Science.gov

Sample records for cis research agenda

  1. Research agenda.

    PubMed

    2008-12-01

    This issue of JERHRE focuses on two topics that have been largely ignored-trust in the human research industry and structural factors that affect the efficacy of ethical review of human research (i.e., factors that are not under the control of ethics committee members, such as the funding of committee resources and the provision of clear workable regulations). Trust and an adequate ethical infrastructure are integral to one another. Ethical capacity does not reside with an ethics committee alone, but springs from four foundations of ethical research. It derives from (a) national bodies that regulate research and clarify the ethical principles that are promulgated, (b) the institutional research administrations that finance and build the needed infrastructure, (c) the ethics committees that struggle to operate within this system, and (d) the individual disciplines and departments that should work collaboratively with investigators and ethics committees to provide needed expertise. Research on trust and adequate ethical review needs to be mindful of the larger dynamic system within which ethical oversight occurs, and how failure of any of its four major components weakens its other components. PMID:19385760

  2. [European general practice research agenda].

    PubMed

    Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koskela, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The EGPRN (European General Practice Research Network) research agenda is a review compiling the strengths and areas of development of European general practice, based on a systematic literature survey and its versatile analysis. The research agenda is a framework paper sharpening the definition and functions of general practice as well as its significance for researchers and decisionmakers. The agenda is useful in structuring the research, evaluation of research needs, strengthening of infrastructure and strategic planning of new research. PMID:24961062

  3. Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to

  4. iNACOL Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) publishes a research agenda on an ongoing basis to continue its work in field-building, capacity-building and knowledge-building. Based on a 2013 survey of the field to identify research needs, iNACOL developed a research approach, including the following: (1) Build a collaborative…

  5. Advancing the Therapeutic Massage Research Agenda(s)

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) is now an established field of research with dedicated funding, researchers, and many venues and channels for dissemination of TMB research. Research agendas are a way for a profession to focus the development and funding of research on facets of TMB practice and education that are most needed at a given point of time to best move forward the practice and professionalization of TMB. Of the two TMB research agendas, one is currently being updated, the other is newly developed. Because of the impact on the development of the profession, gaps in research agendas also need to be carefully considered. Three areas that could use further consideration or support within the current agendas include education, methods and methodologies, and underlying assumptions. TMB researchers need to engage with and support the current agendas, and participate in their evolution. PMID:24000302

  6. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  7. Waiting Online: A Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…

  8. Establishing a Research Agenda of New Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Molly Herman; And Others

    In this paper, a panel of four new faculty discuss the challenges they have faced and the lessons they have learned in attempting to create a research agenda for themselves. To provide a point of reference, brief biographical sketches are provided of the panel members and the responder. The panelists' comments are provided on several principal…

  9. A Feminist Research Agenda in Youth Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Kay

    1993-01-01

    Considers a feminist research agenda in literature for youth. Highlights include the sexist nature of literary theory; traditional studies of youth literature; feminist criticism and archetypal approaches, genre criticism, and reader response criticism; and a selected list of feminist scholarship and literary criticism applicable to youth…

  10. National Rural Education Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Stephens, E. Robert

    To develop a list of research priorities for rural education, members of the Rural Education Association's (REA) Research Committee and Executive Board were asked to rank order nine thematic research categories. The ranking process resulted in the following list (starting with the highest priority): (1) rural school effectiveness; (2) staff…

  11. Status of flexible CIS research at ISET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basol, B. M.; Kapur, V. K.; Minnick, A.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells fabricated on light-weight, flexible substrates are very attractive for space applications. In this work CulnSe2 (CIS) based thin film devices were processed on metallic foil substrates using the selenization technique. CIS deposition method involved reaction of electron-bean evaporated Cu-In precursor layers with a selenizing atmosphere at around 400 C. Several metallic foils such as Mo, Ti, Al, Ni, and Cu were evaluated as possible substrates for these devices. Solar cells with AM1.5 efficiencies of 9.0-9.34 percent and good mechanical integrity were demonstrated on Mo and Ti foils. Monolithic integration of these devices was also demonstrated up to 4 in x 4 in size.

  12. Researching Pedagogy: A Sociocultural Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Argues that understandings of pedagogy which are grounded in the hermeneutic psychology offered by Vygotskian theory can enhance teachers' professionalism and inform a pedagogy for the new knowledge, describing sociocultural methodology in research on pedagogy and exploring what a sociocultural and activity theory interpretative take on pedagogy…

  13. Transnational corporations and health: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Baum, Frances Elaine; Margaret Anaf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) are part of an economic system of global capitalism that operates under a neoliberal regime underpinned by strong support from international organisations such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and most nation states. Although TNCs have grown in power and influence and have had a significant impact on population health over the past three decades, public health has not developed an integrated research agenda to study them. This article outlines the shape of such an agenda and argues that it is vital that research into the public health impact of TNCs be pursued and funded as a matter of priority. The four areas of the agenda are: assessing the health and equity impacts of TNCs; evaluating the effectiveness of government regulation to mitigate health and equity impacts of TNCs; studying the work of activist groups and networks that highlight adverse impacts of TNCs; and considering how regulation of capitalism could better promote a healthier and more equitable corporate sector. PMID:25674798

  14. A research agenda for malaria eradication: modeling.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Malaria modeling can inform policy and guide research for malaria elimination and eradication from local implementation to global policy. A research and development agenda for malaria modeling is proposed, to support operations and to enhance the broader eradication research agenda. Models are envisioned as an integral part of research, planning, and evaluation, and modelers should ideally be integrated into multidisciplinary teams to update the models iteratively, communicate their appropriate use, and serve the needs of other research scientists, public health specialists, and government officials. A competitive and collaborative framework will result in policy recommendations from multiple, independently derived models and model systems that share harmonized databases. As planned, modeling results will be produced in five priority areas: (1) strategic planning to determine where and when resources should be optimally allocated to achieve eradication; (2) management plans to minimize the evolution of drug and pesticide resistance; (3) impact assessments of new and needed tools to interrupt transmission; (4) technical feasibility assessments to determine appropriate combinations of tools, an associated set of target intervention coverage levels, and the expected timelines for achieving a set of goals in different socio-ecological settings and different health systems; and (5) operational feasibility assessments to weigh the economic costs, capital investments, and human resource capacities required. PMID:21283605

  15. Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Janet; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Beam, Kristen; Berman, Alan L; Branas, Charles C; Cheney, Rose A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Firman, John; Fishbein, Martin; Hargarten, Stephen; Hemenway, David; Jeffcoat, Robert; Kennedy, David; Koper, Christopher S; Lemaire, Jean; Miller, Matthew; Roth, Jeffrey A; Schwab, C William; Spitzer, Robert; Teret, Stephen; Vernick, Jon; Webster, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field of firearms and violence formed the National Research Collaborative on Firearm Violence. The Collaborative met for 2 days in June 2005 to (1) critically review the main findings of the NAS report and (2) define a research agenda that could fill research and data gaps and inform policy that reduces gun-related crime, deaths and injuries. This article summarizes the Collaborative's conclusions and identifies priorities for research and funding. PMID:17446246

  16. Reducing firearm violence: a research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Janet; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S; Beam, Kristen; Berman, Alan L; Branas, Charles C; Cheney, Rose A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Firman, John; Fishbein, Martin; Hargarten, Stephen; Hemenway, David; Jeffcoat, Robert; Kennedy, David; Koper, Christopher S; Lemaire, Jean; Miller, Matthew; Roth, Jeffrey A; Schwab, C William; Spitzer, Robert; Teret, Stephen; Vernick, Jon; Webster, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, firearms are involved in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries each year. The magnitude of this problem prompted the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to issue a report in 2004 detailing the strengths and limitations of existing research on the relationship between firearms and violence. In response, a multidisciplinary group of experts in the field of firearms and violence formed the National Research Collaborative on Firearm Violence. The Collaborative met for 2 days in June 2005 to (1) critically review the main findings of the NAS report and (2) define a research agenda that could fill research and data gaps and inform policy that reduces gun-related crime, deaths and injuries. This article summarizes the Collaborative's conclusions and identifies priorities for research and funding. PMID:17446246

  17. The LSST Data Mining Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K.; Becla, J.; Davidson, I.; Szalay, A.; Tyson, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    We describe features of the LSST science database that are amenable to scientific data mining, object classification, outlier identification, anomaly detection, image quality assurance, and survey science validation. The data mining research agenda includes: scalability (at petabytes scales) of existing machine learning and data mining algorithms; development of grid-enabled parallel data mining algorithms; designing a robust system for brokering classifications from the LSST event pipeline (which may produce 10,000 or more event alerts per night) multi-resolution methods for exploration of petascale databases; indexing of multi-attribute multi-dimensional astronomical databases (beyond spatial indexing) for rapid querying of petabyte databases; and more.

  18. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  19. Guiding Rural Schools and Districts: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) has identified a research agenda that connects the challenges that rural schools face in implementing No Child Left Behind (NCLB) provisions. The rural education research agenda crafted by McREL includes nine priority topics: (1) Opportunity to learn; (2) School size and student…

  20. Supervision: Needed Research. A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Robert J.; Firth, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    The lack of research and continuing disagreement on the definition and the purposes of supervision in education have stifled the identification and development of skills and have contributed to weak preparation programs for instructional supervisors. (SI)

  1. Collaborative Visualization: Definition, Challenges, and Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, Petra; Elmqvist, Niklas; Scholtz, Jean; Cernea, Daniel; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Hagen, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Collaborative visualization has emerged as a new research direction which offers the opportunity to reach new audiences and application areas for visualization tools and techniques. Technology now allows us to easily connect and collaborate with one another - in settings as diverse as over networked computers, across mobile devices, or using shared displays such as interactive walls and tabletop surfaces. Any of these collaborative settings carries a set of challenges and opportunities for visualization research. Digital information is already regularly accessed by multiple people together in order to share information, to view it together, to analyze it, or to form decisions. However, research on how to best support collaboration with and around visualizations is still in its infancy and has so far focused only on a small subset of possible application scenarios. The purpose of this article is (1) to provide a clear scope, definition, and overview of the evolving field of collaborative visualization, (2) to help pinpoint the unique focus of collaborative visualization with its specific aspects, challenges, and requirements within the intersection of general computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) and visualization research, and (3) to draw attention to important future research questions to be addressed by the community. Thus, the goal of the paper is to discuss a research agenda for future work on collaborative visualization, including our vision for how to meet the grand challenge and to urge for a new generation of visualization tools that were designed with collaboration in mind from their very inception.

  2. Establishing a National Research Agenda for Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clifton L.

    1992-01-01

    A review of marketing education research 1936-91 illuminated areas of need for a research agenda in marketing education. A framework and proposal for future marketing education research were formulated. (JOW)

  3. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs will be essential tools at all stages of malaria elimination along the path towards eradication, including the early control or “attack” phase to drive down transmission and the later stages of maintaining interruption of transmission, preventing reintroduction of malaria, and eliminating the last residual foci of infection. Drugs will continue to be used to treat acute malaria illness and prevent complications in vulnerable groups, but better drugs are needed for elimination-specific indications such as mass treatment, curing asymptomatic infections, curing relapsing liver stages, and preventing transmission. The ideal malaria eradication drug is a coformulated drug combination suitable for mass administration that can be administered in a single encounter at infrequent intervals and that results in radical cure of all life cycle stages of all five malaria species infecting humans. Short of this optimal goal, highly desirable drugs might have limitations such as targeting only one or two parasite species, the priorities being Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The malaria research agenda for eradication should include research aimed at developing such drugs and research to develop situation-specific strategies for using both current and future drugs to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:21311580

  4. Setting the rural health services research agenda: the congressional perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, L

    1989-01-01

    This series of key research questions is based on the underlying congressional assumption that the rural health research agenda must be developed as an instrument equally relevant to policymakers, practitioners, and the public. PMID:2492981

  5. Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART): A Visual Model and Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Haug, Carolyn A.; Robinson, Ellen Hill

    2011-01-01

    In response to the dearth of research agendas that connect teacher education and teaching in the field and to the call for more programmatic research, the purpose of this paper is to present the Agenda for Researching Teaching (ART). The ART is a visual research agenda that spans the time from a teacher candidate learning to teach to impacting…

  6. Education for Sustainable Development and retention: unravelling a research agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

    2010-06-01

    This paper considers the question of what education for sustainable development (ESD) research might signify when linked to the concept of "retention", and how this relation (ESD and retention) might be researched. It considers two different perspectives on retention, as revealed through educational research trajectories, drawing on existing research and case studies. Firstly, it discusses an ESD research agenda that documents retention by focusing on the issue of keeping children in schools. This research agenda is typical of the existing discourses surrounding Education for All (EFA). It then discusses a related ESD research agenda that focuses more on the pedagogical and curricular aspects of retention, as this provides for a deeper understanding of how ESD can contribute to improving the quality of teaching and learning within a wider EFA retention agenda.

