Sample records for cissus quadrangularis linn

  1. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Kaur, N; Bhutani, K K

    2001-01-01

    Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India. PMID:11705245

  2. Constituents of Cissus quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geetu; Rawat, Preeti; Maurya, Rakesh

    2007-05-20

    Two new iridoids 6-O-[2,3-dimethoxy]-trans-cinnamoyl catalpol (1) and 6-O-meta-methoxy-benzoyl catalpol (2) along with a known iridoid picroside 1 (3), two stilbenes quadrangularin A (4) and pallidol (5), quercitin (6), quercitrin (7), beta-sitosterol (8) and beta-sitosterol glycoside (9) were isolated from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. The compounds 3 and 7 are first reported from this plant. The structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by direct comparison with literature. This is the first reported occurrence of iridoids in C. quadrangularis. PMID:17497424

  3. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

  4. Mineral and biochemical analysis of various parts of cissus quadrangularis linn.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, R; Sundaran, M; Krishna, Raghuram

    2004-10-01

    Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed. PMID:22557157

  5. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Khan, Saleemulla; Malini, S

    2003-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect. PMID:14611887

  6. Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

  7. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

    PubMed

    Panthong, Ampai; Supraditaporn, Wanicha; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Taesotikul, Tawat; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2007-03-21

    Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ) were assessed in comparison with reference drugs. In the analgesic test, CQ provoked a significant reduction of the number of writhes in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. CQ also significantly reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. The results suggest peripheral and central analgesic activity of CQ. In acute phase of inflammation CQ elicited the inhibitory effect on the edema formation of the rats' ear induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate as well as on the formation of the paw edema in rats induced by both carrageenin and arachidonic acid. It is likely that CQ is a dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, CQ exerted venotonic effect on isolated human umbilical vein similarly to the mixture of bioflavonoids, i.e. 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin. The results obtained confirmed the traditional use of C. quadrangularis for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with hemorrhoid as well as reducing the size of hemorrhoids. PMID:17095173

  8. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Ranganath Pai, K. Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification. Results: Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group. Conclusions: The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted. PMID:24812472

  9. Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (LINN) Stimulates the Growth of Fetal Bone during Intra Uterine Developmental Period: A Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Rao, Muddanna S; N, Gopalan Kutty; Bhat, Kumar MR; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect Cissus quadrangularis plant petroleum ether extract on the development of long bones during the intra-uterine developmental stage in rats. METHODS Pregnant rats (n=12) were randomly assigned into either a control group (n=6) or a Cissus quadrangularis treatment (n=6) group. Pregnant rats in the Cissus quadrangularis group were treated with Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight from gestation day 9 until delivery. The animals in the control group received an equal volume of saline. Newborn pups were collected from both groups for alizarin red S - alcian blue staining to differentiate ossified and unossified cartilage. The ossified cartilage (bone) was morphometrically analyzed using Scion image software. RESULTS Morphometric analysis revealed that the percentage of the total length of ossified cartilage (bone) in pups born to treated dams was significantly higher (P<0.001– 0.0001) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION The results of the present study suggest that maternal administration of Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intra-uterine developmental period. PMID:19061006

  10. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

  11. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Potu, Bhagath K; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar M R

    2009-01-01

    The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

  12. Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Rao Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa; Ranganath Pai Karkala, Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar M R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses) did not alter the glycemic levels in these diabetic rats. Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and hydroxyproline were noted in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. The two doses of PECQ treatment further improved the serum ALP levels and significantly decreased the serum levels of TRAP and hydroxyproline. The effects of PECQ treatment on histological, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters are comparable to those of insulin. Since PECQ improves the bone health in hyperglycemic conditions by enhancing the cortical and trabecular bone growth and altering the circulating bone markers, it could be used as an effective therapy against diabetes-associated bone disorders. PMID:24803925

  13. Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anoop; Kannan, R; Jegadeesan, M

    2004-04-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L.Variant I and II are being used therapeutically for various ailments in indigenous system of medicine. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on the aerial parts were made. Variant I and II were analysed for their physiochemical, microscopical, fluorescent, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC characteristics. Quantitative variations were noted among seasonal samples and between variants and the results are presented. PMID:22557140

  14. Induction of apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cells by Cissus quadrangularis Linn stem extract by altering Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and PARP cleavage.

    PubMed

    Bhujade, Arti; Gupta, G; Talmale, S; Das, S K; Patil, M B

    2013-02-01

    Skin is generally damaged through genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, exposure to xenobiotics, heat, hormonal changes, and ultraviolet light. These factors can cause skin diseases. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin diseases since ancient times. Taking in to consideration the medicinal properties exhibited by this genus, it was decided to investigate the anti-cancer activity of CQ. Extracts obtained from CQ and their phenolic contents were subjected to in vitro evaluation of anticancer activity by using A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, human) cell line. The A431 cells were treated with different extracts of CQ in a dose dependent manner. Out of five extracts, the acetone extract demonstrated significant anti-cancer activity in the A431 cell line. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts also exhibited cytotoxicity but to a comparatively lesser extent than the acetone extract. The GI(50) value of the acetone extract was found to be 8 ?g mL(-1), whereas GI(50) value of purified fraction of acetone extract, termed as AFCQ (active acetone fraction of CQ) with respect to A431 cells, was found to be 4.8 ?g mL(-1). Furthermore, the mechanism of anticancer activity exhibited by AFCQ was investigated by comparing its effect with the standard anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) by evaluating the status of apoptotic markers after treatment of A431 cells with AFCQ and DOX. Bax-Bcl-2 ratio along with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, which is a hallmark of apoptosis, was also evaluated. Cleavage of PARP revealed that AFCQ induces apoptosis in A431 cells with reference to DOX. PMID:23175101

  15. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Swamy, A H M Viswanatha; Kulkarni, Rucha V; Koti, B C; Gadad, P C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Gore, Aparna

    2012-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis against rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The coarse powder of the shade dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using solvents petroleum ether (60-80°) and methanol. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) used as reference drug. Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase and bilirubin following rifampicin induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Rifampicin administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activities like reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutas and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant activities. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis further confirms the hepatoprotective activity. The results of the present study indicated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of ?-carotene. PMID:23326004

  16. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.

    PubMed

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

  17. Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.

    PubMed

    Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

    2014-09-22

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

  18. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis L.

    PubMed

    Chidambara Murthy, K N; Vanitha, A; Mahadeva Swamy, M; Ravishankar, G A

    2003-01-01

    Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis L. were tested for antioxidant activity by beta-carotene linoleic acid model and also by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model. The ethyl acetate fraction of both fresh and dry stem extracts at a concentration of 100 ppm showed 64.8% antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene linoleic acid system and 61.6% in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl system. This fraction showed the presence of sterols, vitamin C, and tannins as phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract and aqueous extract were comparatively less significant than that of ethyl acetate extract, and n-hexane extract showed the least activity. The ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract of both fresh and dry stems further exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus species. The results of the study have implications in the use of C. quadrangularis as an antibacterial agent and more so as an antioxidant in several applications requiring these properties. PMID:12935320

  19. Physico-chemical profile of cissus quadrangularis L. Var-I in different soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T Sathish; Jegadeesan, M

    2006-07-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated. PMID:22557225

  20. Cissus quadrangularis augments IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Govindan, Ramajayam; Narasimhan, Srinivasan

    2011-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Growth factors are produced locally in the bone and control cellular events such as induction of bone growth. Signaling through the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-IR) by locally synthesized IGF - I or IGF-II in osteoblast is considered crucial for normal development and for bone remodeling. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders have been documented, however its regulatory effects on IGF system components remain largely unknown. The present study is employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the regulation of IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis when compared with control cells. The mRNA expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) did not differ significantly between control and C. quadrangularis treated cells. Immunoradiometric analysis revealed increased levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in the conditioned medium of C. quadrangularis treated cultures when compared with control. Western blotting analysis revealed increase in protein levels of IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the IGF system components of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. PMID:22015109

  1. A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

    2013-08-01

    Extracts and powders of Cissus quadrangularis have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management. This review summarizes the studies in animals, humans and in vitro systems that have been conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of various Cissus preparations. Animal and in vitro studies provide support for the use of Cissus in promoting bone fracture healing and as an anti-osteoporotic. Several human studies support the use of Cissus extracts in weight management. No studies have been conducted demonstrating that Cissus exhibits anabolic and body building activities. Based on studies to date, Cissus extracts appear to be exceedingly safe and free of adverse effects at the doses commonly used. A wide variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Cissus extracts, including steroids, flavonoids, stilbenes, iridoids, triterpenes and gallic acid derivatives. However, in few cases have specific physiological effects been related to identifiable constituents. Better standardization of extracts and more well-controlled human studies are required. PMID:22976133

  2. Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Dechatiwongse, Thaweephol; Koontongkaew, Sitthichai

    2009-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis Linn. has been implicated as therapeutic agent for enhancing bone healing. Though its osteogenic activity has been suggested, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ-E) on osteoblast differentiation and function were analyzed using murine osteoblastic cells. The results indicated that mRNA expressions of osteoblast-related genes were not affected by the CQ-E treatment. However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the extent of mineralized nodules were significantly increased in treated cells compared with controls. The addition of an extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor, a Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2/3 inhibitor and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor resulted in significantly decreased ALP activity, preferentially by p38 MAPK inhibitor. These results suggested that CQ-E may regulate osteoblastic activity by enhancing ALP activity and mineralization process, and the increased ALP activity effect of CQ-E is likely mediated by MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:19057968

  3. Antiviral activity of ancient system of ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, P; Jayalakshmi, K; Vidhya, N; Prasad, R; Sheriff, A Khaleefathullah; Kathiravan, G; Rajagopal, K; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Partially purified methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis (belonging to Vitaceae member, South Indian medicinal plant) have been explored for antiviral activity and their phytochemical characterisation. In vitro antiviral activity against HSV type1 and 2, and Vero cells at non-cytotoxic concentration were determined. HSV1 and HSV2 showed more sensitivity against the partially purified compound. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of the Steroids and Terpenoids. PMID:25206252

  4. In-vitro screening of cissus quadrangularis L. Variant ii against helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anoop; Jegadeesan, M; Gowrishankar, R

    2003-07-01

    Cissus quadrangularis L. variant II belonging to the family Vitaceae was screened for its activity Hellcobacter pylori (Hp) human isolates. Flowering and vegetative period samples were analyzed. Aqueous (hot and cold) and solvent extracts (acetone, chloroform and methanol) were screened. Among them chloroform was observed to recover bioactive principles with low MIC and MLC. MIC and MLC was 40 ?g/ml for flowering period. Whereas for vegetative period MIC was 40 ?g/ml and MLC was 40 ?g/ml respectively. Extracts from samples collected during flowering period were better than that of vegetative period. The results confirm the traditional use of the plant in PUD. PMID:22557114

  5. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusami, Sridhar; Senthilkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Vignesh, Chandragandan; Ilangovan, Ramachandran; Stanley, Jone; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Srinivasan, Narasimhan

    2011-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The repair of bone defect is still a big challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders has been documented. The present study was employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase assayed in the conditioned medium of control and C. quadrangularis treated cells did not differ significantly indicating that ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis is nontoxic to osteoblastic cells. [(3)H] Thymidine incorporation assay revealed that C. quadrangularis treatment has increased the DNA synthesis of human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells indicating increased proliferation of these cells. The data on alizarin red and ALP staining revealed increased matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. The study also revealed that the anabolic actions of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis in human osteoblast like cells are mediated through increased mRNA and protein expression of Runx2, a key transcription factor involved in the regulation of bone matrix proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed increased transcriptional activity of Runx2 on the promoter of osteocalcin after C. quadrangularis treatment. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. PMID:21308732

  6. Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Mohan, K Vijai; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2006-04-01

    Cissus quadrangularis (family: Vitaceae) is well known for the treatment of gastric disorders in traditional medicine, owing to its rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid, and has received considerable attention regarding its role in human nutrition. In the search of new potential antiulcer agents, the present study evaluated the ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) against the gastric toxicity induced by aspirin in rats. The optimum protective dose of 500 mg/kg of extract was selected by the pretreatment of gastric ulcers with different doses of CQE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) for 7 days which showed ulcer protection by 40, 71.2 and 72.6%, respectively, as compared to ranitidine (RTD) (30 mg/kg) by 71.9% in the aspirin model. In addition, results have shown that administration of aspirin increases lipid peroxidation status, xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase and decrease in selenium-glutathione peroxidase activities in the gastric mucosa, resulting in mucosal damage at both cellular and subcellular level. Pretreatment with CQE ameliorated the observed effect significantly in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats. These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CQE could be mediated possibly through its antioxidant effect as well as by the attenuation of the oxidative mechanism and neutrophil infiltration. PMID:16338111

  7. Safety assessment of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300): subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shil C; Shivarudraiah, Prasad; Venkataramaiah, Suresh Babu; Koppolu, Kesavan Poonimangadu; Gavara, Swapna; Jairam, Ravikumar; Krishna, Suhasini; Chandrappa, Ravindra K; Soni, Madhu G

    2011-12-01

    Cissus quadrangularis has been used for centuries for therapeutic and culinary purposes. Extract from this plant (CQR-300) has been claimed for its health benefits. The objective of present investigation was to delineate adverse effects, if any, of CQR-300 in subchronic toxicity, and gentotoxicity studies. In the subchronic study, Sprague Dawley rats (20/sex/group) were administered (gavage) C. quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) at dose levels of 0, 100, 1000, and 2500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days. No treatment related clinical signs of toxicity, mortality or changes in body weights, body weight gain or food consumption were noted. Functional observation tests and ophthalmological examination did not reveal any changes. No toxicologically significant treatment related changes in hematological, clinical chemistry, urine analysis parameters, and organ weights were noted. No treatment related macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were noted at the end of treatment period. The results of mutagenicity studies as evaluated by Ames assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration and in vivo micronucleus assay did not reveal any genotoxicity of CQR-300. Based on the subchronic study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for C. quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) determined as 2500 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. PMID:21983486

  8. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2004-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:15383234

  9. Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Shyamala Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers caused by aspirin. The present study demonstrates the healing effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) through inhibitory action on generation of lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. The concentration ofmalondialdehye (MDA), protein carbonyl content, conjugated dienes, mucosal (SH) sulphydryls, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and antioxidative enzymes were determined in the gastric mucosa. Administration of CQE significantly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by aspirin and this was accompanied by the rise in uric acid, antioxidative enzymes, SH groups, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxidase, TNF-alpha, MPO and XO activities. These findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by the antioxidant activity as well as by the attenuation of oxidative mechanism and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:16520296

  10. Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Jameela; Varela, Erika; Bahadur, Ali N.; Soomro, Raheela; Kazi, Nishu; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. Existing therapies mainly reduce bone resorption, however, all existing drugs have severe side effects. Recently, the focus is to identify alternative medicines that can prevent and treat osteoporosis with minimal or no side effects. We used Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a medicinal herb, to determine its effects on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Two-month old mice were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed CQ diet. After eleven weeks, mice were sacrificed and the long bones scanned using pQCT and ?CT. In the distal femoral metaphysis, femoral diaphysis, and proximal tibia, control mice had decreased cancellous and cortical bone, while CQ-fed mice showed no significant differences in the trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity density, between Sham and OVX mice, except for cortical bone mineral content in the proximal tibia. There were no changes in the bone at the tibio-fibular junction between groups. We conclude that CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in these mice. PMID:22779034

  11. Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Cissus quadrangularis extract using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvanasree, S. R.; Harini, D.; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using the aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) by microwave irradiation. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the solution obtained from reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) by CQE revealed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm confirming the presence of AuNP. The formation of AuNP was optimal at a pH of 9. The AuNP was characterised by FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM, SAED, XRD, TGA, DLS and Zeta potential measurements. The results indicated that microwave assisted synthesis produced well dispersed, small sized, uniform nanoparticles when compared to conventional room temperature synthesis. The spherical nanoparticle had an average size of 12.0 ± 3.2 nm as revealed through TEM. The crystalline nature of AuNP was confirmed through HR-TEM, SAED and XRD. The FT-IR and TGA data revealed the presence of the CQE components on the surface of the AuNP particles which serve as the capping agent. Upon incubation, the particles did not lyse the red blood corpuscles (RBCs) indicating that they are biocompatible. A possible mechanism for the formation of AuNP in the presence of CQE is proposed.

