55 Cancri System: Tentative Prediction of a Possibly Habitable Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the notion that the Titius-Bode rule (TBR) may also be applicable to some extrasolar planetary systems, although this number could be relatively small, it is applied to 55 Cancri, which is a G-type main-sequence star currently known to host five planets. Following a concise computational process, we tentatively identified four new hypothetical planetary positions, given as 0.081, 0.41, 1.51, and 2.95 AU from the star. The likelihood that these positions are occupied by real existing planets is significantly enhanced for the positions of 1.51 and 2.95 AU in view of previous simulations on planet formation and planetary orbital stability. For example, Raymond, Barnes, and Gorelick (2008, ApJ, 689, 478) argued that additional planets would be possible between 55 Cnc f and 55 Cnc d, which would include planets situated at 1.51 and 2.95 AU. If two additional planets are assumed to exist between 55 Cnc f and 55 Cnc d, the deduced domains of stability would be given as 1.3-1.6 and 2.2-3.3 AU. The possible planet near 1.5 AU appears to be located at the outskirts of the stellar habitable zone, which is, however, notably affected by the stellar parameters as well as the adopted model of circumstellar habitability. We also computed the distance of the next possible outer planet in the 55 Cnc system, which, if existing, is predicted to be located between 10.9 and 12.2 AU, which is consistent with orbital stability constraints. The inherent statistical significance of the TBR was evaluated following a method by Lynch (2003, MNRAS, 341, 1174). Yet it is up to future planetary search missions to verify or falsify the applicability of the TBR to the 55 Cnc system, and to obtain information on additional planets, if existing.

Cuntz, Manfred

2012-08-01

197

Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy of mass-radius relationships for silicate-rich and ice-rich planets up to 100 Earth masses. The Astrophysical Journal 693, 722-733. Wagner, F.W., Sohl, F., Hussmann, H., Grott, M., and Rauer, H. (2011). Interior structure models of solid exoplanets using material laws in the infinite pressure limit. Icarus 214, 366-376. Lammer, H., Bredehöft, J.H., Coustenis, A., Khodachenko, M.L., Kaltenegger, L., Grasset, O., Prieur, D., Raulin, F., Ehrenfreund, P., Yamauchi, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Grießmeier, J.-M., Stangl, G., Cockell, C.S., Kulikov, Yu.N., Grenfell, J.L., and Rauer, H. (2009). What makes a planet habitable? Astron Astrophys Rev 17, 181-249.

Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut

2014-05-01

198

Dynamics and Observational Appearance of Circumstellar Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In my thesis I present a study of the dynamics and observational characteristics of massive circumstellar disks in two dimensions (r, f ) using two complimentary hydro-dynamic codes: a `Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic' (SPH) code and a `Piecewise Parabolic Method' (PPM) code. I also study the detection limits available to radial velocity searches for low mass companions to main sequence stars. This thesis is organized as a series of published or submitted papers, connected by introductory and concluding material. I strongly recommend that readers of this abstract obtain the published versions of each of these papers. I first outline the progress which has been made in the modeling of the structure and origins of the solar system, then in chapter 2 (The Astrophysical Journal v502, p342, with W. Benz, F. Adams and D. Arnett), I proceed with numerical simulations of circumstellar disks using both hydrodynamic codes assuming a `locally isothermal' equation of state. The disks studied range in mass from 0.05M* to 1.0 M* and in initial minimum Toomre Q value from 1.1 to 3.0. Massive disks (MD > 0.2 M*) tend to form grand design spiral structure with 1-3 arms, while low mass disks (MD <= 0.2M*) tend to form filamentary, >4 armed spiral structures. In chapter 4 (submitted to The Astrophysical Journal with W. Benz and T. Ruzmaikina), I relax the assumption the locally isothermal evolution assumption and instead include simple heating and cooling prescriptions for the system. Under these physical conditions, the spiral arm growth is suppressed in the inner 1/3 of the disks relative to the isothermal evolution and in the remainder, changes character to more diffuse spiral structures. I synthesize spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the simulations and compare them to fiducial SEDs derived from observed systems. The size distribution of grains in the inner disk can have marked consequences on the near infrared portion of the SED. After being vaporized in a hot midplane region, the grains do not reform quickly into the size distribution on which most opacity calculations are based. In chapter 6 (The Astrophysical Journal v500, p940 with Roger Angel), I examine the limits which may be placed upon the detection of planets, brown dwarfs and low mass stellar companions using radial velocity measurements. I derive an analytic expression describing the amplitude limits for periodic signals which may be obtained from a set of data of known duration, number of measurements and precision. In chapter 7, I outline several problems which may be profitably addressed by building on this work. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Nelson, Andrew Frederick

199

The Warped Circumstellar Disk of HD100546  

E-print Network

We propose that the two armed spiral features seen in visible Hubble Space Telescope images of scattered light in HD100546's circumstellar disk are caused by the illumination of a warped outer disk. A tilt of 6-15 degrees from the symmetry plane can cause the observed surface brightness variations providing the disk is very twisted (highly warped) at radii greater than 200 AU where the spiral features are seen. Dust lanes are due in part to shadowing in the equatorial plane from the inner disk within a radius of 100 AU. HD100546's outer disk, if viewed edge-on, would appear similar to that of Beta Pictorus. A disk initially misaligned with a planetary system, becomes warped due to precession induced by planetesimal bodies and planets. However, the twistedness of HD100546's disk cannot be explained by precession during the lifetime of the system induced by a single Jovian mass planet within the clearing at ~13 AU. One possible explanation for the corrugated disk is that precession was induced by massive of bodies embedded in the disk at larger radius. This would require approximately a Jupiter mass of bodies well outside the central clearing at 13 AU and within the location of the spiral features or at radii approximately between 50-200 AU.

Alice C. Quillen

2005-05-05

200

Circumstellar Shell Formation in Symbiotic Recurrent Novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present models of spherically symmetric recurrent nova shells interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) in a symbiotic system composed of a red giant (RG) expelling a wind and a white dwarf accreting from this material. Recurrent nova eruptions periodically eject material at high velocities (gsim 103 km s-1) into the RG wind profile, creating a decelerating shock wave as CSM is swept up. High CSM densities cause the shocked wind and ejecta to have very short cooling times of days to weeks. Thus, the late-time evolution of the shell is determined by momentum conservation instead of energy conservation. We compute and show evolutionary tracks of shell deceleration, as well as post-shock structure. After sweeping up all the RG wind, the shell coasts at a velocity ~100 km s-1, depending on system parameters. These velocities are similar to those measured in blueshifted CSM from the symbiotic nova RS Oph, as well as a few Type Ia supernovae that show evidence of CSM, such as 2006X, 2007le, and PTF 11kx. Supernovae occurring in such systems may not show CSM interaction until the inner nova shell gets hit by the supernova ejecta, days to months after the explosion.

Moore, Kevin; Bildsten, Lars

2012-12-01

201

Circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars  

E-print Network

We have carried out a search for circumstellar disks around Herbig Be stars using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) and the IRAM Plateau de Bure (PdB) interferometers. In this Paper, we present our new VLA and PdBI data on the three objects MWC 297, Z CMa and LKHa 215. We have constructed the SED from near-IR to centimeter wavelengths by adding our millimeter and centimeter data to the available data at other wavelengths, mainly Spitzer images. The whole SED has been fitted using a disk+envelope model. In addition, we have compiled all the disk millimeter observations in the literature and made some statistics. We show that the disk mass is usually only a small percentage (less than 10%) of the mass of the whole envelope in HBe stars. Concerning the disks, there are large source to source variations. Two disks of our sample, R Mon and Z CMa, have similar sizes and masses to those found in T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. The disks around MWC 1080 and MWC 297 are, however, smaller (rout<100 AU). We have not detec...

Alonso-Albi, T; Bachiller, R; Neri, R; Planesas, P; Testi, L; Berne, O; Joblin, C

2008-01-01

202

A search for circumstellar material around pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched for thermal dust emission from circumstellar disks around five neutron stars using the Owens Valley millimeter array at 99 GHz and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 380 GHz. Two of the neutron stars (PSR 0950+08 and 1133+16) are nearby isolated pulsars with characteristic ages 106 to 107 yr. The remaining three (PSR 1257+12, 1534+12, and 1937+21) are old millisecond pulsars with ages in the range 108 to 109 yr. None of the pulsars was detected above the noise, giving 2 sigma limits on the mass of disk material of approximately 10-2 solar mass if their disks are similar to those around pre-main-sequence stars. We discuss mechanisms for clearing dust grains from circumpulsar disks. We show that dust particles orbiting a neutron star lose angular momentum due to the ram pressure of the interstellar medium, which is approximately 104 times stronger for pulsars than for normal stars because of their high space velocity. For a pulsar moving at 100 km/s through an ambient medium with number density n approximately 1/cu cm, dust grains 0.1 micrometer(s) in size spiral into the star in approximately 106 years. This mechanism is more effective at clearing grains than the Poynting-Robertson effect and may limit the detectability of disks around old neutron stars.

Phillips, J. A.; Chandler, C. J.

1994-01-01

203

Detection of DCO+ in a circumstellar disk  

E-print Network

We report the first detection of DCO+ in a circumstellar disk. The DCO+ J=5-4 line at 360.169 GHz is observed with the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the disk around the pre-main sequence star TW Hya. Together with measurements of the HCO+ and H13CO+ J=4-3 lines, this allows an accurate determination of the DCO+/HCO+ ratio in this disk. The inferred value of 0.035+-0.015 is close to that found in cold pre-stellar cores and is somewhat higher than that measured in the envelope around the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293 -2422. It is also close to the DCN/HCN ratio obtained for pristine cometary material in the jet of comet Hale-Bopp. The observed DCO+/HCO+ ratio for TW Hya is consistent with theoretical models of disks which consider gas-phase fractionation processes within a realistic 2-D temperature distribution and which include the effects of freeze-out onto grains.

E. F. van Dishoeck; W. F. Thi; G. J. van Zadelhoff

2003-01-29

204

The Habits of Worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

So little is known about the habits of worms that it seems desirable to place on record any new observation calculated to throw light on the subject. On September 17 I received from Mr. Edwards, curator of the Worcester Museum, a small tube containing about half a score of living worms. The letter which accompanied the tube informed me that

Hilderic Friend

1910-01-01

205

Habitable planets with high obliquities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations.

Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.

1997-01-01

206

Habitable planets with high obliquities.  

PubMed

Earth's obliquity would vary chaotically from 0 degrees to 85 degrees were it not for the presence of the Moon (J. Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, 1993, Nature 361, 615-617). The Moon itself is thought to be an accident of accretion, formed by a glancing blow from a Mars-sized planetesimal. Hence, planets with similar moons and stable obliquities may be extremely rare. This has lead Laskar and colleagues to suggest that the number of Earth-like planets with high obliquities and temperate, life-supporting climates may be small. To test this proposition, we have used an energy-balance climate model to simulate Earth's climate at obliquities up to 90 degrees. We show that Earth's climate would become regionally severe in such circumstances, with large seasonal cycles and accompanying temperature extremes on middle- and high-latitude continents which might be damaging to many forms of life. The response of other, hypothetical, Earth-like planets to large obliquity fluctuations depends on their land-sea distribution and on their position within the habitable zone (HZ) around their star. Planets with several modest-sized continents or equatorial supercontinents are more climatically stable than those with polar supercontinents. Planets farther out in the HZ are less affected by high obliquities because their atmospheres should accumulate CO2 in response to the carbonate-silicate cycle. Dense, CO2-rich atmospheres transport heat very effectively and therefore limit the magnitude of both seasonal cycles and latitudinal temperature gradients. We conclude that a significant fraction of extrasolar Earth-like planets may still be habitable, even if they are subject to large obliquity fluctuations. PMID:11541242

Williams, D M; Kasting, J F

1997-01-01

207

Radiological Habits Survey: Devonport, 2011  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Devonport, 2011 2012 Environment Report RL 01/12 Cefas contract report Radiological Habits Survey: Devonport, 2011 F.J. Clyne, C.J. Garrod, V.E. Ly and P. Rumney Peer reviewed by G.J., Garrod, C.J., Ly, V.E. and Rumney, P., 2012. Radiological Habits Survey: Devonport, 2011. RL 01/12. Cefas

208

Radiological Habits Survey: Heysham, 2011  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Heysham, 2011 2012 Environment Report RL 02/12 Cefas contract report C Radiological Habits Survey: Heysham, 2011 C.J. Garrod, F.J. Clyne, V.E. Ly and P. Rumney Peer reviewed by G, C.J., Clyne, F.J., Ly, V.E. and Rumney, P., 2012. Radiological Habits Survey: Heysham, 2011. RL 02

209

Radiological Habits Survey: Sizewell, 2010  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sizewell, 2010 2011 Environment Report RL 12/11 Cefas contract report C Radiological Habits Survey: Sizewell, 2010 C.J. Garrod, F.J. Clyne, P. Rumney, J. Elliott, C.A. Smedley and V, J., Smedley, C., and Ly, V.E., 2011. Radiological Habits Survey: Sizewell, 2010. RL 12/11. Cefas

210

Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2013  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2013 2014 Environment Report RL 03/14 Cefas contract report C6028 #12;This page has been intentionally left blank #12;Cefas Document Control Radiological Habits blank #12;Environment Report RL 03/14 Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2013 C.J. Garrod

211

Radiological Habits Survey: Dungeness, 2010  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Dungeness, 2010 2011 Environment Report RL 11/11 Cefas contract report Radiological Habits Survey: Dungeness, 2010 F.J. Clyne, C.J. Garrod, V.E. Ly, P. Rumney and J. Elliott Peer: Clyne, F.C., Garrod, C.J., Ly, V.E., Rumney, P., and Elliott, J., 2011. Radiological Habits Survey

212

Radiological Habits Survey: Amersham, 2009  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Amersham, 2009 2010 Environment Report RL 04/10 Cefas contract report C Radiological Habits Survey: Amersham, 2009 F.J. Clyne, C.J. Garrod and J. Elliott Peer reviewed by G.J. Hunt.C., Garrod, C.J. and Elliott, J., 2010. Radiological Habits Survey: Amersham, 2009. RL 04/10. Cefas

213

Radiological Habits Survey: Derby, 2009  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Derby, 2009 2010 Environment Report RL 05/10 Cefas contract report C Radiological Habits Survey: Derby, 2009 J. Elliott, F.J. Clyne and C.J. Garrod Peer reviewed by G.J. Hunt., Clyne, F.C. and Garrod, C.J., 2010. Radiological Habits Survey: Derby, 2009. RL 05/10. Cefas, Lowestoft

214

Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2009  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2009 2010 Environment Report RL 03/10 Cefas contract report C Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2009 C.J. Garrod, F.J. Clyne, J. Elliott and J.R. Tipple Peer reviewed by G, C. J., Clyne, F. C., Elliott, J., and Tipple, J.R., 2010. Radiological Habits Survey: Wylfa, 2009

215

Habitable Niches In Single and Binary Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate habitable niches, defined as locations with optimum conditions for complex life to exist. The recent discovery of planets in several binaries motivates this study to examine favorable habitability circumstances in both single and binary star systems. Stellar evolution calculations are used to model time dependent stellar luminosity, UV flux, photo-synthetic flux and atmospheric water photolysis. Tidal interactions such as synchronization timescales, heat generation, and forcing frequency are also investigated. An Earth-analogue planet in the habitable zone of a 0.8 solar mass star is well suited for complex life. Several high quality niches are available to planets in habitable zones of binaries. For example, orbiting a pair of twin stars each 0.75 solar masses with a binary period of ten days will provide ample photo-synthetic radiation without an overdose of UV radiation, and tidal effects mimicking the Earth-Moon. A solar like star with a close red dwarf companion, like the recently discovered Kepler 47, provides a high quality niche because both stars are relatively long lived and the habitable zone has abundant photo-synthetic light while avoiding harmful UV light. A similar niche exists with a sun like star, which in turn is orbited by a distant red dwarf, providing a roughly annual enhanced red photo-synthetic flux. Also, moons orbiting Jupiter mass planets may exist within habitable zones of both single and binary stars. Such moons might be synchronized to the planet rather than the star. Due to the abundance of binary systems and the presence of high quality niches; binaries may harbor a significant fraction of inhabited planets within the universe. The present study allows for selection of the best habitability follow up targets for large telescopes.

Clark, Joni; Mason, P. A.

2013-01-01

216

Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets ? Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R.

2013-09-01

217

HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS  

SciTech Connect

Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-09-01

218

Trajectories of martian habitability.  

PubMed

Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. PMID:24506485

Cockell, Charles S

2014-02-01

219

The Circumstellar Medium of Massive Stars in Motion  

E-print Network

The circumstellar medium around massive stars is strongly impacted by stellar winds, radiation, and explosions. We use numerical simulations of these interactions to constrain the current properties and evolutionary history of various stars by comparison with observed circumstellar structures. Two- and three-dimensional simulations of bow shocks around red supergiant stars have shown that Betelgeuse has probably only recently evolved from a blue supergiant to a red supergiant, and hence its bow shock is very young and has not yet reached a steady state. We have also for the first time investigated the magnetohydrodynamics of the photoionised H II region around the nearby runaway O star Zeta Oph. Finally, we have calculated a grid of models of bow shocks around main sequence and evolved massive stars that has general application to many observed bow shocks, and which forms the basis of future work to model the explosions of these stars into their pre-shaped circumstellar medium.

Mackey, Jonathan; Meyer, Dominique M -A; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R; Mignone, Andrea

2014-01-01

220

THE RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR CHEMISTRY OF SMP LMC 11  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-rich evolved stars from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase are characterized by a rich and complex carbon chemistry in their circumstellar envelopes. A peculiar object is the preplanetary nebula SMP LMC 11, whose Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectrum shows remarkable and diverse molecular absorption bands. To study how the molecular composition in this object compares to our current understanding of circumstellar carbon chemistry, we modeled this molecular absorption. We find high abundances for a number of molecules, perhaps most notably benzene. We also confirm the presence of propyne (CH{sub 3}C{sub 2}H) in this spectrum. Of all the cyanopolyynes, only HC{sub 3}N is evident; we can detect at best a marginal presence of HCN. From comparisons to various chemical models, we can conclude that SMP LMC 11 must have an unusual circumstellar environment (a torus rather than an outflow).

Malek, S. E.; Cami, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bernard-Salas, J., E-mail: smalek2@uwo.ca, E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay (France)

2012-01-01

221

Unveiling the Circumstellar Envelope and Disk: A Sub-Arcsecond Survey of Circumstellar Structures  

E-print Network

We present the results of a 2.7 mm continuum interferometric survey of 24 young stellar objects in 11 fields. The target objects range from deeply embedded Class 0 sources to optical T Tauri sources. This is the first sub-arcsecond survey of the 2.7 mm dust continuum emission from young, embedded stellar systems. The images show a diversity of structure and complexity. The optically visible T Tauri stars (DG Tauri, HL Tauri, GG Tauri,and GM Aurigae) have continuum emission dominated by compact, less than 1", circumstellar disks. The more embedded near-infrared sources (SVS13 and L1551 IRS5) have continuum emission that is extended and compact. The embedded sources (L1448 IRS3, NGC1333 IRAS2, NGC1333 IRAS4, VLA1623, and IRAS 16293-2422) have continuum emission dominated by the extended envelope, typically more than 85%. In fact, in many of the deeply embedded systems it is difficult to uniquely isolate the disk emission component from the envelope extending inward to AU size scales. All of the target embedded objects are in multiple systems with separations on scales of 30" or less. Based on the system separation, we place the objects into three categories: separate envelope (separation > 6500 AU), common envelope (separation 150-3000 AU), and common disk (separation < 100 AU). These three groups can be linked with fragmentation events during the star formation process: separate envelopes from prompt initial fragmentation and the separate collapse of a loosely condensed cloud, common envelopes from fragmentation of a moderately centrally condensed spherical system, and common disk from fragmentation of a high angular momentum circumstellar disk.