  7. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if malaria vaccines are to be used as part of a repertoire of tools for elimination or eradication of malaria, they will need to have an impact on malaria transmission. We introduce the concept of “vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission” (VIMT), which includes not only “classical” transmission-blocking vaccines that target the sexual and mosquito stages but also pre-erythrocytic and asexual stage vaccines that have an effect on transmission. VIMT may also include vaccines that target the vector to disrupt parasite development in the mosquito. Importantly, if eradication is to be achieved, malaria vaccine development efforts will need to target other malaria parasite species, especially Plasmodium vivax, where novel therapeutic vaccines against hypnozoites or preventive vaccines with effect against multiple stages could have enormous impact. A target product profile (TPP) for VIMT is proposed and a research agenda to address current knowledge gaps and develop tools necessary for design and development of VIMT is presented. PMID:21311586

  8. Establishing a Research Agenda for Art Therapy: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Art therapy in the United States is a young profession that would benefit from an identified research agenda to marshal resources more effectively to address gaps in the knowledge base. This article describes a Delphi study of U.S. art therapy researchers who were surveyed on research priorities for the profession. The research panelists were…

  9. Building an Australasian paramedicine research agenda: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Peter; Maguire, Brian; Jennings, Paul; Simpson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The need for paramedicine research has been recognised internationally through efforts to develop out-of-hospital research agendas in several developed countries. Australasia has a substantial paramedicine research capacity compared to the discipline internationally and is well positioned as a potential leader in the drive towards evidence-based policy and practice in paramedicine. Our objective was to draw on international experiences to identify and recommend the best methodological approach that should be employed to develop an Australasian paramedicine research agenda. A search and critical appraisal process was employed to produce an overview of the literature related to the development of paramedicine research agendas throughout the world. Based on these international experiences, and our own analysis of the Australasian context, we recommend that a mixed methods approach be used to develop an inclusive Australasian Paramedicine Research Agenda. This approach will capture the views and interests of a wide range of expert stakeholders through multiple data collection strategies, including interviews, roundtable discussions and an online Delphi consensus survey. Paramedic researchers and industry leaders have the opportunity to use this multidisciplinary process of inquiry to develop a paramedicine research agenda that will provide a framework for the development of a culture of open evaluation, innovation and improvement. This research agenda would assess the progress of paramedicine research in Australia and New Zealand, map the research capacity of the paramedicine discipline, paramedic services, universities and professional organisations, identify current strengths and opportunities, make recommendations to capitalize on opportunities, and identify research priorities. Success will depend on ensuring the participation of a representative sample of expert stakeholders, fostering an open and collaborative roundtable discussion, and adhering to a predefined

  10. National Rural Education Association Research Agenda Report. October 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, Keigh

    To obtain rural school superintendents' assessment of research needs, questionnaires were sent in 1986 to 752 superintendents from schools with less than 1,000 K-12 student population. The questionnaires, adapted from the research agenda of the Rural Education Association (REA), consisted of 51 research topics grouped under 9 thematic categories.…

  11. Developing a Coherent Research Agenda: Lessons from the REL Northeast & Islands Research Agenda Workshops. REL 2014-014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanek, Julie Reed; Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Carey, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the approach that REL Northeast and Islands (REL-NEI) used to guide its eight research alliances toward collaboratively identifying a shared research agenda. A key feature of their approach was a two-workshop series, during which alliance members created a set of research questions on a shared topic of education policy and/or…

  12. Ethics in Customer Service: Critical Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Wendy S. Zabava

    1996-01-01

    Identifies domains of unethical service communication and proposes a research agenda for examining service ethics. Calls for research to explore service ethics among different occupational groups, investigate effects of unethical practices on service providers and customers, and identify characteristics of organizational climates which foster…

  13. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas

  14. Toward a National Research Agenda on Violence Against Women: Continuing the Dialogue on Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Carol E.

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a two-part special issue on the nation's research agenda on violence against women (VAW). As introduced in Part 1, this special issue is not the definitive word on what the nation's research agenda should be, nor is it the final critique on the current state of research in this critical area. Rather, this special issue is an…

  15. Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Diane, Ed.; Hakuta, Kenji, Ed.

    This report is the culmination of a process that began in 1994, at a planning meeting to determine whether there was a sufficient knowledge base to inform the development of a research agenda on the education of language minority children. A committee was established to review what is known about the linguistic, cognitive, and social processes…

  16. Latinos and Public Broadcasting: Developing a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Nicholas A.

    This paper deals with Latino audiences in the United States and explores how socially beneficial research agenda can deal with their communication needs and result in better and more programming on public broadcasting services. Latino audiences are defined as persons of Spanish language heritage, regardless of surname or country origin. A…

  17. Citizen Science on Your Smartphone: An ELSI Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A; Wilbanks, John T; Brothers, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of newly-emerging, technology-enabled, unregulated citizen science health research poses a substantial challenge for traditional research ethics. Unquestionably, a significant amount of research ethics study is needed to prepare for the inevitable, widespread introduction of citizen science health research. Using the case study of mobile health (mHealth) research, this article provides an ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) research agenda for citizen science health research conducted outside conventional research institutions. The issues for detailed analysis include the role of IRBs, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, informed consent, confidentiality and security, vulnerable participants, incidental findings, and publication and data sharing. PMID:26711425

  18. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  19. A research agenda for academic petroleum engineering programs. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calhoun, J.C. Jr.

    1990-03-31

    The development of a research agenda should be a direct way of portraying the scope of petroleum engineering, of identifying the critical technological issues faced by the profession,of elucidating the gaps between the existing research resources and the needs. and of outlining a program of research through which the petroleum engineering departments can be collectively of maximum service. Such an agenda would be of value to the profession of petroleum engineering, to industry and to government agencies, as well as to the faculty and students of the petroleum engineering departments. The purposes of the activity that led to this report, therefore, were to develop a statement to serve as a beginning research agenda for the petroleum engineering academic community; to bring together representatives of the petroleum engineering academic community to recognize the importance of developing a consensus posture with respect to research; and to provide a document that will assist in portraying to industry, government agencies and others the problems and needs of the petroleum engineering departments for conducting research. Contents of this report include; introduction; the background; the scope of petroleum engineering research; priority research topics and technological issues; non-technological research issues; and conclusions and recommendations.

  20. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  1. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  2. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  3. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  4. PERSONALITY DISORDER RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE DSM–V

    PubMed Central

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert; Livesley, W. John; Verheul, Roel

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, “Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology, & Treatment,” was devoted to reviewing the existing research and setting a future research agenda that would be most effective in leading the field toward a dimensional classification of personality disorder. The purpose of this article, authored by the Steering Committee of this conference, was to provide a summary of the conference papers and their recommendations for research. Covered herein are the reviews and recommendations concerning alternative dimensional models of personality disorder, behavioral genetics and gene mapping, neurobiological mechanisms, childhood antecedents, cross–cultural issues, Axes I and II continuity, coverage and cutoff points for diagnosis, and clinical utility. PMID:16175740

  5. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  6. 75 FR 63495 - Partnerships To Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH...: ``Partnerships to Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)''. Public Meeting Time and Date: 10 a..., Washington, DC 20201. Purpose of the Meeting: The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) has...

  7. Building an International Nursing Outcomes Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Robyn B.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    A program of research begins with a good idea that materializes into a series of studies that carry the same theme. Each study builds upon the last, expanding on the findings to generate new questions, thus building the evidence base. The Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research has built a 20-year program of research that has made great strides in establishing the evidence base that professional nurse practice models of care positively influence patient outcomes. This paper traces the evolution of the Center’s program of research from a one-state focus to an international enterprise. PMID:20577647

  8. The Oral Proficiency Interview: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Fulcher, Glenn

    2003-01-01

    Many researchers and practitioners maintain that ACTFL's efforts to improve instructional practices and promote proficiency assessments tied to descriptors of what learners can do in real life have contributed significantly to second language teaching and testing. Similar endeavors in the area of research, however, are critically needed. Focusing…

  9. A Biliteracy Agenda for Genre Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentil, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Most research on the development of genre knowledge has focused on genre learning in either a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). This paper highlights the potential of a biliteracy perspective on genre research that combines insights from literacy and bilingualism in order to examine how multilingual writers develop and use genre…

  10. Toward a Transdisciplinary Rural Education Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapel, Christopher J.; DeYoung, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of rural education research orientations--defined in terms of methodological approach, academic focus and place-consciousness--within the literature and across academic disciplines. A content analysis of 155 abstracts from articles published in the Journal of Research in Rural Education and Rural Sociology…

  11. Building a Common Research Agenda across Jurisdictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Julie; Dynarski, Mark; Kochanek, Julie; Best, Jane; Dawson, Matt

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to bring more knowledge about "what works" to educational practitioners, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) has made significant investments in developing and disseminating focused, rigorous research projects in order to increase the supply of and demand for this research in educational decision making. These efforts built on…

  12. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepler, Charles D.

    1987-01-01

    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  13. Services for Children: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    Focusing on the range of child welfare, health, juvenile justice, child development, recreation, and family support services currently provided to children in the United States, this report of the Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy assesses and provides recommendations concerning research on children's services and service…

  14. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  15. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  16. Prolonged grief: setting the research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged grief disorder is proposed for the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), though it was rejected as a diagnosis for DSM-5. Objective This review outlines findings and defines important areas for future research viewed from a lifespan perspective. Results The development and psychometric evaluation of measures for the new diagnosis is paramount, specifically for children and adolescents. Treatments need to be adapted for specific subgroups and research findings have to be disseminated into various professional settings. PMID:25994020

  17. Toward a National Research Agenda on Violence Against Women: Continuing the Dialogue on Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Carol E.

    2004-01-01

    This two-part special issue does not presume to set the nation's research agenda on violence against women (VAW), nor is it the first attempt to contribute to how that agenda might be informed. Instead, this issue continues the dialogue about the empirical study of VAW started by and participated in by many others before. Any attempt at something…

  18. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda.

    PubMed

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Goligher, Ewan C; Schmidt, Matthieu; Spieth, Peter M; Zanella, Alberto; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Calfee, Carolyn S; Cavalcanti, Alexandre B

    2016-05-01

    In the last 20 years, survival among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has increased substantially with advances in lung-protective ventilation and resuscitation. Building on this success, personalizing mechanical ventilation to patient-specific physiology for enhanced lung protection will be a top research priority for the years ahead. However, the ARDS research agenda must be broader in scope. Further understanding of the heterogeneous biology, from molecular to mechanical, underlying early ARDS pathogenesis is essential to inform therapeutic discovery and tailor treatment and prevention strategies to the individual patient. The ARDSne(x)t research agenda for the next 20 years calls for bringing personalized medicine to ARDS, asking simultaneously both whether a treatment affords clinically meaningful benefit and for whom. This expanded scope necessitates standard acquisition of highly granular biological, physiological, and clinical data across studies to identify biologically distinct subgroups that may respond differently to a given intervention. Clinical trials will need to consider enrichment strategies and incorporate long-term functional outcomes. Tremendous investment in research infrastructure and global collaboration will be vital to fulfilling this agenda. PMID:27040103

  19. A Multidisciplinary Research Agenda for Understanding Vaccine-Related Decisions.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the "Motors of Trust in Vaccination" (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114

  20. Developing a Research Agenda in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Patricia E.; Brunkhorst, Herb; Lunetta, Vincent; Penick, John; Peterson, Jodi; Pietrucha, Barbara; Staver, John

    2005-01-01

    The Science Summit reinforced a question upon which many of us in science education are focused: How can we, the science education community of researchers, practitioners, and consumers, lead policy? We include a brief review of the No Child Left Behind Act and its implications for teachers, and elaborate about one ongoing and growing effort to…

  1. ELLA Research Agenda 2012-2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast & Islands, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the English Language Learners Research Alliance (ELLA) is to collaborate with states, districts, and schools on the use of data to identify and understand the diversity of their English Language Learner (ELL) population along a range of demographic factors, such as educational background, cultural and linguistic characteristics,…

  2. A Research Agenda for Christian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a project conducted to determine the areas of research required to support Christian schools as they carry out their task in a changing world. The project was carried out through an email survey and phone interviews of leaders of schools associated with two Christian school organizations--the Association of Christian Schools…

  3. Integration: An Agenda for Developmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholnick, Ellin Kofsky

    2001-01-01

    Finds Bloom and Tinker's description and measurement of active, integrated, and situated children to be a credible scientifically rigorous paradigm for language acquisition research. Highlights their use of the naturalistic, observational method to understand the changing patterns of integration and use of multifaceted abilities in child language…

  4. Behavior Change Support Systems: A Research Model and Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    This article introduces the concept of a behavior change support system and suggests it as a key construct for research on persuasive systems design, technologies, and applications. Key concepts for behavior change support systems are defined and a research agenda for them is outlined. The article suggests that a change in complying, a behavior change, and an attitude change (C-, B- or A-Change) constitute the archetypes of a behavioral change. Change in itself is either of a forming, altering or reinforcing outcome (F-, A- or R-Outcome). This research model will become helpful in researching and designing persuasive technology.