  12. Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Cissus quadrangularis extract using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanasree, S R; Harini, D; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using the aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) by microwave irradiation. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the solution obtained from reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) by CQE revealed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm confirming the presence of AuNP. The formation of AuNP was optimal at a pH of 9. The AuNP was characterised by FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM, SAED, XRD, TGA, DLS and Zeta potential measurements. The results indicated that microwave assisted synthesis produced well dispersed, small sized, uniform nanoparticles when compared to conventional room temperature synthesis. The spherical nanoparticle had an average size of 12.0±3.2 nm as revealed through TEM. The crystalline nature of AuNP was confirmed through HR-TEM, SAED and XRD. The FT-IR and TGA data revealed the presence of the CQE components on the surface of the AuNP particles which serve as the capping agent. Upon incubation, the particles did not lyse the red blood corpuscles (RBCs) indicating that they are biocompatible. A possible mechanism for the formation of AuNP in the presence of CQE is proposed. PMID:23380147

  13. Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Banu, Jameela; Varela, Erika; Bahadur, Ali N; Soomro, Raheela; Kazi, Nishu; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. Existing therapies mainly reduce bone resorption, however, all existing drugs have severe side effects. Recently, the focus is to identify alternative medicines that can prevent and treat osteoporosis with minimal or no side effects. We used Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a medicinal herb, to determine its effects on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Two-month old mice were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed CQ diet. After eleven weeks, mice were sacrificed and the long bones scanned using pQCT and ?CT. In the distal femoral metaphysis, femoral diaphysis, and proximal tibia, control mice had decreased cancellous and cortical bone, while CQ-fed mice showed no significant differences in the trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity density, between Sham and OVX mice, except for cortical bone mineral content in the proximal tibia. There were no changes in the bone at the tibio-fibular junction between groups. We conclude that CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in these mice. PMID:22779034

  14. Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay K; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A B

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

  15. Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Unnati M.; Patel, S. M.; Patel, P. H.; Hingorani, L.; Jadhav, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis L. is a promising remedy prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature for bone fracture healing properties. As this activity has been extensively investigated and well established, a range of formulations containing C. quadrangularis has been marketed. This work reports the development and validation of a reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of phytosterols in the various extracts of the plant. The proposed method utilizes a Cosmosil C8 column (250 ? 4.6 mm) with a compatible Phenomenex C8 guard column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and water (95:5 v/v) at 25°. An effluent flow rate of 2 ml/min and UV detection at 202 nm was used for the analysis of phytosterols. The described method was linear in the range of 1–500 ?g/ml, with excellent correlation coefficients. The precision, robustness and ruggedness values were also within the prescribed limits (less than 2%). The recovery values were within the range, which indicates that the accuracy of the analysis was good and that the interference of the matrix with the recovery of phytosterols was low. The phytosterols were found to be stable in a stock solution for 48 h (% RSD was below 2%) and no interfering extra peaks were observed under controlled stress conditions. The proposed method is simple, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible and thus can be used for routine analysis of C. quadrangularis phytosterols in quality control laboratories. PMID:21969748

  16. Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Unnati M; Patel, S M; Patel, P H; Hingorani, L; Jadhav, R B

    2010-11-01

    Cissus quadrangularis L. is a promising remedy prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature for bone fracture healing properties. As this activity has been extensively investigated and well established, a range of formulations containing C. quadrangularis has been marketed. This work reports the development and validation of a reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of phytosterols in the various extracts of the plant. The proposed method utilizes a Cosmosil C(8) column (250 ? 4.6 mm) with a compatible Phenomenex C(8) guard column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and water (95:5 v/v) at 25°. An effluent flow rate of 2 ml/min and UV detection at 202 nm was used for the analysis of phytosterols. The described method was linear in the range of 1-500 ?g/ml, with excellent correlation coefficients. The precision, robustness and ruggedness values were also within the prescribed limits (less than 2%). The recovery values were within the range, which indicates that the accuracy of the analysis was good and that the interference of the matrix with the recovery of phytosterols was low. The phytosterols were found to be stable in a stock solution for 48 h (% RSD was below 2%) and no interfering extra peaks were observed under controlled stress conditions. The proposed method is simple, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible and thus can be used for routine analysis of C. quadrangularis phytosterols in quality control laboratories. PMID:21969748

  17. Antioxidant mediated ameliorative steroidogenesis by Commelina benghalensis L. and Cissus quadrangularis L. against quinalphos induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kokilavani, Palanivel; Suriyakalaa, Udhayaraj; Elumalai, Perumal; Abirami, Bethunaicken; Ramachandran, Rajamanickam; Sankarganesh, Arunachalam; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2014-02-01

    Quinalphos (QP) is speculated to cause endocrine disruption through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by oxidative stress (OS). Exposure of QP decreased testosterone level considerably which resulted in reduced viable sperms in mice. The QP induced toxicity is initiated by the formation of free radicals as it is evidenced from the increased Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and diminution of antioxidant enzymes in testicular tissue. Increased serum cholesterol and reduced testicular cholesterol indicated the inhibition of cholesterol transport and biosynthesis in testicular tissues. Lack of cholesterol in testicular tissue impaired the steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression of StAR protein, Cytochrome P450, 3?-HSD and 17?-HSD leading to reduced testosterone level. Treatment of Commelina benganlensis (CBE) and Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) significantly recovered the alterations in antioxidant profiles as well as increased LPO, thereby recovering the decreased mRNA expression levels of intermediate enzymes. However, CQE effectively protected the OS and prevented the inhibition of steroidogenesis thereby preventing male infertility. PMID:24581381

  18. Protective role of ascorbic acid isolated from Cissus quadrangularis on NSAID induced toxicity through immunomodulating response and growth factors expression.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Mohan, Kunju Vijai

    2008-12-20

    The present study investigate the effect of ascorbic acid, the major bioactive component isolated from Cissus quadrangularis extract (CAA) on inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric ulcer. Analysis of serum cytokine profile using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a drastic increase in interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and decrease in IL-10, Il-4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in NSAID (aspirin) treated rats. The reduction of growth factors such as transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF)-alpha and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) by aspirin was determined by immunohistochemistry method. Administration of CAA produced significant protection against aspirin induced gastric toxicity by showing significant increase in PGE2, TGF-alpha, VEGF expression and accompanied by a significant inhibition of nitric oxide and regulating the levels of cytokines in rats. These findings suggest that CAA prevents gastric ulcer formation due to its immunomodulatory effect, antioxidant activity along with the ability to modulate PG synthesis and up-regulation of the growth factors. PMID:18773975

  19. Gastroprotective action of Cissus quadrangularis extract against NSAID induced gastric ulcer: role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2006-07-10

    The objective of this research was to analyse the gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) along with its mechanism underlying the therapeutic action against the gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin. In this study, we investigated the effect of CQE on the course of experimentally induced gastric ulcer by analyzing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), microvascular permeability, activity of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2), mitochondrial antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. A significant increase in vascular permeability, NOS-2 activity, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta levels and oxidative damage were noted in aspirin administered rats. Pretreatment with CQE (500 mg/kg bw/day) by oral gavage for 7 days significantly attenuated these biochemical changes caused by aspirin in rats. Tissue damage was showed by decreased levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and an associated rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mitochondria, which were reversed by CQE. In addition, CQE prevents oxidative damage of DNA by reducing DNA fragmentation indicating its block on cell death. Ulcer protection in CQE treated rats was confirmed by histoarchitecture, which was comprised of reduced size of ulcer crater and restoration of mucosal epithelium. Thus, reduced neutrophil infiltration, antiapoptotic and antioxidant action have a pivotal role in the gastroprotective effect of CQE. PMID:16797507

  20. Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Jaya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effects of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract (CQEt) on oxidant-antioxidant balance and insulin resistance (IR) in rats fed high fat-high fructose diet (HFFD) and also tested its free-radical scavenging property in vitro. Rats were fed either control diet or HFFD for 15 days, following which the diet was fortified with CQEt at a dose of 10 g/100g diet. After 60 days, HFFD caused deleterious metabolic effects, including hyperglycemia, IR and liver dysfunction. Rats fed HFFD alone showed increased activities of hepatocellular enzymes in plasma, lipid deposition, significant decline in antioxidants, and elevated lipid peroxidation indices and protein carbonyl in liver. CQEt addition significantly improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal. Histopathology of the liver confirmed the changes induced by HFFD and the heptoprotective effect of CQEt. The effects of CQEtin vivo were comparable with that of standard drug, metformin. Through in vitro assays, CQEt was found to contain large quantities of polyphenols, vitamins C and E. CQEt exhibited radical scavenging ability in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that CQEt affords hepatoprotection by its antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing activities. PMID:20450951

  1. Evaluation of stem aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis against Hippobosca maculata and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Marimuthu, Sampath; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai; Karthik, Loganathan; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara

    2012-10-01

    The present study was to determine the efficacies of anti-parasitic activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using stem aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis against the adult of hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and the larvae of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Contact toxicity method was followed to determine the potential of parasitic activity. Twelve milliliters of stem aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis was treated with 88 ml of 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution at room temperature for 30 min and the resulting solution was yellow-brown color indicating the formation extracellular synthesis of Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded by UV-visible spectrum at 420 nm and XRD patterns showed the nanoparticles crystalline in nature. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag((+)) ions to Ag NPs were due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. FESEM image of Ag NPs showed spherical and oval in shape. By using the Bragg's Law and Scherrer's constant, the average mean size of synthesized Ag NPs was 42.46 nm. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. The mortality obtained by the synthesized Ag NPs from the C. quadrangularis was more effective than the aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis and AgNO(3) solution (1 mM). The adulticidal activity was observed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the adult of H. maculata with LC(50) values of 37.08, 40.35 and 6.30 mg/L; LC(90) values of 175.46, 192.17 and 18.14 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.970, 0.992 and 0.969, respectively. The maximum efficacy showed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus with LC(50) values of 50.00, 21.72 and 7.61 mg/L; LC(90) values of 205.12, 82.99 and 22.68 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.968, 0.945 and 0.994, respectively. The present study is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the experimental plant extract and synthesized Ag NPs. This is an ideal eco-friendly and inexpensive approach for the control of H. maculata and R. (B.) microplus. PMID:22750410

  2. Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    PubMed Central

    Jainu, Mallika; Vijaimohan, K.; Kannan, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether Cissus quandrangularis extract (CQE) had healing effects on gastric ulcer, through modulation of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats. Administration of acetic acid (AA) was accompanied by reduced PCNA which was determined by immunohistochemical staining, 3H-thymidine incorporation using liquid scintillation spectrometry, mitochondrial marker enzymes, polyamine contents and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) expression in gastric mucosa of rats. Administration of CQE after the application of AA to the stomach enhanced the reduction of ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner which was confirmed by histoarchitecture. Moreover, CQE significantly increased the 3H-thymidine incorporation and the levels of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine and spermidine in ulcerated rats. In addition, the extract offers gastroprotection in the ulcerated area by increased expression of TGF-? and also reversed the changes in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats with significant elevation in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and PCNA levels. Based on these results, the healing effect of CQE on AA induced gastric mucosal injury in rats may be attributed to its growth promoting and cytoprotective actions, possibly involving an increase in tissue polyamine contents and cell proliferation. PMID:20931084

  3. Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Jainu, Mallika; Vijaimohan, K; Kannan, K

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether Cissus quandrangularis extract (CQE) had healing effects on gastric ulcer, through modulation of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats. Administration of acetic acid (AA) was accompanied by reduced PCNA which was determined by immunohistochemical staining, (3)H-thymidine incorporation using liquid scintillation spectrometry, mitochondrial marker enzymes, polyamine contents and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) expression in gastric mucosa of rats. Administration of CQE after the application of AA to the stomach enhanced the reduction of ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner which was confirmed by histoarchitecture. Moreover, CQE significantly increased the (3)H-thymidine incorporation and the levels of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine and spermidine in ulcerated rats. In addition, the extract offers gastroprotection in the ulcerated area by increased expression of TGF-? and also reversed the changes in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats with significant elevation in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and PCNA levels. Based on these results, the healing effect of CQE on AA induced gastric mucosal injury in rats may be attributed to its growth promoting and cytoprotective actions, possibly involving an increase in tissue polyamine contents and cell proliferation. PMID:20931084

  4. Osteogenic potential of cissus qudrangularis assessed with osteopontin expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nimisha; Singh, Vibha; Singh, R. K.; Pant, A. B.; Pal, U. S.; Malkunje, Laxman R.; Mehta, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fracture healing involves complex processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. Many factors are involved, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, bone breakdown (osteoclast) and bone building (osteoblast) cells, hormones, amino acids, and uncounted nutrients. We studied the osteogenic potential of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a plant that has been customarily used in the Indian subcontinent to hasten the process of healing in bone fractures. Materials and Methods: Total of 60 patients (age, 20-35 years) of mandible fracture was divided in two groups. Patients of group 1 were given capsules of CQ and fracture healing was assessed with osteopontin expression during treatment. Group 2 was control group. Results: Clinical and radiological analysis in our study was suggestive of better healing of fractures in group 1. All the samples of group 1 examined for osteopontin expression using western blot analysis and flow cytometry showed significant levels of expression of osteopontin protein and CD4+ T cells expressing osteopontin, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that CQ accelerates fracture healing and also causes early remodeling of fracture callus. PMID:24163553

  5. Sphaerodes quadrangularis biotrophic mycoparasitism on Fusarium avenaceum.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Sphaerodes quadrangularis Garcia, Stchigel & Guarro was shown to be a facultative contact biotrophic mycoparasite of Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. (teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea Cooke) that established an intimate relationship with its host by producing hook-shaped and clamp-like attachment structures that appeared to derive nutrients and other essential factors from living host cells. The contact cells of the mycoparasite surrounded and envelop host hyphae and, although they do not appear to penetrate the host, the parasitized hyphae were significantly smaller than unparasitized controls. Sphaerodes quadrangularis did not form specialized attachment structures when cultured together with strains representing F. oxysporum and F. graminearum, indicating some degree of host specificity in the parasite. PMID:20648743

  6. Estrogenic activity of friedelin rich fraction (IND-HE) separated from Cissus quadrangularis and its effect on female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila M; Bhaskaran, S; Mohan, V; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2010-05-01