Leslie W. Looney; Lee G. Mundy; W. J. Welch

1999-08-27

222

Crystalline Silicates in Circumstellar Dust Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of crystalline silicates outside our own Solar System by the infrared space observatory (ISO) in both young (Waelkens et al. 1996, A&A 315, L245), and evolved stars (Waters et al. 1996, A&A 315, L361) brought new inside in the circumstellar dust formation and evolution. We will present here an extensive overview of the solid state bands found in a sample of 17 stars all with oxygen-rich dust around them. For all stars good ISO-SWS (short wavelength spectrometer 2--45 ? m) spectra were available and for 12 stars also reliable ISO-LWS (long wavelength spectrometer 43--195 ? m) spectra were taken. We could identify about 50 different spectral features, most of them clustered into one of the 7 complexes (which we defined). Most bands could be identified with crystalline silicates and crystalline water ice, however still roughly 20% remains unidentified. An important result was that the presence of strong crystalline silicates bands always correlates with the presence of a disk like structure (N.B. The presence of a disk does not necessary imply a high fraction of crystalline silicates)(Molster et al. 1999, Nature 401, 563). We found that not only the strength but also the shape of the crystalline silicate features is different for sources with and without the presence of a disk. Another surprising result of this research is that the crystalline silicates contain no measurable amount of Fe. The main minerals found, are forsterite (Mg2 SiO4) and enstatite (MgSiO3). We have calculated mean crystalline silicate spectra for both the disk and the non-disk sources. By simple model fitting we derived estimates for the (relative) mass and temperature of the amorphous silicates, forsterite and enstatite. Based on these results we drew the conclusion that the crystalline and amorphous silicate grains are two separate grain populations. This work was part of a PhD-thesis and funded by NWO.

Molster, F. J.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

2000-12-01

223

Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of IS dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of IS dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by NASA SMD (APRA; Carbon in the Galaxy).

Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

2014-06-01

224

Habitability and Life - an Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract The search for habitable planets has seen a significant boost, since much effort was invested into development of newer and more powerful techniques of detecting such planetary bodies. This search is fuelled by the interest that is sparked by its help in answering the bigger question of the origin of life on Earth and its abundance in the universe. Traditionally a planetary body has been deemed habitable when it provides conditions under which water is liquid. This led to the formulation of a habitable zone across stars, in which liquid water can exist. [1] Liquid water remains to this day the single most important feature in the search for life. There have been various suggestions of life being present in waterless environments like liquid hydrocarbons or even liquid ammonia, but how exactly a living system under such conditions might work, no one can satisfactorily explain. [2] A very important point in this context that is not often raised is that while water might be a favourable medium in which to live and certainly a major constituent of all living organism we know of, water alone is not alive and it will not spontaneously evolve into life. It would thus seem that apart from the presence of liquid water there a number of other, minor, necessary ingredients to life that determine whether a planet is habitable (meaning capable of sustaining life) or whether it is also capable of providing the starting grounds for the evolution of living systems. These other ingredients are determined by the minimum requirements of life itself. They include the molecular components of the most primitive encasing of an organism, the most primitive molecules needed for something like a metabolism and the most primitive way of storing information. [3] In addition to these molecular components, life must be able to utilise a source of energy to drive chemical reactions. Observations of various extremophiles on Earth utilising all kinds disequilibria suggest that these can be very diverse. The exact nature of these other ingredients, their possible presence and history of formation and their impact for the formation and evolution of life will be discussed for several different types of habitats all across the regime in which liquid water can be found, such as very dry and cold bodies like Mars, hot bodies like Venus, bodies covered completely in water or bodies with subsurface oceans. References [1] Kasting J.F., Whitmire D.P., Reynolds R.T., (1993) Icarus 101(1), 108-128 [2] Benner S.A., Ricardo A., Carrigan M.A. (2004) Curr Opin Chem Biol 8(6), 672-689 [3] Ruiz-Mirazo K., Peretó J., Moreno A., (2004) OLEB 34(3), 323-346 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00039, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008

Bredehöft, J. H.

2008-09-01

225

Beyond the principle of plentitude: a review of terrestrial planet habitability.  

PubMed

We review recent work that directly or indirectly addresses the habitability of terrestrial (rocky) planets like the Earth. Habitability has been traditionally defined in terms of an orbital semimajor axis within a range known as the habitable zone, but it is also well known that the habitability of Earth is due to many other astrophysical, geological, and geochemical factors. We focus this review on (1) recent refinements to habitable zone calculations; (2) the formation and orbital stability of terrestrial planets; (3) the tempo and mode of geologic activity (e.g., plate tectonics) on terrestrial planets; (4) the delivery of water to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; and (5) the acquisition and loss of terrestrial planet carbon and nitrogen, elements that constitute important atmospheric gases responsible for habitable conditions on Earth's surface as well as being the building blocks of the biosphere itself. Finally, we consider recent work on evidence for the earliest habitable environments and the appearance of life itself on our planet. Such evidence provides us with an important, if nominal, calibration point for our search for other habitable worlds. PMID:15815163

Gaidos, E; Deschenes, B; Dundon, L; Fagan, K; Menviel-Hessler, L; Moskovitz, N; Workman, M

2005-04-01

226

The origin and evolution of dust in interstellar and circumstellar environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This status report covers the period from the commencement of the research program on 1 Jul. 1992 through 30 Apr. 1993. Progress is reported for research in the following areas: (1) grain formation in circumstellar envelopes; (2) photochemistry in circumstellar envelopes; (3) modeling ice features in circumstellar envelopes; (4) episodic dust formation in circumstellar envelopes; (5) grain evolution in the diffuse interstellar medium; and (6) grain evolution in dense molecular clouds.

Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Leung, Chun M.

1993-01-01

227

Delivery of Volatiles to Habitable Planets in Extrasolar Planetary Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth can support life because: (1) its orbit lies in the Sun's habitable zone', and (2) it contains enough volatile material (e.g. water and organics) for life to flourish. However, it seems likely that the Earth was drier when it formed because it accreted in a part of the Sun's protoplanetary nebula that was too hot for volatiles to condense. If this is correct, water and organics must have been delivered to the habitable zone, after dissipation of the solar nebula, from a 'wet zone' in the asteroid belt or the outer solar system, where the nebula was cool enough for volatiles to condense. Material from the wet zone would have been delivered to the Earth by Jupiter and Saturn. Gravitational perturbations from these giant planets made much of the wet zone unstable, scattering volatile-rich planetesimals and protoplanets across the Solar System. Some of these objects ultimately collided with the inner Planets which themselves lie in a stable part of the Solar System. Giant planets are now being discovered orbiting other sunlike stars. To date, these planets have orbits and masses very different from Jupiter and Saturn, such that few if any of these systems is likely to have terrestrial planets in the star's habitable zone. However, new discoveries are anticipated due to improved detector sensitivity and the increase in the timespan of observations. Here we present numerical experiments examining the range of giant-planet characteristics that: (1) allow stable terrestrial Planets to exist in a star's habitable zone, and (2) make a large part of the star's wet zone weakly unstable, thus delivering volatiles to the terrestrial planets over an extended period of time after the dissipation of the solar nebula.

Chambers, John E.; Kress, Monika E.; Bell, K. Robbins; Cash, Michele; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

228

Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-01

229

The infrared spectrum of M8 E - Evidence for circumstellar CO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the compact infrared source M8 E are reported in the region from 3 to 5 microns. Very prominent CO absorption lines are observed in the v = 1-0 band at 4.7 microns. The velocity width and rotational temperature suggest that this CO absorption occurs in a highly excited region. The high background continuum flux level and the prominent appearance of the CO features suggest that the CO line-forming region must be in front of the dust emission region. A blister model for M8 E, which places most of the dust continuum emission behind the source, satisfies this requirement. According to this picture, the observed circumstellar CO spectrum shows a high rotational temperature and a large velocity dispersion because of the combined effects of the strong stellar wind and possible shock heating near the dust zone as the wind encounters the ambient molecular cloud.

Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Hofmann, R.

1986-08-01

230

The infrared spectrum of M8 E - Evidence for circumstellar CO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the compact infrared source M8 E are reported in the region from 3 to 5 microns. Very prominent CO absorption lines are observed in the v = 1-0 band at 4.7 microns. The velocity width and rotational temperature suggest that this CO absorption occurs in a highly excited region. The high background continuum flux level and the prominent appearance of the CO features suggest that the CO line-forming region must be in front of the dust emission region. A blister model for M8 E, which places most of the dust continuum emission behind the source, satisfies this requirement. According to this picture, the observed circumstellar CO spectrum shows a high rotational temperature and a large velocity dispersion because of the combined effects of the strong stellar wind and possible shock heating near the dust zone as the wind encounters the ambient molecular cloud.

Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Hofmann, R.

1986-01-01

231

Longevity of moons around habitable planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider tidal decay lifetimes for moons orbiting habitable extrasolar planets using the constant Q approach for tidal evolution theory. Large moons stabilize planetary obliquity in some cases, and it has been suggested that large moons are necessary for the evolution of complex life. We find that the Moon in the Sun-Earth system must have had an initial orbital period of not slower than 20 h rev-1 for the moon's lifetime to exceed a 5 Gyr lifetime. We assume that 5 Gyr is long enough for life on planets to evolve complex life. We show that moons of habitable planets cannot survive for more than 5 Gyr if the stellar mass is less than 0.55 and 0.42 M ? for Q p=10 and 100, respectively, where Q p is the planetary tidal dissipation quality factor. Kepler-62e and f are of particular interest because they are two actually known rocky planets in the habitable zone. Kepler-62e would need to be made of iron and have Q p=100 for its hypothetical moon to live for longer than 5 Gyr. A hypothetical moon of Kepler-62f, by contrast, may have a lifetime greater than 5 Gyr under several scenarios, and particularly for Q p=100.

Sasaki, Takashi; Barnes, Jason W.

2014-10-01

232

HST WFPC2 GTO Observations of Circumstellar Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the WFPC2 camera aboard the Hubble Space Telescope to observe circumstellar nebulosity around young and main sequence stars. Young stars were selected that had high millimeter excesses (indicating a disk) or high polarizations (indicating reflection nebulosity). We present recent observations which include the field of FS Tauri, where complex reflection nebulosity surrounds the binary system of FS

J. E. Krist; C. J. Burrows; K. R. Stapelfeldt

1997-01-01

233

On the Classification of Infrared Spectra from Circumstellar Dust Shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results from an ongoing effort to classify the infrared spectra produced by circumstellar dust shells. Earlier efforts concentrated on oxygen-rich dust shells from sources associated with the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Here, we describe the expansion of our classification to include S stars, supergiants, and carbon stars.

Sloan, G. C.; Little-Marenin, I. R.; Price, S. D.

1996-01-01

234

Inner Structure in the TW Hya Circumstellar Disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

TW Hya is a nearby (50 pc) young stellar object with an estimated age of 10 Myr and signs of active accretion. Previous modeling of the circumstellar disk has shown that the inner disk contains optically thin material, placing this object in the class of \\

Rachel L. Akeson; R. Millan-Gabet; D. Ciardi; A. Boden; A. Sargent; J. Monnier; H. McAlister; T. ten Brummelaar; J. Sturmann; L. Sturmann; N. Turner

2011-01-01

235

Circumbinary Habitability Niches  

E-print Network

Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

2014-01-01

236

HABITABLE PLANETS ECLIPSING BROWN DWARFS: STRATEGIES FOR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P{sub HZ{sub out}}). Habitable planets with P{sub HZ{sub out}} shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5{sup +5.6}{sub -1.4}% and 56{sup +31}{sub -13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using {approx}1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Bolmont, Emeline [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Palle, Enric [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ribas, Ignasi, E-mail: belu@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl., E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2013-05-10

237

Folklore and food habits.  

PubMed

The folklore surrounding food habits developed from uncertainty and fear in mankind's quest for food. In an attempt to gain control of his destiny, man developed various magical practices which would perhaps assure an abundance of food. The practice and beliefs did not develop haphazardly, but, on examination, reveal a type of "folk logic" explained by Sir James Frazer's concepts of contagious and homeopathic magic. The "logic" was extended to specific practices in preparing foods, eating of foods on special days, the use of food in curing certain diseases, and forbidding foods at certain times. The folk were attempting to coordinate the phenomena of their world according to cause and effect much the same as modern Americans coordinate their world. However, the basic assuptions were different. PMID:1254878

Shifflett, P A

1976-04-01

238

Language Habits of the Japanese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contrasts Japanese language habits with Western language habits, asserting that Japanese need to speak more concisely, express themselves clearly and frankly, and eliminate superfluous polite language and preliminaries in order to be successful in the efficiency-oriented civilization that is a product of Western culture. (RAE)

Kinosita, Koreo

1988-01-01

239

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield, 2013  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield, 2013 2014 Environment Report RL 02/14 Cefas contract report C6028 #12;This page has been intentionally left blank #12; Cefas Document Control Radiological #12;This page has been intentionally left blank #12;Environment Report RL 02/14 Radiological Habits

240

Trace Element Condensation in Circumstellar Envelopes of Carbon Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that meteorites contain reduced presolar grains, such as graphite and silicon carbide (SiC), which are probably formed by condensation of dust in the circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich AGB stars. Here we model condensation in envelopes of carbon stars, with an emphasis on trace elements. Since absolute elemental abundances in stellar atmospheres are generally not known, we assume solar abundances (Anders and Grevesse 1989), except for carbon. A C/O ratio of 2, consistent with the mean and median values of 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, for 61 carbon stars (Gow 1977) was used. The C/O ratio was increased by adding carbon because astrophysicists believe that carbon produced in helium-burning zones may be mixed to the surfaces of C stars (e.g. Lucy 1976). We used physical parameters for the circumstellar shell of the high mass-loss rate, prototypical carbon star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Dominik et al. 1990) and theoretical considerations by Salpeter (1974a,b) to construct a P-T-model of the envelope (see Fig. 1). Thermodynamic equilibrium condensation calculations for a reduced gas include ~600 gaseous and solid compounds of the elements H, C, N, O, S, P, F, Cl, Fe, Mg, Al, Ti, Si, Ca, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and REE. Refractory oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides were considered as condensates. The calculations were done from T = 800 to 2500 K, and P= 10^-5 to 10^-13 bars. The effects of nucleation on condensation temperatures were calculated using the nucleation model discussed by Salpeter (1974a,b) and Cameron and Fegley (1982). The temperature drop required for condensation depends on (P,T, density) in the expanding envelope and also on the abundance, density, and surface energy (Es) of the nucleating compound. The range of E(sub)s values for NaCl-type carbides are about 800-1700 erg/cm^2 (Livey & Murray 1956); however, these data are generally poorly known. Another important variable is the sticking coefficient (s), taken = 10^-3 here. Results of the equilibrium condensation calculations as a function of pressure at C/O = 2 are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The initial major element condensates are graphite, TiC, SiC, Fe3C, AlN, and CaS (Table 1). The data for C(sub)GR TiC, and SiC are also shown in Fig. 1, together with the P-T profile for the carbon star IRC +10216. Also included are the condensation temperatures if nucleation constraints are applied (dotted lines). Neglecting nucleation effects, C(sub)Gr, TiC, and SiC would be present within 2-3 stellar radii from the photosphere (r/R = 1). With nucleation constraints, TiC and SiC form at lower T at a distance of about 5 stellar radii. The T-drop required for graphite condensation is only about 100 K lower than the equilibrium condensation temperatures at higher P. Therefore, graphite grains would be stable at r/R >1.5. We note that at r = 3-5 R there is observational evidence for SiC, graphite and amorphous carbon in the envelope of the C star IRC +10216 (e.g. Keady et al. 1988, Ridgway and Keady 1988). Of the nitrides, AlN is the only which forms initially. Because of its structural similarity to SiC and TiC one could expect formation of AlN solid solutions with NaCl-type carbides. Most trace elements initially form carbides. The most refractory carbides are TaC, WC, NbC, ZrC, and HfC, condensing about 100-250 K higher than TiC. E(sub)s data are available for TaC and ZrC. Nucleation constraints show that only ZrC would form prior to TiC. Other trace element carbides (Mo(sub)2C, MoC, VC(sub)0.88, YC(sub)2, Cr(sub)3C(sub)2) condense as pure compounds below the equilibrium condensation temperatures of C(sub)Gr, TiC, and SiC. However, they may condense in solid solution in TiC or SiC or in both if allowed by their crystal structures. In any case, nitrides are not initial condensates for these trace elements. However, because the carbides and nitrides can form solid solutions, one could expect carbide-nitride solutions. References: Anders E. and Grevesse N. (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 197-214. Cameron A.G.W

Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

1992-07-01

241

Stellar orbit evolution in close circumstellar disc encounters  

E-print Network

The formation and early evolution of circumstellar discs often occurs within dense, newborn stellar clusters. For the first time, we apply the moving-mesh code AREPO, to circumstellar discs in 3-D, focusing on disc-disc interactions that result from stellar fly-bys. Although a small fraction of stars are expected to undergo close approaches, the outcomes of the most violent encounters might leave an imprint on the discs and host stars that will influence both their orbits and their ability to form planets. We first construct well-behaved 3-D models of self-gravitating discs, and then create a suite of numerical experiments of parabolic encounters, exploring the effects of pericenter separation r_p, disc orientation and disc-star mass ratio (M_d/M_*) on the orbital evolution of the host stars. Close encounters (2r_porbital angular momentum extraction to induce stellar capture. We find that ...

Muñoz, Diego J; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

2014-01-01

242

Mean gas opacity for circumstellar environments and equilibrium temperature degeneracy  

E-print Network

In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We prod...

Malygin, M G; Klahr, H; Dullemond, C P; Henning, Th

2014-01-01

243

Mid-IR Observations of Mira Circumstellar Environment  

E-print Network

This paper presents results from high-angular resolution mid-IR imaging of the Mira AB circumbinary environment using the MIRAC3 camera at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We resolved the dusty circumstellar envelope at 9.8, 11.7 and 18 micron around Mira A (o Ceti), and measured the size of the extended emission. Strong deviations from spherical symmetry are detected in the images of Mira AB system, including possible dust clumps in the direction of the companion (Mira B). These observations suggest that Mira B plays an active role in shaping the morphology of the circumstellar environment of Mira A as it evolves toward the Planetary Nebula phase.

Massimo Marengo; Margarita Karovska; Giovanni G. Fazio; Joseph L. Hora; William F. Hoffmann; Aditya Dayal; Lynne K. Deutsch

2001-06-19

244

Dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of SVS13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is of great interest to study the mineralogy of circumstellar dust around young stars as it represents the original constituents of planetesimals, hence of the rocky planets like our own Earth. To this end, we have obtained an N-band (8-13 µm) spectrum of a pre-main-sequence star SVS13, using the facility mid-infrared imaging spectrometer COMICS on the Japanese 8.2-m Subaru Telescope atop the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We have fitted various emissivities/absorption coefficients of dust species to the spectrum to examine dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of this remarkable young star. In this presentation, we outline the modelling and highlight some of our findings.

Fujiyoshi, T.; Wright, C.; Moore, T.

245

The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to\\u000adate of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and\\u000aspace-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging\\u000aanalyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly\\u000afrom the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable\\u000acircumstellar environment,

Ben E. K. Sugerman; Arlin P. S. Crotts; William E. Kunkel; Stephen R. Heathcote; Stephen S. Lawrence

2005-01-01

246

The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of

Ben E. K. Sugerman; Arlin P. S. Crotts; William E. Kunkel; Stephen R. Heathcote; Stephen S. Lawrence

2005-01-01

247

Observations of Circumstellar Thermochemical Equilibrium: The Case of Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We will present observations of phosphorus-bearing species in circumstellar envelopes, including carbon- and oxygen-rich shells 1. New models of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry have been developed to interpret, and constrained by these data. These calculations will also be presented and compared to the numerous P-bearing species already observed in evolved stars. Predictions for other viable species will be made for observations with Herschel and ALMA.

Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

2011-01-01

248

NICMOS Imaging of a Circumstellar Disk About TW Hydrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first near infrared imaging of a circumstellar disk around the classical T-Tauri star TW Hya. This young, approximately 10 Myr old, K7 star is the archetypal member of an isolated association of stars (Webb et al., 1999, ApJ, 512, L67) thought to be the site of recent star-formation closest to the Earth. Point spread function subtracted NICMOS

A. J. Weinberger; G. Schneider; E. E. Becklin; B. A. Smith; D. C. Hines

1999-01-01

249

Hypothetical habitability of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypothetical habitability of some of extrasolar planets is a fundamental question of science. Some of exoplanets possess physical conditions close to those of Venus. Therefore, the planet Venus, with its dense and hot (735 K) oxygen-free atmosphere of CO2, having a high pressure of 9.2 MPa at the surface, can be a natural laboratory for this kind of studies. The only existing data on the planet’s surface are still the results obtained by the Soviet VENERA landers in the 1970s and 1980s. The TV experiments of Venera-9 and 10 (October, 1975) and Venera-13 and 14 (March, 1982) delivered 41 panoramas of Venus surface (or their fragments). There have not been any similar missions to Venus in the subsequent 39 and 32 years. In the absence of new landing missions to Venus, the VENERA panoramas have been re-processed. The results of these missions are studied anew. A dozen of relatively large objects, from a decimeter to half a meter in size, with an unusual morphology have been found which moved very slowly or changed slightly their shape. Their emergence by chance could hardly be explained by noise. Certain unusual findings that have similar structure were found in different areas of the planet. This paper presents the last results obtained of a search for hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus.

Ksanfomality, Leonid

250

Additional constraints on circumstellar disks in the Trapezium Cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We discuss new constraints on the population of compact ionized sources in the Trapezium Cluster thought to arise from the ionization by the central OB stars of circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main sequence stars. We present new HST Planetary Camera observations of two of these candidate disk sources, resolving extended nebulosity around them. One source shows a small-scale (greater than 100 AU) bow-shock structure, previously seen on larger scales by O'Dell et al. We show that the circumstellar disk model is the most likely one for the majority of sources, although it remains plausible that some of the larger objects could be equilibrium globules. We combine the most complete censuses of compact radio sources and stars in the core region to derive the fraction of the stellar population that may be associated with a circumstellar disk. Our estimate of 25-75 percent is comparable to that found for PMS stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds, indicating that the dense cluster environment of the Trapezium has not drastically reduced the frequency of disks seen around pre-main sequence stars.

Stauffer, John R.; Prosser, Charles F.; Hartmann, Lee; Mccaughrean, Mark J.

1994-01-01

251

Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Winds and Circumstellar Environments of Hot and Cool Massive Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present modeling research work of the winds and circumstellar environments of a variety of prototypical hot and cool massive stars using advanced radiative-transfer calculations. This research aims at unraveling the detailed physics of various mass-loss mechanisms of luminous stars in the upper portion of the H-R diagram. Very recent 3D radiative-transfer calculations, combined with hydrodynamic simulations, show that radiatively-driven winds of OB supergiants are structured due to large-scale density and velocity fields caused by rotating bright spots at the stellar equator. The mass-loss rates computed from matching Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) in IUE observations of HD 64760 (B Ib) do not reveal appreciable changes from the rates of unstructured (smooth) wind models. Intermediate yellow supergiants (such as the yellow hypergiant ? Cas, F-G Ia0), on the other hand, show prominent spectroscopic signatures of strongly increased mass-loss rates during episodic outbursts that cause dramatic changes of the stellar photospheric conditions. Long-term high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring of cool hypergiants near the Yellow Evolutionary Void reveals that their mass-loss rates and wind-structure are dominated by photospheric eruptions and large-amplitude pulsations that impart mechanical momentum to the circumstellar environment by propagating acoustic (shock) waves. In massive red supergiants, however, clear evidence for mechanical wave propagation from the sub-photospheric convection zones is lacking, despite their frequently observed spectroscopic and photometric variability. Recent spatially resolved HST-STIS observations inside Betelgeuse's (M Iab) very extended chromosphere and dust envelope show evidence of warm chromospheric gas far beyond the dust-condensation radius of radiative-transfer models. Models for these long-term spectroscopic observations demonstrate that the chromospheric pulsations are not spherically symmetric. The STIS observations point to the importance of mechanical wave propagation for heating and sustaining chromospheric conditions in the extended winds of red supergiants.

Lobel, A.

2010-06-01

252

ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

Mason, Paul A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A. [FACom-Instituto de Fisica-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellin (Colombia); Clark, Joni M. [Department of Mathematics and Physical Sciences, New Mexico State University-DACC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

2013-09-10

253

Rotational Synchronization May Enhance Habitability for Circumbinary Planets: Kepler Binary Case Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Clark, Joni M.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

2013-09-01

254

Delegation: developing the habit.  

PubMed

Often, individuals take personal delegation skills for granted and assume the presence of expertise with the practice of delegation, which may not be the case. Those assumptions can be found at both ends of the process, with the manager and the employee. Every time a manager places an employee in a job and gives him or her a job description or a set of instructions, the manager has delegated. The manager has placed someone in a position to perform operations for which ultimately the manager is responsible. Delegation is both a process and a condition. The process is the act of assigning work to an employee; the condition of delegating a job is a thorough and mutual understanding between the supervisor and the employee of specific results and methods by which these results can be achieved. The condition goes far beyond the simple process of assigning a job. The point at which many managers fail in delegating is in neglecting to move past the process and take the required steps to establish a true condition of delegation. Failure to delegate is the leading cause of managers retarding their professional growth. In the case of a workaholic--someone who fails to learn the value of delegation--the job soon becomes too much, and the effectiveness of the department may suffer. By reducing the burden of technical duties and busy work, managers will find that it is possible to be more effective and actually spend more time managing. A number of the reasons why managers fail to delegate are complex and subconscious, such as insecurity, fear of competition and even fear of not being recognized for accomplishments achieved. Other reasons for failing to delegate are habit and shortages of staff members or time. Delegation is an investment in time. The eventual gain from such an investment, which may temporarily cause the department to fall further behind during a training period, outweighs the costs. The manager is the final authority in such duties as approval, recommendations and implementations. Remember that to delegate authority does not mean to delegate ultimate responsibility. Only the manager should bear the burden of responsibilities that directly affect his or her career. One of the most common mistakes in the process of delegating is to turn an employee loose on a job with inadequate instruction. Too often this is caused by lack of time. Strictly speaking, when managers assign tasks to employees, they are delegating the authority to perform the task. However, all responsibility for the completion of the task remains with the manager. In most instances, responsibility for the failure of a delegated project lies with the manager, not the employee. While some failure is to be expected, it can be minimized by proper evaluation of the situation and proper communication. Delegation is a calculated risk. The manager should be willing to take a risk to see if an employee does have the skills and ability to perform the specific task. How else will the manager ever know? Developing a strong habit of delegation will lead to development of an effective and efficient staff and department. Delegation will serve not only the organization well, but also managers throughout their careers. PMID:11499078

Duehring, G L

2001-01-01

255

Meat Demand under Rational Habit Persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to explore the theoretical implications of a meat demand model with rational habits. To introduce consumption dynamics, habit persistence is used to motivate intertemporally related preferences. The impact of food safety information on meat consumption is systematically analyzed. Important differences between myopic habits and rational habits are outlined.

Chen Zhen; Michael K. Wohlgenant

2005-01-01

256

Kepler: A Search for Habitable Planets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 with the focused goal of surveying regions of the Milky Way Galaxy to discover Earth-size planets. The spacecraft's detection instrument is a photometer that continually monitors 145,000 stars to locate exoplanets in the "habitable zone" of a star, where liquid water and possibly life might exist. The website tracks information about mission results, with more than 2,000 candidates identified after the first year's operation. Of those, two Earth-size candidates have been confirmed as of January, 2012. Educators will also find classroom activities, interactive resources, simple animations showing how the detection system works, and galleries of photos, videos and 3D images.

2012-01-27

257

[Young men's contraceptive habits].  

PubMed

A total of 379 men from the greater Copenhagen area were invited to fill out a questionnaire about sexual habits and use of contraception in connection with conscription for military duty. A total of 334 (88%) answered the questionnaire. In the autumn of 1988, a total of 27 men answered the test questionnaire, while in the spring of 1989, when the real study was conducted, 307 men answered it. The median age of 334 participants was 18 years (range of 17-29 years). 33% of the group stated that they had used condoms during first intercourse, while 47% had not. 1 person reported to be exclusively attracted sexually to men, 5 persons were attracted both to men and women, but 97% were exclusively attracted to women. 82% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with women. 1.8% had had intercourse or other sexual experience with men. 8% had no sexual experience, and 8% did not answer the question. Oral contraceptives were used by 60% and the condom by 56%. 10% had used coitus interruptus at one time or another; 15% had used no contraception; 5% used the IUD; and 5% used the diaphragm. Some gave several answers. 1% used spermicidal lotion. 60% thought that it was the responsibility of both men and women to be concerned about contraception, 12% opined that it was exclusively men's duty, and 2% that it was exclusively women's, while 26% did not answer. 68% wanted to use the condom in the future for protection, 24% did not know, but 8% did not want to use it more extensively. 64% did not think that the fear of AIDS would affect their sexual life, but 36% thought it would. Several of the subjects indicated that they would be more careful about choosing a partner, and every 10th suggested that they would use the condom with a new partner. One person (0.3%) was a drug addict, 89% had never injected drugs, but about 11% did not answer about drugs. 97% and 95%, respectively, indicated that the condom provided good protection against pregnancy and venereal diseases. PMID:12288822

Kaiser, A H; Nielsen, B B; Hansen, K; Johansen, J B; Nielsen, M B

1992-10-01

258

Using infrared observations of circumstellar dust around evolved stars to test dust formation hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are evolved, low to intermediate mass (0.8--8 M? ) stars. These stars lose a significant fraction of their mass through stellar pulsation. As a result, they are surrounded by gaseous, dusty circumstellar envelopes. They are major contributors of material to the interstellar medium (ISM), new stars, planets and also produce the majority of the dust complement of galaxies. Consequently, understanding the dust around AGB stars is critical to our understanding of the contribution of dust to many aspects of astrophysics. This thesis aims to study how the mineralogy and morphology of circumstellar dust varies with the pulsation cycle of the star and how the variation in spectral dust features (temporally and spatially) can be explained by different competing dust formation hypotheses. In the circumstellar envelopes of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars, all carbon (C) atoms from the gas are locked into carbon-monoxide (CO), leaving a surplus of oxygen (O) atoms to dominate the chemistry and form silicate dust particles (among other dust species). Consequently, AGB stars are divided into two main categories: oxygen-rich (O-rich) and carbon-rich (C-rich). In this thesis I consider only O-rich AGB stars where silicate dust is expected to dominate. The silicate dust may be present in either crystalline or amorphous form, where the crystalline silicates exhibit sharp and narrow spectral features throughout the infrared (IR) spectral region, while the amorphous silicates show two broad spectral features at 10 and 18 mum. Circumstellar dust should vary both temporally as these stars pulsate; and spatially as dust flows away from the star and physical conditions change. My research on the temporal variation of the spectral dust features with pulsation cycle for single, O-rich Mira variable, T Cep, suggests that its spectral features cannot be explained in terms of the "classic" dust formation hypothesis. Instead, it suggests that the dust is crystalline in nature and iron-rich silicates, neither of which is expected around low mass-loss rate O-rich AGB stars. This scenario may be consistent with the so-called "chaotic solids" hypothesis. My research on spatial variation of spectral dust features investigates seven O-rich AGB stars for which I have acquired spatially resolved spectra using Gemini/MICHELLE spectrometer. In most cases, the observational data show that the spectral features vary significantly but without any spatial trend. These scenarios may also be consistent with the "chaotic solids" hypothesis. These results also suggest that the turbulent dynamics, pulsation shocks in the dust-forming zones around O-rich AGB stars lead to inhomogeneous dust formation, producing fine scale structure in the density of the dust envelope. In this O-rich environment, there are many potential minerals can be formed but their stability is very sensitive to the precise local conditions. In this thesis, I have also explored different parameter space of the IR laboratory spectra of crystalline olivine minerals. The spectral feature parameters (peak, width and amplitude) can be strongly affected by composition, temperature and grain shape and that can create degeneracy, such that a given spectral feature can have more than one explanation. In order to disentangle these effects, I have developed a database, which will allow to study the IR spectral features of crystalline olivine as a combined function of composition and temperature. For future work, I propose tools for mapping and breaking this degeneracy, which will help us in order to have a better understanding on astromineralogy around O-rich AGB stars. This thesis provides a significant contribution to our understanding of dust formation process around O-rich AGB stars, which is considered to be a complicated process and not well understood.

Guha Niyogi, Suklima

259

Exotic Earths: Forming Habitable Worlds with Giant Planet Migration  

E-print Network

Close-in giant planets (e.g. ``Hot Jupiters'') are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth mass planets also form interior to the migrating Jovian planet, analogous to recently-discovered ``Hot Earths''. Very water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the Habitable Zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

Sean N. Raymond; Avi M. Mandell; Steinn Sigurdsson

2006-09-08

260

Probing Circumstellar Environments in LMC/SMC Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks can play an important role throughout the evolutionary history of stars, from influencing the earliest stages of star formation to guiding stellar outflows in the later stages of evolution. While Be stars are known to have circumstellar disks, the specific mechanisms responsible for producing these disks are unclear. It is uncertain whether the Be phenomenon is an evolutionary effect or what role metallicity may play in disk formation. Recent attempts to answer these questions have used a variety of photometric techniques to identify Be/(B + Be) ratios in clusters of various ages and metallicites. Are the candidate Be stars identified by these techniques truly disk-like systems, or are they other types of B-type emission line objects? In an attempt to answer these questions, we have obtained the first UBVRI imaging photo-polarimetry of LMC/SMC clusters with Be candidates identified via photometry. We present the initial results of our observations. From the unique wavelength dependence of polarization originating from Be disks, we identify the true disk systems in these clusters. Future modeling of these data will allow us to derive geometrical parameters for these circumstellar disks. We thank the NOAO and the CTIO TAC for granting time for these observations. This work has been supported in part by NASA LTSA grant NAG5-8054 to the University of Toledo. KSB is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation and gratefully acknowledges their support. JPW thanks NOAO for supporting his travel to CTIO. AMM acknowledges travel support by FAPESP; he is also partially supported by CNPq. Polarimetry at University of São Paulo is supported by FAPESP. AMM, KSB and JEB acknowledge partial travel support by USP.

Wisniewski, J. P.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Magalhães, A. M.; Bjorkman, J. E.

2002-12-01

261

Habitability in the cosmological context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the habitability implies a water containing rocky Earth-like planet orbiting a Solar-type star at a distance of around 1 AU. This requirement characterizes though only a potential of a planetary system to sustain life. When, a possibility of the existence of life is questioned, the age of a planetary system becomes of a primary importance. We discuss here how plausible is a discovery of a habitable planet with biota on it among the closest (within 600 pc) neighbours of the Sun. We argue that even for known habitable planets possible variations in their albedo, diameters, orbits and other critical parameters, the onset of photosynthesis and a formation of oxygen atmosphere may take much longer time than the planetary age. We show that among the confirmed by Kepler habitable planets at least a third is too young to develop biota on them. We argue old that Population II stars with the age of up to 13 Gyr can host habitable planets with the already existing life on them, and discuss possible observational manifestations f it.

Shchekinov, Yuri; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

262

Direct UV observations of the circumstellar envelope of alpha Orionis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations were made in the IUE LWP camera, low dispersion mode, with alpha Ori being offset various distances from the center of the Long Wavelength Large Aperture along its major axis. Signal was acquired at all offset positions and is comprised of unequal components of background/dark counts, telescope-scattered light, and scattered light emanating from the extended circumstellar shell. The star is known from optical and infrared observations to possess an extended, arc-minute sized, shell of cool material. Attempts to observe this shell with the IUE are described, although the deconvolution of the stellar signal from the telescope scattered light requires further calibration effort.

Stencel, R. E.; Carpenter, K. G.; Pesce, J. E.; Skinner, S.; Brown, A.; Judge, P.

1988-01-01

263

The discrete nature of circumstellar OH maser emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arecibo radio telescope was used to obtain high-resolution, high-SNR 1612-MHz observations of seven circumstellar OH maser sources. Each spectrum displays the double-peaked emission line profile characteristics of an expanding shell. The jaggedness of the spectra, which varies from source to source, is consistent with statistical fluctuations in the number of discrete emitting elements contributing at a given velocity. In particular, it is found that the spectra of WX Psc and OH 53.6-0.2 contain narrow, weak, isolated emission features which may arise from individual emitting elements.

Zell, Philip J.; Fix, John D.

1990-01-01

264

Numerical modeling of gravitational instability outcomes in multiphase circumstellar discs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To suggest consistent route toward planetesimal and planetary core formation in circumstellar discs we study gravitational instability outcomes in massive multiphase (gas-collisionless bodies) disc. Such unstable massive disc can be formed together with protostar in molecular cloud collapse with increased ratio of solids to gas density. In our calculations we found regimes when low-massive solid bodies subdisc drastically affect global structure formation in the disc, whose mass is constituted mainly by the gas. We demonstrated also that solitary areas of high gas density can concentrate solids, producing multiphase clumps, which can be considered as a cradle of large bodies formation.

Stoyanovskaya, Olga P.; Snytnikov, Valeriy N.

2013-04-01

265

Finding Habitable Planets Around the Nearest Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the first 700 extrasolar planets have had a profound impact on science and society. The 2000 Decadal Survey of Astronomy & Astrophysics cites the discovery of extrasolar planets as the most important advance of the previous decade. The 2010 Decadal Survey cites extrasolar planets as one of the three pillars of modern astrophysics, and explicitly states that the discovery of potentially habitable planets around nearby stars is the highest priority for the next decade. Most of the planets that have been discovered orbiting nearby stars are massive gas giants found with Doppler velocity systems that have achieved 3 to 10 m/s. This first generation of exoplanets had amplitudes of 50 m/s or more, and could be detected with sparse sampling. Terrestrial mass and super-earth planets in habitable 1 AU orbits around G dwarfs have Doppler amplitudes of less than 0.5 m/s, and are currently undetectable. Due to their lower mass and brightness, the habitable liquid water zone around M dwarfs is at 0.1 to 0.2 AU, with corresponding Doppler velocity amplitudes of 2 to 5 m/s. These planets are typically in multiple planet systems in which several planets have similar amplitudes, leading to complex Doppler velocity signals. These planets can be detected with high cadence observations that achieve state-of-the-art precision of 1 m/s. While M dwarfs constitute 70% of the nearest stars, they are significantly fainter than nearby G & K dwarfs, and require large telescopes to reach 1 m/s precision. We have built the first American Doppler velocity system that produces 1 m/s precision. The Planet Finding Spectrometer (PFS) on Magellan has been custom built for precision velocity measurements. Compared to HIRES on Keck, PFS is mechanically and thermally stabilized, has triple the throughput, operates at higher resolution, and had 50% greater sampling. PFS on Magellan is slightly faster than HIRES on Keck in spite of the difference in aperture, 6.5-m vs 10-m. We are currently receiving ~50 nights per year on Magellan/PFS to target the nearest M dwarfs with high cadence observations. Over the next 3 years we will survey the nearest 200 M dwarfs with sufficient precision and cadence to detect terrestrial mass and super- earth planets in the habitable zone of these stars. After just two high cadence observing runs we already have candidates. Over the past quarter century our planet surveys, initially at Lick and later at Keck and the AAT, have had a broad societal and scientific impact, including the discovery of half of the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Our work has been credited with providing the motivation for the new disciplines of astrobiology and extrasolar planet studies. All the Iodine precision velocity systems in the world are based on our original system on the Lick 3-m (Butler et al. 1996). For us the PFS/Magellan system is the culmination of 25 years of work, leading to the detection of potentially habitable planets.

Butler, R.

266

Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our contemporary notion of planetary habitability. This study also shows the convergence of the methodological aspects used to examine the concept of habitability, mainly based on analogy.