  5. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708

  6. A global research agenda for leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Cachay, E R; Vinetz, J M

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease of global importance. This disease continues to have a major impact on people living in urban and rural areas of developing countries with inestimable morbidity and mortality. Funding for research and control efforts is currently haphazard, not organized and not effective for public health efforts, primarily because there are no concerted, ongoing international efforts to assess the impact of leptospirosis on human health. Major issues in the field need to be addressed to develop strategies of control, amelioration and treatment. These include the following: mechanisms of naturally acquired and vaccine-induced protective immunity against clinical leptospirosis; mechanisms of severe leptospirosis pathogenesis; standardized, precise and simplified taxonomy of Leptospira relevant to disease manifestations, transmission and control; effective adjunct treatments in addition to antimicrobials; and environmental assessment for risk of leptospirosis transmission and relevant mammalian reservoirs. Once effective ongoing, collaborative international efforts to assess the impact of leptospirosis on human and veterinary health are underway, appropriate mobilization of clinical and public health research funding will follow. PMID:16333188

  7. A Global Research Agenda for Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Cachay, ER; Vinetz, JM

    2008-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease of global importance. This disease continues to have a major impact on people living in urban and rural areas of developing countries with inestimable morbidity and mortality. Funding for research and control efforts is currently haphazard, not organized and not effective for public health efforts, primarily because there are no concerted, ongoing international efforts to assess the impact of leptospirosis on human health. Major issues in the field need to be addressed to develop strategies of control, amelioration and treatment. These include the following: mechanisms of naturally acquired and vaccine-induced protective immunity against clinical leptospirosis; mechanisms of severe leptospirosis pathogenesis; standardized, precise and simplified taxonomy of Leptospira relevant to disease manifestations, transmission and control; effective adjunct treatments in addition to antimicrobials; and environmental assessment for risk of leptospirosis transmission and relevant mammalian reservoirs. Once effective ongoing, collaborative international efforts to assess the impact of leptospirosis on human and veterinary health are underway, appropriate mobilization of clinical and public health research funding will follow. PMID:16333188

  8. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow. PMID:25994025

  9. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health (“m-Health”) is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow. PMID:25994025

  10. Fulfillment of the brazilian agenda of priorities in health research.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Moura, Erly Catarina; Barradas Barata, Rita de Cássia; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; da Motta, Marcia Luz; Silva Elias, Flávia Tavares; Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; de Paula, Ana Patricia; de Melo, Gilvania; Guimarães, Reinaldo; Grabois Gadelha, Carlos Augusto

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  11. Fulfillment of the Brazilian Agenda of Priorities in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary describes how the Brazilian Ministry of Health's (MoH) research support policy fulfilled the National Agenda of Priorities in Health Research (NAPHR). In 2003, the MoH started a democratic process in order to establish a priority agenda in health research involving investigators, health managers and community leaders. The Agenda was launched in 2004 and is guiding budget allocations in an attempt to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and health practice and activities, aiming to contribute to improving Brazilian quality of life. Many strategies were developed, for instance: Cooperation Agreements between the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Technology; the decentralization of research support at state levels with the participation of local Health Secretariats and Science and Technology Institutions; Health Technology Assessment; innovation in neglected diseases; research networks and multicenter studies in adult, women's and children's health; cardiovascular risk in adolescents; clinical research and stem cell therapy. The budget allocated by the Ministry of Health and partners was expressive: US$419 million to support almost 3,600 projects. The three sub-agenda with the higher proportion of resources were "industrial health complex", "clinical research" and "communicable diseases", which are considered strategic for innovation and national development. The Southeast region conducted 40.5% of all projects and detained 59.7% of the resources, attributable to the concentration of the most traditional health research institutes and universities in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The second most granted region was the Northeast, which reflects the result of a governmental policy to integrate and modernize this densely populated area and the poorest region in the country. Although Brazil began the design and implementation of the NAPHR in 2003, it has done so in accordance with the 'good practice principles

  12. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals. PMID:25224781

  13. Understanding marine biodiversity: A research agenda for the nation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Propelled by the need for understanding changes in marine biodiversity resulting from human activities, this proposed research Program calls for ecological and oceanographic research spanning a broad range of spatial scales, from local to much larger regional, and over appropriately long time scales for capturing the dynamics of the system under study. The research agenda proposes a fundamental change in the approach by which biodiversity is measured and studied in the ocean by emphasizing integrated regional-scale research strategies within an environmentally relevant and socially responsible framework. This is now possible because of recent technological and conceptual advances within the ecological, molecular, and oceanographic sciences. A major goal of this research is to improve predictions of the effects of the human population on the diversity of life in the sea, in order to improve conservation and management plans. A well-defined set of biodiversity research questions is proposed for study in several different types of regional-scale marine ecosystems. These studies will permit meaningful comparisons across different habitats of the causes and consequences of changes in biodiversity due to human activities. This agenda requires significant advances in taxonomic expertise for identifying marine organisms and documenting their distributions, in knowledge of local and regional natural Patterns of biodiversity, and in understanding of the processes that create and maintain these patterns in space and time. Thus, this program could provide longawaited, much-needed, and exciting opportunities to develop the interface between taxonomy and ecology and between the ecological and oceanographic sciences.

  14. African refugee migration: a model and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kayongo-male, D

    1989-01-01

    "This article elaborates upon the problems of the refugee crisis in Africa. With around 4 million refugees, heavily concentrated in particular African nations like Sudan and Somalia, the impacts on the host country can be severe. A model, dealing with the process of refugee migration, with particular reference to impacts on host countries, is developed. Negative impacts include military attacks on communities in the host country. One positive impact is the increase in the number of development-type projects which go beyond the mandate of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees. A tentative research agenda on African refugee migration is put forward." PMID:12316228

  15. A remote sensing research agenda for mapping and monitoring biodiversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, D. M.; Estes, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing research agenda designed to expand the knowledge of the spatial distribution of species richness and its ecological determinants and to predict its response to global change is proposed. Emphasis is placed on current methods of mapping species richness of both plants and animals, hypotheses concerning the biophysical factors believed to determine patterns of species richness, and anthropogenic processes causing the accelerating rate of extinctions. It is concluded that biodiversity should be incorporated more prominently into the global change and earth system science paradigms.

  16. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. PMID:26447061

  17. A research agenda for AIDS prevention in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Hearst, N; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    In the developing world, HIV is spreading in many different epidemiologic patterns. The spread may be slow among a few population groups, exponential, or at the level of a mature epidemic. HIV is spreading across a wide range of cultures and behavior patterns. A need therefore exists to tailor prevention measures to conditions and needs at local levels. Research at the local level is needed to guide the development and implementation of appropriate HIV prevention programs. The authors propose a research agenda for AIDS prevention in the developing world which consists of the following central components: epidemiologic and behavioral surveillance, improving the local understanding of HIV risk behavior, and testing interventions. Examples of each component are reviewed. In addition, bottom-up research is contrasted with top-down research conducted in the developing world by scientists from developed countries. PMID:9376092

  18. How Partnerships Are Core to a Linking Research and Practice Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2015-01-01

    Partnerships between researchers and teachers are central to stimulating advancements in a linking research and practice agenda. This paper addresses two key aims. First, research on supporting students' representational fluency in technology-rich algebra learning environments is used to illustrate a linking research and practice agenda. Three…

  19. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2012-01-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels. PMID:23223093

  20. Ecological hazards of MTBE exposure: A research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsen, T.; Hall, L.; Rice, D.

    1997-03-01

    Fuel oxygenates are used in metropolitan areas across the United States in order to reduce the amount of carbon monoxide released into the atmosphere during the winter. The most commonly used fuel oxygenate is Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Its widespread use has resulted in releases into the environment. To date there has been only minimal effort to investigate ecological impacts caused by exposure to concentrations of MTBE typically found in environmental media. Research into the potential for MTBE to adversely affect ecological receptors is essential. Acquisition of such baselines data is especially critical in light of continuing inputs and potential accumulation of MTBE in environmental media. A research Agenda is included in this report and addresses: Assessing Ecological Impacts, Potential Ecological Impacts of MTBE (aquatic organisms, terrestrial organisms), Potential Ecological Endpoints, and A Summary of Research Needs.

  1. A Pain Research Agenda for the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Gereau, Robert W.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Maixner, William; Savage, Seddon R.; Price, Theodore J.; Murinson, Beth B.; Sullivan, Mark D.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain represents an immense clinical problem. With tens of millions of people in the United States alone suffering from the burden of debilitating chronic pain, there is a moral obligation to reduce this burden by improving the understanding of pain and treatment mechanisms, developing new therapies, optimizing and testing existing therapies, and improving access to evidence-based pain care. Here, we present a goal-oriented research agenda describing the American Pain Society’s vision for pain research aimed at tackling the most pressing issues in the field. Perspective This article presents the American Pain Society’s view of some of the most important research questions that need to be addressed to advance pain science and to improve care of patients with chronic pain. PMID:25419990

  2. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science.

    PubMed

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2011-06-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels. PMID:23223093

  3. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  4. Curiosity and Commercialization: Faculty Perspectives on Sponsored Research, Academic Science and Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perorazio, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Given the need to compete for sponsored research funding, do university faculty believe they retain the freedom to research what is of most interest to them? The higher education literature frequently asserts that faculty research agendas are being subjugated to the demands of sponsors. An alternate perspective, from the science studies…

  5. Illinois's Child Welfare Research Agenda: An Approach to Building Consensus for Practice-Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michelle A.; Wells, Susan J.; Testa, Mark F.; McDonald, Jess

    2003-01-01

    This article details a consensus-building initiative to develop a statewide research agenda responding to needs of Illinois's child welfare community. Researchers conducted this process through a university-community partnership to engage those interested in child welfare services, and produced a document to guide child welfare research throughout…

  6. Reflection on the Development of a Research Agenda in Rural Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lisa; Best, James D.; Wakerman, John; Humphreys, John S.; Wright, Julian R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature on how research agendas have been developed. In this article, the authors reflect on the process of developing a research agenda through a case study of a rural health university centre. The aim is to contribute to understanding how a team can effectively plan research. Two leaders of the process, as well as…

  7. DOE/NORA/BNL oil heat research agenda development

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1996-07-01

    The National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has been formed and is currently working to establish a Congressionally approved oilheat check-off program to provide funding for research, education, training, safety, and marketing to benefit the US oilheat industry. NORA will be presenting this program to the Congress for its consideration and approval in the coming year. It will follow the same path as the National Propane Gas Association which is currently working on obtaining Congressional approval of a propane check off program that has already attracted over 120 cosponsors in the House of representatives. An effort to define the basis of a joint US Department of Energy (DOE) and Oilheat industry (marketers) program for future oilheat equipment research and development will be conducted during FY-1996. At the request of NORA representatives BNL will coordinate the development of a research agenda addressing three categories of activities, research appropriate for DOE support only, research appropriate for NORA support only, and research appropriate for co-funding by both organizations. This will also serve to update a prior oil-fueled research plan developed for DOE ten years ago which has been the road map for DOE`s very successful Oil Heat R&D program at BNL.

  8. Borderlands Modelling and Understanding with GISs: Challenges and Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Ge, Y. J.; Cheng, Y.; Li, R.; Cao, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Borderland regions are special areas and deserve more attention in global sustainable development. Reliable information and effective analysis tools are requested to support borderlands studies through the integrated utilization of geospatial analysis, web service, as well as the other domain-specific expertise. This paper has reviewed the state-of-the-art of borderlands modelling and understanding. From the perspective of geospatial information sciences (GIS), integrated data modelling, comprehensive analysis and collaborative information service are identified as the three major challenges in this filed. A research agenda is further proposed with four topics, i.e., classification and representation of borderland information, derivation of neighborhood information, development of synergetic analysis, and design and development of a geo-portal for borderlands studies. This interdisciplinary study requires a closer and in-depth collaboration of geopolitics, international relation, geography and geo-spatial information sciences.

  9. Driving with Bioptic Telescopes: Organizing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Being a licensed driver in the U. S. and many other countries facilitates health and well-being. Based on the vision standards in most states, individuals with worse than 20/40 visual acuity who desire licensure are denied through the usual licensure application process. However, over 40 states have bioptic telescope licensing programs where applicants can gain licensure contingent on meeting specific requirements. In spite of the existence of the bioptic telescope and these licensing programs since the 1970s, there has been little rigorous scientific study of this topic. Here I offer an organizing perspective for a research agenda on driving with bioptic telescopes, with the long term practical goal being to provide an evidence basis for licensure policies and training programs. PMID:22863791

  10. Youth and digital media: a policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, K

    2000-08-01

    At a time when researchers are still sorting out the complex relationship between adolescents and the mass media, the entire nature of the media system is undergoing dramatic change. The explosive growth of the Internet is ushering in a new digital media culture. Youth are embracing the new technologies much more rapidly than adults. In addition, because of their increased spending power, youth have become a valuable target market for advertisers. These trends have spurred the proliferation of Web sites and other forms of new-media content specifically designed for teens and children. The burgeoning digital marketplace has spawned a new generation of market research companies, and market research on children and youth is outpacing academic research on youth and the newer media. The emergence of this new media culture holds both promise and peril for youth. Whether the positive or negative vision of the digital future prevails will be determined, in large part, by decisions being made now and in the next few years in the halls of government and in corporate boardrooms. Research has contributed to the resolutions of several recent legislative and policy decisions in areas including television violence and the V-chip, children's educational television programming, and privacy and marketing to children on the Web. Future research needs to be designed with the public policy agenda in mind. The academic community has much to contribute to the debates over new developments in the digital age. PMID:10904209

  11. Participatory Action Research in Education: The National Latino/a Education Research Agenda Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedraza, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    The National Latino/a Education Research Agenda Project, an initiative developed at the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos at Hunter College, aims to give voice, perspective, and a research knowledge base to such issues as school reform and to improve academic outcomes and the long term life chances of Latino students and their families and…

  12. Consumer decision and behavior research agenda for the Office of Building and Community Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, B.L.; Scheer, R.M.; Barnes, V.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents a research agenda of Consumer Decision and Behavior Projects related to improving, facilitating and planning Building and Community Systems, (BCS) research and development activities. Information for developing this agenda was gathered through focus group and depth interviews with BCS staff, directors and program managers.

  13. An Initial Research Agenda for Rural Mathematics Education. Working Paper No. 16 (Revised)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Michael; Howley, Craig; Schultz, James

    2004-01-01

    Responding to the need for research in rural mathematics education, three investigators develop an initial research agenda in this area. Because this development is perhaps unique, the investigators envision the utility of this initial agenda in terms of both product and process. Drawing from 190 questions from multiple sources in mathematics,…

  14. Uncovering Critical Research Agendas for School Psychology: Conceptual Dimensions and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    Considers research agendas for moving the school psychology profession forward by yielding unique contributions in the millennium, while enabling school psychologists to enhance outcomes for children and families with greater precision and effectiveness. Specifically examines some research agendas in the areas of diagnosis and assessment,…

  15. The healthy organization construct: A review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam

    2013-09-01

    Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms. PMID:24872666

  16. The healthy organization construct: A review and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Raya, Rampalli Prabhakara; Panneerselvam, Sivapragasam

    2013-01-01

    Work plays an important role in one's life for many reasons. It provides us with economic, social, and personal satisfaction and accounts for a substantial percentage of our waking hours. But in today's knowledge-driven economy, organization of work has been changing at a warp speed as a consequence of economic, social and technological aspects of changes brought down by globalization and liberalization worldwide. While this situation has eliminated some risks of the earlier industrial era, it is introducing others. In such a dynamic business environment, where can business leaders and managers find competitive advantage? It lies in balancing people and performance goals. This is the line of approach for healthy organization research that examines organizational context with regard to: People, work organization, management practices, employee wellbeing and performance. The healthy organization concept proposes that along with the profits, employee's well being should also be an important goal for organizations. In this paper, the researcher undertakes an extensive review of literature in the mainstream business literature and establishes the agenda for healthy organization research among other research paradigms. PMID:24872666

  17. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors. Methods We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee. Results We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing. Conclusions Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward. PMID:22182518

  18. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Juliano, Laura M.; Hughes, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder—a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  19. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5(th) ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  20. Implementation Research and Wraparound Literature: Building a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Rosalyn M.; Suter, Jesse C.; Bruns, Eric J.; O'Rourke, Koren E.