    Women experience menopause differently across the world, in terms of their symptomology. Many experience symptoms of menopause like hot flashes, joint pain and loss of libido. Estrogen replacement is the prescribed therapy for most of the sexual dysfunction observed in menopausal women. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements for relief. In the present study IND-HE (friedelin rich fraction) was studied for estrogenic activity as well as its effect on sexual behavior in overiectomized female Wistar rats.The rats were divided into 4 groups of six rats each. The Group 1 received distilled water, Group II - IND-HE (75 mg/kg p. o.), Group III - IND-HE (100 mg/kg p. o.) and Group IV received estrogen (estradiol) (1 mg/kg in olive oil suspension, s.c. bi-weekly). The treatment period was 8 weeks. On 1 day, one month and two month of treatment the sexual behavior was studied. At the end of the treatment the blood was withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus. The animals were sacrificed and uterus was removed, weighed and histology was studied. In different group of rats estrous cycle was studied which indicate estrogenic activity and for progestogenic activity of deciduoma formation was studied.The result indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) improved sexual behavior parameters. IND-HE (75 and 100) significantly (P< 0.01) decreased darting and hopping latency. The darting frequency and hopping frequency was significantly (P< 0.01) improved in IND-HE (75 and100 mg/kg p.o.) as well as estrogen group. Lordosis interval (LI) was increased significantly in estrogen group after 1(st) month (P< 0.05), and after 2(nd) month (P< 0.01). IND-HE (100) treatment showed increase in LI after 1(st) month (P< 0.05) remained during 2(nd) month (P< 0.01). While IND-HE (75) treatment increased LI only after 2(nd) month (P< 0.05).IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) showed estrogenic activity as indicated by vaginal cornification, increase in uterine weight and rise in serum estrogen. PMID:21808556

  7. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  8. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  9. First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae; Park, Mi-Jeong

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

  10. Linn Engineering Technology Scholarship Fund

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Linn Engineering Technology Scholarship Fund The purpose of this award is to provide scholarship in Electrical Engineering Technology or Industrial Management & Technology (Electronics area of study's university account. Eligibility: Candidates must be a declared major in Electrical Engineering Technology

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Cissus L. of Vitaceae (the grape family) and evolution of its pantropical intercontinental disjunctions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Pantropical intercontinental disjunct distribution is a major biogeographic pattern in plants, and has been explained mainly by boreotropical migration via the North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) and transoceanic long-distance dispersal (LDD), and sometimes by vicariance. However, well-resolved phylogenies of pantropical clades are still relatively few. Cissus is the largest genus of the grape family Vitaceae and shows a pantropical intercontinental disjunction with its 300 species distributed in all major tropical regions. This study constructed the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic diversification history of Cissus, employing five plastid markers (rps16, trnL-F, atpB-rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnC-petN). The results confirmed that Cissus polyphyletic, consisting of three main clades: the core Cissus, the Cissus striata complex, and the Australian-Neotropical disjunct Cissus antarctica -C. trianae clade. The latter two clades need to be removed from Cissus to maintain the monophyly of the genus. The core Cissus is inferred to have originated in Africa and is estimated to have diverged from its relatives in Vitaceae in the late Cretaceous. It diversified in Africa into several main lineages in the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, colonized Asia at least three times in the Miocene, and the Neotropics in the middle Eocene. The NALB seems the most plausible route for the core Cissus migration from Africa to the Neotropics in the middle Eocene. Three African-Asian and two Neotropical-Australian disjunctions in Cissus s.l. are estimated to have originated in the Miocene and may be best explained by LDD. PMID:23000818

  12. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  13. Cholesterol-dependent hemolytic activity of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves.

    PubMed

    Yuldasheva, L N; Carvalho, E B; Catanho, M-T J A; Krasilnikov, O V

    2005-07-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine are rich sources of hemolysins and cytolysins, which are potential bactericidal and anticancer drugs. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of a hemolysin in the leaves of Passiflora quadrangularis L. This hemolysin is heat stable, resistant to trypsin treatment, has the capacity to froth, and acts very rapidly. The hemolysin activity is dose-dependent, with a slope greater than 1 in a double-logarithmic plot. Polyethylene glycols of high molecular weight were able to reduce the rate of hemolysis, while liposomes containing cholesterol completely inhibited it. In contrast, liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine were ineffective. The Passiflora hemolysin markedly increased the conductance of planar lipid bilayers containing cholesterol but was ineffective in cholesterol-free bilayers. Successive extraction of the crude hemolysin with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol resulted in a 10-fold purification, with the hemolytic activity being recovered in the n-butanol fraction. The data suggest that membrane cholesterol is the primary target for this hemolysin and that several hemolysin molecules form a large transmembrane water pore. The properties of the Passiflora hemolysin, such as its frothing ability, positive color reaction with vanillin, selective extraction with n-butanol, HPLC profile, cholesterol-dependent membrane susceptibility, formation of a stable complex with cholesterol, and rapid erythrocyte lysis kinetics indicate that it is probably a saponin. PMID:16007277

  14. Philinopsides E and F, two new sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Long; Li, Ling; Yi, Yang-Hua; Sun, Peng

    2006-04-01

    Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, philinopside E (1) and F (2), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures have been established by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. Glycoside 1 showed significant cytotoxicity (Ed(50) 0.75-3.50 microg mL(-1)) against ten tumor cell lines. PMID:16644536

  15. 140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

    2008-01-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

  17. Two new cytotoxic disulfated holostane glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Xu, Qiang-Zhi; Yi, Yang-Hua; Gong, Wei; Jiao, Bing-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Two new disulfated triterpene glycosides, pentactasides B and C (1 and 2, resp.), were isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis (2D-NMR and MS) and chemical methods. The compounds 1 and 2 possess the same tetrasaccharide moieties with two sulfated groups, but are different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. Pentactasides B and C (1 and 2, resp.) showed significant cytotoxicities (IC(50) 0.09-2.30 microM) against different human tumor cell lines. PMID:20087982

  18. A set of two diastereomers of cyanogenic glycosides from Passiflora quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Daisuke; Yamada, Takeshi; Kajimoto, Tetsuya; Muraoka, Osamu; Tanaka, Reiko

    2011-08-01

    A set of two diastereomers of phenylcyano glycosides, (7S)- and (7R)-phenylcyanomethyl 1'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1, 2), were isolated from the methanol extract of dried vines of P. quadrangularis. The absolute configurations of the benzylic methine centers were determined mainly by the comparison of 13C NMR spectra of these compounds, prunasin (3) and sambunigrin (4), of which the last two cyanoglycosides are known to have (R)- and (S)-configurations, respectively. PMID:21922906

  19. STUDIES ON MELOTHRIA MADERASAPATANA (LINN). COGN

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, B.N; Thanigavelan, J.; Basu, S.P; Sukumar, E.

    1996-01-01

    This communication is a report of some preliminary studies followed by chemical investigations done on the aerial parts of Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) Cogn., a plant drug used in traditional system of medicine in India against a variety of diseases. PMID:22556749

  20. Possible anxiolytic effect of two extracts of Passiflora quadrangularis L. in experimental models.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Pollyanna Celso F; Hoshino, Alberto; da Silva, Jair Campos; Mendes, Fúlvio Rieli

    2007-05-01

    Several species of the genus Passiflora, known in Brazil as 'maracujá', have widespread use in folk medicine as sedatives and anxiolytics. The anxiolytic activities of aqueous and hydroalcohol extracts of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, open field and holeboard tests. The hydroalcohol extract presented results suggestive of anxiolytic activity in dosages around 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, as expressed by elevation of the time spent on the open arms in the plus-maze; a decrease of freezing and an increase of deambulation and rearing in the open field test. The hydroalcohol extract showed results similar to diazepam on the holeboard. No positive results were found for the aqueous extract. PMID:17295387

  1. Cytotoxic holostane-type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Xu, Qiang-Zhi; Tang, Hai-Feng; Yi, Yang-Hua; Gong, Wei

    2010-11-01

    Two new holostane-type triterpene glycosides, named pentactasides I (1) and II (2), and a new natural product, pentactaside III (3), together with two known glycosides, philinopsides A (4) and B (5), were isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the same trisaccharide moiety which is a rare structural feature among naturally occurring sea cucumber glycosides and has been infrequently reported, while 3 is a sulfated diglycoside. All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against six tumor cell lines (P-388, A-549, MCF-7, MKN-28, HCT-116, and U87MG) with IC(50) in the range of 0.60-3.95 µM. PMID:20425691

  2. Induction of flavonoid production by UV-B radiation in Passiflora quadrangularis callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Antognoni, Fabiana; Zheng, Suiping; Pagnucco, Cristina; Baraldi, Rita; Poli, Ferruccio; Biondi, Stefania

    2007-07-01

    Callus cultures from several species of Passiflora were initiated in vitro, and their capacity to produce four glycosyl flavonoids (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin) was analysed. The aim of the present work was to examine the possible role of UV-B irradiation and elicitation with methyl jasmonate (MJ) on the production of these compounds in callus cultures. All the species tested (P. incarnata, P. quadrangularis, P. edulis) formed friable callus from leaf explants after 4 weeks on medium supplemented with kinetin and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Among them, P. quadrangularis turned out to have a faster growth rate and a more friable texture, and was therefore chosen for experiments with elicitors. In callus cultures only small amounts of isoorientin were found, while the concentration of the other flavonoids was below the detection limit. UV-B irradiation of calluses was able to increase the production of all four glycosyl flavonoids. After a 7-day exposure of cultures to UV-B light, the production of isoorientin reached concentrations similar to those found in fresh leaves from glasshouse-grown plants. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate also enhanced orientin, vitexin and isovitexin concentrations, even though the stimulation was about 6-fold weaker for orientin and vitexin and about 40-fold for isovitexin, than that exerted by UV-B treatment. Callus cultures treated with the UV-B dose which most enhanced flavonoid production showed a higher antioxidant activity compared to untreated calluses, with an increase ranging from 28% to 76%. Results show that the secondary metabolite biosynthetic capacity of Passiflora tissue cultures can be enhanced by appropriate forms of elicitation. PMID:17512679

  3. Electrochemical sensors, MTT and immunofluorescence assays for monitoring the proliferation effects of cissus populnea extracts on Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We describe the development of an electrochemical sensor array for monitoring the proliferation effects of cissus populnea plant extracts on TM4 Sertoli cells. Methods The proliferation activities of the extracts on Sertoli cells were studied using a high-throughput electrochemical sensor array (DOX-96) and the analytical sensor characteristics were compared with conventional colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results This work shows that there is a definite positive trend in the proliferation effect of the extract of Cissus populnea on the TM4 Sertoli cells. All of the three techniques confirmed that the most effective concentration for the proliferation is 10 ppm. At this concentration, the proliferation effect was established around 120% for both DOX-96 and MTT techniques, whereas fluorescence assays showed a higher level (120-150%). DOX-96 showed a lower limit of detection (1.25 × 10(4) cells/ml); whereas the LOD recorded for both MTT and fluorescence techniques was 2.5 × 10(4) cells/ml. Visual examination of the cells by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed the proliferation of Sertoli cells as was determined using the MTT assay. This investigation provides a confident interpretation of the results and proved that the most effective concentration for the proliferation using Cissus populnea plant extract is 10 ppm. Conclusions Overall, the DOX results compared well with the conventional methods of checking proliferation of cells. The fascinating feature of the sensor array is the ability to provide continuous proliferation experiments with no additional reagents including 96 simultaneous electrochemical experiments. The use of the DOX-96 could reduce a typical bioassay time by 20-fold. Thus the DOX-96 can be used as both a research tool and for practical cell culture monitoring. PMID:21575213

  4. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  5. 139. Linn Cove Viaduct. Underneath view of the viaduct showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    139. Linn Cove Viaduct. Underneath view of the viaduct showing placement of piers amongst Grandfather Mountain's boulders. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. CYCLEA PELTATA DIELS – A POSSIBLE SUBSTITUTE FOR CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA LINN

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.B.R.; Devi, R.S Girija; Hepsibah, P.T.A

    1995-01-01

    Chromatographic studies have been carried out on cyclea peltata Diels and Cissampelos pareira Linn. The results substantiate that cyclea peltata Diels can be substituted for cissampelos pareira in ayurvedic formulations PMID:22556735

  7. Food bodies in Cissus verticillata (Vitaceae): ontogenesis, structure and functional aspects

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa; Buono, Rafael Andrade; Lombardi, Julio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The distinction between pearl bodies (or pearl glands) and food bodies (FBs) is not clear; neither is our understanding of what these structures really represent. The present work examined the ontogenesis, structure, ultrastructure and histochemical aspects of the protuberances in Cissus verticillata, which have been described since the beginning of the 19th century as pearl glands or pearl bodies, in order to establish a relationship between their structure and function. Methods Segments of stems and leaves in different stages of development were collected and fixed for study under light microscopy as well as electron transmission and scanning microscopy. Samples of FBs were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The FBs in C. verticillata are globose and attached to the plant by a short peduncle. These structures are present along the entire stem during primary growth, and on the inflorescence axis and the abaxial face of the leaves. The FBs were observed to be of mixed origin, with the participation of both the epidermis and the underlying parenchymatic cells. The epidermis is uniseriate with a thin cuticle, and the cells have dense cytoplasm and a large nucleus. The internal parenchymatic cells have thin walls; in the young structures these cells have dense cytoplasm with a predominance of mitochondria and plastids. In the mature FBs, the parenchymatic cells accumulate oils and soluble sugars; dictyosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum predominate in the cytoplasm; the vacuoles are ample. Removal of the FBs appears to stimulate the formation of new ones, at the same place. Conclusions The vegetative vigour of the plant seems to influence the number of FBs produced, with more vigorous branches having greater densities of FBs. The results allow the conclusion that the structures traditionally designated pearl glands or pearl bodies in C. verticillata constitute FBs that can recruit large numbers of ants. PMID:19049986

  8. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  9. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  10. Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

  11. Comparison of two Ferns (Adiantum Capillus-Veneris Linn. and Microsorium Punctatum (Linn.) Copel) For Their Cr Accumulation Potential and Antioxidant Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetgovind Sinam; Sandip Kr. Behera; Rohit Kr. Mishra; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick; P. B. Khare

    2012-01-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation\\/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 ?g g dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1

  12. Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetgovind Sinam; Sandip kr. Behera; Rohit Kr. Mishra; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick; P. B. Khare

    2011-01-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation\\/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 ?g g dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1

  13. In vitro organogenesis from leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

    1985-01-01

    Multiple shoot formation was induced from excised leaf explants of Annona squamosa Linn. (custard apple) seedlings on a Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing benzylaminopurine and kinetin. Various auxins in combination with the above medium produced callusing of the explants. In an investigation of environmental factors affecting shoot induction it was seen that the maximum number of shoots were obtained

  14. Anti-sickling potential of a Nigerian herbal formula (ajawaron HF) and the major plant component (Cissus populnea L. CPK).

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Ojo, O O; Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A; Olumese, P E; Ogundipe, O O

    2003-12-01

    The anti-sickling activities of the extracts of the roots of a plant Cissus populnea L. (CPK) (a major constituent of a herbal formula Ajawaron HF used in the management of sickle cell disease in south-west Nigeria) has been examined. Phytochemical examination of the extract showed the presence of anthraquinone derivatives, steroidal glycosides and cardiac glycosides. Alkaloids and tannins were completely absent in the CPK extracts. Evaluation of the anti-sickling activity involved the use of both positive (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 5 microg/mL) and negative control (normal saline) for each set of experiments aimed at the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed non-crisis state sickle-cell patients. The chloroform and water partitioned fractions of the cold methanol extracts of CPK exhibited a 62.2% and 52.9% inhibition of sickling, respectively, at 180 min. The herbal formula (HF) aqueous extract showed the highest anti-sickling activity on a weight by weight basis of all the extracts and fractions tested, giving a 71.4% inhibition of sickling at the end of 180 min incubation when compared with the normal saline control. The maximum percentage inhibition of sickling exhibited by the p-hydroxybenzoic acid control was 46.0% at 90 min incubation. PMID:14669251

  15. UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA

    E-print Network

    UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens by hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea Goldfuss. INTRODUCTION The vertical caves of the Chlum quarry near Srbsko

  16. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  17. Pharmacognostic studies on Dillenia indica Linn. I. Leaf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha Shome; R K Khanna; H P Sharma

    1979-01-01

    Dillenia indica Linn, is widely used in the indigenous systems of medicine; the leaf and bark as an astringent, the bruised bark, externally\\u000a as a cataplasm in arthritis, and the fruit juice as a cough mixture, a cooling beverage as also for toning up the nervous\\u000a system. It is considered a ‘vat’ suppressant ‘pitta’ augmenting drug in Ayurveda. The paper

  18. 256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.