Raulin Cerceau, Florence

267

EXCEDE: The Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environment And Disk Explorer Utilizing A Phase Induced Amplitude Apodized Coronagraphic Telescope For High Contrast Imaging Of Circumstellar Planet-forming Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environment and Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) SMEX mission to directly image starlight-scattering circumstellar material in the planet-forming regions of stars exhibiting thermal infrared emission above their stellar photospheric levels (a signpost of planetary systems in formation). EXCEDE will provide contrast-limited scattered-light detection sensitivities 100 to 1000 times more sensitive than the HST and JWST coronagraphs at

Thomas P. Greene; G. Schneider

2007-01-01

268

HST WFPC2 GTO Observations of Circumstellar Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the WFPC2 camera aboard the Hubble Space Telescope to observe circumstellar nebulosity around young and main sequence stars. Young stars were selected that had high millimeter excesses (indicating a disk) or high polarizations (indicating reflection nebulosity). We present recent observations which include the field of FS Tauri, where complex reflection nebulosity surrounds the binary system of FS Tau A. In the same field is Haro 6-5B, which appears to be a protostellar disk, similar to HH 30 but flatter and more massive. It is the source of a bipolar jet and is situated at the center of a large (2 arcmin), hourglass-shaped reflection nebula. Despite circumstellar masses an order of magnitude greater than that of HH 30, we find that the classical T Tauri star CY Tauri and the weak-line T Tauri star LkCa 15 both lack any detectable reflection nebulosity. The main sequence stars HR-4796, Epsilon Eridani, Vega, and Fomalhaut were imaged to search for Beta Pictoris-like disks, but none were detected. These observations provide further evidence that the disk of Beta Pic is unique in terms of orientation and particle properties.

Krist, J. E.; Burrows, C. J.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; WFPC2 Id Team

1997-12-01

269

The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A  

E-print Network

We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to date of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly from the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41\\degr south and 8\\degr east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in...

Sugerman, B E K; Kunkel, W E; Heathcote, S R; Lawrence, S S; Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

2005-01-01

270

THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2011ja: CLUES FROM CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION  

SciTech Connect

Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

Chakraborti, Sayan [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Smith, Randall [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ryder, Stuart [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Sutaria, Firoza [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore (India); Dwarkadas, Vikram V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Pooley, David [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX (United States); Roy, Rupak, E-mail: schakraborti@fas.harvard.edu [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital (India)

2013-09-01

271

Variable Circumstellar Disks of “Classical” Be Stars, Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks are common among many stars, all spectral types, and at different stages of their lifetimes. Among the near-main sequence “Classical” Be stars, there is growing evidence that these disks can form, dissipate, and reform, on timescales that are differ from case to case. We present data for a subset of cases where observations have been obtained throughout the different phases of the disk cycle. Using data obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF, we examine the IR spectral line variability of these stars to better understand the timescales and the physical mechanisms involved. The primary focus in this study are the V/R variations that are observed in the sample. A complete run of all double-peaked velocity profiles in the sample is now complete. The second stage of our project is to examine a sample of star clusters known to contain Be stars, with the goal to develop a more statistically significant sample of variable circumstellar disk systems. With a robust multi-epoch study we can determine whether these Be stars exhibit disk-loss or disk-renewal phases. The larger sample will enable an understanding of the prevalence of these disk events.

Gerhartz, Cody; Davidson, J. W.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Wisniewski, J. P.

2014-01-01

272

Archival legacy investigations of circumstellar environments: overview and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently conducting a comprehensive and consistent re-processing of archival HST-NICMOS coronagraphic surveys using advanced PSF subtraction methods, entitled the Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments program (ALICE, HST/AR 12652). This virtual campaign of about 400 targets has already produced numerous new detections of previously unidentified point sources and circumstellar structures. We present five newly spatially resolved debris disks revealed in scattered light by our analysis of the archival data. These images provide new views of material around young solar-type stars at ages corresponding to the period of terrestrial planet formation in our solar system. We have also detected several new candidate substellar companions, for which there are ongoing followup campaigns (HST/WFC3 and VLT/SINFONI in ADI mode). Since the methods developed as part of ALICE are directly applicable to future missions (JWST, AFTA coronagraph) we emphasize the importance of devising optimal PSF subtraction methods for upcoming coronagraphic imaging missions. We describe efforts in defining direct imaging high-level science products (HLSP) standards that can be applicable to other coronagraphic campaigns, including ground-based (e.g., Gemini Planet Imager), and future space instruments (e.g., JWST). ALICE will deliver a first release of HLSPs to the community through the MAST archive at STScI in 2014.

Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Chen, Christine; Perrin, Marshall D.; Debes, John; Golimowski, David; Hines, Dean C.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Schneider, Glenn; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Soummer, Rémi

2014-08-01

273

Diurnal Habitability of Frozen Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss effects allowing local habitability of some extraterrestrial planets of low average surface temperatures. We analyze the problem of diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature and biological productivity at different locations on a hypothetical Earth-like planet. We have found, that under some circumstances the temperature may locally rise well above the average value, allowing periods of

W. von Bloh; K. J. Kossacki; S. Franck; C. Bounama

2010-01-01

274

7 Habits of Developmental Coaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe how coaches can apply principles of athlete growth and development to the learning and performance of motor skills. They present 7 habits that lead to well-rounded athletes who experience increased enjoyment, self-motivation, skill improvement, and ultimately more success on the playing field. (Contains 1…

Darden, Gibson; Shimon, Jane

2004-01-01

275

Habits of the radio audience  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis in Omaha of the radio listeners' habits and knowledge of station and program tuned in indicates that in periods just before the quarter hour fewer radios are tuned in. Station and program identification by the listener is higher just before the half hour.

F. H. Lumley

1933-01-01

276

Design Considerations for a Ground-based Transit Search for Habitable Planets Orbiting M dwarfs  

E-print Network

By targeting nearby M dwarfs, a transit search using modest equipment is capable of discovering planets as small as 2 Earth radii in the habitable zones of their host stars. The MEarth Project, a future transit search, aims to employ a network of ground-based robotic telescopes to monitor M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere with sufficient precision and cadence to detect such planets. Here we investigate the design requirements for the MEarth Project. We evaluate the optimal bandpass, and the necessary field of view, telescope aperture, and telescope time allocation on a star-by-star basis, as is possible for the well-characterized nearby M dwarfs. Through these considerations, 1,976 late M dwarfs (R planets in habitable zone orbits, we find that a network of ten 30 cm telescopes could survey these 1,976 M dwarfs in less than 3 years. A null result from this survey would set an upper limit (at 99% confidence) of 17% for the rate of occurrence of planets larger than 2 Earth radii in the habitable zones of late M dwarfs, and even stronger constraints for planets lying closer than the habitable zone. If the true occurrence rate of habitable planets is 10%, the expected yield would be 2.6 planets.

Philip Nutzman; David Charbonneau

2007-09-18

277

Exoplanet Searches in the Habitable Zone with Gravitational Microlensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are different methods for finding exoplanets such as radial spectral shifts, astrometrical measurements, transits, timing, etc. Gravitational microlensing (including pixel-lensing) is among the most promising techniques with the potential of detecting Earth-like planets at distances about a few astronomical units from their host stars. Here we emphasize the importance of polarization measurements which can help to resolve degeneracies in theoretical models. In particular, the polarization angle could give additional information about the relative position of the lens with respect to the source.

Zakharov, Alexander F.; Ingrosso, Gabriele; De Paolis, Francesco; Nucita, Achille A.; Strafella, Francesco; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Jetzer, Philippe

2014-04-01

278

Environmental control system for Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HPF is an ultra-stable, precision radial velocity near infrared spectrograph with a unique environmental control scheme. The spectrograph will operate at a mid-range temperature of 180K, approximately half way between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature; it will be stable to sub -milli-Kelvin(mK) levels over a calibration cycle and a few mK over months to years. HPF's sensor is a 1.7 micron H2RG device by Teledyne. The environmental control boundary is a 9 m2 thermal enclosure that completely surrounds the optical train and produces a near blackbody cavity for all components. A large, pressure - stabilized liquid nitrogen tank provides the heat sink for the system via thermal straps while a multichannel resistive heater control system provides the stabilizing heat source. High efficiency multi-layer insulation blanketing provides the outermost boundary of the thermal enclosure to largely isolate the environmental system from ambient conditions. The cryostat, a stainless steel shell derived from the APOGEE design, surrounds the thermal enclosure and provides a stable, high quality vacuum environment. The full instrument will be housed in a passive 'meat -locker' enclosure to add a degree of additional thermal stability and as well as protect the instrument. Effectiveness of this approach is being empirically demonstrated via long duration scale model testing. The full scale cryostat and environmental control system are being constructed for a 2016 delivery of the instrument to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. This report describes the configuration of the hardware and the scale-model test results as well as projections for performance of the full system.

Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Nelson, Matt; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Burton, Adam; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad; Terrien, Ryan; Halverson, Samuel; Robertson, Paul; Roy, Arpita; Blank, Basil; Blanchard, Ken; Stefansson, Gudmundur

2014-07-01

279

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

280

The Three-dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surrounding SN 1987A is a three-ring nebula attributed to interacting stellar winds, yet no model has successfully reproduced this system. Fortunately, the progenitor's mass-loss history can be reconstructed using light echoes, in which scattered light from the supernova traces the three-dimensional morphology of its circumstellar dust. In this paper, we construct and analyze the most complete map to date of the progenitor's circumstellar environment, using ground- and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 lt-yr from the SN. Previously known structures, such as an inner hourglass, Napoleon's Hat, and a contact discontinuity, are probed in greater spatial detail than before. Previously unknown features are also discovered, such as a southern counterpart to Napoleon's Hat. Careful analyses of these echoes allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main-sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 lt-yr along the poles and 11 lt-yr near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 lt-yr. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 lt-yr in radius and 4 lt-yr long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41° south and 8° east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1-3 to >~0.03 cm-3, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 to 2 ?m, and the silicate:carbonaceous dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msolar. The geometry of the three rings is studied, suggesting the northern and southern rings are located 1.3 and 1.0 lt-yr from the SN, while the equatorial ring is elliptical (b/a<~0.98), and spatially offset in the same direction as the hourglass.

Sugerman, Ben E. K.; Crotts, Arlin P. S.; Kunkel, William E.; Heathcote, Stephen R.; Lawrence, Stephen S.

2005-07-01

281

Searching for the Circumstellar Ejecta Around Cool Hypergiants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present HST and Spitzer images of several of the most luminous cool stars in the Galaxy. These highly unstable, very massive stars lie on or near the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the H-R diagram, and are characterized by high mass loss phenomena, sometimes violent, which may be responsible for the upper boundary. These observations are designed to search for circumstellar structures close to the star as well as more distant nebulosity. We discuss the presence, or lack of, ejecta around these hypergiants, and the evolutionary implications. Our high-resolution WFPC2 images show compact nebulosity around the cool M-type hypergiants NML Cyg, VX Sgr and S Per. The powerful OH/IR source NML Cyg exhibits a small, peculiar bean-shaped asymmetric nebula that closely matches the distribution of the surrounding H2O vapor masers. NML Cyg's concave outer envelope is likely shaped by photo-dissociation from the powerful, nearby association Cyg OB2 inside the Cygnus X superbubble. VX Sgr and S Per, also OH/IR sources, have marginally resolved envelopes. S Per's circumstellar nebula appears elongated in a NE/SW orientation similar to that for its surrounding OH and H2O masers, while VX Sgr is obscured by a spheroidal envelope. We find no evidence in our WFPC2 images for circumstellar nebulosity around the intermediate-type hypergiants ? Cas, HR 8752, HR 5171a nor the normal M-type supergiant ? Cep. We conclude that very likely, there has been no high mass loss event prior to 500-1000 yrs ago for these four stars. Our IRAC images (? Cas, HR 8752, and R 150) also show no evidence for extended structure. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work is in part provided by NASA through contracts 1256406 and 1215746 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Minnesota.

Schuster, M. T.; Humphreys, R. M.; Marengo, M.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.; Polomski, E.

2005-05-01

282

Eating Well Healthy habits for children  

E-print Network

Eating Well Healthy habits for children and adults OHSU is an equal opportunity, affirmative action exercise. It's also a matter of healthful eating habits. Children need a wide variety of foods for good% wind power. #12;Where do I start? Once you have decided to make healthy choices in your eating habits

Chapman, Michael S.

283

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2010  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2010 2011 Environment Report RL 13/11 Cefas contract Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2010 Shellfish consumption and intertidal occupancy review F, P., Smedley, C.A., and Ly, V.E., 2011. Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2010. RL 13

284

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2011  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2011 2012 Environment Report RL 05/12 Cefas contract Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2011 Shellfish consumption and intertidal occupancy review F., 2012. Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2011. RL 05/12. Cefas, Lowestoft A copy can

285

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2012  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2012 2013 Environment Report RL 04a/13 Cefas Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2012 Aquatic pathways review G.P. Papworth, C.J., Ly, V.E., and Dewar, A., 2013. Radiological Habits Survey: Sellafield Review, 2012. RL 04a/13

286

University Students' Media Habits: A Lithuanian Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study replicated a 1994 study, "College Students' Media Habits: A National Study." In the present study, Lithuanian university students' media habits relative to American students' media habits were gauged. A total of 1500 survey questionnaires were distributed to 7 of the 16 Lithuanian universities. Background biographical questions were asked,…

Kamalipour, Yahya R.; And Others

287

Young Circumstellar Disks and Their Evolution: A Review  

E-print Network

A detailed understanding of the physics of star and planet formation requires study of individual objects as well as statistical assessment of global properties and evolutionary trends. Observational investigations of circumstellar material surrounding young stars have matured to the point that both spectral energy distributions sampled over more than four decades in wavelength and spatially resolved images or interferometric visibilities at limited optical/infrared and sub-/millimeter wavelengths are becoming available, though for few individual objects at present. Data on star/disk systems combined with continuing surveys for exo-solar planets themselves will lead to constraints on the likelihood and frequency of solar system formation. An overarching goal of these pursuits is to connect what is observed elsewhere with the history of our own solar solar system, and hence enhance our appreciation of the uniqueness -- or lack thereof -- of the human circumstance.

Lynne A. Hillenbrand

2002-10-23

288

Flash-Heating of Circumstellar Clouds by Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

The blast-wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been called into question by observations of spectra from GRBs that are harder than can be produced through optically thin synchrotron emission. If GRBs originate from the collapse of massive stars, then circumstellar clouds near burst sources will be illuminated by intense gamma radiation, and the electrons in these clouds will be rapidly scattered to energies as large as several hundred keV. Low-energy photons that subsequently pass through the hot plasma will be scattered to higher energies, hardening the intrisic spectrum. This effect resolves the "line-of-death" objection to the synchrotron shock model. Illuminated clouds near GRBs will form relativistic plasmas containing large numbers of electron-positron pairs that can be detected within ~ 1-2 days of the explosion before expanding and dissipating. Localized regions of pair annihilation radiation in the Galaxy would reveal past GRB explosions.

Charles D. Dermer; Markus Boettcher

2000-02-15

289

The Circumstellar Disk of HD 141569 Imaged with NICMOS.  

PubMed

Coronagraphic imaging with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer on the Hubble Space Telescope reveals a large, approximately 400 AU (4&arcsec;) radius, circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 141569. A reflected light image at 1.1 µm shows the disk oriented at a position angle of 356&j0;+/-5&j0; and inclined to our line of sight by 51&j0;+/-3&j0;; the intrinsic scattering function of the dust in the disk makes the side inclined toward us, the eastern side, brighter. The disk flux density peaks 185 AU (1&farcs;85) from the star and falls off to both larger and smaller radii. A region of depleted material, or a gap, in the disk is centered 250 AU from the star. The dynamical effect of one or more planets may be necessary to explain this morphology. PMID:10511512

Weinberger; Becklin; Schneider; Smith; Lowrance; Silverstone; Zuckerman; Terrile

1999-11-01

290

The Three-Dimensional Circumstellar Environment of SN 1987A  

E-print Network

We present the detailed construction and analysis of the most complete map to date of the circumstellar environment around SN 1987A, using ground and space-based imaging from the past 16 years. PSF-matched difference-imaging analyses of data from 1988 through 1997 reveal material between 1 and 28 ly from the SN. Careful analyses allows the reconstruction of the probable circumstellar environment, revealing a richly-structured bipolar nebula. An outer, double-lobed ``Peanut,'' which is believed to be the contact discontinuity between red supergiant and main sequence winds, is a prolate shell extending 28 ly along the poles and 11 ly near the equator. Napoleon's Hat, previously believed to be an independent structure, is the waist of this Peanut, which is pinched to a radius of 6 ly. Interior to this is a cylindrical hourglass, 1 ly in radius and 4 ly long, which connects to the Peanut by a thick equatorial disk. The nebulae are inclined 41\\degr south and 8\\degr east of the line of sight, slightly elliptical in cross section, and marginally offset west of the SN. From the hourglass to the large, bipolar lobes, echo fluxes suggest that the gas density drops from 1--3 cm^{-3} to >0.03 cm^{-3}, while the maximum dust-grain size increases from ~0.2 micron to 2 micron, and the Si:C dust ratio decreases. The nebulae have a total mass of ~1.7 Msun. The geometry of the three rings is studied, suggesting the northern and southern rings are located 1.3 and 1.0 ly from the SN, while the equatorial ring is elliptical (b/a hourglass.

Ben E. K. Sugerman; Arlin P. S. Crotts; William E. Kunkel; Stephen R. Heathcote; Stephen S. Lawrence

2005-02-18

291

Beta Pic-like Circumstellar Gas Disk Around 2 And  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant was awarded to support the data analysis and publication of results from our project entitled P Pic-like Circumstellar Gas Disk Around 2 And . We proposed to obtain FUSE observations of 2 And and study the characteristics and origin of its circumstellar gas. We observed 2 Andromedae with FUSE on 3-4 July 2001 in 11 exposures with a total exposure time of 21,289 seconds through the LWRS aperture. Our data were calibrated with Version 1.8.7 of the CALFUSE pipeline processing software. We corrected the wavelength scale for the heliocentric velocity error in this version of the CALFUSE software. The relative accuracy of the calibrated wavelength scale is +/- 9 km/s . We produced a co-added spectrum in the LiF 1B and LiF 2A channels (covering the 1100 to 1180 A region) by cross-correlating the 11 individual exposures and doing an exposure-time weighted average flux. The final co-added spectra have a signal-to-noise ratio in the stellar continuum near 1150 A of about 20. To obtain an absolute wavelength calibration, we cross-correlated our observed spectra with a model spectrum to obtain the best fit for the photospheric C I lines. Because the photospheric lines are very broad, this yields an absolute accuracy for the wavelength scale of approx.+/- 15 km/s. We then rebinned 5 original pixels to yield the optimal sampling of .033 A for each new pixel, because the calibrated spectra oversample the spectral resolution for FUSE+LWRS (R = 20,000 +/- 2,000).

Cheng, Patricia

2003-01-01

292

Habitability of extrasolar planets and tidal spin evolution.  

PubMed

Stellar radiation has conservatively been used as the key constraint to planetary habitability. We review here the effects of tides, exerted by the host star on the planet, on the evolution of the planetary spin. Tides initially drive the rotation period and the orientation of the rotation axis into an equilibrium state but do not necessarily lead to synchronous rotation. As tides also circularize the orbit, eventually the rotation period does equal the orbital period and one hemisphere will be permanently irradiated by the star. Furthermore, the rotational axis will become perpendicular to the orbit, i.e. the planetary surface will not experience seasonal variations of the insolation. We illustrate here how tides alter the spins of planets in the traditional habitable zone. As an example, we show that, neglecting perturbations due to other companions, the Super-Earth Gl581d performs two rotations per orbit and that any primordial obliquity has been eroded. PMID:22139513

Heller, René; Barnes, Rory; Leconte, Jérémy

2011-12-01

293

Climate Stability of Habitable Earth-like Planets  

E-print Network

The carbon-silicate cycle regulates the atmospheric $CO_2$ content of terrestrial planets on geological timescales through a balance between the rates of $CO_2$ volcanic outgassing and planetary intake from rock weathering. It is thought to act as an efficient climatic thermostat on Earth and, by extension, on other habitable planets. If, however, the weathering rate increases with the atmospheric $CO_2$ content, as expected on planets lacking land vascular plants, the carbon-silicate cycle feedback can become severely limited. Here we show that Earth-like planets receiving less sunlight than current Earth may no longer possess a stable warm climate but instead repeatedly cycle between unstable glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. This has implications for the search for life on exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby stars.