    2011-01-01

    We used the framework identified by the National Implementation Research Network's (NIRN) analysis of 35 years of implementation outcomes literature from diverse fields of endeavor to review the current state of wraparound implementation research. Model definition, model fidelity and intervention outcomes were areas of relatively greater…

  1. Widening Participation to Doctoral Education and Research Degrees: A Research Agenda for an Emerging Policy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Alistair; Thomas, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Widening participation is on the political agenda but, to date, policy, practice and research has focused on undergraduate education. This article identifies an emerging widening participation focus on doctoral education. Using England as a case study, the article examines this development within the context of the long-standing concern with…

  2. The EU Innovation Agenda: Challenges for European Higher Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vught, Frans

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the innovation agenda of the European Union (EU), places it in the context of globalisation and explores its foundation in the theoretical innovation systems perspective. It analyses a number of the central policy domains of this agenda: higher education, doctoral education, research and knowledge transfer. In the second part…

  3. A new international agenda for astronomy education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    A good deal of the research on astronomy education is based on comprehensive summary reviews of scholarly production revealing trends and gaps in the area. Motivated by the recent reform of the IAU Commission Reform, we are proposing projects related to the Commission 46 and more specifically to the Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The goal of this work is to present a new international agenda for research on astronomy education. In a general way we intend to encourage efforts to increase the scholarly production in the area and, at the same time, encourage summary reviews of what has been published in several regions of the globe. These reviews refer to the various forms of production of this research, published in theses dissertations, conference proceedings and journal articles. We believe that there is already sufficient production and the more complete surveys must reveal a ``hidden'' material that may be available locally and internationally. Much of the work in these venues is certainly not known by researchers in Astronomy, not only because they belong to a different area of theoretical and methodological framework, but also because they are related to teaching in Physics and general sciences, rather than Astronomy specifically. This kind of research is largely invisible because it occurs in very specific different contexts of production, culture, curriculum, materials and application in schools with local teachers and the general public. To improve the present situation, international events are proposed in various continents seeking to encourage surveys of already published materials, their studies and seeking also new key lines of research. As concrete examples, scholarly reviews and studies conducted in Brazil and other countries are shown. We believe that such actions should raise the visibility of authors and institutions and enable studies of state-of-the-art showing trends and gaps, allowing future developments and

  4. A new international agenda for astronomy education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A great deal can be learned about astronomy education research by conducting comprehensive summary reviews of scholarly production revealing trends and gaps in the area. Motivated by the recent IAU Commission Reform, we are proposing projects related to the Commission 46 and more specifically to the Working Group on Theory and Methods in Astronomy Education. The goal of this work is to present a new international agenda for research on astronomy education. In a general way we intend to encourage efforts to increase the scholarly production in the area and encourage surveys of what has been published in several regions of the globe. These surveys refer to the various forms of production, published in theses dissertations, conference proceedings and journal articles. We believe that there exists considerable scholarly effort around the world, but that much of it is “hidden” and systematic surveys need to be conducted internationally to collect and synthesize this material to guide future work. Much of the work in these venues is certainly not known by researchers in Astronomy, not only because they belong to a different area of theoretical and methodological framework, but also because they are related to teaching in Physics and general sciences, rather than Astronomy specifically. This kind of research is largely invisible because it occurs in very specific different contexts of production, culture, curriculum, materials and application in schools with local teachers and the general public. To improve the present situation, international events are proposed in various continents seeking to encourage surveys of already published materials, their studies and seeking also new key lines of research. As concrete examples, surveys, scholarly reviews and studies conducted in Brazil and other countries are shown. We believe that such actions should raise the visibility of authors and institutions and enable studies of state-of-the-art showing trends and gaps, allowing

  5. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  6. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Feneley, Roger C. L.; Hopley, Ian B.; Wells, Peter N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 3500 years, urinary catheters have been used to drain the bladder when it fails to empty. For people with impaired bladder function and for whom the method is feasible, clean intermittent self-catheterization is the optimal procedure. For those who require an indwelling catheter, whether short- or long-term, the self-retaining Foley catheter is invariably used, as it has been since its introduction nearly 80 years ago, despite the fact that this catheter can cause bacterial colonization, recurrent and chronic infections, bladder stones and septicaemia, damage to the kidneys, the bladder and the urethra, and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. In terms of medical, social and economic resources, the burden of urinary retention and incontinence, aggravated by the use of the Foley catheter, is huge. In the UK, the harm resulting from the use of the Foley catheter costs the National Health Service between £1.0–2.5 billion and accounts for ∼2100 deaths per year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative indwelling catheter system. The research agenda is for the new catheter to be easy and safe to insert, either urethrally or suprapubically, to be retained reliably in the bladder and to be withdrawn easily and safely when necessary, to mimic natural physiology by filling at low pressure and emptying completely without damage to the bladder, and to have control mechanisms appropriate for all users. PMID:26383168

  7. Urinary catheters: history, current status, adverse events and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Feneley, Roger C L; Hopley, Ian B; Wells, Peter N T

    2015-01-01

    For more than 3500 years, urinary catheters have been used to drain the bladder when it fails to empty. For people with impaired bladder function and for whom the method is feasible, clean intermittent self-catheterization is the optimal procedure. For those who require an indwelling catheter, whether short- or long-term, the self-retaining Foley catheter is invariably used, as it has been since its introduction nearly 80 years ago, despite the fact that this catheter can cause bacterial colonization, recurrent and chronic infections, bladder stones and septicaemia, damage to the kidneys, the bladder and the urethra, and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. In terms of medical, social and economic resources, the burden of urinary retention and incontinence, aggravated by the use of the Foley catheter, is huge. In the UK, the harm resulting from the use of the Foley catheter costs the National Health Service between £1.0-2.5 billion and accounts for ∼2100 deaths per year. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of an alternative indwelling catheter system. The research agenda is for the new catheter to be easy and safe to insert, either urethrally or suprapubically, to be retained reliably in the bladder and to be withdrawn easily and safely when necessary, to mimic natural physiology by filling at low pressure and emptying completely without damage to the bladder, and to have control mechanisms appropriate for all users. PMID:26383168

  8. Optimizing Health Care Coalitions: Conceptual Frameworks and a Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Biala, Karen; Holland, Tara; Baehr, Avi; Hasan, Aisha; Harvey, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    The US health care system has maintained an objective of preparedness for natural or manmade catastrophic events as part of its larger charge to deliver health services for the American population. In 2002, support for hospital-based preparedness activities was bolstered by the creation of the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, now called the Hospital Preparedness Program, in the US Department of Health and Human Services. Since 2012, this program has promoted linking health care facilities into health care coalitions that build key preparedness and emergency response capabilities. Recognizing that well-functioning health care coalitions can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of the populations they serve, this article informs efforts to optimize health care coalition activity. We first review the landscape of health care coalitions in the United States. Then, using principles from supply chain management and high-reliability organization theory, we present 2 frameworks extending beyond the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response's current guidance in a way that may help health care coalition leaders gain conceptual insight into how different enterprises achieve similar ends relevant to emergency response. We conclude with a proposed research agenda to advance understanding of how coalitions can contribute to the day-to-day functioning of health care systems and disaster preparedness. PMID:26545194

  9. Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC): Status and Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrieff, M. W.; Waliser, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    The realistic representation of tropical convection in global models is a long-standing challenge for numerical weather prediction and an emerging grand challenge for climate prediction in respect to its physical basis. Insufficient knowledge and practical capabilities in this area disadvantage the modeling and prediction of prominent multi-scale phenomena such as the ITCZ, ENSO, monsoons and their active/break periods, the MJO, subtropical stratus decks, near-surface ocean properties, and tropical cyclones. Science elements include the diurnal cycle of precipitation, multi-scale convective organization, the global energy and water cycle, and interaction between the tropics and extra-tropics which interact strongly on timescales of weeks-to-months: the intersection of weather and climate. To address such challenges, the WCRP and WWRP/THORPEX are conducting a joint international research project, the Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) which is a coordinated observing, modeling and forecasting project. The focus-year and integrated framework is intended to exploit the vast observational datasets, the modern high-resolution modeling frameworks, and theoretical insights. The over-arching objective is to advance the characterization, diagnosis, modeling, parameterization and prediction of multi-scale organized tropical phenomena and their interaction with the global circulation. The “Year” (May 2008 - April 2010) is intended to leverage recent major investments in Earth Science infrastructure and overlapping observational activities, e.g., Asian Monsoon Years (AMY) and the THORPEX Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC). The research agenda involves phenomena and scale-interactions that are problematic for prediction models and have important socio-economic implications: MJO and convectively coupled equatorial waves; easterly waves and tropical cyclones; the monsoons including their intraseasonal variability; the diurnal cycle of precipitation; and two-way tropical

  10. Climate Change and Rural Sociology: Broadening the Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is the preeminent environmental problem of this time, and Joseph Molnar's call for greater attention to it by rural sociologists is both welcome and timely. The agenda he lays out for rural sociology's engagement with climate change, however, seems rather narrow and restrictive. Examining the potential impacts of climate change,…

  11. Nodding Syndrome in Uganda: Field Observations, Challenges and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeier, Hermann; Komazawa, Osuke; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes observations made in Northern Uganda and a lecture given at the Nodding Syndrome Workshop in Nagasaki September 2013. The objective of the manuscript is to summarize the current knowledge on nodding syndrome and to provide an agenda for investigations into the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and care management of nodding syndrome in Uganda. PMID:25425959

  12. Nodding syndrome in Uganda: field observations, challenges and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann; Komazawa, Osuke; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2014-06-01

    This article summarizes observations made in Northern Uganda and a lecture given at the Nodding Syndrome Workshop in Nagasaki September 2013. The objective of the manuscript is to summarize the current knowledge on nodding syndrome and to provide an agenda for investigations into the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and care management of nodding syndrome in Uganda. PMID:25425959

  13. The development of a relevant and comprehensive research agenda to improve Hispanic health.

    PubMed Central

    Marin, G; Amaro, H; Eisenberg, C; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1993-01-01

    The development of an appropriate research agenda for Hispanics requires progress in three areas: (a) developing an appropriate research infrastructure, (b) increasing the availability of appropriate research instrumentation, and (c) identifying and assigning priority areas. In addition, a Latino health research agenda must identify mechanisms for increasing the number of trained Hispanic researchers and the number of Latino professional staff members at the Department of Health and Human Services. It is recommended that an Office of Hispanic Health be established within the Office of Minority Health at the Department to oversee the implementation of the recommendations made as part of the Surgeon General's National Hispanic Health Initiative. PMID:8416112

  14. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J; DePaolo, Donald J.; Pietraß, Tanja

    2015-05-22

    . In response, the Office of Science, through its Office of Basic Energy Science (BES), convened a roundtable consisting of 15 national lab, university and industry geoscience experts to brainstorm basic research areas that underpin the SubTER goals but are currently underrepresented in the BES research portfolio. Held in Germantown, Maryland on May 22, 2015, the round-table participants developed a basic research agenda that is detailed in this report. Highlights include the following: -A grand challenge calling for advanced imaging of stress and geological processes to help understand how stresses and chemical substances are distributed in the subsurface—knowledge that is critical to all aspects of subsurface engineering; -A priority research direction aimed at achieving control of fluid flow through fractured media; -A priority research direction aimed at better understanding how mechanical and geochemical perturbations to subsurface rock systems are coupled through fluid and mineral interactions; -A priority research direction aimed at studying the structure, permeability, reactivity and other properties of nanoporous rocks, like shale, which have become critical energy materials and exhibit important hallmarks of mesoscale materials; -A cross-cutting theme that would accelerate development of advanced computational methods to describe heterogeneous time-dependent geologic systems that could, among other potential benefits, provide new and vastly improved models of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts; -A cross-cutting theme that would lead to the creation of “geo-architected materials” with controlled repeatable heterogeneity and structure that can be tested under a variety of thermal, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical conditions relevant to subsurface systems; -A cross-cutting theme calling for new laboratory studies on both natural and geo-architected subsurface materials that deploy advanced high-resolution 3D imaging and chemical analysis

  15. Creating a Research Agenda in Career Counselling: The Place of Action Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Domene, Jose F.

    2012-01-01

    After identifying historical and current problems in career counselling research, we propose a research agenda based on contextual action theory. This theory has been used as a framework for research in the career field and for general counselling practice. It is advantageous for several reasons including its conceptual basis, its detailed…

  16. 78 FR 55068 - Request for Information To Inform the Title III Evaluation and Research Studies Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Request for Information To Inform the Title III Evaluation and Research Studies Agenda AGENCY: Office of... of Education (Department) requests information on priorities for future evaluation and research... by data from current research. With this RFI we seek to gather information on the evaluation...