    PubMed

    Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

  20. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn

    PubMed Central

    Sundari, S. Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T.; Jaswanth, A.; Valarmathy, R

    2004-01-01

    The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

  2. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Thiengsusuk, Artitiya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana; Ward, Stephen Andrew; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS. Results At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract. Conclusions Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp). PMID:25183269

  3. Evaluation of diuretic activity of different extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn.

    PubMed

    Baghel, A; Rathore, D S; Gupta, V

    2013-10-15

    In that study, Mimosa pudica linn was tested for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. The ethanolic and aqoues extract of Mimosa pudica Linn. was studied at two dose level 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Furosemide (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) was used as standard drug in a 0.9% saline solution. Urine volumes were measured for all the groups up to 5 h. The ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica linn was exhibited significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na+ k+ and Cl-. PMID:24506029

  4. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

  5. Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara LINN.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2008-09-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, namely lantanoic acid (1) and camaranoic acid (2), and six known compounds such as lantic acid, camarinic acid, camangeloyl acid, camarinin, oleanonic acid, and ursonic acid were isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara LINN. Structures of the new constituents were elucidated by chemical transformation and spectral studies including 1D ((1)H- and (13)C-NMR) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H correlation spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), (1)H-(1)H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), J-resolved, (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC), and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC)) NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18758109

  6. 76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...1265-0000-10137-S3] Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn...for the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (refuge complex...and William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuges (refuges), located...

  7. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

  8. Composition chimique et activités biologiques de l'huile essentielle de Lantana camara Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Alitonou; Félicien Avlessi; Innocent Bokossa; Edwige Ahoussi; Justine Dangou; Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from Lantana camara Linn. The hydrodistilled essential oils of fresh aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. have been analysed by GC and GC\\/MS. Forty-one compounds, representing 94.7% of Lantana camara oil's composition, were identified. The major constituents are: ?-caryophyllene 18.5%, sabinene 13.1%, ?-humulene 10.0%, 1,8-cineole 9.0%, ?-guaiene 5.0%. This oil exhibited significant

  9. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  10. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  11. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  12. Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun F.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Tade, Oluwatosin G.

    2013-01-01

    Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe2+ and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO4 and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe2+ (EC50?=?0.027?mg/mL) and SNP- (EC50?=?0.22?mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe2+-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

  14. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  15. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  16. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900?mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed. PMID:22919417

  17. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-09-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far. PMID:21967701

  18. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  19. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

  20. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MARSILEA MINUTA LINN.

    E-print Network

    A. John; De Britto; D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin; P. Benjamin; Jeya Rathna Kumar; A. John; De Britto

    The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals in the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Marsilea minuta Linn (Marsileaceae), a common aquatic medicinal fern by both qualitative and quantitative screening methods. In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened in five solvent extracts. The methanol extract of the fern showed positive results for 10 phytochemical tests. The benzene extract exhibited positive results for 9 tests. In chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the plant showed positive results for 7 tests and in aqueous extract of the fern 5 phytochemical tests were positive. In quantitative analysis the important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were tested in all the extracts of the fern. The methanol extract showed highest amount of phytochemicals when compared with other solvent extracts. KEY WARDS: Marsilea minuta, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins

  1. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  2. In vitro propagation and rhizome formation in Curcuma longa Linn.

    PubMed

    Sunitibala, H; Damayanti, M; Sharma, G J

    2001-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) which is cultivated by underground rhizomes is a slow propagating species. Multiplication and callus induction starting from the rhizome buds and shoot tips of C. longa in MS medium was carried out. A combination of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1.0 mg/l) with kinetin (Kn; 1.0 mg/l) or NAA (1.0 mg/l) with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP; 2.0 mg/l) was optimum for rapid clonal propagation of turmeric. A concentration of 2.5-3.0 mg/l of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be optimum for callus induction. Regeneration of plantlets from a callus was successfully conducted in MS medium supplemented with standard growth hormones for multiplication at 25 +/- 2 degrees C under a 16 h photoperiod. These plantlets were successfully transferred to the field. Plantlets (4-month-old) were incubated in a medium containing different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with NAA (0.1 mg/l) and Kn (1.0 mg/l) at 27 +/- 2 degrees C under an 8 h photoperiod for induction of rhizomes. In vitro rhizome formation was observed in media containing 6 and 8% sucrose. PMID:11393773

  3. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  4. ORGANIC AND TRACE METAL LEVELS IN OCEAN QUAHOG, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,

    E-print Network

    generally weight: Cu, Ni, and Pb generally weight with a few exceptions; and Zn ranged from 50 to 153 ,..g/g dry weight. The ocean quahog, A1'ctica islandica Linne, is a large, bivalve silty sand sedi- ments of the middle to outer continental shelf that are less influenced by waves

  5. Linn Havelick From: White, Diane K [white.diane@cleanharbors.com

    E-print Network

    1 Linn Havelick From: White, Diane K [white.diane@cleanharbors.com] Sent: Thursday, May 10, 2007 1 to discuss in full. Diane Diane White, Account Manager Clean Harbors Environmental Services Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona work/cell: 303-263-0663 white.diane@cleanharbors.com From: Maki Iatridis Sent: Friday

  6. STUDI KEMAMPUAN NIOSOM YANG MENGGUNAKAN MALTODEKSTRIN PATI GARUT (Maranta arundinaceae Linn.) SEBAGAI PEMBAWA KLORFENIRAMIN MALEAT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Effionora Anwar; Departemen Farmasi

    Study of the Capability of Niosomes that Used Maltodextrin from Garut Starch (Maranta arundinaceae Linn.) as a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Carrier. The aim of this research was to study the entrapment ability of ampiphylic drug, chlorpheniramine maleate (CTM), by niosome. Like liposomes, niosomes is an encapsulated drug carrier that has important role in a drug release system. Niosomes and liposomes are

  7. Skull Asymmetry, Ear Structure and Function, and Auditory Localization in Tengmalm's Owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Norberg

    1978-01-01

    The ear apertures in the skin of Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus (Linne) (Strigiformes), are slit-like and ca. 24 mm long. This equals the height of the skull. The ear opening in the skin is bounded by a continuous fold of skin that is developed into a preaural and a postaural flap. The preaural flap carries the facial disk feathers that

  8. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

    This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

  9. Study on Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. Roots in Improving the Shear Characteristics of Soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-liang Zhang; Jing Liu; Lin-he Wang; Xi-jun Yao; Xin Zhang; Li Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author investigates root's soil mechanics' mechanism and influencing factors of a typical soil reinforcing plant- Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. in the area that has been destroyed by wind and water. This investigation has been done from two aspects: shear strength of root-soil composite and friction characteristic of root-soil interface. The results show that when the root diameter

  10. Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R

    1991-01-01

    50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Olufemi Olaitan Shabi; Oyeduntan Adeyoju

    The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those

  12. Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, t. 59, 2008 Lichens et champignons lichnicoles du

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, t. 59, 2008 Lichens et champignons lichénicoles du parc national des de 1091 taxons (dont 993 lichens, 88 champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés et 10 champi- gnons non parc national est estimé à 1200 dont 1050­1100 lichens. Tableau de 109 groupements lichéniques et de

  13. Activity of tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae) attacking the reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn.) (Alligatoridae) and Eunectes murinus (Linn.) (Boidae), in the central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Henriques, Augusto L; Rafael, José A

    2002-01-01

    Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2), situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02 degrees 45'33"S; 59 degrees 51'03"W). Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn.), and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn.), in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber) and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented. PMID:11992164

  14. Isolation and X-ray crystal structure of a securinega-type alkaloid from Phyllanthus niruri Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Zhu, Honglin; Wang, Kuiwu; Wei, Wanxing; Zhang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    A securinega-type alkaloid epibubbialine was isolated from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Its structure was established by spectroscopic methods and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. Its crystal structure is reported herein for the first time. PMID:21878003

  15. Dynamic PathBased Software Watermarking # C. Collberg E. Carter S. Debray A. Huntwork J. Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp

    E-print Network

    Kececioglu, John

    . Kececioglu C. Linn M. Stepp Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Carter, A. Huntwork, and M. Stepp was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant

  16. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  17. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  18. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  19. Pigment Extraction Techniques from the Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and Chemical Structure Analysis of Their Major Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nittaya Chanayath; Sorasak Lhieochaiphant; Suree Phutrakul

    Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. are the plants which have been used as natural source of indigo dye and are available in Northern part of Thailand. In this study we carried out methods to find the optimum condition for effective extraction of indigo from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and investigated chemical constituents

  20. Beneficial effect of Ficus religiosa Linn. on high-fat-diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manal A. Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Ficus religiosa Linn. (Moraceae) was evaluated as a hypolipidaemic and antioxidant agent. Ethanol and hexane leaves extracts were examined for inhibition of ?-hydroxy-?-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and DPPH free radical elevation. The ethanol extract was evaluated for its effect against hypercholesterolaemia in rats, compared with the standard hypolipidaemic lipanthyl. Cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG),

  1. Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

    2000-07-01

    Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

  2. The classification of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. according to location by infrared spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saravanan Dharmaraj; A. Suhaimi Jamaludin; H. Mohammad Razak; Raman Valliappan; Nor Atinah Ahmad; Gam Lay Harn; Zhari Ismail

    2006-01-01

    This preliminary work investigates whether Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), in combination with multivariate analysis can be used to distinguish Phyllanthus niruri Linn. samples from different locations. A FT-IR spectrometer used in this work is equipped with a transmittance accessory. All samples were scanned in the mid-infrared range of 400–4000cm?1 but only the region of 400–2000cm?1 that contained the most

  3. Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

    2007-01-01

    The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

  4. Phenology, pollination and breeding system of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) correa (Rutaceae) from India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Kumar Singhal; Atula Salwan; Puneet Kumar; Jaspreet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Studies on reproductive biology are difficult but useful in species like Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa which is of considerable socio-economic importance and possess morphogenetic variation and qualities of wider\\u000a adaptability to different soils. Cytology, phenology, pollination, breeding system and natural regeneration of wild and cultivated\\u000a trees from India revealed the existence of diploid (2n = 18) and tetraploid trees (2n = 36) in Pachmarhi

  5. Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

    2007-01-01

    The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.0229–0.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 41–55% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

  6. Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Chauhan; M. J. Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming “staghorn-calculi”, is a painful urological disorder.\\u000a It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence\\u000a of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and

  7. Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum LINN against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, Kuppuswamy; Anbuganapathi, Govindaraju; Gokulakrishnan, Velusamy; Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian; Jayakar, Balasundarm; Manian, Sellamuthu

    2003-11-01

    Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum LINN was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanol extract showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity. The activity was evaluated using biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The histopathological changes of liver sample in treated animals were compared with respect to control. PMID:14600413

  8. Anticancer effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-hong ZHANG; Hai-yan PENG; Guo-hao XIA; Ming-yan WANG; Ying HAN

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn (Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid) on the proliferation of Human Liver Cancer (HLC) cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. METHODS: Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The morphological changes of SMMC-7721 cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope, transmission electron

  9. Haploid plants from in vitro anther culture of Annona squamosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nair; P. K. Gupta; A. F. Mascarenhas

    1983-01-01

    Haploid plants were induced from anther callus of Annona squamosa Linn. (Custard apple) on a Nitsch basal medium supplemented with 6-benzyl-aminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid. When naphthalene acetic acid was replaced by indole-3-acetic acid only multiple shoots were obtained. Pretreatment (chilling, centrifugation, reduced atmospheric pressure etc.) of the flowers was not effective but dissection of the flowers in a suspension

  10. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  11. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, V.C.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Satya Prasad, V.; Vinay Babu, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as ‘Radish’ is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine. PMID:23960756

  12. Lepidium sativum Linn.: a current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Patil, Prasant D; Patel, Bhumit N

    2014-04-01

    Mucilage from the last decades has been found to be very attractive, interesting and useful in development of desired pharmaceutical dosage forms. Various applications of plant based mucilage have a wide potentiality in drug formulations. Lepidium sativum Linn. (family: Brassicaceae) is one of the mucilage containing fast growing, edible annual herb. Its various parts (roots, leaves and seeds) have been used to treat various human ailments. It mainly contains alkaloids, saponins, anthracene glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, flavanoids, and sterols as chief phytochemical constituents. Its seed extracts have been screened for various biological activities like hypotensive, anti-microbial, bronchodilator, hypoglycemic and allelopathic, whereas its seed coat mucilage has been isolated using different methods to make it effective excipient of desired functionality as a part of pharmaceutical applications. Through keen references of reported work on Lepidium sativum Linn., in this review, we have focused on its seed coat mucilage isolation methods, chemical constituents, pharmacological profile and versatile application of Lepidium sativum Linn. PMID:24418343

  13. ????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

    Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

  14. Lipid to carbohydrate ratio in donkey's ear abalone ( Haliotis asinina, Linne) diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Thongrod; M. Tamtin; C. Chairat; M. Boonyaratpalin

    2003-01-01

    Five isonitrogenous diets were prepared to vary in the percentage inclusion of lipid\\/carbohydrate as follows: diet 1, 1.3:47.8%; diet 2, 5.8:43.4%; diet 3, 10.2:39.5%; diet 4, 14.8:36.1%; and diet 5, 19.0:31.4%. The calculated values of gross energy in diets 1 to 5 were 17.6, 18.8, 19.6, 20.6 and 21.6 MJ kg?1 feed, respectively. Abalones, Haliotis asinina, Linne, with a shell

  15. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neeru

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

  16. A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

  17. Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

    2014-02-15

    Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

  18. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle extracts on freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T-T; He, M; Wu, A-P; Nie, L-W

    2012-03-01

    To pursue an effective way to control freshwater algae, four extracts from a submerged macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (Linn.f.) Royle were tested to study its inhibitory effects on Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick FACHB-9. Extract with the highest inhibiting ability was further studied in order to reveal the inhibitory mechanism. The results demonstrated that H. verticillata extracts inhibited the growth of A. flos-aquae and C. pyrenoidosa, and methanol extract had the highest inhibiting ability. The mechanism underlying the algal growth inhibition involves the superoxide anion radical generation that induces the damage of cell wall and release of intracellular components. PMID:22210445

  19. Ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) displays otoprotectant activities on organotypic cultures without interfering on gentamicin uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Previati; Elisa Corbacella; Laura Astolfi; Marco Catozzi; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Ilaria Lampronti; Roberto Gambari; Silvano Capitani; Alessandro Martini

    2007-01-01

    The ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) (Apocynaceae) (Hie) was studied for its otoprotective effects in ex vivo rat organotypic model of gentamicin (GM) toxicity. In organ of Corti organotypic cultures (OC), GM can induce a fast dose-dependent apoptosis of hair cells (HC), both external and internal. We found that, after coadministration of GM and Hie to organotypic cultures, the

  20. LCMS QUANTIFICATION OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND URSOLIC ACID IN THE OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. LEAF EXTRACT (HOLY BASIL, TULSI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Shanmuga Sundaram; M. Ramanathan; R. Rajesh; B. Satheesh; D. Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) method for the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) and ursolic acid (UA) in the leaves of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (EEOS) Linn. (Holy Basil, an Indian traditional herb) has been developed for the first time and validated. The LC separation was carried out