Menou, Kristen

2014-01-01

294

The feeding habits of Glossina*  

PubMed Central

The feeding habits of 15 species of Glossina have been studied by the identification of their blood meals. Representative samples of the blood meals from each of these species of tsetse fly and from different habitats were collected and 22 640 blood meals were identified. The feeding patterns are characteristic for each species of tsetse fly and do not appear to depend entirely on the availability of different hosts, suggesting that the feeding habits of Glossina are genetically determined. However, a broad grouping can be made into five categories: species feeding mainly on suids, those feeding on suids and bovids, those feeding mainly on bovids, those feeding mainly on mammals other than suids and bovids, and those feeding on most available hosts and on man. The possibility of control by selective elimination of the main hosts of these groups is discussed. PMID:13999790

Weitz, Bernard

1963-01-01

295

Diurnal Habitability of Frozen Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss effects allowing local habitability of some extraterrestrial planets of low average surface temperatures.\\u000a We analyze the problem of diurnal and seasonal changes of temperature and biological productivity at different locations on\\u000a a hypothetical Earth-like planet. We have found, that under some circumstances the temperature may locally rise well above\\u000a the average value, allowing periods of

W. von Bloh; K. J. Kossacki; S. Franck; C. Bounama

2010-01-01

296

Development of a Habitable Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the origin of the elements, the process of planet formation, the evolution of life on Earth, and the conditions necessary for life as we know it. Using multimedia resources and a classroom activity, students identify and sequence the major events that caused Earth to develop into the planet we know, understand where the ingredients for Earth originated, including the conditions necessary for life, and consider the likelihood of other habitable worlds.

2005-01-01

297

Using Optogenetics to Study Habits  

PubMed Central

It is now well documented that optogenetics brings to neuroscience a long sought-after foothold to study the causal role of millisecond-scale activity of genetically or anatomically defined populations of neurons. Progress is rapid, and, as evidenced by the work collected in this Special Issue, the possibilities of what can now be done are almost dizzying. Even for those concerned with complex phenomena, such as behavioral habits and flexibility, signs are that we could be on the threshold of a leap in scientific understanding. In this article, we note this special time in neuroscience by the example of our use of optogenetics to study habitual behavior. We present a basic sketch of the neural circuitry of habitual behavior built mainly on findings from experiments in which lesion and drug microinjection techniques were employed in combination with sophisticated behavioral analysis. We then outline the types of questions that now can be approached through the use of optogenetic approaches, and, as an example, we summarize the results of a recent study of ours in which we took this approach to probe the neural basis of habit formation. With optogenetic methods, we were able to demonstrate that a small site in the medial prefrontal cortex can control habits on-line during their execution, and we were able to control new habits when they competed with prior ones. The nearly immediate effect of disabling this site optogenetically suggests the existence of a mechanism for moment-to-moment monitoring of behaviors that long have been thought to be almost automatic and reflexive. This example highlights the kind of new knowledge that can be gained by the carefully timed use of optogenetic tools. PMID:23313580

Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2013-01-01

298

The Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation on Planetary Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic constraints on planetary habitability, specifically the requirement of liquid H2O oceans, provide a definition of the habitable zone around main sequence stars with spectral types in the early-F to mid-K range. However, it has not been demonstrated that planets orbiting such stars would have habitable surfaces when biologically-damaging energetic radiation is also considered. The large amounts of ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by early-type stars have been suggested to pose a problem for the evolution of life in their vicinity. It has also been suggested that a significant problem is posed by late-type stars which emit proportionally less radiation at the short wavelengths (lambda < 200 nm) required to photolyze O(sub)2, an essential step in ozone (O(sub)3) formation. The presence of O(sub)3 in a planetary atmosphere is the only shield from UV radiation in the wavelength range 220-320 nm which is capable of inflicting serious damage to organisms on Earth, and presumably elsewhere in the Universe; other components of planetary atmospheres absorb negligibly in this UV range. Here we present detailed calculations of the UV spectrum at the surface of a planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and orbiting three types of main sequence stars, F, G and K within the habitable zone, based on climactic constraints. We conclude that neither of the concerns regarding UV radiation expressed previously should be necessarily fatal to the evolution of advanced life: Earth-like planets orbiting F and K stars are shown to receive less harmful UV radiation at their surfaces than is the case for the Earth.

Kasting, J. F.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Sheldon, W. R.

1996-03-01

299

Widen the belt of habitability!  

PubMed

Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions. PMID:22638839

Möhlmann, D

2012-06-01

300

Maintenance of permeable habitable subsurface environments by earthquakes and tidal stresses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life inhabits the subsurface of the Earth down to depths where temperature precludes it. Similar conditions are likely to exist within the traditional habitable zone for objects between 0.1 Earth mass (Mars) and 10 Earth masses (superearth). Long-term cooling and internal radioactivity maintain surface heat flow on the Earth. These heat sources are comparable and likely to be comparable in general within old rocky planets. Surface heat flow scales with mass divided by surface area and hence with surface gravity. The average absolute habitable subsurface thickness scales inversely with heat flow and gravity. Surface gravity varies by only 0.4 g for Mars to 3.15 g for a superearth. This range is less than the regional variation of heat flow on the Earth. Still ocean-boiling asteroid impacts (if they occur) are more likely to sterilize the thin habitable subsurface of large objects than thick habitable subsurface of small ones. Tectonics self-organizes to maintain subsurface permeability and habitability within both stable and active regions on the Earth. Small earthquakes within stable regions allow sudden mixing of water masses. Large earthquakes at plate boundaries allow surface water to descend to great habitable depths. Seismic shaking near major faults cracks shallow rock forming permeable regolith. Strong tidal strains form a similar porous regolith on small bodies such as Enceladus with weak stellar heating. This regolith may be water-saturated within rocky bodies and thus habitable.

Sleep, Norman H.

2012-10-01

301

THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD XXIX: THE HABITABLE REAL ESTATE OF OUR NEAREST STELLAR NEIGHBORS  

SciTech Connect

We use the sample of known stars and brown dwarfs within 5 pc of the Sun, supplemented with AFGK stars within 10 pc, to determine which stellar spectral types provide the most habitable real estate—defined as locations where liquid water could be present on Earth-like planets. Stellar temperatures and radii are determined by fitting model spectra to spatially resolved broadband photometric energy distributions for stars in the sample. Using these values, the locations of the habitable zones are calculated using an empirical formula for planetary surface temperature and assuming the condition of liquid water, called here the empirical habitable zone (EHZ). Systems that have dynamically disruptive companions are considered not habitable. We consider companions to be disruptive if the separation ratio of the companion to the habitable zone is less than 5:1. We use the results of these calculations to derive a simple formula for predicting the location of the EHZ for main sequence stars based on V – K color. We consider EHZ widths as more useful measures of the habitable real estate around stars than areas because multiple planets are not expected to orbit stars at identical stellar distances. This EHZ provides a qualitative guide on where to expect the largest population of planets in the habitable zones of main sequence stars. Because of their large numbers and lower frequency of short-period companions, M stars provide more EHZ real estate than other spectral types, possessing 36.5% of the habitable real estate en masse. K stars are second with 21.5%, while A, F, and G stars offer 18.5%, 6.9%, and 16.6%, respectively. Our calculations show that three M dwarfs within 10 pc harbor planets in their EHZs—GJ 581 may have two planets (d with msin i = 6.1 M {sub ?}; g with msin i = 3.1 M {sub ?}), GJ 667 C has one (c with msin i = 4.5 M {sub ?}), and GJ 876 has two (b with msin i = 1.89 M {sub Jup} and c with msin i = 0.56 M {sub Jup}). If Earth-like planets are as common around low-mass stars as recent Kepler results suggest, M stars will harbor more Earth-like planets in habitable zones than any other stellar spectral type.

Cantrell, Justin R.; Henry, Todd J.; White, Russel J., E-mail: cantrell@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.edu [Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States)

2013-10-01

302

The Solar Neighborhood XXIX: The Habitable Real Estate of Our Nearest Stellar Neighbors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the sample of known stars and brown dwarfs within 5 pc of the Sun, supplemented with AFGK stars within 10 pc, to determine which stellar spectral types provide the most habitable real estate—defined as locations where liquid water could be present on Earth-like planets. Stellar temperatures and radii are determined by fitting model spectra to spatially resolved broadband photometric energy distributions for stars in the sample. Using these values, the locations of the habitable zones are calculated using an empirical formula for planetary surface temperature and assuming the condition of liquid water, called here the empirical habitable zone (EHZ). Systems that have dynamically disruptive companions are considered not habitable. We consider companions to be disruptive if the separation ratio of the companion to the habitable zone is less than 5:1. We use the results of these calculations to derive a simple formula for predicting the location of the EHZ for main sequence stars based on V - K color. We consider EHZ widths as more useful measures of the habitable real estate around stars than areas because multiple planets are not expected to orbit stars at identical stellar distances. This EHZ provides a qualitative guide on where to expect the largest population of planets in the habitable zones of main sequence stars. Because of their large numbers and lower frequency of short-period companions, M stars provide more EHZ real estate than other spectral types, possessing 36.5% of the habitable real estate en masse. K stars are second with 21.5%, while A, F, and G stars offer 18.5%, 6.9%, and 16.6%, respectively. Our calculations show that three M dwarfs within 10 pc harbor planets in their EHZs—GJ 581 may have two planets (d with msin i = 6.1 M ? g with msin i = 3.1 M ?), GJ 667 C has one (c with msin i = 4.5 M ?), and GJ 876 has two (b with msin i = 1.89 M Jup and c with msin i = 0.56 M Jup). If Earth-like planets are as common around low-mass stars as recent Kepler results suggest, M stars will harbor more Earth-like planets in habitable zones than any other stellar spectral type.

Cantrell, Justin R.; Henry, Todd J.; White, Russel J.

2013-10-01

303

Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on photos as tear-drop shaped, bright-rimmed areas with the cusps of the ionised regions aligned towards the exciting star. Such a region is also a very compact source of radio emission. Clearly, the harsh environment in which these disks reside does not favour planet formation. These findings were facilitated by the fact that, at a distance of `only' 1500 lightyears (about 450 parsec), the Orion Nebula is the closest site of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, many circumstellar disks around stars in this nebula are seen in silhouette against a bright and uniform background and are therefore comparatively easy to detect. The Lagoon Nebula In principle, similar phenomena should occur in any giant molecular cloud that gives rise to the birth of massive stars. However, the detection of such disks in other clouds would be very difficult, first of all because of their much larger distance. The Lagoon Nebula (M8) is located four times further away than the Orion Nebula and it is also a site of recent high-mass star formation. Its brightest part constitutes a conspicuous region of ionised hydrogen gas (an `HII-region') dubbed `The Hourglass' because of the resemblance. The gas in this area is ionised by the action of the nearby, hot star Herschel 36 (Her 36) . High-resolution radio maps show that the emission from the ionised gas peaks at 2.7 arcsec southeast of Her 36. An early explanation was that this emission is due to an unseen, massive star that is deeply embedded in the gas and dust and which is causing an ultra-compact HII-region (UCHR), catalogued as G5.97-1.17 according to its galactic coordinates. High-resolution images from ESO During a detailed investigation of such ultra-compact HII regions, Bringfried Stecklum and his colleagues found that, unlike ordinary UCHRs, this particular object is visible on optical images obtained with the HST Wide-Field Planetary Camera (HST-WFPC). This means that, contrary to the others, it is not deeply embedded in the nebula - its light reaches us directly without suffering a high degree of absorption. They subsequently obtai

1997-04-01

304

TW HYA ASSOCIATION MEMBERSHIP AND NEW WISE-DETECTED CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 {mu}m providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, {approx}8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE and determine a 22 {mu}m excess fraction of 42{sup +10}{sub -{sub 9}}% based on our results.

Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Melis, Carl, E-mail: aschneid@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

2012-07-20

305

TW Hya Association Membership and New WISE-detected Circumstellar Disks  

E-print Network

We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae Association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 \\mum providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, ~8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting from circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE, and determine a 22 \\mum excess fraction of 42+/- 9% based on our results.

Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok

2012-01-01

306

TW HYA Association Membership and New WISE-detected Circumstellar Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the current membership of the nearby, young TW Hydrae association and examine newly proposed members with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for infrared excess indicative of circumstellar disks. Newly proposed members TWA 30A, TWA 30B, TWA 31, and TWA 32 all show excess emission at 12 and 22 ?m providing clear evidence for substantial dusty circumstellar disks around these low-mass, ~8 Myr old stars that were previously shown to likely be accreting circumstellar material. TWA 30B shows large amounts of self-extinction, likely due to an edge-on disk geometry. We also confirm previously reported circumstellar disks with WISE and determine a 22 ?m excess fraction of 42+10 - 9% based on our results.

Schneider, Adam; Melis, Carl; Song, Inseok

2012-07-01

307

Unveiling the circumstellar environment toward a massive young stellar object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: As a continuation of a previous work, in which we found strong evidence of massive molecular outflows toward a massive star-forming site, we present a new study of this region based on very high angular resolution observations with the aim of discovering the outflow-driven mechanism. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the broad H- and Ks-bands, we studied a region of 22'' × 22'' around the UCHii region G045.47+0.05, a massive-star forming site at a distance of about 8 kpc. To image the source with the highest spatial resolution possible we employed the adaptative optics system ALTAIR, achieving an angular resolution of about 0.15 arcsec. Results: We discovered a cone shaped nebula that has an opening angle of about 90° and extends eastward of the IR source 2MASS J19142564+1109283, which is very likely a massive young stellar object (MYSO). This morphology suggests a cavity that was cleared in the circumstellar material, and its emission may arise from scattered continuum light, warm dust, and probably also from emission lines from shock-excited gas. The nebula, which presents arc-like features, is connected with the IR source through a jet-like structure, which is aligned with the blueshifted CO outflow found in a previous study. The near-IR structure lies ~3'' north of the radio continuum emission, revealing that it is not spatially coincident with the UCHii region. The observed morphology and structure of the near-IR nebula strongly suggest the presence of a precessing jet. We resolved the circumstellar environment (in scale of a thousand AU) of a distant MYSO, indeed one of the farthest currently known. Reduced NIR data (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/L2

Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

2013-11-01

308

High Resolution Spectroscopy of Vega-like Stars: Abundances and Circumstellar Gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vega-like stars are main-sequence stars exhibiting excess infrared emission. In an effort to improve the information available on this class of star, 13 stars have been analyzed which have been classed as Vega-like, or have an infra-red excess attributable to dust in their circumstellar environment. In a separate paper stellar properties such as effective temperature and log g have been derived and in this poster we highlight the results of the photospheric abundance analysis also carried out during this work. King recently drew attention to the possible link between Vega-like stars and the photospheric metal-depleted class of A-stars, the Lambda Bootis stars. Since Vega-like stars are thought to have disks of dust, it might be expected that accretion of depleted gas onto the surface of these stars may cause this same phenomenon. In the 6 stars studied for depletions, none showed the extreme underabundance patterns observed in Lambda Bootis stars. However, depletions of silicon and magnesium were found in two of the sample, suggesting that these elements are in silicate dust grains in the circumstellar environment of these stars. Absorption lines attributed to circumstellar gas have been positively identified in three stars in our sample. Individual cases show evidence either of high-velocity outflowing gas, variability in the circumstellar lines observed, or evidence of circumstellar gas in excited lines of Fe II. No previous identification of circumstellar material has been made for two of the stars in question.

Dunkin, S. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Ryan, Sean G.

1996-01-01

309

What Makes a World Habitable?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about characteristics necessary for life. Learners will identify the top candidates for life in the solar system by examining Habitability Cards, which discuss each planet and the six large moons in terms of water temperature, atmosphere, energy, and nutrients. A math extension is provided on the Inverse Square Law. Includes background reading for teachers, student activity guide, reflection questions, and blackline masters. This is activity 3 of 5 in the educators guide, Astrobiology in your Classroom: Life on Earth..and Elsewhere?

310

Radiological Habits Survey: Hinkley Point, 2010  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Hinkley Point, 2010 2011 Environment Report RL 01/11 Cefas contract Radiological Habits Survey: Hinkley Point, 2010 F.J. Clyne, C.J. Garrod, P. Rumney, L.M. Hughes and V.E. Ly be cited as: Clyne, F.C., Garrod, C.J., Rumney, P., Hughes, L.M., and Ly, V.E., 2011. Radiological Habits

311

On the Excitation and Formation of Circumstellar Fullerenes  

E-print Network

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds; Tc1, SMP SMC16, and SMP LMC56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C60 and little or no emission is present from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The strength of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae is very similar, while the ratio of the [NeIII]15.5um/[NeII]12.8um fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, is markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9um region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated wi...

Bernard-Salas, J; Peeters, E; Jones, A P; Micelotta, E R; Groenewegen, M A T

2012-01-01

312

ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES  

SciTech Connect

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay (France); Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Groenewegen, M. A. T., E-mail: jbernard@ias.u-psud.fr [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-09-20

313

The formation and structure of circumstellar and interstellar dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intriguing abundance of long linear carbon chain molecules in some dark clouds and in circumstellar shells is still not well understood. Recent laboratory studies which have probed this problem indicate that when carbon vapor nucleates to form particles, linear chains and hollow cage molecules (fullerenes) also form at more-or-less the same time. The results have consequences for the formation, structures and spectroscopic properties of the molecular and dust components ejected from cool carbon-rich stars. A most interesting result of the experimental observations relates to the probability that a third character in addition to the chains and grains, the C(sub 60) molecule probably in the form of the ion C(sub 60)(sup +) in the less shielded regions, is present and perhaps responsible for some of the ubiquitously observed interstellar spectroscopic features such as the Diffuse Interstellar Features, the 2170A UV Absorption or perhaps some of the Unidentified Infrared Bands. Further study of small carbon particles which form in the gas phase has resulted in the discovery that they have quasi-icosahedral spiral shell structures. The role that such species may play in the interstellar medium as well as that played by C(sub 60) (or C sub 60 sup +) should soon be accessible to verification by a combination of laboratory experiment and astronomical spectroscopy.

Kroto, H. W.

1990-01-01

314

Circumstellar Debris Disks Around Nearby, Young M Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetary systems are currently believed to form within a circumstellar debris disk. Previous studies have identified over a hundred such debris disks around A, F, and G-type dwarfs from their thermal IR emission. However, very little is known about debris disks around M dwarfs, as only two debris disk systems around M dwarfs have been confirmed. Even though they are the most populous stars in our solar neighborhood, M dwarfs are often overlooked because of instrumental sensitivity; these low-mass stars have low luminosities and temperatures. But, if forming planetary systems exist around these stars, they would be the most numerous and represent a population worth examining. We propose to use the extraordinary sensitvity provided by MIPS on Spitzer to search for debris disks around a sample of nine young (~100Myr), nearby M dwarfs. The exposure times have been chosen to measure the photosphere from 3-70um. Based on current estimates of disk fractions, we should discover 1-2 debris disks, which will almost double the number of disks known around low-mass stars. Since M dwarfs are most likely the most common host of planetary systems, comparing their debris disks to those around higher mass stars will shed light on the diversity of planetary architectures. Divisions: There is 0.6 hour total using IRAC, and 16.4 hrs total using MIPS.

Fazio, Giovanni; Ardila, David; Lowrance, Patrick; Marengo, Massimo

2007-05-01

315

Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk.  

PubMed

Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC?8241?2652?1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations. PMID:22763553

Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

2012-07-01

316

On circumstellar disks: Spitzer identifies two possible evolutionary paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-wavelength surveys have vastly improved our understanding of many astrophysical objects, in particular, circumstellar disks. We present our results for the disk population of the young cluster NGC 2264. Our study was based on data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer on board the Spitzer Space Telescope combined with previously published optical data. We divide the disk population into 3 classes based on their spectral energy distribution shapes: optically thick disks, homologously depleted anemic disks, and radially depleted transition disks. We find that there are two distinct evolutionary paths for disks: a homologous one, where the disk emission decreases uniformly in NIR and mid-infrared wavelengths (anemic disks) and throughout which most sources pass, and a radially differential one where the emission from the inner region of the disk decreases more rapidly than from the outer region (transition disks). Whether a disk evolves in a homologously or radially depleted fashion is still unknown and may depend on the nature of planet formation in the disk.

Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Charles J.; Marengo, Massimo; Lada, Elizabeth

317

Light echo detection of circumstellar disks around flaring stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light echoes can be used to detect and characterize disks around flaring stars. Such disks are thought to be a hallmark of planet formation but are very difficult to detect by ordinary means. Dwarf emission-line M stars experience flares with luminosities comparable to their quiescent photospheres on time scales of minutes, less than the light travel time across a disk many astronomical units in extent; they are thus ideal candidates for such a search. Bromley (1992) calculated that the detection of Jupiter-sized companions using light echoes requires photometric accuracies better than 1 part in 10(exp 6). However, a disk consisting of grains or small bodies will scatter a much larger fraction of the light than a planet of similar mass. I estimate the light echo amplitutdes from plausible geometries of circumstellar material and present simulation light curves. The light echo amplitudes are typically 1% of the flare and I conclude that such events will be detected best in cases where the flare is eclipsed by the star. An examination of the time scales associated with internal processes in a protoplanetary disks around dM stars indicates that any primordial disks may become undetectable in 10(exp 4) years and will have completely disappeared by 10(exp 8) years, the estimated age of dMe stars in the solar neighborhood. However, searches for light echoes might constrain the amount of material continuing to fall into these young stellar systems in the form of comet-like objects.

Gaidos, Eric J.

1994-01-01

318

Polarization of circumstellar bow shocks due to electron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar material (CSM) provides a link between interacting supernovae and their massive progenitor stars. This CSM arises from stellar winds, outflows, or eruptions from a massive star before it explodes and can be detected around stars or supernovae with polarimetric observations. We use a Monte Carlo based radiative transfer code (SLIP) to investigate the polarization created by different models for the CSM surrounding a central source such as supernovae or massive stars. We vary parameters such as the shape, optical depth, temperature, and brightness of the CSM and compare the simulated flux and polarization behavior with observational data. We present results from new simulations that assume a bow shock shape for the CSM. Bow shocks are commonly observed around massive stars; this shape forms when a star moving more quickly than the speed of sound in the local interstellar medium emits a stellar wind that drives a shock wave into the ISM. Since a bow shock projects an aspherical shape onto the sky, light from the central source that scatters in the shock region becomes polarized. We present electron-scattering polarization maps for this geometry and discuss the behavior of observed polarization with viewing angle in the unresolved case.

Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, J. L.; Neilson, H.; Ignace, R.

2014-01-01

319

Episodic Mass Loss and Pre-SN Circumstellar Envelopes  

E-print Network

I discuss observational clues concerning episodic mass-loss properties of massive stars in the time before the final supernova explosion. In particular, I will focus on the mounting evidence that LBVs and related stars are candidates for supernova progenitors, even though current paradigms place them at the end of core-H burning. Namely, conditions in the immediate circumstellar environment within a few 10$^2$ AU of Type IIn supernovae require very high progenitor mass-loss rates. Those rates are so high that the only known stars that come close are LBVs during rare giant eruptions. I will highlight evidence from observations of some recent extraordinary supernovae suggesting that explosive or episodic mass loss (a.k.a. LBV eruptions like the 19th century eruption of Eta Car) occur in the 5-10 years immediately preceding the SN. Finally, I will discuss some implications for stellar evolution from these SNe, the most important of which is the observational fact that the most massive stars can indeed make it to the ends of their lives with substantial H envelopes intact, even at Solar metallicity.

Nathan Smith

2008-02-13

320

Observation of Circumstellar Gas in the Neighborhood of RZ Psc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first evidence is found of the existence of circumstellar gas in the nearest surroundings of the UX Ori star RZ Psc. Spectra obtained at the Terskol Observatory, Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) reveal a strong variability in the sodium doublet lines that is indicative of a sporadic outflow of matter. Weak variability was also observed in the core of the H? line. One nontrivial feature of this discovery is that RZ Psc is of spectral class K0 IV. This means that the star has no intrinsic energy resources for creating the observed outflow of matter. There are no emission lines in the star's spectrum which might indicate that matter is falling into the star so that the observed outflow could be related to an accretion process. We suggest, nevertheless, that the ejection of gas is related to residual (slow) accretion and is driven by a propeller mechanism. The latter is possible if the star has a sufficiently high (on the order of 103 G) magnetic field.

Potravnov, I. S.; Grinin, V. P.; Ilyin, I. V.

2013-12-01

321

A WISE Survey of Circumstellar Disks in Taurus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 ?m from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ~M8 (M >~ 0.03 M ?). Based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and the Digitized Sky Survey.

Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

2014-04-01

322

An Optical Study of the Circumstellar Environment Around the Crab Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-slit spectra of two peripheral regions around the Crab Nebula show no H(alpha) emission down to a flux level of 1.5 x 10(exp -7)erg/sq cm s sr (0.63 Rayleigh), corresponding to an emission measure limit of 4.2 cm(sup - 6) pc (3(sigma)) assuming A(sub V)= 1.6(sup m) and T(sub e)=7000 K. This is below the flux levels reported by Murdin & Clark (Nature, 294, 543 (198 1)) for an H(alpha) halo around the Crab. Narrow H(beta) emission as described by Murdin (MNRAS, 269, 89 (1994)) is detected but appears to be Galactic emission unassociated with the remnant. A review of prior searches indicates no convincing observational evidence to support either a high- or low-velocity envelope around the remnant. Spectral scans confirm a well-organized, N-S expansion asymmetry of the filaments with a approx. 500 km/s central velocity constriction as described by MacAlpine et al. (ApJ, 342, 364 (1989)) and Lawrence et (it. (AJ, 109, 2635 (1995)] but questioned by Hester et al. (ApJ, 448, 240 (1995)). The velocity pinching appears to coincide with an cast-west chain of bright [O III] and helium-rich filaments. This expansion asymmetry might be the result of ejecta interaction with a disk of circumstellar matter, but such a model may be inconsistent with H and He filament abundances in the velocity constriction zone. A re-analysis of the remnant's total mass suggests that the filaments contain 4.6 +/- 1.8 M(solar) in ionized and neutral cas, about twice that of earlier estimates. For a 10M(solar) progenitor, this suggests that approx.equals 4M(solar) remains to be detected in an extended halo or wind.

Fesen, Robert A.; Shull, J. Michael; Hurford, Alan P.

1997-01-01

323

An Optical Study of the Circumstellar Environment Around the Crab Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-slit spectra of two peripheral regions around the Crab Nebula show no H? emission down to a flux level of 1.5 x 10(-7) erg cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) (0.63 Rayleigh), corresponding to an emission measure limit of 4.2 cm(-6) pc (3sigma ) assuming A_V = 1.6(m) and T_e = 7000 K. This is below the flux levels reported by Murdin & Clark [Nature, 294, 543 (1981)] for a H? halo around the Crab. Narrow H? emission as described by Murdin [MNRAS, 269, 89 (1994)] is detected but appears to be galactic emission unassociated with the remnant. A review of prior searches indicates no convincing observational evidence to support either a high- or low-velocity envelope around the remnant. Spectral scans confirm a well-organized, N-S expansion asymmetry of the filaments with a ~ 500 km s(-1) central velocity constriction as described by MacAlpine et al. [ApJ, 342, 364 (1989)] and Lawrence et al. [AJ, 109, 2635 (1995)] but questioned by Hester et al. [ApJ, 448, 240 (1995)]. The velocity pinching appears to coincide with an east-west chain of bright [O III] and helium-rich filaments. This expansion asymmetry might be the result of ejecta interaction with a disk of circumstellar matter, but such a model may be inconsistent with H and He filament abundances in the velocity constriction zone. A re-analysis of the remnant's total mass suggests that the filaments contain 4.6 +/- 1.8 Msun in ionized and neutral gas, about twice that of earlier estimates. For a 10 Msun progenitor, this suggests that =~ 4 Msun remains to be detected in an extended halo or wind.

Fesen, Robert A.; Shull, J. Michael; Hurford, Alan P.

1997-01-01

324

Endocannabinoid Signaling is Critical for Habit Formation  

PubMed Central

Extended training can induce a shift in behavioral control from goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, to habits which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and insensitive to changes in outcome value. Previous studies in rats have shown that interval schedules of reinforcement favor habit formation while ratio schedules favor goal-directed behavior. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are not well understood. Endocannabinoids, which can function as retrograde messengers acting through presynaptic CB1 receptors, are highly expressed in the dorsolateral striatum, a key region involved in habit formation. Using a reversible devaluation paradigm, we confirmed that in mice random interval schedules also favor habit formation compared with random ratio schedules. We also found that training with interval schedules resulted in a preference for exploration of a novel lever, whereas training with ratio schedules resulted in less generalization and more exploitation of the reinforced lever. Furthermore, mice carrying either a heterozygous or a homozygous null mutation of the cannabinoid receptor type I (CB1) showed reduced habit formation and enhanced exploitation. The impaired habit formation in CB1 mutant mice cannot be attributed to chronic developmental or behavioral abnormalities because pharmacological blockade of CB1 receptors specifically during training also impairs habit formation. Taken together our data suggest that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation. PMID:18958234

Hilario, Monica R.F.; Clouse, Emily; Yin, Henry H.; Costa, Rui M.

2007-01-01

325

Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections  

PubMed Central

Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites. PMID:24198976

Abraham, Reji; Kamath, Geetha; Sodhi, Jasmeet Singh; Sodhi, Sonia; Rita, Chandki; Sai Kalyan, S.

2013-01-01

326

Space station group activities habitability module study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

Nixon, David

1986-01-01

327

A New Look at Habits and the Habit–Goal Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a habit is formed, perception of contexts triggers the associated response without

Wendy Wood; David T. Neal

2007-01-01

328

Habitable Planet Formation in Binary-Planetary Systems  

E-print Network

Recent radial velocity observations have indicated that Jovian-type planets can exist in moderately close binary star systems. Numerical simulations of the dynamical stability of terrestrial-class planets in such environments have shown that, in addition to their giant planets, these systems can also harbor Earth-like objects. In this paper, we study the late stage of terrestrial planet formation in such binary-planetary systems, and present the results of the simulations of the formation of Earth-like bodies in their habitable zones. We consider a circumprimary disk of Moon- to Mars-sized objects and numerically integrate the orbits of these bodies at the presence of the Jovian-type planet of the system and for different values of the mass, semimajor axis, and orbital eccentricity of the secondary star. Results indicate that, Earth-like objects, with substantial amounts of water, can form in the habitable zone of the primary star. Simulations also indicate that, by transferring angular momentum from the seco...

Haghighipour, N; Haghighipour, Nader; Raymond, Sean N.

2007-01-01

329

STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS  

SciTech Connect

We present new subarcsecond ({approx}0.''7) Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of the 1.3 mm continuum emission from circumstellar disks around 11 low- and intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars. High-resolution observations for three additional sources were obtained from the literature. In all cases the disk emission is spatially resolved. We adopt a self-consistent accretion disk model based on the similarity solution for the disk surface density and constrain the dust radial density distribution on spatial scales of about 40 AU. Disk surface densities appear to be correlated with the stellar ages where the characteristic disk radius increases from {approx}20 AU to {approx}100 AU over about 5 Myr. This disk expansion is accompanied by a decrease in the mass accretion rate, suggesting that our sample disks form an evolutionary sequence. Interpreting our results in terms of the temporal evolution of a viscous {alpha}-disk, we estimate (1) that at the beginning of the disk evolution about 60% of the circumstellar material was located inside radii of 25-40 AU, (2) that disks formed with masses from 0.05 to 0.4 M {sub sun}, and (3) that the viscous timescale at the disk initial radius is about 0.1-0.3 Myr. Viscous disk models tightly link the surface density {sigma}(R) with the radial profile of the disk viscosity {nu}(R) {proportional_to} R {sup {gamma}}. We find values of {gamma} ranging from -0.8 to 0.8, suggesting that the viscosity dependence on the orbital radius can be very different in the observed disks. Adopting the {alpha} parameterization for the viscosity, we argue that {alpha} must decrease with the orbital radius and that it may vary between 0.5 and 10{sup -4}. From the inferred disk initial radii we derive specific angular momenta, j, for parent cores of (0.8 - 4) x 10{sup -4} km s{sup -1} pc. Comparison with the values of j in dense cores suggests that about 10% of core angular momentum and 30% of the core mass are conserved in the formation of the star/disk system. We demonstrate that the similarity solution for the surface density for {gamma} < 0 can explain the properties of some 'transitional disks' without requiring discontinuities in the disk surface density. In the case of LkCa 15, a smooth distribution of material from few stellar radii to about 240 AU can produce both the observed spectral energy distribution and the spatially resolved continuum emission at millimeter wavelengths. Finally we show that among the observed sample, TW Hya is the only object that has a disk radius comparable with the early solar nebula.

Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail: isella@astro.caltech.edu

2009-08-10

330

The Habitable Planet: Ecology Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Annenberg Media project continues to bring interesting and engaging educational materials to teachers and students, and the ball keeps on rolling with this particular feature. The ecology lab feature here is designed to be used in conjunction with "The Habitable Planet" series, which is also available on the site. Teachers and others will note that the site includes an ecology simulator, and visitors can toggle the various settings to learn how the addition or removal of different species will affect their self-designed ecosystem. The simulator is fairly easy to understand, and there's a "HELP" section designed to provide assistance. Additionally, the site also includes a glossary of relevant ecosystem terms, videos, and an online textbook.

331

Thermal desorption of circumstellar and cometary ice analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Thermal annealing of interstellar ices takes place in several stages of star formation. Knowledge of this process comes from a combination of astronomical observations and laboratory simulations under astrophysically relevant conditions. Aims: For the first time we present the results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments with pre-cometary ice analogs composed of up to five molecular components: H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, and NH3. Methods: The experiments were performed with an ultra-high vacuum chamber. A gas line with a novel design allows the controlled preparation of mixtures with up to five molecular components. Volatiles desorbing to the gas phase were monitored using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, while changes in the ice structure and composition were studied by means of infrared spectroscopy. Results: The TPD curves of water ice containing CO, CO2, CH3OH, and NH3 present desorption peaks at temperatures near those observed in pure ice experiments, volcano desorption peaks after water ice crystallization, and co-desorption peaks with water. Desorption peaks of CH3OH and NH3 at temperatures similar to the pure ices takes place when their abundance relative to water is above ~3% in the ice matrix. We found that CO, CO2, and NH3 also present co-desorption peaks with CH3OH, which cannot be reproduced in experiments with binary water-rich ice mixtures. These are extensively used in the study of thermal desorption of interstellar ices. Conclusions: These results reproduce the heating of circumstellar ices in hot cores and can be also applied to the late thermal evolution of comets. In particular, TPD curves represent a benchmark for the analysis of the measurements that mass spectrometers on board the ESA-Rosetta cometary mission will perform on the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which will be active before the arrival of Rosetta according to our predictions.

Martín-Doménech, R.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Bueno, J.; Goesmann, F.

2014-04-01

332

A Collisional Algorithm for Modeling Circumstellar Debris Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many planetary systems harbor circumstellar disks of dust and planetesimals thought to be debris left over from planet formation. These debris disks exhibit a range of morphological features which can arise from the gravitational perturbations of planets. Accurate models of these features, accounting for the interactions of the particles in a disk with each other and with whatever planets they contain, can act as signposts for planets in debris disks that otherwise could not be detected. Such models can also constrain the planet's mass and orbital parameters. Current models for many disks consider the gravitational and radiative effects of the star and planets on the disk, but neglect the morphological consequences of collisional interactions between the planetesimals. Many observed disk features are not satisfactorily explained by the current generation of models. I am developing a new kind of debris disk model that considers both the gravitational shaping of the disk by planets and the inelastic collisions between particles. I will use a hybrid N-body integrator to numerically solve the equations of motion for the particles and planets in the disk. To include the collisional effects, I begin with an algorithm that tests for collisions at each step of the orbit integration and readjusts the velocities of colliding particles. I am adapting this algorithm to the problem at hand by allowing each particle to represent a "swarm" of planetesimals with a range of masses. When the algorithm detects an encounter between swarms, two or three swarms are produced to approximate the range of possible trajectories of the daughter planetesimals. Here I present preliminary results from my collisional algorithm.

Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc

2011-01-01

333

Investigations of the Formation of Carbon Grains in Circumstellar Outflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of formation and destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. PAHs are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs, in their neutral and ionized forms, are an important, ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium. Also, the formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with a high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the first set of measurements obtained in these experiments and identify the species present in the experiments and the ions that are formed in the plasma process. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Acknowledgements: Support from NASA's Laboratory Astrophysics 'Carbon in the Galaxy's Consortium Grant (NNH10ZDA001N) is gratefully acknowledged.

Contreras, Cesar; Salama, F.

2013-06-01

334

Interstellar and Circumstellar Optical & Ultraviolet Lines Towards SN1998S  

E-print Network

We have observed SN1998S which exploded in NGC3877, with the UES at the WHT and with the E230M echelle of STIS aboard HST. Both data sets were obtained at two seperate epochs. From our own Galaxy we detect interstellar absorption lines of CaII, FeII, MgI, and probably MnII from the edge of the HVC Complex M. We derive gas-phase abundances which are very similar to warm disk clouds in the local ISM, which we believe argues against the HVC material having an extragalactic origin. At the velocity of NGC3877 we detect interstellar MgI, MgII, MnII, CaII, & NaI. Surprisingly, one component is seen to increase by a factor of ~1 dex in N(NaI) and N(MgI) between the two epochs over which the data were taken. Unusually, our data also show narrow Balmer, HeI, and metastable FeII P-Cygni profiles, with a narrow absorption component superimposed on the bottom of the profile's absorption trough. Both the broad and narrow components of the optical lines are seen to increase substantially in strength between the two epochs. Most of the low-ionization absorption can be understood in terms of gas co-rotating with the disk of NGC 3877, providing the SN is at the back of an HI disk with a similar thickness to that of our own Galaxy. However, the variable absorption components, and the classic P-Cygni emission profiles, most likely arise in slow-moving circumstellar outflows originating from the red supergiant progenitor of SN1998S. [Abridged.

David V. Bowen; Katherine C. Roth; David M. Meyer; J. Chris Blades

1999-10-19

335

Computer Technology and College Students' Reading Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to determine if computer technology had an impact on EFL college students' reading habits and if students' online reading habits and their demographic variables, such as gender, age, CJEE scores, employment status, and online hours were related. 124 valid survey questionnaires were collected from college students in a university in southern Taiwan. The results

Li-Bi Shen

2006-01-01

336

Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

2012-01-01

337

The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

2007-01-01

338

Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed

Christopher D. Parkinson; Mao-Chang Liang; Yuk L. Yung; Joseph L. Kirschivnk

2008-01-01

339

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy,  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach occupancy, 2009 2010 Cefas contract report C3635 Environment Report RL 01/10 #12;1 Environment Report RL 01/10 Radiological Habits Survey: Cumbrian coast beach. Survey area 9 Map 1 The Cumbrian coast beach occupancy survey area 10 3.1 General observations 11 3

340

Habits of Study and Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study habits inventory was administered to ninth- and tenth-grade students. The data were factor-analyzed to yield three constituents of study practices: distractibility, compulsiveness, and inquisitiveness. These factors satisfactorily replicated factors found in previous research and accounted for over 50% of the total variation of the items in the inventory. Tests of hypothesized relationships between habits of study and test

Thomas H. Estes; Herbert C. Richards

1985-01-01

341

Unsuccessful Study Habits in Foreign Language Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined which study habits would distinguish successful from unsuccessful foreign language learners. Participants were 219 college students from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds enrolled in either Spanish, French, German, or Japanese classes. The students completed the Study Habits Inventory and the Background Demographic Form.…

Bailey, Phillip D.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

342

Study Habits Inventory scores and scholarship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wrenn Study Habits Questionnaire was administered to a group of high school graduates who were entering nursing school. The validity of the questionnaire in predicting grades in academic courses was found to be negligible. These findings suggest that new students are unable or unwilling to evaluate their study habits so that their questionnaire responses will differentiate the low scholarship

H. P. Gordon

1941-01-01

343

Circumstellar matter and the nature of the SN1987A progenitor star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that radio observations of the supernova 1987A can be interpreted in terms of its interaction with circumstellar matter. The early turn-on of the radio emission implies a relatively low density circumstellar medium. The optical properties of the supernova imply that the progenitor star had a smaller radius than that of a typical type II supernova progenitor. The mass loss properties are consistent with this hypothesis. The thermal X-ray luminosity of the supernova is predicted and noted to be below the current upper limit. A bright infrared dust echo is not expected, although a weak echo from an earlier mass loss phase is possible. Weak ultraviolet emission lines from cicumstellar gas may be visible. Although the circumstellar density is low, it is possible that the progenitor star did lose a substantial fraction of its mass prior to the supernova explosion.