  17. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. PMID:26575785

  18. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  19. Content and Language Integrated Learning: Towards a Connected Research Agenda for CLIL Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Do

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out to position CLIL research within the broader field of bilingual education in the 21st century. In considering the development of CLIL across diverse European contexts, the author problematises the construction of a research agenda which lies at the interface of several different fields of study. A conceptual framework for CLIL…

  20. Our Future Research Agenda: Confronting Challenges...or Our Dying Grasp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an agenda for the future of mass communication research. Suggests that equating mass communication with mass media invites the risk of economic success for mass media and societal failure for mass communication. Advocates conducting experiments in democratic behavior from a research and development context. (MG)

  1. In Search of Practical Applications: A Public Services Research Agenda for University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Barbara I.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews selected research studies with practical application to university library service models and offers suggestions for a research agenda supporting the advancement of strategic services. Discusses information-seeking behavior; user education, information literacy, and learning technologies; scholarly communication and the digital library;…

  2. Towards an Agenda for Disability Research in Europe: Learning from Disabled People's Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Mark; Waddington, Lisa; Bessozi, Carlotta

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenges of building capacity for collaborative participatory research with disabled people's organisations in European countries. The paper presents initial findings from the project "European Research Agendas for Disability Equality" (EuRADE), which seeks to build the capacity of civil society organisations to…

  3. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  4. Knowledge Sharing among Academics in Institutions of Higher Learning: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramayah, T.; Ignatius, Joshua; Leen, Jasmine Yeap Ai

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a research agenda for a funded research project on knowledge sharing among academics in Malaysia. One of the main objectives is to develop validate and measure of knowledge sharing which is suitable for academicians. Previous studies on knowledge sharing have used standard measurement items which do not cater for the multiple…

  5. The Business-Education Relationship: Using Organization Theory to Conceptualize a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Kim, Ruth H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize the relationship between business and education and thereby offer a research agenda for examining the influence of business on education. Educational research has given relatively limited attention to the impact of business on education. Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes a…

  6. A Research Agenda for the Common Core State Standards: What Information Do Policymakers Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Ferguson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report looks specifically at the information and data needs of policymakers related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the types of research that could provide this information. The ideas in this report were informed by a series of meetings and discussions about a possible research agenda for the Common Core, sponsored by the…

  7. Global health and emergency care: an undergraduate medical education consensus-based research agenda.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ian B K; Devos, Elizabeth; Jordan, Jaime; Malya, Rohith; Tupesis, Janis P; Bentley, Suzanne; Flemister, Akeem; Kapur, G Bobby

    2013-12-01

    Global emergency medicine (EM) is a rapidly growing field within EM, as evidenced by the increasing number of medical students desiring global health and emergency care experiences. Despite this growing popularity, little is known of the effect of undergraduate medical education in global health on learners and patients in the United States and abroad. During the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, a group of leading medical school educators convened to generate a research agenda on priority questions to be answered in this arena. This consensus-based research agenda is presented in this article. PMID:24341577

  8. Where the wild things are: A research agenda for studying wildlife-wilderness relationship

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Michael K.; Hahn, Beth; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the connection between US designated wilderness areas and wildlife with the goal of establishing a research agenda for better understanding this complex relationship. Our research agenda has two components. The first, “wildlife for wilderness,” considers the impact of wildlife on wilderness character. Whereas studies show that wildlife is important in both the perception and actual enhancement of wilderness character, the context and particulars of this relationship have not been evaluated. For instance, is knowing that a rare, native species is present in a wilderness area enough to increase perceptions of naturalness (an important wilderness quality)? Or does the public need to observe the species or its sign (e.g., tracks) for this benefit? The second part of our research agenda, “wilderness for wildlife,” considers the types of research needed to understand the impact of wilderness areas on wildlife and biodiversity conservation. Several studies show the effect of one area being designated wilderness on one wildlife species. Yet, there has been no research that examines how the networks of wilderness areas in the National Wilderness Preservation System (NWPS) are used by a species or a community of species. Furthermore, we found no studies that focused on how the NWPS affects ecological or trophic interactions among species. We hope that by providing a research agenda, we can spur multiple lines of research on the topic of wildlife and wilderness.

  9. A research agenda for malaria eradication: health systems and operational research.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Health systems research and development is needed to support the global malaria eradication agenda. In this paper, we (the malERA Consultative Group on Health Systems and Operational Research) focus on the health systems needs of the elimination phase of malaria eradication and consider groupings of countries at different stages along the pathway to elimination. We examine the difference between the last attempt at eradication of malaria and more recent initiatives, and consider the changing health system challenges as countries make progress towards elimination. We review recent technological and theoretical developments related to health systems and the renewed commitment to strengthening health systems for universal access and greater equity. Finally, we identify a number of needs for research and development, including tools for analyzing and improving effective coverage and strengthening decision making and discuss the relevance of these needs at all levels of the health system from the community to the international level. PMID:21311588

  10. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Health Systems and Operational Research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Health systems research and development is needed to support the global malaria eradication agenda. In this paper, we (the malERA Consultative Group on Health Systems and Operational Research) focus on the health systems needs of the elimination phase of malaria eradication and consider groupings of countries at different stages along the pathway to elimination. We examine the difference between the last attempt at eradication of malaria and more recent initiatives, and consider the changing health system challenges as countries make progress towards elimination. We review recent technological and theoretical developments related to health systems and the renewed commitment to strengthening health systems for universal access and greater equity. Finally, we identify a number of needs for research and development, including tools for analyzing and improving effective coverage and strengthening decision making and discuss the relevance of these needs at all levels of the health system from the community to the international level. PMID:21311588

  11. Establishing a research agenda for scientific and technical information (STI) - Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  12. Establishing a research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI): Focus on the user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.

  13. Establishment of the Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network: updating the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos J; Rabinovich, N Regina; Slater, Hannah; Canavati, Sara E; Bousema, Teun; Lacerda, Marcus; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Drakeley, Chris; Bassat, Quique; Foy, Brian D; Kobylinski, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The potential use of ivermectin as an additional vector control tool is receiving increased attention from the malaria elimination community, driven by the increased importance of outdoor/residual malaria transmission and the threat of insecticide resistance where vector tools have been scaled-up. This report summarizes the emerging evidence presented at a side meeting on "Ivermectin for malaria elimination: current status and future directions" at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in New Orleans on November 4, 2014. One outcome was the creation of the "Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network" whose main goal is to establish a common research agenda to generate the evidence base on whether ivermectin-based strategies should be added to the emerging arsenal to interrupt malaria transmission. PMID:26068560

  14. Bridging the critical chasm between service and research: the Cancer Information Service's collaboratory.

    PubMed

    Squiers, Linda; Bush, Nigel; Vanderpool, Robin; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Fabrizio, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    As a collaboratory for cancer communication and education research, the National Cancer Institute's (NCIs) Cancer Information Service (CIS) is in an ideal position to bridge the critical chasm that exists between service and research. This article describes the CIS' current research program as well as the CIS Research Agenda launched in 2005. The CIS' progress in developing and supporting recently funded studies that address this agenda is detailed. The unique resources and opportunities available to researchers, public health practitioners, health care providers, and community-based organizations interested in developing collaborative cancer communication and cancer education studies with the CIS are identified and described and an invitation to collaborate is extended. PMID:17572001

  15. Research and Evaluation Agenda 1993-94 for AISD 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The research and evaluation agenda for the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas) is determined for each school year, subject to current needs and requests. The evaluations and other major projects for 1993-94 will focus on three major areas. First is providing school support. Testing programs mandated by state law and district policy…

  16. Current Status and Future Agenda for the Theory, Research, and Practice of Childhood Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheiss, Donna E. Palladino

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and a future agenda for childhood career development theory, research, and practice. The fragmented nature of the current state of the literature is noted, and a call is made for a reexamination and reconsideration of the childhood developmental pathways of life's work. It is suggested that the study of…

  17. Is There Counsel in Those Curtains? Research Agendas for the Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracy, David B., II

    2011-01-01

    Presented as the keynote address at the Library Research Seminar, University of Maryland, October 7, 2010, this essay identifies and explores three agendas ever appropriate for study, the pursuits of which are especially needed now. They are as follows: to (1) explore the historical dimension of library topics, (2) revive study of the institution…

  18. Place-Related Identities through Texts: From Interdisciplinary Theory to Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Wyse, Dominic; Hodges, Gabrielle Cliff; Nikolajeva, Maria; Pointon, Pam; Taylor, Liz

    2011-01-01

    The implications of the transdisciplinary spatial turn are attracting growing interest in a broad range of areas related to education. This paper draws on a methodology for interdisciplinary thinking in order to articulate a new theoretical configuration of place-related identity, and its implications for a research agenda. The new configuration…

  19. The European Institute of Technology and the Europe of Knowledge: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the development and significance of the European Institute of Technology (EIT) in the period since 2005 when the European Union launched a suite of initiatives for higher education, research and innovation, including the EIT, as part of attempts to re-launch its Lisbon Strategy around a "growth and jobs" agenda. The EIT is…

  20. Developing a Research Agenda: Contributing New Knowledge via Intent and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Glazewski, Krista D.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that new PhD graduates begin their first faculty positions having already outlined a research agenda that will guide their work during the next several years of their careers. Yet very little guidance is provided regarding how to accomplish this important task. In fact, little explanation is provided about what, exactly, a…

  1. 77 FR 66619 - Partnerships To Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the following public meeting: ``Partnerships to Advance the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA)''. Public Meeting Time and Date: 10 a.m.-3:30 p.m. EST, January 30, 2013. Place: Patriots Plaza, 395 E Street SW., Conference Room 9000, Washington, DC 20201.......

  2. AN INTEGRATED RESEARCH AGENDA TO EVALUATE TAP WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND HUMAN HEALTH: PART 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Integrated Research Agenda to Evaluate Tap Water Disinfection Byproducts and Human Health: Part I

    Michele Lynberg1, David Ashley 2, Pauline Mendola3, J. R. Nuckols4, Kenneth Cantor5, Benjamin Blount 2, Philip Singer6, Charles Wilkes7, Lorraine Backer1, and Peter Langlo...

  3. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  4. Advancing the M-Learning Research Agenda for Active, Experiential Learning: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel Evelyn; Litchfield, Andrew; Lawrence, Elaine; Raban, Ryszard; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an m-learning research agenda instituted at our university in order to explore how mobile technology can enhance active, experiential learning. Details of the implementation and results of four areas of m-learning are presented: mobile supported fieldwork, fostering interactivity in large lectures with mobile technology,…

  5. Are Language Learning Websites Special? Towards a Research Agenda for Discipline-Specific Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    With the intention of defining an initial research agenda for discipline-specific factors in the usability of e-learning websites, this article focuses on the example of foreign language learning. First, general notions and concepts of usability are analyzed, and the term "pedagogical usability" is proposed as a means of focusing on the close…

  6. NADE Members Respond--Developmental Education Research Agenda: Survey of Field Professionals, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, D. Patrick; Martirosyan, Nara M.; Wentworth, Rebecca A.; Boylan, Hunter R.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final of a two-part article that provides the results of a qualitative study designed to document ideas and beliefs that professionals have regarding an appropriate research agenda on which the field of developmental education should focus in the near future. The participants of the study were members of the National Association for…

  7. An Agenda for Research on Educational Testing. NBETPP Statements, Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite; Madaus, George; Pedulla, Joseph; Shore, Arnold

    The educational research agenda proposed by the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy has five priorities. The first is monitoring the effects of state-level tests, including promotion and exit-level examinations, and teacher testing. The second priority is designing state systems for accountability that link technical…

  8. Informal Networks and Well-Being in Later Life: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines a complex research agenda for understanding the contributions of informal social support to the quality of later life. Suggests a conceptual model for investigating informal support networks and well-being for the elderly and offers suggestions for operationalizing the model. (NRB)

  9. Developing a Research Agenda for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R.; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Best, Lyle G.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Economos, Christina D.; Green, Lawrence W.; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P.; Murray, David M.; Perri, Michael G.; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas. PMID:23597371

  10. Higher Education Research Agendas for the Coming Decade: A UK Perspective on the Policy-Research Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of the UK, this paper addresses two main themes. It presents a higher education (HE) research agenda for the next decade linked to key policy challenges and reflects on the dynamics of the research-policy landscape. The paper begins by identifying four dimensions of the UK that will continue to be important as a focus for…

  11. First start toward nuclear disarmament: CIS openness and compliance. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, B.

    1992-04-01

    In the last six months we have seen significant changes in the Soviet Union which have radically altered that way we have conducted business. Now, it is no longer the Soviet Union, but the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We are now making wholesale unilateral cuts in our defense structure as the CIS is viewed as our friend and no longer the Evil Empire. We are supplying the CIS with food, loan credits, and even offering assistance to help them destroy nuclear weapons. Even though the world has changed, the CIS remains the only country on the face of the earth capable of destroying the United States in a nuclear holocaust.

  12. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs/OMUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  13. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  14. HBCUs/OMUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The Abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Glenn Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Glenn technical monitors, and other Glenn researchers.