  1. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nantarika Chansue

    Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

  2. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh L Londonkar; Pramod V Poddar

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g\\/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral

  3. FT-IR AND SEM-EDS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS, ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK AND ECLIPTA PROSTRATA LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. MURUGANANTHAM; G. ANBALAGAN; N. RAMAMURTHY

    Infrared and energy dispersive X-ray spectra of plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) of the medicinal plants Eclipta alba Hassk and Eclipta prostrata Linn were recorded. The vibrational assignments, intensities and wave number (cm-1) of dominant peak were obtained from absorption spectra. Probable assignments of the bands were made with respect to the components present in the samples. The microphotograph

  4. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  5. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Erlânio O; Silva, Natálya F; Rodrigues, Fabiola F G; Campos, Adriana R; Lima, Sidney G; Costa, José Galberto M

    2010-04-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 mug/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 mug/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 x, 1250-5 mug/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  6. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  7. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    PubMed

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  8. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  9. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

  10. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  11. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  12. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  13. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  14. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-01-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Chandrashura (Lepidium sativum Linn.) an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Raval, Nita D; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K

    2013-07-01

    Lepidium sativum Linn. (Chandrashura) of Family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) is being used by the people of Gujarat for treating inflammatory condition like arthritis. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity, Charles Foster albino rats were selected and experiments were carried out in three groups, therapeutic dose group, twice of therapeutic dose group and control group. In Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, the test drug produced moderate anti-inflammatory activity; however, the effect did not show statistically significant activity due to variation in the data of the control group. In formaldehyde-induced paw oedema in rats, the test drug produced moderate to significant suppression. This indicates that Chandrashura has a strong inhibitory effect on proliferation of fibroblasts and also probably has connective tissue modulation effect. PMID:24501528

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Olorunfemi Cornelius; Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja; Adaudi, Ambrose O; Agbede, Rowland I S

    2006-09-01

    Spigelia anthelmia Linn is used as a herb and is a common annual weed of cultivation in open re-growths, on unused land in towns as well as on road sides. The plant can grow to approximately 30 cm in height. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of Spigelia anthelmia for their anthelmintic activity against an experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis infection in rats. Acute oral toxicity occurred at a dose of 1,140 mg/kg, while anthelmintic trials against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats using the aqueous fraction showed a progressive decrease in worm count with increasing dose (10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 mg per kg body weight) (p < 0.05). At 25 mg per kg body weight, the worm count was significantly lower than that at 10 mg per kg body weight (p < 0.05). PMID:16871016

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of extracts of Spigelia anthelmia Linn on experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajanusi, Joseph Ologunja; Adaudi, Ambrose. O.; Agbede, Rowland I. S.

    2006-01-01

    Spigelia anthelmia Linn is used as a herb and is a common annual weed of cultivation in open re-growths, on unused land in towns as well as on road sides. The plant can grow to approximately 30 cm in height. The aim of this study was to screen extracts of Spigelia anthelmia for their anthelmintic activity against an experimental Nippostrongylus braziliensis infection in rats. Acute oral toxicity occurred at a dose of 1,140mg/kg, while anthelmintic trials against Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats using the aqueous fraction showed a progressive decrease in worm count with increasing dose (10, 13, 16, 20 and 25 mg per kg body weight) (p < 0.05). At 25 mg per kg body weight, the worm count was significantly lower than that at 10mg per kg body weight (p < 0.05). PMID:16871016

  18. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  19. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

  1. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  2. Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review.

    PubMed

    Bagalkotkar, G; Sagineedu, S R; Saad, M S; Stanslas, J

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), its wide variety of phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties. The active phytochemicals, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins and saponins, have been identified from various parts of P. niruri. Extracts of this herb have been proven to have therapeutic effects in many clinical studies. Some of the most intriguing therapeutic properties include anti-hepatotoxic, anti-lithic, anti-hypertensive, anti-HIV and anti-hepatitis B. Therefore, studies relating to chemical characteristics and structural properties of the bioactive phytochemicals found in P. niruri are very useful for further research on this plant as many of the phytochemicals have shown preclinical therapeutic efficacies for a wide range of human diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B. PMID:17331318

  3. Hepatoprotective and antibacterial activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn. against lipopolysaccharides on HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arumanayagam, S.; Arunmani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lippia nodiflora (LN) Linn is a small herb distributed throughout the world. The plant extracts of LN is used traditionally as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antipyretic, antitumor, antidiabetic, and possess hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: To study the antibacterial and hepatoprotective effect of LN, we used methanolic extracts of leaves on HepG2 cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) is a well-characterized hepatotoxin, so toxicity was induced on liver cells using LPS. Up-regulation of inflammation genes were quantified. Results and Conclusions: In our present study, we have showed that LN reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production against LPS induced toxicity on HepG2 cells, and ther by decreased the apoptotic gene expression and protect the liver cells against toxicity. PMID:25709206

  4. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  5. Antioxidative responses of Salvinia (Salvinia natans Linn.) to aluminium stress and it's modulation by polyamine.

    PubMed

    Mandal, C; Ghosh, N; Maiti, Saborni; Das, K; Gupta, Sudha; Dey, N; Adak, M K

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidative stress response of free-floating aquatic fern (Salvinia natans Linn.) was studied under increasing toxic amount of aluminium (Al) and its modulation by exogenous application of polymaine. Increased levels of superoxide (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) species from affected tissues suggested that plants were undergoing oxidative stress and it was concominant with increased accumulation of Al in a dose dependent manner. Application of polyamine like putrescine (Put) led to a decrease in oxidative stress as revealed by reduced level of O2 (-) and H2O2. Al toxicity resulted into decreased biomass that was ameliorated by the application of Put. The changes observed in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and protein oxidation also indicated that plats are undergoing Al induced oxidative stress. In order to circumvent the oxidative stress resulting from Al toxicity, plants enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant pathways were active. The ratio of both oxidized and reduced cellular glutathione exhibited significant variation in response to Al stress and was improved upon Put treatment. Peroxidase and glutathione were upregulated whereas catalse was downregulated under varying doses of Al. Isozyme profile of above enzymes also showed a trend with increasing amount of Al. The nuclear disintegration study using comet assay was indicative of Al induced oxidative stress. In the present study, we have explored the antioxidative response of aquatic fern Salvinia natans Linn in response to Al toxicity. The application of polyamine Put improved the overall antioxidative response and thus would make it a better candidate to be used as hyper accumulator of Al and other toxic metals. PMID:24381441

  6. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  7. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  8. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avani; Patel, Amit; Patel, Amit; Patel, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC50values, all the extracts’ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:21808558

  9. Composition chimique de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum americanum Linn., syn. O. canum Sims du Burkina Faso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfa Keita Djibo; Abdoul Dorosso Samaté; Mouhoussine Nacro

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum Linn., syn. Ocimum. canum Sims from Burkina Faso. The yields of the essential oils of the air-dried leaves of O. americanum from the different locations varied from 1 and 2% (v\\/w). The chemical composition of the essential oils of the three samples were analysed using GC and GC-MS. The three samples belonged

  10. A preliminary study on the influence of gibberellic acid on Mentha arvensis Linn. var. piperascens holmes (Japanese mint)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Kaul; L. D. Kapoor

    1965-01-01

    “Gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions (10–200 p.p.m.) when sprayed onMentha arvensis Linn. var.piperascens at preflowering stage induces 30–50 per cent. increase in the yield of total herb. Apart from the elongation of internode,\\u000a the leaf area was also increased. The stage of development of the plant at the time of treatment, appeared to be a significant\\u000a factor in obtaining favourable Gibberellin

  11. A Valued Medicinal Plant - Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) : Successful Plant Regeneration Through Various Explants and Field Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binita B. Chaplot; Ashok M. Dave; Yogesh T. Jasrai

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for plant propagation through axillary bud proliferation and organo- genesis were established for Chitrak - Plumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae). MS medium with 4.4 mg\\/l BA and 1.4 mg\\/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (12 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. Leaf based callus differentiated into more than 30 shoots on MS with 160 mg\\/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated

  12. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. Results: The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[?-D-apiose-(1?4)]-?-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21472077

  13. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  14. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  15. Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Mishtry, I. U.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770

  16. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  17. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

    PubMed Central

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K.; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  18. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    PubMed

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  19. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

  20. Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

  1. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

  2. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2006-05-01

    Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

  3. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

  4. Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2010-03-01

    In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers. PMID:20578533

  5. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  6. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  8. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Fs; Sousa, Eo; Campos, Ar; Costa, Jgm; Rodrigues, Ffg

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as "camará" or "chumbinho." In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

  11. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  12. Protic acid resin enhanced 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride pretreatment of Arundo donax Linn.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Sukun; Xu, Feng

    2014-09-01

    To improve the cellulose digestibility of energy crop Arudo donax Linn. with cost-efficient, a novel pretreatment of protic acid resin Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed inexpensive ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl) was developed in this work. The pretreatment was performed at 160°C with [C4mim]Cl for 1.5h, followed by Amberlyst 35DRY catalyzed at 90°C for 1h. The IL-Amberlyst pretreatment was demonstrated to be effective, evidenced by the reduction in cellulose crystallinity (31.4%) and increased porosity caused by extensive swelling the undissolved biomass and partial depolymerization of the longer cellulose chain of the dissolved biomass by Amberlyst. Consequently, a higher glucose yield (92.8%) was obtained than for the single [C4mim]Cl pretreatment (42.8%) at an enzyme loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. Overall, the enhanced pretreatment was competitive by using inexpensive and recyclable IL-Amberlyst 35DRY pretreated system with shorter processing time and reduced enzyme usage. PMID:25001325

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, FS; Sousa, EO; Campos, AR; Costa, JGM; Rodrigues, FFG

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as “camará” or “chumbinho.” In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 ?g/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 ?g/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

  14. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  15. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  16. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1?mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  17. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  18. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  20. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well. PMID:23569896

  1. Characterization, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Huang, Qiang; Fu, Xiong; Yue, Xiu-Jie; Liu, Rui Hai; You, Li-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn (P. vulgaris) were fractionated using DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column to obtain several eluents of water (PV-P1), 0.1M NaCl (PV-P2) and 0.2M NaCl (PV-P3). Structural analyses showed that PV-P1 had a higher molecular weight and degree of branching as compared to PV-P2 and PV-P3. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not have triple-helical conformation. PV-P2 and PV-P3 showed stronger antioxidant activities than PV-P1, as measured radical scavenging capacities. PV-P1 showed stronger immunomodulatory activities than PV-P2 and PV-P3 in term of stimulation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not exhibit cytotoxicities against RAW 264.7 at the concentrations tested. These results suggest that P. vulgaris polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. PMID:25596012

  2. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

  3. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  4. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  5. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  6. Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Mohammad Sajadi, S; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

    2015-07-15

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. PMID:25854504

  7. Analysis of 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinkhorloo, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kat?, K.; Aikawa, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Chiba, S.

    2012-12-01

    We study 7Li(n,n')7Li* reactions by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method with the complex Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. In this study, the 7Li nucleus is described by an ?+t cluster model. The calculated elastic cross sections for incident energies between 11.5 and 24.0 MeV show good agreements with experimental data. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron spectra of 7Li ground and excited breakup states measured at selected angular points for incident energies of 11.5 and 18.0 MeV. The results reproduce the observed data systematically.

  8. Optimisation of phenolics recovery from Vitex agnus-castus Linn. leaves by high-pressure and temperature extraction.

    PubMed

    Lataoui, Mohammed; Seffen, Mongi; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    To optimise recovery of phenolics from Vitex agnus-castus Linn., a non-conventional high-pressure (2-24 bar) and temperature (100-180°C) extraction method was used under nitrogen atmosphere with methanol as a solvent. Optimal temperature was between 100 and 140°C, and optimal extraction time was about one half that of conventional solid/liquid extraction at room temperature. Final yields of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, o-diphenols and anthocyanins extraction were 2.0, 3.0, 2.5 and 11-fold those obtained by conventional extraction. PMID:24404955

  9. Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures. PMID:25298715

  10. Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

  11. Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

  12. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. PMID:25719740

  13. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

  14. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

  15. Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

    2013-09-01

    In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

  16. Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

  17. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  18. Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 µg/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

  19. Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

  20. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days. PMID:24353141

  1. Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2014-09-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

  2. OA01.03. Antisecretory and antiulcer activities of eclipta alba Linn.in rats

    PubMed Central

    Samaiya, Puneet Kumar; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Rao, Chandana. V; Vijaykumar, M.; Ojha, Sanjeev Kumar; Eswaran, Bavani M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Eclipta alba Linn. (Asteraceae) is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, immunomodulator, in wound healing, and as a potent hair growth promoter. The study was aimed to evaluate the antisecretory and gastroprotective effects of 50% ethanol extract of Eclipta alba. Method: Eclipta alba extract (EAE) at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered orally, twice daily for 5 days to prevent from, cold restraint stress (CRS), and pylorus ligation (PL) induced ulcers. Antioxidant studies were performed in CRS induced ulcer model. Gastric wall mucus and secretion parameters like volume of gastric juice, acid output and pH were estimated in PL induced ulcer model. Ranitidine (50mg/kg, p.o.) was used as positive control for comparison. Result: A dose dependent and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in lesion index was observed in ulcer-induced rats treated with EAE at various doses when compared with control group in both the models. Gastric wall mucus production was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in EAE treated rats. Significant attenuation in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase activity was observed, whereas, catalase enzyme levels were elevated in EAE treated groups. Antisecretory activity of EAE was evidenced by significant reduction in gastric volume, acid output and increase in gastric pH when compared to their control values. The findings were further supported by histopathological examination of stomach in both EAE treated and control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that ethanol extract of Eclipta alba possesses potent antisecretory and gastroprotective activity. The exact mechanism to be evaluated further but in preliminary observation it was thought to be mediated through free radical scavenging activity.

  3. Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

  4. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

  5. Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

  6. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2014-05-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  7. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower

    PubMed Central

    Habib, M. Rowshanul

    2009-01-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Zuriati; Jani, Nor Akmalazura; Amanah, Azimah; Latif, Mohd Naffidi Abdul; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

    2014-02-15

    Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 ?g/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:24269185

  9. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  10. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  11. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

    2013-01-01

    Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

  12. Influence of the Leaf Extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (Mint) on the Survival of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Gamma Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2002-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg\\/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied

  13. Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanu Ramkumar Ramprasath; Palanivelu Shanthi; Panchanatham Sachdanandam

    2006-01-01

    The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1ml paraffin oil (0.1ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After

  14. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  16. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

    2013-03-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  17. Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

  18. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  19. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D. PMID:25248992

  20. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  1. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  2. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-07-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardrakaswarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

  3. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  4. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, BK; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  5. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

  6. A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Kumar, Vijay; Ashok, Bk; Acharya, R N; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema. PMID:23284209

  7. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the optimum extraction conditions for maximum recovery of the content of total phenolics (TPC) and total antioxidant abilities were analyzed for Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. using response surface methodology. The effects of ethanol percentage (X1 ,%), ultrasonic power (X2 , W) and extraction temperature (X3 , °C) on the total phenolic content (Y1 ) and antioxidant ability (Y2 ) were evaluated. A second-order polynomial model produced a satisfactory fitting of the experimental data with regard to total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.9942, P < 0.0001) and antioxidant ability (R(2) = 0.9966, P < 0.0001). The optimized conditions were ethanol concentration of 61.0%, ultrasonic power of 308.6 W, extraction temperature of 51.1°C for TPC and 60.5%, 311.4 W, 51.6°C for antioxidant ability, the predicted values agreed well with the experimental values. Results implied that the major phenolic compounds in obtained extracts as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-gal/glu, quercetin-3-xyl/ara, phloretin-2-xyloside, quercetin-3- rhamnoside, and phloridzin. PMID:23436450

  8. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  9. Comparative study of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.).