Chevalier, R. A.; Fransson, C.

1987-01-01

344

Spectral Energy Distributions of Circumstellar Debris Disks I. Analytic Disk Density Distributions  

E-print Network

We present results of a study aimed at deriving fundamental properties of circumstellar debris disks from observed infrared to submillimeter spectral energy distributions. This investigation is motivated by increasing telescope/detector sensitivity, in particular the expected availability of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) followed by the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), which will enable detailed studies with large source samples of late stage circumstellar disk and planetary system evolution. We base our study on an analytic model of the disk density distribution and geometry, taking into account existing constraints from observations and results of theoretical investigations of debris disks. We also outline the effects of the most profound characteristics of circumstellar dust including the grain size distribution and dust chemical composition.

Sebastian Wolf; Lynne Hillenbrand

2003-06-23

345

The Structure and Evolution of Circumstellar Disks Revealed by Mid-Infrared Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circumstellar discs transport angular momentum, serve as reservoir from which the central stars accrete gas and dust, and are the sites where planets form. The evolution of these discs, however, is only coarsely known today. For a better understanding it is essential to resolve the distribution and composition of the dust in the discs' warm, inner parts. Differences between the circumstellar discs of the components of binary systems provide further insights. With the 10 - 20 milli-arcsec spatial resolution offered by the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) we were able to resolve the circumstellar disks of several low-mass young stellar objects, e.g., T Tau, GV Tau, SVS 20, and TW Hya. The spectrally dispersed interferometric data in the wavelength range between 8 and 13 micron are also well suited to study radial changes of the dust composition and grain growth, a prerequisite for planet formation.

Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Grellmann, Rebekka; Köhler, Rainer

2013-07-01

346

TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

Silverman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Nugent, Peter E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Griffith, Christopher V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: jsilverman@astro.as.utexas.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

2013-07-01

347

Asymmetric Circumstellar Matter in Type Ia Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are not well understood, but are likely to be of diverse origin, including single- and double-degenerate binary systems. Among single-degenerate progenitors, substantial amounts of circumstellar material (CSM) are expelled prior to the SN explosions by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companions to the accreting white dwarfs. A subsequent collision of SN ejecta with the dense AGB wind has been detected among several distant SNe such as SN 2002ic, SN 2008J, and more recently PTF11kx. Dense CSM ejected by an AGB companion is present in the remnant of Kepler's SN of 1604, a Type Ia event. Observations of distant SNe hint at strongly asymmetric CSM distributions. A recent study of the CSM in Kepler's SNR by Burkey et al. indicates a large (factor of 10) density contrast between the dense, disk-like equatorial outflow and the more tenuous AGB wind above the orbital plane. A significant fraction of mature Type Ia SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) shows the presence of dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors that cannot be explained by standard models of Type Ia explosions in a uniform ambient interstellar medium. We explore the hypothesis that these remnants originated in Type Ia explosions with strongly asymmetric CSM distributions such as found in Kepler's SNR. We present results of 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of SN ejecta with asymmetric, disk-like AGB winds throughout the whole adiabatic stage of SNR evolution. Dense, asymmetric, and highly-ionized Fe-rich ejecta are indeed present in the simulated remnants, while the blast wave assumes a spherical shape shortly after passage through the ambient CSM. We also present simulated X-ray images and spectra and compare them with X-ray observations of selected remnants in the LMC. These remnants include DEM L238 and L249, recently observed by Suzaku, whose X-ray emission is strongly dominated by dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors. We contrast these remnants to more typical mature Type Ia SNRs such as 0534-69.9 and 0548-70.4 whose Suzaku spectra can be satisfactorily modeled with standard (without any CSM) X-ray models for Type Ia SNRs.

Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Blondin, J. M.

2013-01-01

348

The Sensitivity of Circumstellar Masers to Dust Type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incidence of masers in oxygen-rich circumstellar shells is correlated with their IRAS low-resolution spectral type (LRS). Thus, 67% of shells with silicate emission features, and 27% of those without, have main line OH masers when they have a known water or SiO maser. This result does not depend on IR color. The generality of a dependence in the incidence of masers on dust type is tested here by compiling statistics from extant OH, water, and SiO observations. These show that these masers each have a similar dependence on dust type that is independent of the IR colors in thin shells. The detection rate for water and for OH masers from LRS 21-25 type shells is intermediate between that of "featureless" (1n) shells and that of shells with a stronger 9.7 ?m line. When the joint occurrence of water and main line masers is considered, there is a factor of 5 difference between detection rates from the most disparate LRS types that is not reduced much by treating all OH masers together, or by limiting the sample to objects from the more sensitive OH searches of the Arecibo sky. This LRS-type dependence of masers is caused by a change in the UV extinction of dust with type, which is expected when the size of dust grains about most objects without silicate features is <0.02 ?m, so UV scattering becomes important. More of the UV photons are then available to degrade molecules, which reduces their ability to support masers. These changes in the incidence of masers are postulated to result from an increase in the number of large absorptive rather than scattering grains as the silicate feature strengthens: there is also some evidence for a UV wavelength dependence to the dust-grain extinction. The previously noted blue IR color sensitivity of both the water and OH main line detection rates is, however, an artifact of a changing proportion of the various LRS types with color.

Lewis, B. M.

1996-05-01

349

Polarized Line Profiles as Diagnostics of Circumstellar Geometry in Type IIn Supernovae  

E-print Network

Supernovae of type IIn possess spectral signatures that indicate an intense interaction between the supernova ejecta and surrounding dense circumstellar material cast off by the star in pre-explosion mass-loss episodes. Studying this interaction can yield clues to the nature of Type IIn progenitors and their mass loss history. In particular, polarization spectra of Type IIn's show complex line polarization and position angle features that arise from a combination of geometrical and optical effects. I have constructed a Monte Carlo code that simulates the transfer of the H alpha line through circumstellar shells with various geometrical configurations and optical characteristics. The superposition of broad and narrow line components produced in different regions of the circumstellar environment and modified by electron and line scattering, hydrogen absorption, thermal emission, and geometrical and viewing angle effects gives rise to a variety of polarized line shapes in the model spectra. Comparison of these results with recent high-quality spectropolarimetric observations of Type IIn supernovae suggests that a model "shock" region between the supernova photosphere and the circumstellar shell is necessary to produce the narrow polarized emission features at the rest wavelength of H alpha seen in some IIn's. Further model results point toward other features in the polarized line profile that can be used to constrain the characteristics of the circumstellar material in these intriguing objects. The code's usefulness will be extended by the treatment of Doppler effects due to expansion of the circumstellar scattering region, such as those that characterize the polarized H alpha profiles of the Type IIn SN 1997eg.

Jennifer L. Hoffman

2006-12-10

350

Habitability from a microbial point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s ?m to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s ?m - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

2014-05-01

351

Habitability design elements for a space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability in space refers to the components, characteristics, conditions, and design parameters that go beyond but include the basic life sustaining requirements. Elements of habitability covered include internal environment, architecture, mobility and restraint, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communications, and crew activities. All elements are interrelated and need to be treated as an overall discipline. Designing for a space station is similar to designing on earth but with 'space rules' instead of ground rules. It is concluded that some habitability problems require behavioral science solutions.

Dalton, M. C.

1983-01-01

352

Linear Spectropolarimetry and the Circumstellar Media of Young and Massive Stars  

E-print Network

Linear spectropolarimetry is a powerful tool to probe circumstellar structures on spatial scales that cannot yet be achieved through direct imaging. In this review I discuss the role that emission-line polarimetry can play in constraining geometrical and physical properties of a wide range of circumstellar environments, varying from the accretion disks around pre-main sequence T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars, to the issue of stellar wind clumping, and the aspherical outflows from the massive star progenitors of supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts at low metallicity.

Vink, Jorick S

2012-01-01

353

Infrared circumstellar shells - Origins, and clues to the evolution of massive stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared fluxes, spatial and spectral characteristics for a sample of 111 supergiant stars of spectral types F0 through M5 are tabulated, and correlations examined with respect to the nature of their circumstellar envelopes. One-fourth of these objects were spatialy resolved by IRAS at 60 microns and possess extended circumstellar shell material, with implied expansion ages of about 10 to the 5th yr. Inferences about the production of dust, mass loss, and the relation of these characteristics of the evolution of massive stars, are discussed.

Stencel, Robert E.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Bauer, Wendy Hagen

1989-01-01

354

Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary  

PubMed Central

Abstract White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10?6. Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 104 K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable. Key Words: Extrasolar terrestrial planets—Habitability—Habitable zone—Tides—Exoplanets. Astrobiology 13, 279–291. PMID:23537137

Heller, Rene

2013-01-01

355

Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

Gonzalez, Guillermo

2014-01-01

356

Setting the stage for habitable planets.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

Gonzalez, Guillermo

2014-01-01

357

An evaluation of Skylab habitability hardware  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.

Stokes, J.

1974-01-01

358

Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models  

E-print Network

Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic ...

Smith, Kyle S.

359

Habitable piers : an alternative for urban expansion  

E-print Network

This thesis is an investigation into an alternative way of urban expansion for a seaside community. This thesis proposes a habitable urban environment on the water by creating for an exchange between the built urban landscape ...

Lin, Chin Yuan, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1990-01-01

360

Habitability of Enceladus: Planetary Conditions for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the\\u000a interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies\\u000a of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed

Christopher D. Parkinson; Mao-Chang Liang; Yuk L. Yung; Joseph L. Kirschivnk

2008-01-01

361

Influence of reading habits on line bisection.  

PubMed

The effect of scanning direction on perception of space is studied with a visuo-motor bisection task, among 120 normal dextrals with opposite reading habits (60 French subjects, 60 Israeli subjects). Bisection is found to depend upon subject's reading habits. Israeli bisected the line to the right of the objective centre, while French subjects placed their subjective middle to the left of the objective one. Results are discussed with respect to hemispheric activation theories, directional hypotheses and the neglect syndrome. PMID:8003920

Chokron, S; Imbert, M

1993-12-01

362

[Modulators of sleeping habits in childhood].  

PubMed

This literature review presents the main organic, psychological and cultural factors influencing the sleeping habits of infants. By means of a clinical-anthropological approach, the interrelation between these habits and biobehavioral and psychosocial stressing factors is described, as well as cultural practices such as shared bed, night feeding, transitional objects and use of dummies. It presents some measures that may modulate the physiology of sleep and home practices of sleeping in childhood. PMID:18041558

Geib, Lorena Teresinha Consalter

2007-01-01

363

The effects of stellar winds on the magnetospheres and potential habitability of exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The principle definition of habitability for exoplanets is whether they can sustain liquid water on their surfaces, i.e. that they orbit within the habitable zone. However, the planet's magnetosphere should also be considered, since without it, an exoplanet's atmosphere may be eroded away by stellar winds. Aims: The aim of this paper is to investigate magnetospheric protection of a planet from the effects of stellar winds from solar-mass stars. Methods: We study hypothetical Earth-like exoplanets orbiting in the host star's habitable zone for a sample of 124 solar-mass stars. These are targets that have been observed by the Bcool Collaboration. Using two wind models, we calculate the magnetospheric extent of each exoplanet. These wind models are computationally inexpensive and allow the community to quickly estimate the magnetospheric size of magnetised Earth-analogues orbiting cool stars. Results: Most of the simulated planets in our sample can maintain a magnetosphere of ~5 Earth radii or larger. This suggests that magnetised Earth analogues in the habitable zones of solar analogues are able to protect their atmospheres and is in contrast to planets around young active M dwarfs. In general, we find that Earth-analogues around solar-type stars, of age 1.5 Gyr or older, can maintain at least a Paleoarchean Earth sized magnetosphere. Our results indicate that planets around 0.6-0.8 solar-mass stars on the low activity side of the Vaughan-Preston gap are the optimum observing targets for habitable Earth analogues. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

See, V.; Jardine, M.; Vidotto, A. A.; Petit, P.; Marsden, S. C.; Jeffers, S. V.; do Nascimento, J. D.

2014-10-01

364

Evidence for Mass-dependent Circumstellar Disk Evolution in the 5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius OB Association  

E-print Network

We present 4.5, 8, and 16um photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope for 204 stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association. The data are used to investigate the frequency and properties of circumstellar disks around stars with masses between ~ 0.1 and 20 Msun at an age of ~ 5 Myr. We identify 35 stars that have emission at 8um or 16um in excess of the stellar photosphere. The lower mass stars (~ 0.1-1.2 Msun) appear surrounded by primordial optically thick disks based on the excess emission characteristics. Stars more massive than ~ 1.8 Msun have lower fractional excess luminosities suggesting that the inner ~ 10 AU of the disk has been largely depleted of primordial material. None of the G and F stars (~ 1.2-1.8 Msun) in our sample have an infrared excess at wavelengths <= 16um. These results indicate that the mechanisms for dispersing primordial optically thick disks operate less efficiently on average for low mass stars, and that longer time scales are available for the buildup of planetary systems in the terrestrial zone for stars with masses < 1 Msun.

John M. Carpenter; Eric E. Mamajek; Lynne A. Hillenbrand; Michael R. Meyer

2006-09-13

365

Investigating habits: strategies, technologies and models  

PubMed Central

Understanding habits at a biological level requires a combination of behavioral observations and measures of ongoing neural activity. Theoretical frameworks as well as definitions of habitual behaviors emerging from classic behavioral research have been enriched by new approaches taking account of the identification of brain regions and circuits related to habitual behavior. Together, this combination of experimental and theoretical work has provided key insights into how brain circuits underlying action-learning and action-selection are organized, and how a balance between behavioral flexibility and fixity is achieved. New methods to monitor and manipulate neural activity in real time are allowing us to have a first look “under the hood” of a habit as it is formed and expressed. Here we discuss ideas emerging from such approaches. We pay special attention to the unexpected findings that have arisen from our own experiments suggesting that habitual behaviors likely require the simultaneous activity of multiple distinct components, or operators, seen as responsible for the contrasting dynamics of neural activity in both cortico-limbic and sensorimotor circuits recorded concurrently during different stages of habit learning. The neural dynamics identified thus far do not fully meet expectations derived from traditional models of the structure of habits, and the behavioral measures of habits that we have made also are not fully aligned with these models. We explore these new clues as opportunities to refine an understanding of habits. PMID:24574988

Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

2014-01-01

366

Report on the Joint ESO/MPE/MPA/LMU Workshop From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of the joint ESO/MPE/ MPA/LMU workshop “From Circumstellar Disks to Planetary Systems” is presented. The meeting reviewed the status of our observational and theoretical understanding of protoplanetary disks, from the formation phase through their evolution to planet formation and debris disks.

Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E.

2010-03-01

367

Detection of planetary spectral features of extrasolar planets through their circumstellar dust - a Monte Carlo simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the methods envisaged to detect planets outside of our solar system assumes that certain spectral features at 10 and below 20mum wavelength are typical of planetary atmospheres. Their detection would then be an unambiguous sign of the presence of extrasolar planets. In these spectral regions, there might be interference with the silicate and ice features of circumstellar material

O. Fischer; W. Pfau

1997-01-01

368

Optical and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of SN 1995N: Evidence for Strong Circumstellar Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and ultraviolet observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 1995N at epochs between 321 and 1799 days after the explosion show three distinct velocity components. The narrow lines come from circumstellar gas and show both low and high ionization. This component has a low filling factor and is photoionized by X-rays from the shock. The intermediate component, which is

Claes Fransson; Roger A. Chevalier; Alexei V. Filippenko; Bruno Leibundgut; Aaron J. Barth; Robert A. Fesen; Robert P. Kirshner; Douglas C. Leonard; Weidong Li; Peter Lundqvist; Jesper Sollerman; Schuyler D. Van Dyk

2002-01-01

369

Circumstellar effects on the Rb abundances in O-rich AGB stars  

E-print Network

We explore the circumstellar effects for the first time by considering the presence of a gaseous circumstellar envelope with a radial wind on the Rb (and Zr) abundance determination in O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. A modified version of the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum was used to deal with extended atmosphere models and velocity fields. The Rb and Zr abundances were determined from the resonant 7800A Rb I line and the 6474A ZrO bandhead, respectively, in five representative O-rich AGB stars with different expansion velocity and metallicity. By using our new dynamical models, the Rb I line profile (photospheric and circumstellar components) is very well reproduced. Interestingly, the derived Rb abundances are much lower (by 1-2 dex) in those O-rich AGB stars showing the higher circumstellar expansion velocities. The Zr abundances, however, remain close to the solar values. The Rb abundances and Rb/Zr ratios derived here significantly alleviate the problem of the present mismatch between...

Zamora, O; Plez, B; Manchado, A

2014-01-01

370

Circumstellar effects on the Rb abundances in O-rich AGB stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time we explore the circumstellar effects on the Rb (and Zr) abundance determination in O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars by considering the presence of a gaseous circumstellar envelope with a radial wind. A modified version of the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum was used to deal with extended atmosphere models and velocity fields. The Rb and Zr abundances were determined from the resonant 7800 Å Rb I line and the 6474 Å ZrO bandhead, respectively, in five representative O-rich AGB stars with different expansion velocities and metallicities. By using our new dynamical models, the Rb I line profile (photospheric and circumstellar components) is very well reproduced. Interestingly, the derived Rb abundances are much lower (by 1-2 dex) in those O-rich AGB stars showing the higher circumstellar expansion velocities. The Zr abundances, however, remain close to the solar values. The Rb abundances and [Rb/Zr] ratios derived here significantly resolve the problem of the present mismatch between the observations of intermediate-mass (4-8 M?) Rb-rich AGB stars and the AGB nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.

2014-04-01

371

The Nitrogen Constraint on Habitability of Planets around Low Mass M-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zones around stars are defined based on the stability of liquid water over geological timescales. Being too far away from the stars, the planet would be incapable of maintaining a warm surface and thus no liquid water. Being too close to the star, the planet would experience a 'runaway' greenhouse phase, during which its oceans could be lost quickly, and end up similar to our sister planet, Venus. The definition of tranditional habitable zones does not consider the availability of other elements important for life. All life as we know it needs nitrogen. Our calculations of upper planetary atmospheres show that nitrogen could be lost rapidly from planetary atmospheres with CO2 concentrations lower than certain threshold. This suggests that life on planets around low mass M-stars may be selflimiting, and planets of low mass M-stars are less favorable places to search for life than G- or K-type stars.

Tian, F.

2011-10-01

372

The Nitrogen Constraint on Habitability of Planets of Low Mass M-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zones around stars are defined based on the stability of liquid water over geological timescales. Being too far away from the stars, the planet would be incapable of maintaining a warm surface and thus no liquid water. Being too close to the star, the planet would experience a 'runaway' greenhouse phase, during which its oceans could be lost quickly, and end up similar to our sister planet, Venus. The definition of tranditional habitable zones does not consider the availability of other elements important for life. All life as we know it needs nitrogen. Our calculations of upper planetary atmospheres show that nitrogen could be lost rapidly from planetary atmospheres with CO2 concentrations lower than certain threshold. This suggests that life on planets around low mass M-stars may be selflimiting, and planets of low mass M-stars are less favorable places to search for life than G- or K-type stars.

Tian, F.

2011-12-01

373

The Nitrogen Constraint on the Habitability of Planets around Low Mass M-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional habitable zones around stars are defined based on the stability of liquid water over geological timescales. Being too far away from the stars, the planet would be incapable of maintaining a warm surface and thus no liquid water. Being too close to the star, the planet would experience a 'runaway' greenhouse phase, during which its oceans could be lost quickly, and end up similar to our sister planet, Venus. The definition of tranditional habitable zones does not consider the availability of other elements important for life. All life as we know it needs nitrogen. Our calculations of upper planetary atmospheres show that nitrogen could be lost rapidly from planetary atmospheres with CO2 concentrations lower than certain threshold. This suggests that life on planets around low mass M-stars may be self-limiting, and planets of low mass M-stars are less favorable places to search for life than G- or K-type stars.