  15. A Nursing Informatics Research Agenda for 2008–18: Contextual Influences and Key Components

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on three specific aspects of context - genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies - that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008–18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

  16. A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: contextual influences and key components.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

    2008-01-01

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context--genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies--that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

  17. The NIOSH Construction Program: research to practice, impact, and developing a National Construction Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Matt

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research to improve and protect the health and safety of workers. This paper describes the experience of the NIOSH Construction Program with two recent program planning initiatives intended to improve the program: (a) an independent external review of work over the past decade and (b) the development of strategic goals organized into a "National Construction Agenda" to guide a decade of future work. These goals, developed with input from construction industry stakeholders and researchers, are a part of the NIOSH National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) initiative. The NORA goals are intended to provide an ambitious set of goals for all construction stakeholders to work together on. Both efforts relate to insuring the relevance and impact of research, reflecting an emerging policy perspective that research programs should be judged not just by the quality and quantity of science produced, but by the industry impact and tangible benefit resulting from the research. This paper describes how views on research planning have evolved to incorporate lessons learned about how research leads to improved safety and health for workers. It also describes the process used to develop the goals and the resulting strategic and intermediate goals that comprise the National Construction Agenda. PMID:20630280

  18. Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: An Updated Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Mitnick, Carole D.; Hatton, Marita L.; Brigden, Grania; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.; Horsburgh, Robert; Lange, Christoph; Lienhardt, Christian; Oren, Eyal; Podewils, Laura J.; Seaworth, Barbara; van den Hof, Susan; Daley, Charles L.; Gebhard, Agnes C.; Wares, Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are numerous challenges in delivering appropriate treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and the evidence base to guide those practices remains limited. We present the third updated Research Agenda for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB (PMDT), assembled through a literature review and survey. Methods Publications citing the 2008 research agenda and normative documents were reviewed for evidence gaps. Gaps were formulated into questions and grouped as in the 2008 research agenda: Laboratory Support, Treatment Strategy, Programmatically Relevant Research, Epidemiology, and Management of Contacts. A survey was distributed through snowball sampling to identify research priorities. Respondent priority rankings were scored and summarized by mean. Sensitivity analyses explored weighting and handling of missing rankings. Results Thirty normative documents and publications were reviewed for stated research needs; these were collapsed into 56 research questions across 5 categories. Of more than 500 survey recipients, 133 ranked priorities within at least one category. Priorities within categories included new diagnostics and their effect on improving treatment outcomes, improved diagnosis of paucibacillary and extra pulmonary TB, and development of shorter, effective regimens. Interruption of nosocomial transmission and treatment for latent TB infection in contacts of known MDR−TB patients were also top priorities in their respective categories. Results were internally consistent and robust. Discussion Priorities retained from the 2008 research agenda include shorter MDR-TB regimens and averting transmission. Limitations of recent advances were implied in the continued quest for: shorter regimens containing new drugs, rapid diagnostics that improve treatment outcomes, and improved methods of estimating burden without representative data. Conclusion There is continuity around the priorities for research in PMDT. Coordinated

  19. Higher Education for Sustainability: Developing a Comprehensive Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tarah

    2007-01-01

    From 27 to 29 October 2005, 35 experts in higher education for sustainability (HES) representing 17 countries, gathered in Halifax, Nova Scotia. This consultation represents the first gathering of HES researchers in Canada, and brought Canadian and international researchers together to further intellectual understanding of HES research and to…

  20. An African Research Agenda for Computers in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of research into computers and education undertaken at a the University of Pretoria since 1995. It seeks to explore the patterns that have emerged and to indicate potential directions for future research. In response to a call for research in the field to be taken seriously the article identifies the main themes…

  1. An Initial Research Agenda for Rural Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Michael; Howley, Craig; Schultz, James

    2008-01-01

    To date, mathematics education research has rarely engaged issues that could be considered relevant to rural policy and practice. In particular, few research reports in mathematics education have involved the Appalachian region in a way that draws rural-specific conclusions. This manuscript represents an attempt to identify research questions that…

  2. A New Research Agenda for Educational Leadership and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies some new research issues and sketches out some new research questions for education policy and leadership researchers as a response to ongoing changes in the landscape of English education policy. Three interrelated issues are considered: leadership, values and interests, and ownership. It argues for the need to ask new…

  3. Towards a scalable HIV cure research agenda: the role of co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Sereti, Irini; Folkers, Gregory K.; Meintjes, Graeme; Boulware, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a cure is among the foremost contemporary priorities in the field of HIV research. The science that underpins a potential HIV cure should be generalisable to the many millions of persons globally who enter antiretroviral treatment programs with advanced immunosuppression and/or an opportunistic infection. We provide five key suggestions for incorporation into the HIV cure research agenda to maximise the generalisability and applicability of an HIV cure once developed. PMID:26855972

  4. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  5. Developing a research agenda in biogerontology: basic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Warner, Huber R

    2005-11-01

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) began operation in 1975, splitting off from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The first 10 years of NIA's existence were characterized by funding descriptive and discovery research, as the field by then had not come of age. With the isolation of long-lived animal mutants and the application of the tools of molecular biology (including whole-genome sequencing) and transgenic technology to biogerontology research, the situation has changed dramatically since then, and aging-related research has become increasingly mechanistic and respectable. This transition has been aided by research initiatives implemented by NIA staff, and the goal of this article is to describe how NIA develops such research initiatives using research progress made in biogerontology over the past 20 years as the basis for the discussion. PMID:16267340

  6. The New Calculation in Education: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rising, Gerald R.

    A preliminary framework for research on effects of calculators on mathematics learning is presented. A research methodology is urged that places less emphasis on tight controls, exact replicability, and numbers amenable to statistical analysis. New curriculum needs to be developed that looks at the calculator as a mechanism to be explored in its…

  7. Toward a New Research Agenda for International Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James F.

    Major conceptual differences exist between critical communication scholars and marketing researchers in their approaches to the study of international advertising. In marketing research, the conceptual framework is characteristically built around the multinational corporation, while critical communication scholarship stresses the nation-state. The…

  8. Science Education with English Language Learners: Synthesis and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee

    2005-01-01

    This review analyzes and synthesizes current research on science education with ELLs. Science learning outcomes with ELLs are considered in the context of equitable learning opportunities. Then, theoretical perspectives guiding the research studies reviewed here are explained, and the methodological and other criteria for inclusion of these…

  9. An Agenda for Research and Development on Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    Addressing the need for research on rural schools, the Federal Interagency Committee on Education (FICE), Subcommittee on Rural Education, identified six priority topics representing the most compelling concerns of rural education. This pamphlet serves as a stimulus for researchers to study rural education issues and share their findings with the…

  10. The Distance Learning of Foreign Languages: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Research into the distance learning of languages is now established as a significant avenue of enquiry in language teaching, with evident research trajectories in several domains. This article selects and analyses significant areas of investigation in distance language learning and teaching to identify new and emerging gaps, along with research…

  11. Learning with IT: Towards a Research Agenda - Questions and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information and learning technology in further education and higher education, especially in the United Kingdom. Topics include change and the influence of information technology; information technology research in further education; political and social issues; professional development concerns; and research, development, and…

  12. Learning To Teach Reading: Setting the Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Cathy M., Ed.

    The reading-focused reform environment of the new millennium is fertile ground for strengthening the link between research and public policy. This compilation of papers by presenters at International Reading Association's Reading Research 2000 Conference offers a compelling case for increased investment in teacher preparation for reading…

  13. The Social Justice Implications for Community Engaged Research: Whose Research Agenda? and My Relationship with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    This 2010 winner of the Ernest A. Lynton Award examines two social justice themes that have emerged in his community-engaged work. He argues that the traditional model of the development of the scholars' research agenda is one that can promote and maintain the academy-community hierarchy and that the scholars' social identities play an important…

  14. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling. PMID:19697001

  15. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. An overview of prevention research: issues, answers, and new agendas.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, J; Taylor, J A; Ganikos, M L; Holder, H D; Godwin, D F; Taylor, E D

    1988-01-01

    Efforts to curtail alcohol abuse and alcoholism can be divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention attempts to stop a problem or illness from occurring in the first place. Secondary prevention identifies persons in the early stages of problematic or illness behavior and refers them for counseling or treatment, which is considered tertiary prevention. Five research areas concerned with primary and secondary prevention are selected for discussion: youth, the mass media, the worksite, blacks and Hispanics, and alcohol-related behavior that increases the risk of AIDS. Several of these themes have been in the forefront of alcohol prevention research; others such as AIDS are emergent areas of injury. The discussion to follow briefly summarizes research approaches, key findings, methodological shortcomings, and suggested issues for future investigation. Although scientifically solid prevention studies have been conducted, more rigorous, more comprehensive, and more innovative research is needed. Given the dynamic sociocultural and economic systems in which prevention occurs, research techniques that can address this complexity are required. A range of appropriate methodologies is described. PMID:3141964

  18. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  19. Preventing Suicide: A Neglected Social Work Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Summary Social workers encounter suicidal clients; however, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for suicide assessment and treatment. In the first comprehensive study of social work’s contribution to the suicide literature, the authors conducted systematic electronic and manual searches for suicide research published in peer-reviewed journals by social work investigators for the period 1980–2006, with the purpose of ascertaining the state of clinical knowledge related to suicide risk factors and effective treatments. These findings reveal that despite recent increases to the study of suicide by social work researchers, they have contributed limited evidenced-based knowledge in the last twenty-six years on the treatment or prevention of suicide or suicide-related behaviours. The article outlines the risk factors for suicide and discusses the implications for clinical social work practice and research. PMID:19924271

  20. The space station and human productivity: An agenda for research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonhoven, C. B.

    1985-01-01

    Organizational problems in permanent organizations in outer space were analyzed. The environment of space provides substantial opportunities for organizational research. Questions about how to organize professional workers in a technologically complex setting with novel dangers and uncertainties present in the immediate environment are examined. It is suggested that knowledge from organization theory/behavior is an underutilized resource in the U.S. space program. A U.S. space station will be operable by the mid-1990's. Organizational issues will take on increasing importance, because a space station requires the long term organization of human and robotic work in the isolated and confined environment of outer space. When an organizational analysis of the space station is undertaken, there are research implications at multiple levels of analysis: for the individual, small group, organizational, and environmental levels of analysis. The research relevant to organization theory and behavior is reviewed.

  1. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  2. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT) in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis) in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1) The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2) The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3) The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the research questions that

  3. The business of addiction treatment: A research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, John R; McLellan, A Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The social and economic costs of addiction are substantial and of great concern to society. Research in the past decade has led to promising therapies that appear to be highly effective but not widely diffused. This leads one to wonder if there is something about the structure, dynamics, or structure and dynamics of the addiction treatment industry that is getting in the way. However, there has been very little research in the areas of organization, finance, or management practices within the substance abuse treatment field-the kinds of issues that reduce the potential impact of addiction treatment industrywide. With this as background, this article introduces the Center for Organization and Management in Addiction Treatment (COMAT) and a special section on research in the "business of addiction treatment." Many other industries have experienced significant problems that are similar, in many respects, to those seen in substance abuse treatment, but research in leadership, innovation, investment, organization, and consolidation strategies has helped to overcome those problems. COMAT is dedicated to implementing and testing evidence-based methods from other industries to improve the outcomes performance and, ultimately, the clinical effectiveness of service providers in the addiction treatment field. PMID:16996384

  4. Interoperability, Scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford; Garcia-Molina, Hector

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes reports and activities at the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications workshop on digital libraries (Reston, Virginia, August 22, 1995). Defines digital library roles and identifies areas of needed research, including: interoperability; protocols for digital objects; collection management; interface design; human-computer…

  5. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  6. An Agenda for Research in Education through 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John

    This study proposed to establish priorities for educational research into specific issue areas over the next 5 years in Ontario (Canada). Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 104 selected individuals representing different areas of education, including the universities, faculties of education, school board officials, federations,…

  7. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  8. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  9. A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

  10. The Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Wayne I., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers is concerned with the beliefs, methods, practices, and results associated with the type of forecasting which has become known in the last 10 to 15 years as "futures research." Topics discussed include: (1) forecasting methodology; (2) the validity of forecasting systems; (3) unforeseen developments; (4) forecasting in…

  11. Launching a Research Agenda: The Early Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Elsie S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a description and review of seven monographs that were part of a series published by Louisiana State University Press between 1940 and 1963. Notes that the monographs dealt with newspaper circulation, Thomas Jefferson and the press, management of newspaper correspondents, journalism research, Oliver Kirby Bovard, and mass communication…

  12. Learning and Instruction in Social, Cultural Environments: Promising Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovegno, Inez

    2008-01-01

    My charge is to discuss the challenges and significant research questions for pedagogy. I believe the top challenges we face are to address inequitable opportunities to learn and participate in physical activities and to improve the quality of teachers and physical education, especially for those children and adolescents who feel alienated and…

  13. Learning and literacy: A research agenda for post-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing policy discussions concerning the post-2015 future of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are providing the basis for renewed efforts to understand and improve learning and literacy in a global perspective. Aiming for a pathway towards better scientific understanding, this paper asks a central question: What research would be necessary over the coming decade to realise the goal of improving learning and literacy in poor communities in low-income countries? The joint topics of learning and literacy development, and the factors which influence outcomes, are complex and intertwined - which is one reason why universal literacy has still not been achieved in spite of major investments over the years. Research will play a crucial part in addressing this challenge, and this paper proposes and reviews ten major areas of learning and literacy research. Designing and responding to an appropriate set of research priorities will be one of the crucial ways of addressing the question of how to improve learning, literacy and educational quality in the post-2015 period.

  14. Identifying Process Variables in Career Counseling: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, Mary J.; Heppner, P. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines areas for career counseling process research: examining the working alliance; reconceptualizing career counseling as learning; investigating process/outcome differences due to client and counselor attributes; examining influential session events; using a common problem resolution metric; examining change longitudinally; examining…

  15. Learning and Literacy: A Research Agenda for Post-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing policy discussions concerning the post-2015 future of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals are providing the basis for renewed efforts to understand and improve learning and literacy in a global perspective. Aiming for a pathway towards better scientific understanding, this paper asks a central question: What research would be…

  16. Developing a Research Agenda for Ubiquitous Computing in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of states, districts, and schools provide every student with a computing device; for example, the middle schools in Maine maintain wireless Internet access and the students receive laptops. Research can provide policymakers with better evidence of the benefits and costs of 1:1 computing and establish which factors make 1:1…

  17. Soft Skills Assessment: Theory Development and the Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills have become a subject of increasing interest in lifelong learning. Soft skills development is intended to enable and enhance personal development, participation in learning and success in employment. The assessment of soft skill is therefore widely practised, but there is little in the way of research or evidence on how well this…

  18. Establishing an Empirically Determined National Rural Education Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    Rural schools, which comprise 67% of the nation's school systems, experience distinct educational environments and have unique strengths and weaknesses. Quality research to assess the effectiveness of rural education has been hampered by inconsistently applied definitions of "rural" and inadequate data to compare rural and urban districts. A study…

  19. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  20. A Call for a New Geoscience Education Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Baker, Dale R.

    2010-01-01

    A lack of qualified teachers and low enrollment in the geosciences exist at both secondary and tertiary levels in the United States. Consequently, it is unlikely that students will be able to achieve scientific literacy without an increase in both of these populations. To address these problems, we pose research questions, highlight sociocultural…

  1. The AGARD tip research agenda for Scientific and Technical Information (STI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.

    1992-01-01

    The Research Agenda contains three themes: information management, provision of information, and access to information. Provision of information is further divided into two subordinate themes, dissemination and bibliographic control; access to information is also further divided into two subordinate themes, barriers and equity and networking. Each theme or sub-theme was examined from four possible aspects, namely, human resources, quality assurance, cost, and technology. It was concluded that, in fact, a theme or sub-theme need not contain all four aspects.