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Pratibha; de Heluani, Carola S; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2010-04-01

    The phytoconstituents of essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh and dry rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) were analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituents were aromatic-turmerone (24.4%), alpha-turmerone (20.5%) and beta-turmerone (11.1%) in fresh rhizome and aromatic-turmerone (21.4%), alpha-santalene (7.2%) and aromatic-curcumene (6.6%) in dry rhizome oil. Whereas, in oleoresins, the major components were alpha-turmerone (53.4%), beta-turmerone (18.1%) and aromatic-turmerone (6.2%) in fresh and aromatic-turmerone (9.6%), alpha-santalene (7.8%) and alpha-turmerone (6.5%) in dry rhizome. Results showed that alpha-turmerone, a major component in fresh rhizomes is only minor one in dry rhizomes. Also, the content of beta-turmerone in dry rhizomes is less than a half amount found in fresh rhizomes. The antioxidant properties have been assessed by various lipid peroxidation assays as well as DPPH radical scavenging and metal chelating methods. The essential oil and ethanol oleoresin of fresh rhizomes have higher antioxidant properties as compared dry ones. PMID:20096323

  10. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  11. Effect of Mimosa pudica (Linn.) extract on anxiety behaviour and GABAergic regulation of 5-HT neuronal activity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Ayissi Mbomo, Rigobert; Gartside, Sasha; Ngo Bum, Elizabeth; Njikam, Njifutie; Okello, Ed; McQuade, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Mimosa pudica (Linn.) (M. pudica L.) is a plant used in some countries to treat anxiety and depression. In the present study we investigated the effects of an aqueous extract of M. pudica L. on mouse anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated T maze, and on regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuronal activity using an in-vitro mouse brain slice preparation. Acute treatment with M. pudica L. extract had an anxiolytic effect on behaviour in the elevated T maze, specifically on inhibitory avoidance behaviour. Acute application of the extract alone had no effect on the activity of DRN 5-HT neurones. However, when co-applied with the GABA(A) receptor agonist THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol), the extract enhanced the inhibitory effect of the THIP on DRN 5-HT neurones. These observed effects of M. pudica L. on both behaviour and GABA modulation of 5-HT neuronal activity are similar to the effects of diazepam, the established anxiolytic and positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor. This study suggests that the aqueous extract of M. pudica L. contains a positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor function and provides impetus for further investigation of the neuropharmacologically active constituents of the extract. PMID:21427203

  12. Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

    2003-01-01

    The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

  13. Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas. Conclusion The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions. PMID:24010894

  14. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  15. Assessment of the cytotoxic and anti-viral potential of aqueous extracts from different parts of Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile against Peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Raheel, Rizwana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ejaz, Sohail; Javeed, Aqeel; Altaf, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV); a negative sense single stranded RNA enveloped virus that causes Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is dramatically affecting the health status of ruminants all around the world resulting in extensive economical losses in livestock sector. Acacia nilotica (Linn) Delile; a tannin-rich medicinal plant distributed throughout subcontinent, is traditionally used as food for ruminants and possesses anti-viral potential against different RNA viruses. In the current study, aqueous extracts from the bark, leaves and pods of A. nilotica (Linn) Delile indica were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities against PPRV by adopting MTT colorimetric assay and anti-viral assay using Vero cell line. Aqueous extract from the leaves presented significantly better (P<0.05) anti-PPRV activities in comparison to pods extract. On the contrary, bark extract did not show any anti-viral activity. The data presented in the study could pave a way toward the discovery of novel anti-viral chemicals in the plants against PPRV and other viral diseases. PMID:23262040

  16. Inhibition of melanogenesis versus antioxidant properties of essential oil extracted from leaves of Vitex negundo Linn and chemical composition analysis by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Chang, Long-Zen; Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antimelanogenic and antioxidative properties of the essential oil extracted from leaves of V. negundo Linn and the analysis of the chemical composition of this essential oil. The efficacy of the essential oil was evaluated spectrophotometrically, whereas the volatile chemical compounds in the essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed that the essential oil effectively suppresses murine B16F10 tyrosinase activity and decreases the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the essential oil significantly scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and showed potent reducing power versus metal-ion chelating properties in a dose-dependent pattern. The chemical constituents in the essential oil are sesquiterpenes (44.41%), monoterpenes (19.25%), esters (14.77%), alcohols (8.53%), aromatic compound (5.90%), ketone (4.96%), ethers (0.4%) that together account for 98.22% of its chemical composition. It is predicted that the aromatic compound in the essential oil may contribute to its antioxidant activities. The results indicated that essential oil extracted from V. negundo Linn leaves decreased melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and showed potent antioxidant activities. The essential oil can thereby serve as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis and could also act as a natural antioxidant. PMID:22466851

  17. Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500?psi (?17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15??g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

  18. Proapoptotic and antimetastatic properties of supercritical CO2 extract of Nigella sativa Linn. against breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Baharetha, Hussein M; Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R; Abd Kadir, Mohd Omar; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2013-12-01

    Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (~17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

  19. The inophyllums, novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase isolated from the Malaysian tree, Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.

    PubMed

    Patil, A D; Freyer, A J; Eggleston, D S; Haltiwanger, R C; Bean, M F; Taylor, P B; Caranfa, M J; Breen, A L; Bartus, H R; Johnson, R K

    1993-12-24

    As part of a search for novel inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the acetone extract of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, was shown to be active. Fractionation of the extract yielded inophyllums A, B, C, and E and calophyllolide (1a, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6), previously isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., a known source of nutrition for A. fulica. From a methanol/methylene chloride extract of C. inophyllum, the same natural products in considerably greater yield were isolated in addition to a novel enantiomer of soulattrolide (4), inophyllum P (2b), and two other novel compounds, inophyllums G-1 (7) and G-2 (8). The absolute stereochemistry of inophyllum A (1a) was determined to be 10(R), 11(S), 12(S) from a single-crystal X-ray analysis of its 4-bromobenzoate derivative, and the relative stereochemistries of the other inophyllums isolated from C. inophyllum were established by a comparison of their 1H NMR NOE values and coupling constants to those of inophyllum A (1a). Inophyllums B and P (2a and 2b) inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 values of 38 and 130 nM, respectively, and both were active against HIV-1 in cell culture (IC50 of 1.4 and 1.6 microM). Closely related inophyllums A, C, D, and E, including calophyllic acids, were significantly less active or totally inactive, indicating certain structural requirements in the chromanol ring. Altogether, 11 compounds of the inophyllum class were isolated from C. inophyllum and are described together with the SAR of these novel anti-HIV compounds. PMID:7506311

  20. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  1. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment. PMID:25440530

  2. Bactericidal Activity of Methanol Extracts of Crabapple Mangrove Tree (Sonneratia caseolaris Linn.) Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Yompakdee, C.; Thunyaharn, S.; Phaechamud, T.

    2012-01-01

    The crabapple mangrove tree, Sonneratia caseolaris Linn. (Family: Sonneratiaceae), is one of the foreshore plants found in estuarine and tidal creek areas and mangrove forests. Bark and fruit extracts from this plant have previously been shown to have an anti-oxidative or cytotoxic effect, whereas flower extracts of this plant exhibited an antimicrobial activity against some bacteria. According to the traditional folklore, it is medicinally used as an astringent and antiseptic. Hence, this investigation was carried out on the extract of the leaves, pneumatophore and different parts of the flower or fruit (stamen, calyx, meat of fruit, persistent calyx of fruit and seeds) for antibacterial activity using the broth microdilution method. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against five antibiotic-sensitive species (three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria) and six drug-resistant species (Gram-positive i.e. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative i.e. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant–Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acenetobacter baumannii). The methanol extracts from all tested parts of the crabapple mangrove tree exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but was mainly a bactericidal against the Gram-negative bacteria, including the multidrug-resistant strains, when compared with only bacteriostatic on the Gram-positive bacteria. Using Soxhlet apparatus, the extracts obtained by sequential extraction with hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed no discernable antibacterial activity and only slightly, if at all, reduced the antibacterial activity of the subsequently obtained methanol extract. Therefore, the active antibacterial compounds of the crabapple mangrove tree should have a rather polar structure. PMID:23441048

  3. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200?mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10?cm; P<.001, 200?mg/kg; 6?h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100?mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20?mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15?min before AM (200?mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 ?g/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  4. Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

    2013-11-01

    This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

  5. Evaluation of phytochemical-incorporated porous polymeric sponges for bone tissue engineering: a novel perspective.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Ravi N; Somanathan, N; Sastry, Thottapalli P

    2013-08-01

    Porous polymeric scaffolds are extensively studied for delivery of bone growth factors. Since phytochemicals are known to produce changes in cell signalling and other metabolic pathways, osteogenic phytochemicals, that is, extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Butea monosperma, are incorporated into sulphonated poly(aryl ether ketone) sponges. The results have shown that the scaffolds with phytochemicals enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells compared to cells treated on scaffolds without phytochemicals. Hence, these phytochemicals can be evaluated to augment, if not substitute the use of bone morphogenetic proteins in scaffolds. PMID:23736994

  6. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

  7. Analysis of flavones in Rubus parvifolius Linn by high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography combined with Fourier transform surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yuan; He Jiuming; Chen Hui; Zhang Disheng; Cai Hua; Shao Huibo

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of total flavones in wild Rubus parvifolius Linn (RPL) were carried out using ultraviolet spectroscopy, and the isolation and structure determination of the main active ingredients were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with Electrospray ionization-mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS), thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the Fourier transform surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FT-SERS). Two flavones

  8. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    PubMed

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

  9. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  10. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09??m2 to 35.66 ± 0.10??m2 and 142.90 ± 0.59??m2 to 165.05 ± 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

  11. Cross-reactions between serum proteins and water soluble liver tissue antigens of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) and man.

    PubMed Central

    Negassi, K; Closs, O; Harboe, M

    1979-01-01

    Cross-reactions between serum proteins and water soluble liver antigens of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus Linn.) and man were studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Armadillo serum tested with rabbit antiserum against human serum proteins gave twelve components in CIE. Nine of these cross-reacting proteins were identified and showed partial identity with the corresponding human proteins. The electrophoretic mobility of alpha 2-macroglobulin and Gc-globulin differed in the two species. An ultrasonicate of normal armadillo liver gave twenty-eight anodic and eight cathodic components in CIE. By absorption experiments with armadillo serum, twenty of the former and seven of the latter were shown to be liver tissue components. A combination of CIE and crossed-line immunoelectrophoresis (CLIE) revealed the presence of twelve anodic and six cathodic liver tissue components cross-reacting with man. A cathodic armadillo liver antigen called (CALA-17) showed partial identity with that of man both in tandem and fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the use of armadillo-grown M. leprae for skin testing and other purposes in man. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:93527

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H(1) NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5??), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water?:?methanol?:?glacial acetic acid (65?:?34?:?1?v/v). The flow rate was 1.0?mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310?nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617?min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2-10??g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  13. Chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiappan, K; Manoharan, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive efficacy and anti-lipid peroxidative potential of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Mammary tumors were developed by a single subcutaneous injection of 25 mg DMBA in 1 mL emulsion of sunflower oil and physiological saline. The tumor incidence and tumor volume that formed in the breast were determined. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of J. grandiflorum flowers (JgEt) at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks to DMBA-injected animals completely prevented the formation of tumors in the pre-initiation period. JgEt also exerted significant anti-lipid peroxidative effect and improved the antioxidant defense system in DMBA-treated rats. The results of this study clearly indicate that JgEt has potent chemopreventive efficacy in experimental mammary carcinogenesis and further studies are warranted to isolate and characterize the bioactive principle from JgEt. PMID:16313281

  14. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  15. Red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) isoflavones extract on the pain threshold of normal and ovariectomized rats--a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Vishali, Nagarajan; Kamakshi, Krishnaswamy; Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2011-01-01

    Depletion of estrogens occurs in women during menopause, while in experimental animals, oophorectomy is a common method to deplete the animals of their gonadal hormones. Recently, phytoestrogens derived from plants have been tried as estrogen substitutes during menopause. In the present study an isoflavones methanol extract from red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) was administered orally (500?mg/kg of body weight) to ovariectomized (OVX) and normal (controls) rats for 90 and 180 days. Their pain threshold was monitored using tail flicking and formalin test methods. Observations showed that the OVX rat pain threshold was reduced due to estrogen deprivation, whereas the pain threshold levels in OVX rats treated with isoflavones extract was similar to the control animals. The present study demonstrated the influence of phytoestrogen on long-term OVX rats in pain perception in the absence of ovarian estrogen and without toxic side effects. However, the actions of gonadal hormones on nociceptive axis are myriad and complex, so further studies on the exact physiological mechanism of the phytoestrogen action on nociceptive axis is warranted. PMID:20623592

  16. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  17. A comparative experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Premna obtusifolia Linn and Premna latifolia Roxb leaves in Charles foster rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Harshitha; Shrikanth, P.; Chaithra; Pushpan, Reshmi; Nishteswar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia. PMID:23284207

  18. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  19. Therapeutic effects of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on the changes associated with collagen and glycosaminoglycan metabolism in adjuvant arthritic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2006-07-25

    The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease with reference to collagen metabolism. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant containing 10mg of heat killed mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 ml paraffin oil (0.1 ml) into the left hind paw of the rat intradermally. After 14 days of induction, SA (150 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally by gastric intubations for 14 days. Decreased levels of collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGS) components (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate, hyaluronic acid) and increase in the levels of connective tissue degrading lysosomal glycohydrolases such as acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetyl glucosaminidase and cathepsin-D observed in arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels upon treatment with SA. The drug effectively regulated the uriniray markers of collagen metabolism namely hexosamine, hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and total GAGS. Electron microscopic studies also revealed the protective effect of SA. Hence, it can be suggested that SA very effectively regulate the collagen metabolism that derange during arthritic condition. PMID:16797506

  20. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  1. Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).