Tian, Feng

2011-09-01

374

The Search for Habitable Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We live at a very special time in the history of astronomy. We are poised to discover and characterizes exoplanets enough like the Earth that we can imagine life as we know it could arise and be comfortable. We are seeking rocky planets at the right distances from their host stars for water to be liquid on the surface, and with a secondary atmosphere that might even show evidence for biogenic gases. Transiting planets are where the present action is, because they can provide masses and radii for planets, and thus the bulk properties such as density and surface gravity that constrain our models of their interior structure and composition. Are they ice giants like Uranus and Neptune, or rocky worlds like the terrestrial planets, or maybe something in between with lots of water or extended atmospheres of hydrogen and helium? NASA's Kepler mission has provided lots of small planet candidates, but the bottleneck for characterizing them is the ultra-precise radial velocities needed for confirming and characterizing the planets with mass determinations. HARPS-N has recently come into operation at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma and is now contributing to the follow up of Kepler candidates, but we need better ways to correct for astrophysical effects that distort the radial velocities, and still better velocity precision if we hope to reach the level of 9 cm/s induced by a true Earth twin in a one-year orbit around a star like the Sun. Kepler looks at only one four hundreth of the sky. We need all-sky surveys for transiting planets to find the nearest and brightest examples for radial-velocity follow up and studies of planetary atmospheres with missions like the James Webb Space Telescope and G-CLEF spectrograph on the Giant Magellan Telescope. Our long-range goal is to see if the atmospheres of any potentially habitable planets actually show evidence for biogenic gases that have been produced in large enough quantities to impact the biosphere and be detected remotely. If we detect spectroscopic biomarkers that can only be present if they are continually replenished by life, then we can point at that star and speculate that we may not be alone in the universe.

Latham, David W.

2013-06-01

375

Emergence of a Habitable Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the first several hundred million years of Earth’s history. The Moon-forming impact left Earth enveloped in a hot silicate atmosphere that cooled and condensed over ˜1,000 yrs. As it cooled the Earth degassed its volatiles into the atmosphere. It took another ˜2 Myrs for the magma ocean to freeze at the surface. The cooling rate was determined by atmospheric thermal blanketing. Tidal heating by the new Moon was a major energy source to the magma ocean. After the mantle solidified geothermal heat became climatologically insignificant, which allowed the steam atmosphere to condense, and left behind a ˜100 bar, ˜500 K CO2 atmosphere. Thereafter cooling was governed by how quickly CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. If subduction were efficient this could have taken as little as 10 million years. In this case the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth should have been cold and its oceans white with ice. But if carbonate subduction were inefficient the CO2 would have mostly stayed in the atmosphere, which would have kept the surface near ˜500 K for many tens of millions of years. Hydrous minerals are harder to subduct than carbonates and there is a good chance that the Hadean mantle was dry. Hadean heat flow was locally high enough to ensure that any ice cover would have been thin (<5 m) in places. Moreover hundreds or thousands of asteroid impacts would have been big enough to melt the ice triggering brief impact summers. We suggest that plate tectonics as it works now was inadequate to handle typical Hadean heat flows of 0.2-0.5 W/m2. In its place we hypothesize a convecting mantle capped by a ˜100 km deep basaltic mush that was relatively permeable to heat flow. Recycling and distillation of hydrous basalts produced granitic rocks very early, which is consistent with preserved >4 Ga detrital zircons. If carbonates in oceanic crust subducted as quickly as they formed, Earth could have been habitable as early as 10-20 Myrs after the Moon-forming impact.

Zahnle, Kevin; Arndt, Nick; Cockell, Charles; Halliday, Alex; Nisbet, Euan; Selsis, Franck; Sleep, Norman H.

2007-03-01

376

Emergence of a Habitable Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the first several hundred million years of Earth's history. The Moon-forming impact left Earth enveloped in a hot silicate atmosphere that cooled and condensed over ˜1,000 yrs. As it cooled the Earth degassed its volatiles into the atmosphere. It took another ˜2 Myrs for the magma ocean to freeze at the surface. The cooling rate was determined by atmospheric thermal blanketing. Tidal heating by the new Moon was a major energy source to the magma ocean. After the mantle solidified geothermal heat became climatologically insignificant, which allowed the steam atmosphere to condense, and left behind a ˜100 bar, ˜500 K CO2 atmosphere. Thereafter cooling was governed by how quickly CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. If subduction were efficient this could have taken as little as 10 million years. In this case the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth should have been cold and its oceans white with ice. But if carbonate subduction were inefficient the CO2 would have mostly stayed in the atmosphere, which would have kept the surface near ˜500 K for many tens of millions of years. Hydrous minerals are harder to subduct than carbonates and there is a good chance that the Hadean mantle was dry. Hadean heat flow was locally high enough to ensure that any ice cover would have been thin (<5 m) in places. Moreover hundreds or thousands of asteroid impacts would have been big enough to melt the ice triggering brief impact summers. We suggest that plate tectonics as it works now was inadequate to handle typical Hadean heat flows of 0.2-0.5 W/m2. In its place we hypothesize a convecting mantle capped by a ˜100 km deep basaltic mush that was relatively permeable to heat flow. Recycling and distillation of hydrous basalts produced granitic rocks very early, which is consistent with preserved >4 Ga detrital zircons. If carbonates in oceanic crust subducted as quickly as they formed, Earth could have been habitable as early as 10-20 Myrs after the Moon-forming impact.

Zahnle, Kevin; Arndt, Nick; Cockell, Charles; Halliday, Alex; Nisbet, Euan; Selsis, Franck; Sleep, Norman H.

377

Dead Zones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth currently has more than 400 "dead zones"--marine expanses covering hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles that periodically become virtually lifeless. Explore the surprising causes of Oregon's dead zones, and the pioneering methods used to research them.

378

Cool bottom processes on the thermally-pulsing AGB and the isotopic composition of circumstellar dust grains  

E-print Network

(Abridged) We examine the effects of cool bottom processing (CBP) on several isotopic ratios in the convective envelope during the TP-AGB phase of evolution in a 1.5 M_sun initial-mass star of solar initial composition. We use a parametric model which treats extra mixing by introducing mass flow between the convective envelope and the underlying radiative zone. The parameters of this model are the mass circulation rate (Mdot) and the maximum temperature (T_P) experienced by the circulating material. The effects of nuclear reactions in the flowing matter were calculated using a set of structures of the radiative zone selected from a complete stellar evolution calculation. The compositions of the flowing material were obtained and the resulting changes in the envelope determined. Abundant ^26Al was produced by CBP for log T_P > 7.65. While ^26Al/^27Al depends on T_P, the isotopic ratios in CNO elements depend dominantly on the circulation rate. The correspondence is shown between models of CBP as parameterized by a diffusion formalism within the stellar evolution model and those using the mass-flow formalism employed here. The isotopic ratios are compared with the data on circumstellar dust grains. It is found that the ratios ^{18}O/^{16}O, ^{17}O/^{16}O, and ^26Al/^27Al observed for oxide grains formed at C/O 1) require many stellar sources with ^14N/^15N at least a factor of 4 below solar. The rare grains with ^12C/^13C < 10 cannot be produced by any red-giant or AGB source.

Kenneth M. Nollett; M. Busso; G. J. Wasserburg

2002-11-13

379

The 7 Habits of Highly EffectiveThe 7 Habits of Highly Effective Requirements AnalystsRequirements Analysts  

E-print Network

Requirements Analysts (with apologies to Stephen Covey) Joanne Atlee Waterloo Formal Methods Group School of Computer Requirements AnalystsRequirements Analysts (with apologies to Stephen Covey) #12;7 Habits7 HabitsRelationships ­ attitude ­ plan ­ act ­ attitude ­ plan ­ act #12;7 Habits of Highly Effective7 Habits of Highly Effective

Smith, Spencer

380

A comparison of passerine foraging habits in two tidal marshes of different salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging habits of dominant passerine species of the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge, SC, were compared in freshwater\\u000a and brackish marshes. Temporal or spatial partitioning was evaluated using discriminant function analysis of the distribution\\u000a among feeding time, foraging height, marsh elevation zone, and plant-type habitat variables by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), boat-tailed grackles (Quiscalus major), long-billed marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris),

Lance P. Peterson; George W. Tanner; Wiley M. Kitchens

1995-01-01

381

Stellar-Planetary Relations: Atmospheric Stability as a Prerequisite for Planetary Habitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region around a star where a life-supporting biosphere can evolve is the so-called Habitable Zone (HZ). The current definition\\u000a of the HZ is based only on the mass-luminosity relation of the star and climatological and meteorological considerations of\\u000a Earth-like planets, but neglects atmospheric loss processes due to the interaction with the stellar radiation and particle\\u000a environment. From the knowledge

H. Lammer; Yu. N. Kulikov; T. Penz; M. Leitner; H. K. Biernat; N. V. Erkaev

382

Food Habits of Young-of-the-Year Walleyes in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of young-of-the-year walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) were determined in Okobojo Bay of Lake Oahe, South Dakota from June through September, 1991. Walleyes initially fed on zooplankton but soon became piscivorous. Smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus) were initially the most important prey fish, but rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) became important as walleyes moved from the littoral zone of the bay to

Jeffrey J. Jackson; David W. Willis; David G. Fielder

1992-01-01

383

Habitable Trinity: a new concept of a habitable environment beyond Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Habitable Trinity, which is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment for searching for life beyond Earth, is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life as we know it.

Dohm, J.; Maruyama, S.

2013-09-01

384

Review of BASIS Salmon Food Habits Studies  

E-print Network

Abstract: The BASIS food habits studies of sockeye, chum, pink, and Chinook salmon conducted in 2002–2006 were summarized. These studies identified important ( ? 10 % of prey composition by weight) prey taxa of salmon. Salmon diet composition differed between the western region, where diets contained more zooplankton, and the eastern region, where diets contained more ichthyoplankton and nekton. Salmon feeding conditions, growth, and survival in the eastern region were more favorable in relatively warm years, as compared to cool years. However, warmer conditions may not be favorable for all salmon species, such as chum salmon. These studies significantly increased the available information on salmon food habits during the fall in the western, central, and eastern regions. Salmon diet composition shifted from zooplankton to fish and squid, or to larger sizes of fish prey, with increasing salmon body size, age, or maturity. Continued monitoring of salmon food habits will contribute to understanding how future climate changes will affect salmon populations in the Bering Sea.

Nancy D. Davis; Anatoly V. Volkov; Er Ya. Efimkin; Natalia A. Kuznetsova; Janet L. Armstrong; Osamu Sakai

385

Lycos Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the tradition of Yahooligans (reviewed in the March 22, 1996 Scout Report) and other so-called "green spaces," Lycos has created a new online safe haven for young users which is fairly self-contained, with the exception of the advertisements. (In response to criticisms regarding aggressive marketing to children at similar sites, Lycos claims that the ads are clearly marked and will not collect any personal information.) The site is composed of four sections: the Fun and Games Zone, the Homework Zone, the New and Cool Zone, and an area for parents and teachers. The first two sections are fairly deep, with numerous resources and activities aimed at various age levels. Some links in the Homework Zone lead users outside the site, but they are first presented with a gateway page informing them that they are leaving and offering advice on not divulging personal information.

386

Toilet reading habits in Israeli adults.  

PubMed

Although toilet reading (TR) is a common habit, the effect of TR on bowel movements is neglected in the medical literature. Our hypothesis was that TR provides a distraction and acts as an unconscious relaxation technique and allows an easier defecation process. The aim of this study was to assess how common is TR and to map the reading/playing toilet habits in the Israeli adult population. In addition, we aimed to explore a possible connection between TR and the nature of bowel habits in general and constipation and haemorrhoids in particular. Five hundred adults who represent the diverse demographic backgrounds have been asked to fill an anonymous short questionnaire. The subjects were questioned regarding their demographic details, their TR and playing habits, their bowel habits, whether they suffer from haemorrhoids and whether they use some sort of faecal softener. We found that TR is common and involves 52.7% of the population. Males, younger age, secular population, higher education level and white collar workers compose the TR profile. Although toilet readers spent significantly more time in the toilets, no differences were noted for the type or frequency of stools. Nevertheless, the TR group considered themselves to be less constipated (8.0%vs 13.7%) and had more haemorrhoids (23.6%vs 18.2%). These differences, however, were not significant. Toilet reading is a common and benign habit. It is involved with a longer time spent in the toilet. It seems to be more for fun and not necessarily to solve or due to medical problems. PMID:19019015

Goldstein, O; Shaham, Y; Naftali, T; Konikoff, F; Lavy, A; Shaoul, R

2009-03-01

387

Information systems - Issues in global habitability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with fundamental issues, related to information considerations, which arise in an interdisciplinary approach to questions of global habitability. Information system problems and issues are illustrated with the aid of an example involving biochemical cycling and biochemical productivity. The estimation of net primary production (NPP) as an important consideration in the overall global habitability issue is discussed. The NPP model requires three types of data, related to meteorological information, a land surface inventory, and the vegetation structure. Approaches for obtaining and processing these data are discussed. Attention is given to user requirements, information system requirements, workstations, network communications, hardware/software access, and data management.

Norman, S. D.; Brass, J. A.; Jones, H.; Morse, D. R.

1984-01-01

388

Nailbiting, or onychophagia: a special habit.  

PubMed

Onychophagia, or nailbiting, is a common oral habit, observed in both children and adults. The etiologies suggested for nailbiting include anxiety, stress, loneliness, imitation of other family member, heredity, inactivity, transference from a thumb-sucking habit, and poorly manicured nails. Treatment should be directed at the causes; punishment, ridicule, nagging and threats, and application of bitter-tasting commercial preparations on the nail are a variety of reminders, but are not appropriate approaches to treatment. The key to success is the nailbiter's consent and cooperation. PMID:18675214

Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Tanaka, Giulia Yuriko; Guerrero, Ariana Pulido; Camargo, Elisa Souza

2008-08-01

389

Habitability constraints/objectives for a mars manned mission: Internal architecture considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted that high quality internal environment shall strongly support crew's adaptation and acceptance to situation of long isolation and confinement. Thus, this paper is an attempt to determine to which extent the resulting stress corresponding to the anticipated duration of a trip to Mars (1 and a half years to 2 and a half years) could be decreased when internal architecture of the spacecraft is properly designed. It is assumed that artificial gravity shall be available on board the Mars spacecraft. This will of course have a strong impact on internal architecture as far as a 1-g oriented design will become mandatory, at least in certain inhabited parts of the spacecraft. The review of usual Habitability functions is performed according to the peculiarities of such an extremely long mission. A particular attention is paid to communications issues and the need for privacy. The second step of the paper addresses internal architecture issues through zoning analyses. Common, Service and Personal zones need to be adapted to the constraints associated with the extremely long duration of the mission. Furthermore, due to the nature of the mission itself (relative autonomy, communication problems, monotony) and the type of selected crew (personalities, group structure) the implementation of a ``fourth zone'', so-called ``recreational'' zone, seems to be needed. This zoning analysis is then translated into some internal architecture proposals, which are discussed and illustrated. This paper is concluded by a reflection on habitability and recommendations on volumetric requirements. Some ideas to validate proposed habitability items through simulation are also discussed.

Winisdoerffer, F.; Soulez-Larivière, C.

1992-08-01

390

A CHARA Array Long Baseline Interferometric Survey of Circumstellar Disks of Be Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first spatially resolved observations of circumstellar envelopes of 24 bright northern Be stars. This survey was performed with the CHARA Array interferometer in the K-band at intermediate and long baselines. The interferometric visibilities are well fitted by an optically thick disk model where the gas density decreases with the radius as a power -law. Physical and geometrical parameters, such as the density profile, the inclination, and the position angle of the circumstellar disks, are determined, and the disk density exponent is found to range between n ˜ 2.4–3.2, which is consistent with previous IRAS measurements. We also find that the thick disk model reproduces well the simultaneously observed disk IR-continuum excess. By combining the projected rotational velocity of the Be star with the disk inclination derived from interferometry, we provide estimates of the equatorial rotational velocities of these Be stars.

Touhami, Y.; Gies, D. R.; Schaefer, G. H.; Richardson, N. D.; McAlister, H. A.; Ridgway, S. T.; Brummelaar, T. A. t.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Sturmann, L.; Sturmann, J.; Turner, N. H.; Farrington, C. D.

2014-09-01

391

EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

Suzuki, Akihiro [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-02-10

392

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E-print Network

N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E N O P R I N TI N G Z O N E NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE NO PRINTING ZONE

Kainen, Paul C.

393

SUCCESS: A SUbmm Catalogue of Circumstellar Envelope of StarS with Herschel\\/HIFI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first results of a biased survey of sub-millimetre and FIR CO transitions towards the circumstellar envelopes of AGB and post-AGB stars. This Herschel Guaranteed Time programme uses the HIFI instrument to collect the emission of two CO transitions (J=5-4 and J=9-8) in 74 sources, as well as the J=14-13 transition in the 10 most intense or intriguing

D. Teyssier; J. Alcolea; V. Bujarrabal; A. Castro-Carrizo; J. Cernicharo; P. Garcia-Lario; A. Marston; H. Olofsson; C. Risacher; F. Schoeier; E. Verdugo

2011-01-01

394

Toward Mapping the Detailed Density Structure of Classical Be Circumstellar Disks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the preliminary results of near contemporaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations of select classical Be stars. We find strong evidence of oppositely oriented V/R hydrogen line profiles in the optical versus infrared spectra of zeta Tau, and briefly discuss how sustained contemporaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations might enable us to trace the detailed density structure of classical Be circumstellar disks.

Wisniewski, J. P.; Kowalski, A. F.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Bjorkman, J. E.

2005-01-01

395

Submillimeter lines from circumstellar disks around pre-main sequence stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of submillimeter lines of CO, HCO+, HCN and their isotopes from circumstellar disks around low mass pre-main sequence stars are presented. CO lines up to J=6->5, and HCO+ and HCN lines up to J=4->3, are detected from the disks around LkCa 15 and TW Hya. These lines originate from levels with higher excitation temperatures and critical densities than studied

G.-J. van Zadelhoff; E. F. van Dishoeck; W.-F. Thi; G. A. Blake

2001-01-01

396

Anisotropic inverse Compton scattering of photons from the circumstellar disc in PSR B1259-63  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gamma-ray binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 consists of a 48 ms pulsar orbiting a Be star. The system is particularly interesting because it is the only gamma-ray binary system where the nature of the compact object is known. The non-thermal radiation from the system is powered by the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar and the unpulsed radiation originates from the stand-off shock front which forms between the pulsar and stellar wind. The Be star/optical companion in the system produces an excess infrared (IR) flux from the associated circumstellar disc. This IR excess provides an additional photon source for inverse Compton scattering. We discuss the effects of the IR excess near periastron, for anisotropic inverse Compton scattering and associated gamma-ray production. We determine the IR excess from the circumstellar disc using a modified version of a curve of growth method, which takes into account the changing optical depth through the circumstellar disc during the orbit. The model is constrained using archive data and additional mid-IR observations obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) during 2011 January. The inverse Compton scattering rate was calculated for three orientations of the circumstellar disc. The predicted gamma-ray light curves show that the disc contribution is a maximum around periastron and not around the disc crossing epoch. This is a result of the disc being brightest near the stellar surface. Additional spectroscopic and near-IR observations were obtained of the system and these are discussed in relation to the possibility of shock heating during the disc crossing epoch. Based, in part, on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 086.D-0136(B), and on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under programme 2012-1-RSA-003.

van Soelen, B.; Meintjes, P. J.; Odendaal, A.; Townsend, L. J.

2012-11-01

397

Helping Students Develop Good Study Habits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides an overview of the main problems causing poor study habits and details possibilities for improvement. It also identifies roles that teachers, parents, and students must play in the study process. The booklet addresses specific concerns under the heading "Questions and Answers": Who Is Responsible for Developing Good Study…

William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

398

Study habits of teachers college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study habits of 127 teachers college students, freshman to senior, are investigated. Analysis of the distribution of study time over the week shows that the most studying is done on Tuesday, the least on Friday. The average daily study time for the group is one hour and fifty-one minutes. Intelligence score is more diagnostic of scholastic success than is

H. M. Bell

1931-01-01

399

Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

2005-01-01