  2. A global research agenda for family planning: results of an exercise for setting research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Seuc, Armando; Rahimi, Asma; Festin, Mario; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a global research agenda that will guide investment in effective interventions to satisfy the large unmet need for modern methods of family planning. Methods In a global survey, experts on contraception were invited to identify and rank the types of research that would be needed – and the knowledge gaps that would have to be filled – to reduce the unmet need for family planning in the next decade. The experts were then asked to score the research on a given topic in terms of the likelihood of its leading to an intervention that would: (i) be deliverable, affordable and sustainable; (ii) substantially reduce the unmet need for contraceptives; (iii) be effective and efficient in improving health systems; (iv) be ethically implemented; and (v) improve equity in the target population. The overall scores were then ranked. Findings Most of the topics that received the 15 highest scores fell into three categories: implementation of policies in family planning; the integration of services to address barriers to contraceptive use; and interventions targeted at underserved groups, such as adolescents. Conclusion Experts on contraception gave top priority ranking to research on improving the implementation and integration of health services and on strengthening the health systems supporting family planning services. The results of the exercise may help decision-makers, researchers and funding agencies to develop a clear and focused approach to satisfying the global need for family planning and reach the target set by the Family Planning 2020 initiative. PMID:24623902

  3. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

  4. Research and policy agendas: an AIDS world adrift?

    PubMed

    Ronald, A

    1992-01-01

    This editorial lists several questions prompted by the Eighth International Conference on AIDS in Amsterdam in 1992. The writer wonders whether it is time to proceed with interventions rather than blame bureaucracies for endless research. He asks if research should explore a sociocultural basis for lack of individual responsibility in curbing the epidemic. He deplores the waste of 4-70% of funds in Western programs. The possibility that traditional practitioners could be effective in AIDS prevention or care is raised. Similarly religious and nongovernmental organizations could play a larger role if they were recognized. Ways for the primary health care system to be better managed, better funded, and better equipped with appropriate technology must be found. The effectiveness of male circumcision to prevent HIV transmission must be addressed. The efficiency of communication by means of expert committees, scientific journals, and conferences is questioned. PMID:12286017

  5. Conserving biodiversity: A research agenda for development agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book was written to assist development agencies in identifying the kinds of biological, economic and cultural research that need to be funding to provide an information base for conserving biodiversity. The presentation is concise and non-technical with summaries of data and ideas relevant to biodiversity. The human role in accelerating biotic loss is discussed, and stragies for sustainable land use and restoration of degraded lands are among several topics.

  6. Eyewitness testimony in occupational accident investigations: towards a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Stinson, Veronica; MacLean, Carla

    2004-02-01

    Accident investigation is frequently cited as the cornerstone of an effective occupational health and safety program. We suggest that the literature on accident investigation is based on a model of witnesses as neutral and accurate recording devices. The literature on eyewitness testimony and criminal investigation offers strikingly different conclusions. We review these findings and point to their implication for research on accident investigation in occupational health and safety contexts. PMID:15055344

  7. Frontiers in Ecosystem Science: Energizing the Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, K. C.; Groffman, P. M.; VanDolah, E.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem science has a long history as a core component of the discipline of Ecology, and although topics of research have fluctuated over the years, it retains a clear identity and continues to be a vital field. As science is becoming more interdisciplinary, particularly the science of global environmental change, ecosystem scientists are addressing new and important questions at the interface of multiple disciplines. Over the last two years, we organized a series of workshops and discussion groups at multiple scientific-society meetings, including AGU to identify frontiers in ecosystem research. The workshops featured short "soapbox" presentations where speakers highlighted key questions in ecosystem science. The presentations were recorded (video and audio) and subjected to qualitative text analysis for identification of frontier themes, attendees completed surveys, and a dozen additional "key informants" were interviewed about their views about frontiers of the discipline. Our effort produced 253 survey participants; the two largest groups of participants were full professors (24%) and graduate students (24%); no other specific group was > 10%. Formal text analysis of the soapbox presentations produced three major themes; "frontiers," "capacity building," and "barriers to implementation" with four or five sub-themes within each major theme. Key "frontiers" included; 1) better understanding of the drivers of ecosystem change, 2) better understanding of ecosystem process and function, 3) human dimensions of ecosystem science, and 4) problem-solving/applied research. Under "capacity building," key topics included: holistic approaches, cross-disciplinary collaboration, public support for research, data, training, and technology investment. Under "barriers" key topics included: limitations in theoretical thinking, insufficient funding/support, fragmentation across discipline, data access and data synthesis. In-depth interviews with 13 experts validated findings

  8. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda.

    PubMed

    Padian, Nancy S; McCoy, Sandra I; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-07-16

    We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  9. An occupational reproductive research agenda for the third millennium.

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Daston, George P; Grajewski, Barbara; Marcus, Michele; McDiarmid, Melissa; Murono, Eisuke; Perreault, Sally D; Schrader, Steven M; Shelby, Michael

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present potential exposure to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, organic solvents, pesticides and herbicides, and sterilants, anesthetic gases, and anticancer drugs used in health care. Many other substances are suspected of producing reproductive or developmental toxicity but lack sufficient data. Progress has been limited in identifying hazards and quantifying their potencies and in separating the contribution of these hazards from other etiologic factors. Identifying the causative agents, mechanisms by which they act, and any potential target populations, present the opportunity to intervene and protect the reproductive health of workers. The pace of laboratory studies to identify hazards and to underpin the biologic plausibility of effects in humans has not matched the pace at which new chemicals are introduced into commerce. Though many research challenges exist today, recent technologic and methodologic advances have been made that allow researchers to overcome some of these obstacles. The objective of this article is to recommend future directions in occupational reproductive health research. By bridging interdisciplinary gaps, the scientific community can work together to improve health and reduce adverse outcomes. PMID:12676620

  10. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  11. An evolving research agenda for human-coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.

    2016-03-01

    Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal

  12. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  13. Converged Infrastructure for Emerging Regions - A Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Nicolas; Zidbeck, Juha; Ntlatlapa, Ntsibane; Simsek, Burak; Marikar, Achim

    In remote parts of Africa, the lack of energy supply, of wired infrastructure, of trained personnel and the limitation in OPEX and CAPEX impose stringent requirements on the network building blocks that support the communication infrastructure. Consequently, in this promising but untapped market, the research aims at designing and implementing energy-efficient, robust, reliable and affordable wide heterogeneous wireless mesh networks to connect geographically very large areas in a challenged environment. This paper proposes a solution that is aimed at enhancing the usability of Internet services in the harsh target environment and especially how the end-users experience the reliability of these services.

  14. HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Padian, Nancy S.; McCoy, Sandra I.; Karim, Salim Abdool; Hasen, Nina; Kim, Julia; Bartos, Michael; Katabira, Elly; Bertozzi, Stefano; Schwartländer, Bernhard; Cohen, Myron S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have entered a new era in HIV prevention whereby priorities have expanded from biomedical discovery to include implementation, effectiveness, and the effect of combination prevention at the population level. However, gaps in knowledge and implementation challenges remain. In this Review we analyse trends in the rapidly changing landscape of HIV prevention, and chart a new path for HIV prevention research that focuses on the implementation of effective and efficient combination prevention strategies to turn the tide on the HIV pandemic. PMID:21763938

  15. Towards a Research Agenda for Cyber Friendly Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.

    2009-11-18

    Historical assessments of combat fratricide reveal principal contributing factors in the effects of stress, degradation of skills due to continuous operations or sleep deprivation, poor situation awareness, and lack of training and discipline in offensive/defense response selection. While these problems are typically addressed in R&D focusing on traditional ground-based combat, there is also an emerging need for improving situation awareness and decision making on defensive/offensive response options in the cyber defense arena, where a mistaken response to an actual or perceived cyber attack could lead to destruction or compromise of friendly cyber assets. The purpose of this report is to examine cognitive factors that may affect cyber situation awareness and describe possible research needs to reduce the likelihood and effects of "friendly cyber fire" on cyber defenses, information infrastructures, and data. The approach is to examine concepts and methods that have been described in research applied to the more traditional problem of mitigating the occurrence of combat identification and fratricide. Application domains of interest include cyber security defense against external or internal (insider) threats.

  16. Challenges in Requirements Engineering: A Research Agenda for Conceptual Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Salvatore T.; Allen, Gove N.

    Domains for which information systems are developed deal primarily with social constructions—conceptual objects and attributes created by human intentions and for human purposes. Information systems play an active role in these domains. They document the creation of new conceptual objects, record and ascribe values to their attributes, initiate actions within the domain, track activities performed, and infer conclusions based on the application of rules that govern how the domain is affected when socially-defined and identified causal events occur. Emerging applications of information technologies evaluate such business rules, learn from experience, and adapt to changes in the domain. Conceptual modeling grammars aimed at representing their system requirements must include conceptual objects, socially-defined events, and the rules pertaining to them. We identify challenges to conceptual modeling research and pose an ontology of the artificial as a step toward meeting them.

  17. Reconceptualizing emetophobia: a cognitive-behavioral formulation and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    Fear of vomiting (emetophobia) is a poorly understood anxiety disorder, with little research published into its conceptualization or treatment. The current article uses established cognitive and behavioral models of other anxiety disorders as a basis from which to propose a detailed model of emetophobia. The model proposes that emetophobia results from a constellation of factors including a general anxiety-vulnerability factor, a tendency to somatize anxiety as gastrointestinal distress, a tendency to catastrophically misappraise nausea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, hypervigilance to gastrointestinal cues, beliefs about the unacceptability of vomiting, negatively reinforced avoidance behavior, and selective confirmation biases. A formulation-based treatment package for emetophobia is outlined, including arousal management skills, distraction/attention training, exposure and cognitive restructuring. PMID:16890398

  18. A Research Agenda and Vision for Data Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Big Data has emerged as a first-class citizen in the research community spanning disciplines in the domain sciences - Astronomy is pushing velocity with new ground-based instruments such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its unprecedented data rates (700 TB/sec!); Earth-science is pushing the boundaries of volume with increasing experiments in the international Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and climate modeling and remote sensing communities increasing the size of the total archives into the Exabytes scale; airborne missions from NASA such as the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is increasing both its velocity and decreasing the overall turnaround time required to receive products and to make them available to water managers and decision makers. Proteomics and the computational biology community are sequencing genomes and providing near real time answers to clinicians, researchers, and ultimately to patients, helping to process and understand and create diagnoses. Data complexity is on the rise, and the norm is no longer 100s of metadata attributes, but thousands to hundreds of thousands, including complex interrelationships between data and metadata and knowledge. I published a vision for data science in Nature 2013 that encapsulates four thrust areas and foci that I believe the computer science, Big Data, and data science communities need to attack over the next decade to make fundamental progress in the data volume, velocity and complexity challenges arising from the domain sciences such as those described above. These areas include: (1) rapid and unobtrusive algorithm integration; (2) intelligent and automatic data movement; (3) automated and rapid extraction text, metadata and language from heterogeneous file formats; and (4) participation and people power via open source communities. In this talk I will revisit these four areas and describe current progress; future work and challenges ahead as we move forward in this exciting age

  19. Advances in RSV vaccine research and development - A global agenda.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Deborah; Trujillo, Carrie; Keech, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness in infants and children globally, but no vaccine is currently available to protect these vulnerable populations. Live-attenuated vaccine approaches have been in development for decades, but achieving the appropriate balance between immunogenicity and safety has proven difficult. Immunoprophylaxis with the neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is limited to high-risk infants, but cost requirements for multiple dosing make its use impractical in low- and middle-income countries. A growing number of RSV vaccine candidates using a variety of technologies and targeting diverse populations has emerged in recent years. There are now 60 RSV vaccine candidates in development that target pediatric and elderly populations. While most are at a preclinical stage, 16 candidates are in clinical development. This review summarizes current RSV vaccine research and development, including an overview of the vaccine platforms being used, the development stage of individual vaccine candidates, and gaps to be addressed to facilitate use of these vaccines to meet global health needs. PMID:27105562

  20. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population. PMID:21311587

  1. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Heidi L.; Leykum, Luci K.; Mattison, Melissa L. P.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Meltzer, David O.