    PubMed

    Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

    2015-04-15

    Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

  2. The protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via upregulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Li, Li; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Bilehal, Dinesh; Li, Wei; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kim, Yong-Ho

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potentially protective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. extract (CLE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 50 or 100mg/kg of CLE or 100mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) for 14 days before CCl4 administration. In addition, the CLE control group was pretreated with 100mg/kg CLE for only 14 days. Three hours after the final treatment, a single dose of CCl4 (20mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally to each group. After the completion of this phase of the experiment, food and water were removed 12 h prior to the next step. The rats were then anesthetized by urethane and their blood and liver were collected. It was observed that the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities of the serum, and the hepatic malondialdehyde levels had significantly decreased in the CLE group when compared with the CCl4-treated group. The antioxidant activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, in addition to glutathione content, had increased considerably in the CLE group compared with the CCl4-treated group. Phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, were found to have significantly increased in the CLE group as opposed to the CCl4-treated group. The content of Nrf2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreated CLE increased the level of nuclear translocated Nrf2, and the Nrf2 then increased the activity of the antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. These results indicate that CLE has protective effects against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, via activities of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes, and through the activation of nuclear translocated Nrf2. PMID:20890099

  3. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  4. Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

    2013-07-01

    Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

  5. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

  6. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRX?39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  7. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?µg?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

  9. Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-01-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  10. Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna

    2012-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

  11. An Antioxidant potential of Hingot and Hadjod.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Priyanka; Vijayvergia, R

    2009-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of two plants - Hadjod i.e. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) and Hingot i.e. Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) was determined by the thiocyanate method. The antioxidant activity of both the plants increased with increasing amount of extract (200 g-1000 g) added to the linoleic emulsion. The ethanolic extract of CQ was more effective than the other. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power was also dependent upon the concentration. The ethanolic extract of BA shows more reducing power than the other. The result obtained in the present study indicates that the both the plants are potential source of natural antioxidants. In addition, we could suggest that although the reducing power of a substance may be an indicator of its potential antioxidant activity, there is not necessarily a linear correlation between these two activities. PMID:25206251

  12. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

  13. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  14. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2012-09-26

    The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 ?g/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation as a natural anticancer and cancer-preventive agent. PMID:22946656

  16. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  17. Marissa Linne Current Address: Contact Information

    E-print Network

    Daly, Samantha

    Chemistry · Biomechanics Fall 2009 ­ Spring 2013 Atomic Structure of Matter · Electronic, Magnetic for the various layers and coated substrates with these solutions via dip coating machinery Analyzed the effect dispersions to make indirect transfer belt (ITB) film samples Tested various fluorinated surfactants

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF VITEX TRIFOLIA Linn

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, V.; Doss, A.; Doss, A. Pichai Anthoni

    2004-01-01

    Vitex trifolia (Local name - Nirnocchi, sirunocchi) is well known for its medicinal property. The present investigation encompasses evaluation of antibacterial potential of Vitex trifolia against certain pathogenic bacterial strains. Preliminary phytochemical studies were also made and results are given. PMID:22557139

  19. In vitro multiplication in Kaempferia galanga linn.

    PubMed

    Swapna, T S; Binitha, M; Manju, T S

    2004-01-01

    Kaempferia galanga is an important medicinal plant that is facing threat of extinction owing to indiscriminate and unsustainable harvesting in the wild. Conventional breeding is difficult in this plant, and in vitro multiplication is important to conservation and propagation. Leaf and rhizome explants of Kaempferia were aseptically cultured on MS medium with various combinations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purine (BAP), napthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2-4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L. High-frequency organogenesis and multiple shoot regeneration was induced from rhizome explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L of IAA and 2.5 mg/L of BAP. Rooting was induced in MS medium with 0.5 mg/L of IAA and 2 mg/L of BAP. PMID:15304752

  20. Linn Parish April 24th, 2014

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    -District Consortium of major players hopes to open facility in '16 ---Mike McLean This former Peirone Produce Co will be chosen soon, says WSU Spokane Chancellor Lisa Brown. Brown says the group plans to present the envisioned the Spokane River. The warehouse would be torn down to make way for the clinic. Brown says some predesign work

  1. Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Thakur; S. A. Mengi

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Eclipta alba for sedative, muscle-relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress activities. The hydrolyzed fraction of the aqueous extract was also subjected to similar studies in rats. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were administered in a dose of 150 and 300mg\\/kg, p.o., while

  2. Neuropharmacological profile of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Thakur, V D; Mengi, S A

    2005-10-31

    The present study deals with the investigation of standardized and phytochemically evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the plant Eclipta alba for sedative, muscle-relaxant, anxiolytic, nootropic and anti-stress activities. The hydrolyzed fraction of the aqueous extract was also subjected to similar studies in rats. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were administered in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o., while the hydrolyzed fraction was administered in a dose of 30 mg/kg, p.o. The findings indicated nootropic activity of the aqueous extract (300 mg/kg, p.o.) and its hydrolyzed fraction (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The effect of the extracts on stress-induced alterations was evaluated. The aqueous extract and the hydrolyzed fraction provided protection against cold restraint induced gastric ulcer formation and also normalized the white blood cell count in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The hydroalcoholic extract on the other hand demonstrated a significant effect only in the milk induced leukocytosis challenge model. The results point towards the potential neuropharmacological activity of the plant Eclipta alba as a nootropic and also having the property of attenuating stress induced alterations. Further neurochemical investigations can unravel the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to nootropic activity and help to establish the plant in the armamentarium of nootropic agents. PMID:16054316

  3. Effects of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai Medicinal Plant, on the Mutagenicity of Various Known Mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by the Colon Carcinogens Azoxymethane and 2Amino1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine in F344 rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Chewonarin; T Kinouchi; K Kataoka; H Arimochi; T Kuwahara; U Vinitketkumnuen; Y Ohnishi

    1999-01-01

    The 80% ethanol extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a medicinal plant in Thailand, was examined for antimutagenic and chemopreventive activity in a colon carcinogenesis model. It reduced about 60–90% of the mutagenicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and other heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ),2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline(MeIQx),3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2),2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1),2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), at a concentration of 12.5mg\\/plate in the Salmonella mutation assay. The

  4. Biomaterials in periodontal osseous defects

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Nand; Dixit, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Osseous defects in periodontal diseases require osseous grafts and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using barrier membranes. The present study was undertaken with the objectives to clinically evaluate the osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA), cissus quadrangularis (CQ), and oxidized cellulose membrane (OCM) and compare with normal bone healing. Materials and Methods Twenty subjects with periodontitis in the age group ranging from 20 years to 40 years were selected from our outpatient department on the basis of presence of deep periodontal pockets, clinical probing depth ?5 mm, vertical osseous defects obvious on radiograph and two- or three-walled involvement seen on surgical exposure. Infrabony defects were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of treatment to be executed, such that each group comprised 5 defects. Group I was control, II received HA, III received CQ and IV received OCM. Probing depth and attachment level were measured at regular months after surgery. Defects were re-exposed using crevicular incisions at 6 months. Results There was gradual reduction in the mean probing pocket depth in all groups, but highly significant in the site treated with HA. Gain in attachment level was higher in sites treated with HA, 3.2 mm at 6 months. Conclusion Hydroxyapatite and OCM showed good reduction in pocket depth, attachment level gain and osseous defect fill. Further study should be conducted by using a combination of HA and OCM in periodontal osseous defects with growth factors and stem cells.

  5. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  6. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  7. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control. PMID:23054800

  8. Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sekou; Jäger, Anna K; Adsersen, Anne; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2007-04-01

    Extracts of five medicinal plants: Boscia angustifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longipedunculata, Stylosanthes erecta and Trichilia emetica, used traditionally in Malian traditional medicine were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activity. Four extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activities, with the dichloromethane extract of leaf of Securidaca longipedunculata being the most active (IC(50) of 7 microg/ml [95% CI: 5-9]). The dichloromethane extract of leaf of Trichilia emetica, in addition to its antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 12 microg/ml [95% CI: 12-14]), exhibited a good binding activity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor, while water and methanol extracts of the same plant did not show any activity. A strong GABA(A)-receptor complex binding activity was observed in the methanol extract of aerial part of Stylosanthes erecta. The results in this study justify some of the traditional indications of the plants investigated and may thus be candidates for Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. PMID:17126508

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Niono District, Mali.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Dembélé, Seydou; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2006-05-24

    In Mali the use of traditional medicine is a wide spread phenomenon, not only because of its cultural importance, but also as the majority of people cannot afford the western drugs or medicines. In Mali, the Office du Niger area constitutes the main zone of schistosomiasis transmission where both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium are encountered. An ethnopharmacological survey, using questionnaire, was conducted in the Office du Niger area of the Niono District to determine the plants used against schistosomiasis amongst traditional healers. Forty healers from 21 villages of six different health areas were interviewed. All interviewed healers knew about urinary schistosomiasis, while only six knew about the intestinal form. The presence of blood in urine was reported as the main symptom of urinary schistosomiasis. Fifty-five plants belonging to 30 families were reported to be used alone for treating urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, while nine combinations of plants were used against the urinary form of the disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Stylosanthes erecta were the plants most frequently used and were reported for the first time, to be used against schistosomiasis in Mali. PMID:16414223

  10. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

  11. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Vats; J. K Grover; S. S Rathi

    2002-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous (Aq) extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) and alcoholic (Alc) extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (FG) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) was investigated in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The Aq extract of PM (1 g\\/kg PO) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32±5.62 to 61.35±1.2 mg%

  12. A Habit of the Common Periwinkle (littorina littorea Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Wilson

    1929-01-01

    AN interesting habit of the common periwinkle, Littorina littorea Linnæus, which does not appear to have been recorded by previous writers, is worthy of some attention. On boulder-strewn shores, such as that at Penrhyn Bay, North Wales, where these observations were made, this species may occur in enormous numbers at and below the half-tide level in situations devoid of the

  13. The common periwinkle, Littorina littorea , Linne, attracted by sugars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard G. Woodbridge

    1978-01-01

    Summary In its natural habitat this marine snail was found to be very strongly attracted to an agar gel containing glucose. Sucrose and galactose were less but about equally attractive; manose barely attractive and fructose and manitol not attractive.

  14. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

    2014-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

  15. Antiulcer Activity of Indigenous Plant Operculina turpethum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Vidya; Narayanan, Madhusudhanan; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Periyasamy, Balasubramanian Maruthaiveeran

    2013-01-01

    In the Indian traditional system of medicine Operculina turpethum is commonly used to treat various ailments including peptic ulcer, inflammation, and pain. Ulcer preventive and ulcer protective activities of HAOP and MOP stem bark extracts of Operculina turpethum (100?mg/kg, b.w., orally) were evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) model in experimental rats. The results suggested that both extracts (HAOP and MOP) possess enhanced ulcer preventive and protective activities when compared with the standard drug ranitidine. HAOP showed more pronounced effect when compared to MOP. Further the result of the histopathological and biochemical studies also confirms potent ulcer preventive and protective nature of a extracts in a similar manner. PMID:23476683

  16. The life-history of Chenopodium album Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Bhargava

    1936-01-01

    Centrospermales. Historical. Hegelmaler (1855) observed a free nuclear endosperm in Salsola kali and Kochia scoparia. Fischer (1880) stated that in Chenopodium fvetidum the development of the embryo sac is of the normal type. Cohn (1914) and Romell (1919) found the same in Atriplex hortensis and S~lsola kali respectively. Sou6ges (1920) made a thorough study of the development of the embryo

  17. Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navdeep; Kaur, Sarabjit; Bedi, P M S; Kaur, Divneet

    2011-05-01

    The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract. PMID:21615059

  18. A new flavonol glycoside from the Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Haibing; Liu, Huixin; Yuan, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. belonging to the family Malvaceae is a kind of one year herbage plant, which is one of the most important vegetables widely grown in Nigeria for its tender fruits and young leaves. It's easy to be cultivated and grows well in both tropical and temperate zones, that is, it is widely planted from Africa to Asia, South European to America. A new flavonol glycoside characterized as 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy-4??-O-methyl flavonol -3-O-?-D- glucopyranoside (1) has been isolated from the fruit of A. esculentus together with one known compound 5,7,3?,4?-tetrahydroxy flavonol -3-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including 2-D NMR and mass (MS) spectra. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The present work deals with the isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of the two compounds. Materials and Methods: The compounds were isolated by Diaion HP-20, Sephedex LH-20 column chromatography methods, their structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated by two assays, e.g., DPPH and FRAP. Results: Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated from the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus L. for the first time, and the compound 1 was a new compound, the compound 2 was isolated from the plant for the first time. Conclusion: The results show that the two flavonol glycosides have strong ability for scavenging DPPH and FRAP free radical by the experiment of antioxidant activities, so A. esculentus may be a natural antioxidants resource. PMID:22438657

  19. HPTLC and antibacterial analysis of extracts of Cressa cretica Linn.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, G; Sripathy, Shubashini K; Manian, K

    2008-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine are potential sources of new biologically active compounds many of them with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Plants can serve as a source of model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modification (Balandrin et al., 1993). Potential natural and synthetic substances with biocidal activity are considered candidates for developing new drugs for treatment of various chronic as well as infectious diseases. In the present investigation, HPTLC analysis is carried out with the various extracts of Cressa cretica L. to identify the number of phytoconstituents and their antibacterial activity is also tested. PMID:22557271

  20. Anatomical features and histological studies on Cressa cretica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, G.; Sripathy, K. Shubashini; Manian, K.

    2007-01-01

    The major diagnostic characters and histological studies on the leaf, root and stem of Cressa cretica L. has been reported in this paper. Literature survey showed the absence of any systematic authentication of this plant. PMID:22557257

  1. HPTLC and antibacterial analysis of extracts of Cressa cretica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, G.; Sripathy, Shubashini K.; Manian, K.

    2008-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine are potential sources of new biologically active compounds many of them with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Plants can serve as a source of model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modification (Balandrin et al., 1993). Potential natural and synthetic substances with biocidal activity are considered candidates for developing new drugs for treatment of various chronic as well as infectious diseases. In the present investigation, HPTLC analysis is carried out with the various extracts of Cressa cretica L. to identify the number of phytoconstituents and their antibacterial activity is also tested. PMID:22557271

  2. Anatomical features and histological studies on Cressa cretica Linn.

    PubMed

    Suganthi, G; Sripathy, K Shubashini; Manian, K

    2007-07-01

    The major diagnostic characters and histological studies on the leaf, root and stem of Cressa cretica L. has been reported in this paper. Literature survey showed the absence of any systematic authentication of this plant. PMID:22557257

  3. Studies on endosperm culture of Annona squamosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreelata Nair; M. V. Shirgurkar; A. F. Mascarenhas

    1986-01-01

    Mature endosperm tissue excised from germinated seeds (2–4 days after radicle emergence) of Annona squamosa grew and proliferated on White's basal medium supplemented with two cytokinins, an auxin and gibberellic acid. The callus obtained could be periodically subcultured. Shoot differentiation and root induction were obtained from callus on media of different compositions. Analyses of the root and young leaf tips

  4. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

    2014-12-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

  5. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, H. K. Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M. B. V.

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  6. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H K Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M B V

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  7. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, A Sajeli; Verma, Shweta; Sahai, Mahendra; Schneider, Kathrin; Süssmuth, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant. PMID:19401911

  8. Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sajeli Begum; Shweta Verma; Mahendra Sahai; Kathrin Schneider; Roderich Süssmuth

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant.

  9. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Anoop; Singh, Vijender

    2013-01-01

    Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula are traditionally important medicinal plants. Stem barks of these plants have not been much explored for their potential hypoglycemic and oxidative stress conditions. The main aim of present study was to evaluate antidiabetic activity along with renal complications and antioxidant potential of alcoholic extracts of stem barks of these plants. Alcoholic extracts of stem barks of Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula were evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum albumin, total protein and creatinine were studied. Antioxidant potential in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods were evaluated. Acute toxicity studies were carried out to establish the safety of the drugs according to OECD guidelines. There was a significant decrease in blood glucose level in diabetic rats treated with the alcoholic extracts of both plants. Serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, serum albumin, total proteins and body weight were recovered to normal levels at the end of the studies. Alcoholic extract of stem bark of both plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical induced in vitro assay methods. Acute toxicity studies with the extracts of both plants showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p.o. It can be concluded from the study that Tamarindus indica and Cassia fistula stem barks possess blood glucose lowering effect along with antioxidant effect and protective effect on renal complications associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:24383324

  10. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination ofCurcumin fromCurcuma longa, Linn, and partially purified product fromAbroma augusta, Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halim Eshrat; M. Ali Hussain

    2002-01-01

    Dietary spice components of Curcuma longa and Abroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination . The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral administration (300 mg \\/ Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose

  11. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account. PMID:17040567

  12. Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prakash Veeru; Mishra Pankaj Kishor; Mishra Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    The methanolic crude extracts of Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.), Eclipta alba (Linn.) Ocimum sanctum (Linn.), Piper longum (Linn.), Solanum nigrum (Linn.) and Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of D. gangeticum was found to

  13. ANDREW SOLOMON 123 North Linn Street Suite 2C Iowa City, Iowa 52245

    E-print Network

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    humanity. His latest work, Far From the Tree: Parents, Children & the Search for Identity, received York and London. "I do not say this often or lightly, [Far From the Tree] is a book of genius." - Tom From the Tree as one of the Ten Best Books of 2012, praising it as "a book everyone should read

  14. Mechanical properties of cumin seed ( Cuminum cyminum linn.) under compressive loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Singh; T. K. Goswami

    1998-01-01

    The moisture dependent mechanical properties of cumin seed were measured in terms of average compressive force, seed rupture force, deformation and energy absorbed. The cumin seeds in the moisture content range of 7 to 22% d.b. were quasi-statically loaded in the horizontal and vertical orientations. The force increased with increasing deformation and decreasing moisture content in the horizontal and vertical

  15. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  16. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-10-01

    One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810

  17. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sudhakar Johnson; Nalini Eswaran; M. Sujatha

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted\\u000a to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible\\u000a oil supplies.