    2015-01-01

    Hospitalists and others acute care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients (ACOP) Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through four steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a Partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of ten research questions in the following areas: advanced care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision-making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486

  2. A patient-centered research agenda for the care of the acutely ill older patient.

    PubMed

    Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

    2015-05-01

    Hospitalists and others acute-care providers are limited by gaps in evidence addressing the needs of the acutely ill older adult population. The Society of Hospital Medicine sponsored the Acute Care of Older Patients Priority Setting Partnership to develop a research agenda focused on bridging this gap. Informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, we adapted a methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance to engage diverse stakeholders in the research agenda setting process. The work of the Partnership proceeded through 4 steps: convening, consulting, collating, and prioritizing. First, the steering committee convened a partnership of 18 stakeholder organizations in May 2013. Next, stakeholder organizations surveyed members to identify important unanswered questions in the acute care of older persons, receiving 1299 responses from 580 individuals. Finally, an extensive and structured process of collation and prioritization resulted in a final list of 10 research questions in the following areas: advanced-care planning, care transitions, delirium, dementia, depression, medications, models of care, physical function, surgery, and training. With the changing demographics of the hospitalized population, a workforce with limited geriatrics training, and gaps in evidence to inform clinical decision making for acutely ill older patients, the identified research questions deserve the highest priority in directing future research efforts to improve care for the older hospitalized patient and enrich training. PMID:25877486

  3. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, John; Weatherwax, Sharlene; Ferrell, John

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  4. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers. PMID:26442239

  5. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers. PMID:26442239

  6. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  7. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  8. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  9. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

  10. Advancing Patient-centered Outcomes in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Kanzaria, Hemal K; McCabe, Aileen M; Meisel, Zachary M; LeBlanc, Annie; Schaffer, Jason T; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Vaughan, William; Merck, Lisa H; Applegate, Kimberly E; Hollander, Judd E; Grudzen, Corita R; Mills, Angela M; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is integral to the evaluation of many emergency department (ED) patients. However, relatively little effort has been devoted to patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) in emergency diagnostic imaging. This article provides background on this topic and the conclusions of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference PCOR work group regarding "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The goal was to determine a prioritized research agenda to establish which outcomes related to emergency diagnostic imaging are most important to patients, caregivers, and other key stakeholders and which methods will most optimally engage patients in the decision to undergo imaging. Case vignettes are used to emphasize these concepts as they relate to a patient's decision to seek care at an ED and the care received there. The authors discuss applicable research methods and approaches such as shared decision-making that could facilitate better integration of patient-centered outcomes and patient-reported outcomes into decisions regarding emergency diagnostic imaging. Finally, based on a modified Delphi process involving members of the PCOR work group, prioritized research questions are proposed to advance the science of patient-centered outcomes in ED diagnostic imaging. PMID:26574729

  11. Advancing Research in Second Language Writing through Computational Tools and Machine Learning Techniques: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an agenda for replication studies focusing on second language (L2) writing and the use of natural language processing (NLP) tools and machine learning algorithms. Specifically, it introduces a range of the available NLP tools and machine learning algorithms and demonstrates how these could be used to replicate seminal studies…

  12. CRIMALDDI: a prioritized research agenda to expedite the discovery of new anti-malarial drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The CRIMALDDI Consortium has been a three-year project funded by the EU Framework Seven Programme. It aimed to develop a prioritized set of recommendations to speed up anti-malarial drug discovery research and contribute to the setting of the global research agenda. It has attempted to align thinking on the high priority issues and then to develop action plans and strategies to address these issues. Through a series of facilitated and interactive workshops, it has concluded that these priorities can be grouped under five key themes: attacking artemisinin resistance; creating and sharing community resources; delivering enabling technologies; exploiting high throughput screening hits quickly; and, identifying novel targets. Recommendations have been prioritized into one of four levels: quick wins; removing key roadblocks to future progress; speeding-up drug discovery; and, nice to have (but not essential). Use of this prioritization allows efforts and resources to be focused on the lines of work that will contribute most to expediting anti-malarial drug discovery. Estimates of the time and finances required to implement the recommendations have also been made, along with indications of when recommendations within each theme will make an impact. All of this has been collected into an indicative roadmap that, it is hoped, will guide decisions about the direction and focus of European anti-malarial drug discovery research and contribute to the setting of the global research agenda. PMID:24191947

  13. Development of a school nursing research agenda in Florida: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Shirley C; Barry, Charlotte D

    2006-04-01

    Research is important to the image, visibility, and viability of school nursing. Each state school nursing association should evaluate member commitment to school nursing research based on their unique set of financial, educational, and organizational resources. A 3-round Delphi study was conducted in which Florida school nurses identified research priorities. The 10 priority research topics were (a) obesity/nutrition, (b) role of the school nurse, (c) legal/ethical issues, (d) emergencies, (e) health education, (f) absenteeism/attendance, (g) diabetes and insulin, (h) injuries, (i) health services, and (j) asthma. These topics form the state research agenda and will be used to guide the development of multisite school nursing studies. PMID:16563035

  14. Implementation Science in School Mental Health: Key Constructs in a Developing Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista; Warner, Carrie Masia; Nadeem, Erum; Spiel, Craig; Wagner, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation science research agenda as it applies to school mental health (SMH). First, we provide an overview of important contextual issues to be considered when addressing research questions pertinent to the implementation of mental health interventions in schools. Next, we critically review three core implementation components: (a) professional development and coaching for school professionals regarding evidence-based practices (EBPs); (b) the integrity of EBPs implemented in schools; and (c) EBP sustainment under typical school conditions. We articulate research questions central to the next generation of research in each of these areas as well as methods to address such questions. Our intent in doing so is to contribute to a developing blueprint to guide community-research partnerships as well as funding agencies in their efforts to advance implementation science in SMH. PMID:26413173

  15. Hiring relatives as caregivers in two states: developing an education and research agenda for policy makers.

    PubMed

    Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Garcia, Genevieve Martínez; Martin, Dana; Sadler, Michele Debarthe; Tilly, Jane; Marks, Lori N; Loughlin, Dawn M; Mahoney, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the long-term care needs of the growing aging population is a priority policy issue in the United States. Yet, hiring relatives as caregivers remains a controversial policy issue. This two-state case study reports findings about views from policy experts regarding a policy option to hire family caregivers in home- and community-based long-term care programs. Policy makers also discussed information needed by other states considering this option and effective approaches to disseminate findings about this option from the Cash and Counseling Demonstration Evaluation. Based on the study results, we present an education and research agenda to communicate these findings to policy makers. PMID:20391251

  16. P4P4P: An Agenda for Research on Pay for Performance for Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; Pauly, Mark V.; Loewenstein, George; Bangsberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors are a major cause of poor health outcomes and high health care costs. In this Commentary, we describe an agenda for research to guide broader use of patient-targeted financial incentives either in conjunction with provider-targeted financial incentives (P4P) or in clinical contexts where provider-targeted approaches are unlikely to be effective. We discuss evidence of proven effectiveness and limitations of the existing evidence, reasons for underutilization of these approaches, and options for operationalizing wider use. Patient-targeted incentives have great potential, and systematic testing will help determine how they can best be used to improve population health. PMID:19124872

  17. The influence of social processes on the timing of cancer diagnosis: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Corner, Jessica; Brindle, Lucy

    2011-06-01

    This paper sets out to review the influence of social processes on the timing of the diagnosis of cancer and to explore the potential for promoting earlier diagnosis by addressing social factors that influence symptom recognition and the diagnostic process. Social processes refer to the means by which culture and social organisation may impact on timely cancer diagnosis. The paper calls for concerted action around an important and developing research agenda that may prove highly valuable in the quest to secure prompt diagnosis for cancer and through it improved outcomes for individuals. PMID:21138896

  18. Research Ethics Education for Community-Engaged Research: A Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily E.; Solomon, Stephanie; Heitman, Elizabeth; DuBois, James M.; Fisher, Celia B.; Kost, Rhonda G.; Lawless, Mary Ellen; Ramsey, Cornelia; Jones, Bonnie; Ammerman, Alice; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is increasingly becoming an integral part of research. “Community-engaged research” (CEnR) introduces new stakeholders as well as unique challenges to the protection of participants and the integrity of the research process. We—a group of representatives of CTSA-funded institutions and others who share expertise in research ethics and CEnR—have identified gaps in the literature regarding (1) ethical issues unique to CEnR; (2) the particular instructional needs of academic investigators, community research partners, and IRB members; and (3) best practices for teaching research ethics. This paper presents what we know, as well as what we still need to learn, in order to develop quality research ethics educational materials tailored to the full range of stakeholder groups in CEnR. PMID:22565579

  19. A research agenda: Does geocoding positional error matter in health GIS studies?

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, little attention has been paid to geocoding positional accuracy and its impacts on accessibility measures; estimates of disease rates; findings of disease clustering; spatial prediction and modeling of health outcomes; and estimates of individual exposures based on geographic proximity to pollutant and pathogen sources. It is now clear that positional errors can result in flawed findings and poor public health decisions. Yet the current state-of-practice is to ignore geocoding positional uncertainty, primarily because of a lack of theory, methods and tools for quantifying, modeling, and adjusting for geocoding positional errors in health analysis. This paper proposes a research agenda to address this need. It summarizes the basics of the geocoding process, its assumptions, and empirical evidence describing the magnitude of geocoding positional error. An overview of the impacts of positional error in health analysis, including accessibility, disease clustering, exposure reconstruction, and spatial weights estimation is presented. The proposed research agenda addresses five key needs: 1) A lack of standardized, open-access geocoding resources for use in health research; 2)A lack of geocoding validation datasets that will allow the evaluation of alternative geocoding engines and procedures; 3) A lack of spatially explicit geocoding positional error models; 4)A lack of resources for assessing the sensitivity of spatial analysis results to geocoding positional error; 5)A lack of demonstration studies that illustrate the sensitivity of health policy decisions to geocoding positional error. PMID:22469487

  20. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  1. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  2. What constitutes the field of health information systems? Fostering a systematic framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Tobias; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle

    2012-06-01

    The main aim of this article is to present a research agenda and systematic framework of what the field of health information systems is about, namely its central topics and connecting areas. In doing so, we try to provide a cohesive 'big picture' for academics and professionals that are interested in conducting research in this broad area. By using a large number of disparate data sources, we identified 3 major research fields and 18 sub-fields. As this discipline is quite new and heterogeneous in terms of themes and the educational backgrounds of its researchers, we see our conceptualisation as a first step in obtaining a collective understanding of this field, as well as being a common starting point for discussing future directions. PMID:22733682

  3. A collaborative mental health research agenda in a community of poor and underserved Latinos.

    PubMed

    Watson, Maria-Rosa; Kaltman, Stacey; Townsend, Tiffany G; Goode, Tawara; Campoli, Marcela

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this project was to engage community members and grassroots organizations in a discussion regarding perceived mental health needs and priorities of the population of underserved Latinos in Montgomery County, Maryland. Community-based participatory research was used to establish structures for participation and to design studies that effectively address local mental health needs. Four focus groups with 30 Latino lay health promoters and 20 key informant interviews were conducted to ascertain communal mental health needs and priorities. The main issues that emerged included mental health stigma, consequences of immigration-related stress, violence and alcoholism, and concerns about psychotropic medications. Ideas to address these issues and foster wellness through research were generated during a community-based workshop that included consumers, primary care and mental health clinicians, researchers, and representatives of local organizations and federal agencies. The product of this process was an implementable mental health research agenda, which is presented and discussed. PMID:23728035

  4. Use of risk assessment and life cycle assessment in decision making: a common policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Sarah J; Fairman, Robyn; Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are both analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. They have been developed and used by largely separate groups of specialists, and it is worth considering whether there is a common research agenda that may increase the relevance of these tools in decision-making processes. The validity of drawing comparisons between use of the tools is established through examining key aspects of the two approaches for their similarities and differences, including the nature of each approach and contextual and methodological aspects. Six case studies involving use of each approach in public decision making are described and used to draw out concerns about using RA and LCA in this context. The following categories of concern can be distinguished: philosophical approach of the tools; quantitative versus qualitative assessment; stakeholder participation; the nature of the results; and the usefulness of the results in relation to time and financial resource requirements. These can be distilled into a common policy research agenda focusing on: the legitimacy of using tools built on a particular perspective in decision making; recognition and role of value judgments in RA and LCA; treatment of uncertainty and variability; the influence of analytical tools in focusing attention on particular aspects of a decision-making situation; and understandability of the results for nonspecialists. It is concluded that it is time to bring together the experiences of RA and LCA specialists and benefit from cross-fertilization of ideas. PMID:12442986

  5. Global climate change and health: developing a research agenda for the NIH.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Joshua P; Jessup, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving worldwide attention because of its anticipated impacts on the Earth's physical and biological systems. Through its effects on natural and human environments, climate change will likely impact economic viability and human health and well-being. The impact of climate change on human health is likely to be complex and significant, including effects on cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases, heat-related illness, mental and social well-being, nutrition, trauma, and vulnerable demographic sectors. Most assessments predict that these effects will disproportionately affect the poor, the elderly and the young, especially those living in Africa and Southeast Asia, where environmental conditions are poor, health infrastructure is weak and the burden of disease is great. Enormous efforts are underway to plan and finance climate change adaptation programs within national governments (including multiple U.S. agencies), United Nations organizations and private philanthropies. However, these endeavors are proceeding with a relatively poor understanding of the nature and magnitude of probable effects of climate change on health. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) already funds a portfolio of projects that are indirectly related to the concerns posed by global climate change. At the NIH, we have recently established an agency-wide planning group to assess the research questions in health and medicine that climate change presents, to link this agenda to parallel activities across other agencies of the U.S. Government (USG), and to advance a NIH research agenda in this area. PMID:19768170

  6. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. PMID:25779691

  7. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. PMID:25277312

  8. Scientific media education in the classroom and beyond: a research agenda for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Grace; Norris, Stephen P.

    2016-03-01

    Scientific media education is the ability to draw on a knowledge of the media and science, in order to choose, understand, evaluate, and respond to representations of science across diverse media genres. We begin this manuscript by reviewing research that shows scientific media education is one of the most important content areas that could be taught in and out of the science classroom. We then set out to identify a research agenda that will help make scientific media education a key content area in both formal and informal science learning environments. In particular, we identified research avenues that will allow us to better understand: (1) limitations in current practices of scientific media education; (2) what scientific media education should look like in the future; and (3) ways we might overcome barriers to implementing a new and improved scientific media education.

  9. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: An agenda for operations research

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nerges; Tolani, Monica; Osrin, David

    2012-01-01

    Operations research (OR) is well established in India and is also a prominent feature of the global and local agendas for tuberculosis (TB) control. India accounts for a quarter of the global burden of TB and of new cases. Multidrug-resistant TB is a significant problem in Mumbai, India’s most populous city, and there have been recent reports of totally resistant TB. Much thought has been given to the role of OR in addressing programmatic challenges, by both international partnerships and India’s Revised National TB Control Programme. We attempt to summarize the major challenges to TB control in Mumbai, with an emphasis on drug resistance. Specific challenges include diagnosis of TB and defining cure, detecting drug resistant TB, multiple sources of health care in the private, public and informal sectors, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a concurrent epidemic of non-communicable diseases, suboptimal prescribing practices, and infection control. We propose a local agenda for OR: modeling the effects of newer technologies, active case detection, and changes in timing of activities, and mapping hotspots and contact networks; modeling the effects of drug control, changing the balance of ambulatory and inpatient care, and adverse drug reactions; modeling the effects of integration of TB and HIV diagnosis and management, and preventive drug therapy; and modeling the effects of initiatives to improve infection control. PMID:24501697

  10. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…