  18. Energy metabolism in the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linn: Comparisons with temperate abalone species

    E-print Network

    Donovan, Deborah

    capacities for aerobic or anaerobic metabolism. The blood oxygen transport system of H. asinina resembles in aerated seawater, and there is no significant ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis or phosphagen to the additional inputs from anaerobic glycolysis required by other abalone. Metabolic profiles of foot

  19. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    PubMed

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap. PMID:25694681

  20. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation. PMID:22557354

  1. Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Rao, Sunder; Lal, Shiv

    2004-08-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica, commonly known as 'Railway creeper', was carried out against the larvae of four vector species of mosquitoes in order to evaluate its mosquito larvicidal effect. Bioassay test revealed that the essential oil of the plant possess remarkable larvicidal properties as it could induce 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (100 ppm), Aedes aegypti (120 ppm), Anopheles stephensi (120 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus (170 ppm) mosquitoes at concentrations rangeing from 100 to 170 ppm. The LC(50) and LC(90) values estimated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 14.8 and 78.3, 22.3 and 92.7, 14.9 and 109.9, and 58.9 and 161.6 ppm, respectively. The essential oil was found to be most highly toxic to the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus followed by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. PMID:15329451

  2. VARIABILITY AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN ROSE COLOURED LEADWORT (PLUMBAGO ROSEA Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Alice; Anitha, C.A.; Nybe, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Forty five plumbago rosea accessions collected from different parts of Kerala state were evaluated for variability in morphological and yield related characters and plumbagin content. Highly significant variation was evident for all the characters studied except leaf size indicating wide variability in the accessions. Accessions PR 25 and PR 31 appear to be promising with respect to root yield and high plumbagin content. Character association revelated significant and positive correlation of all the characters except leaf size with yield. Hence, selection of high yielding types could easily be done based on visual characters expressing more vegetative growth but with reduced leaf size. PMID:22557037

  3. Effects of the flower extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. On the meristematic cells of Allium Cepa

    PubMed Central

    Latha, P.G.; Chandralekha, C.T.; Vilasini, G.; Panikkar, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea was evaluated for its cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the meristematic cells of onion root tip. The percentage of abnormalities was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of the extract from 20 to 60 mg/ml. With 80 mg/ml completed arrest or total inhibition of cell division was observed. The major abnormalities were unprinted chromosomes at metaphase. Stickiness and clumping of chromosomes were induced by higher concentrations of the extract. Sticky anaphase bridges and formation of micronuclei were induced at the highest concentration (80mg/ml) tried. The significance of these abnormalities is discussed in detail. The results point to the potential use of the aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea in the chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:22556853

  4. Estimating Haplotype-Disease Associations With Pooled Genotype D. Zeng and D.Y. Linn

    E-print Network

    Lin, Danyu

    Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. The corresponding maximum likelihood estimators are approximately-environment interactions; haplotype analysis; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; linkage disequilibrium; maximum likelihood

  5. Seabuckthorn(Hippophae Linn. sps.) - A potential Resource for Biodiversity conservation in Nepal Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sahim Ansari

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) berry is very rich source of vitamins and it possesses a number of unique medicinal properties, which have a great potential to provide health-foods & a variety of medicines. However, despite rich under exploited potential, Nepal is yet to harness the rich potential of Seabuckthorn in producing foods, medicines, juices, and other cosmetic products where as countries

  6. Influence of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandflorum linn flower on wound healing activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B S; Mohan, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    The influence of flower extract of Jasminum grandiflorum was studied for its wound healing activity at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, using excision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were divided into three groups in excision wound model, the controls (n=10) were treated with 0.25% CM cellulose, reference standard (n=10) were treated with sulfathiazole ointment and the experimental (n=10) were treated with extract of J. grandiflorum flower till complete epithelialization. The animals in dead space wound models were divided into two groups, controls were given plain drinking water and the experimental animals were administered with extract orally for 10 days. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as compared to controls. Extract-treated rats exhibited 65% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls (54%). The wet and dry granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on day 10 from the extract-treated group showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells when compared to controls which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibres and fibroblasts. The. demonstration of increased rate of wound contraction together with the biochemical and histological findings suggest the use of J. grandiflorum flower extract in the management of wound healing. PMID:18175666

  7. Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Adya Prasad; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) are in clinical use in Ayurveda for wound management. Since, oxidative stress and inflammation are the primary causes in delayed wound healing, so here its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated using in vitro as well as in vivo models. The solvent-free methanolic extract of dried leaves of JG were tested for its trapping capacity toward pre-generated ABTS•+ radicals, instantly generated superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, along with metal chelation property, reducing power and total phenolic content. Further, it was tested on LPS-induced nitric oxide and cell viability, on primary culture of rat peritoneal macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory property was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. This extract significantly inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and trapped ABTS•+, superoxide and OH radicals. It significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release, without affecting the cell viability at 800 ?g/ml concentration and reduced the formation of paw edema in rats. Thus, it could be suggested that the aforesaid anti-inflammatory properties of JG leaves are associated to its high phenolic content (2.25±0.105 mg/l of gallic acid equivalent), reducing power and its free radical-scavenging property. PMID:21701798

  8. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ling A, I; Sulaiman, S; Othman, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. Methods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R) 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Results: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h–189.19 h and 14.90 h–2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h–181.73 h and 5.4 h–8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h–381.02 h and 28.71 h–5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen (R) at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h–9.47 h for the females, 1.47 h–4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h–8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Conclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana. PMID:22808375

  9. Effect of Aloe (Aloe vera Linn.) on Healthy Adult Volunteers: Changes in Urinary Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukachart Kirdpon; Wichit Kirdpon; Wanchai Airarat

    Objective: 1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation.

  10. VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (LINN.) NASH A MULTIPURPOSE ECO-FRIENDLY GRASS OF INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Rao; M. R. Suseela

    Vetiveria zizanioides is popularly known as Khas Khas, Khas or Khus grass in India. It is a densely tufted grass, found throughout the plains and lower hills of India, particularly on the riverbanks and in rich marshy soil. Vetiver has been known to India since ancient times. It has been considered as a high- class perfume and copper plate inscriptions

  11. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

  12. Micropropagation of black pepper ( Piper nigrum Linn.) through shoot tip cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Philip; Dominic Joseph; G. S. Triggs; N. M. Dickinson

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The morphogenetic potential of shoot tip explants of black pepper (Piper nigrum) was investigated and an effective multiple-shoot propagation method is described. Various combinations of media, growth regulators and sterilization treatments were compared. Problems with establishment in tissue culture sometimes occurred, probably caused by endogenous pathogens associated with tissue exudates. The best establishment and proliferation of shoot tip explants was

  13. Alterations in enzymes in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.), exposed to vanadium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chakraborty; S. Bhattacharjee; M. Chatterjee

    1995-01-01

    The increase in air and water borne concentrations of vanadium, a physiologically and pharmacologically active substance, has caused renewed interest in the toxicology of this metal. Toxicity studies of vanadium on fish are comparatively scarce. Cytochrome P-450 monoxygenases and conjugating enzymes are important in fish metabolism and elimination of endogenous as well as foreign lipophilic compounds. These enzymes are also

  14. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200?mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  15. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano. PMID:19783523

  16. RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  17. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

  18. Identification of major aroma compounds in the leaf of Morinda citrifolia Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett J. West; Bing-nan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make\\u000a hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects\\u000a of processing on the content of the major aroma compounds, volatile oils were collected from samples

  19. Neuromuscular effects and acute toxicity of an ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia Linn.

    PubMed

    Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Nascimento, N R F; Sousa, C M; Melo, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Rocha, M F G

    2004-06-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia (EASa), with validated anthelmintic activity, was evaluated for its acute toxicity and general effects in albino Swiss mice and for neuromuscular relaxant activity in the frog sciatic-gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis preparation. The extract induced a dose-related myotonia and muscular paralysis of rapid onset at higher doses. The calculated LD50 after oral and intraperitoneal administration was 345.9 [241.4-484.7] mg/kg and 60.8 [47.4-80] mg/kg, respectively. In broilers, intramuscular injection of EASa-induced spastic paralysis qualitatively similar to that obtained after succinylcholine administration and contrasting to the flaccid paralysis induced by D-tubocurarine. The contraction elicited by direct stimulation of the gastrocnemius was blocked by EASa by 54.3+/-4.7% (IC50 = 21.4 [11.2-35.8] microg/ml) and the twitches evoked by stimulation of the sciatic nerve were blocked by 69.1+/-7.4% (IC50 = 17.9 [4.5-34.23] microg/ml). EASa also blocked acetylcholine-induced contractions in the frog rectus abdominis by 58.6+/-7.4% (IC50 = 7.4 [1.7-15.28] microg/ml) but did not decrease tonic contractions induced by a high-potassium Ringer solution. In summary, the ethyl acetate extract of Spigelia anthelmia induces tonic paralysis in vivo, and decreases amplitudes of twitches and increases tonus of skeletal muscle in vitro. PMID:15138009

  20. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Spigelia anthelmia Linn. extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Assis, L M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Morais, S M; Vieira, L S; Costa, C T C; Souza, J A L

    2003-11-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plants as alternative sources of anthelmintics. Spigelia anthelmia extracts obtained with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate or methanol, were tested on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae via egg hatch and larval development tests. The extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 3.1, 6.2, 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg ml(-1). At 50.0 mg ml(-1), the ethyl acetate extract inhibited 100% of the egg hatching and 81.2% of the larval development. In a similar way the methanolic extract inhibited 97.4% of the egg hatching and 84.4% of larval development. These results suggest that utilization of S. anthelmia extracts may be useful in the control of sheep and goats gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:14597278

  1. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  2. Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Van Joseph

    1980-01-01

    that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

  3. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

  4. Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linn)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linné) et!xGOT et al., 1976) nous avions décrit cette variabilité intraspécifique chez la Truite Fario (Salmo trutta la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) II. - Effet du génotype du milieu d'élevage et de

  5. Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linn)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linné) et objet l'estimation de la variabilité génétique de ce caractère chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta Linné la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo Gairdneri, Richardson) III. - Effet du génotype et de la taille des

  6. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  7. Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

  8. Analysis of the origin of Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense (Linn.), by protein electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Collier, Glen Eldon

    1971-01-01

    of Johnson grass was investigated by means of protein slectrophorssis. Insoluble PUP snd a reducing agent, such as Cleland's reagent, were found to be required in the extraction buffer to insure the recovery of active enzymes from sorghum grain extracts.... MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant Materials. Extraction Electrophoresis. RESULTS. Extraction. Electrophoresis DISCUSSION. Extraction Electrophoresis. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. LITERATURE CITED. VITA. iv vi 9 9 13 15 15 28 36 36 38 41 42 46...

  9. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. PMID:19320637

  10. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  11. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-?B p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  12. A new 28-noroleanane triterpenoid from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Ayub, Anjum; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2010-08-01

    A new 28-norolean-12,17-diene triterpene lantigdienone (1) oxidised at C-11 and C-22 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with two known compounds, camarinin (2) and camangeloyl acid (3). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[beta,betadimethylacryloyloxy]-11-oxo-28-norolean-12,17-diene, with the help of spectral studies. PMID:20645209

  13. Food, Glorious Food Mary-Slater Linn & Jeffrey Nystuen with Chef Chandra Longsaravane getting ready to

    E-print Network

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A.

    the ingredients, the sequence of cooking, and I wanted to get photographs. I took my turn at the wok, but Mary still thought stewed vegetables with beef would be good. Ok. It turned out that the beef stew was HIS favorite dish, and he ate most of it when the time came to consume. With the menu set, we headed

  14. Mosquito larvicidal activity of gluanol acetate, a tetracyclic triterpenes derived from Ficus racemosa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj

    2008-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf and bark\\u000a of Ficus racemosa (Moraceae) was assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects;\\u000a however, the highest larval mortality was found in

  15. Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

    2014-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

  16. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats. PMID:23798886

  17. Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Prese nce of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Chauhan; M. J. Joshi; A. D. B. Vaidya

    Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrol ithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a se rious, debilitating problem in all societies throug hout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH) is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi). Struvite sto nes are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as

  18. Antimicrobial activity of new phorbins from Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Cariño, Flerida A

    2011-01-01

    The crude methanol extract of Jatropha curcas leaves exhibited activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium phlei, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes but was inactive against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a bioassay-directed fractionation, two new phorbins were isolated and analysed by spectroscopic methods. Isolate 1 was characterized as an analogue of pheophytin b with a phytyl moiety containing three double bonds which are at positions P2/P3, P6/P7, and P10/P11. Compound 2 was characterized as methyl pheophorbide a with 132-OH and 17- and 17(1)-CH3 moieties. It is active against Serratia marcescens. PMID:22191207

  19. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  20. Effects of textile dye stuff effluent on food utilization of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, M; Sampath, K

    1989-12-01

    Dye stuff effluent at 15% caused 100% mortality within 24 hr; 96 hr LC50 value being 10% concentration. Prolonged exposure of C. carpio to chosen sublethal concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 or 9%) reduced the food intake and increased the maintenance cost. Exposure also caused significant reduction in growth rate and conversion efficiency; these values averaged to 11 mg/g/day and 28% in the control group (0% concentration) respectively and decreased to 0.8 mg/g/day and 4% respectively at 9% concentration. PMID:2633962

  1. Germ-cell origin in the adult caecilian Ichthyophis glutinosus (Linn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Seshachar

    1937-01-01

    In Ichthyophis glutinosus, no residual spermatogonia traceable to primordial germ cells of the embryo are seen, the primary spermatogonia of each season being formed afresh. Their only source so far as the adult is concerned, is the lining of the collecting duct and its numerous branches which ramify in the testis. No evidences of their origin from the surface epithelial

  2. Chemical components and biological activities of volatile oil of Kaempferia galanga Linn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supinya Tewtrakul; Supreeya Yuenyongsawad; Sopa Kummee

    Volatile oil of dried rhizome of Kaempferia galanga obtained by water distillation was determined for its chemical components using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major chemical constituents were identified as ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (31.77%), methylcinnamate (23.23%), carvone (11.13%), eucalyptol (9.59%) and pentadecane (6.41%), respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil was tested against various microbes using agar disc diffusion method

  3. Successful plant regeneration from callus cultures of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Patra; B. Rai; G. R. Rout; P. Das

    1998-01-01

    A successful procedure was established for in vitro plant regeneration from callus derived from stem and leaf explants of Centella asiatica on semisolid modified Murashige and Skoog's [7] medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L3 kinetin and 4.0 mg L3 a-naphthaleneacetic acid. The rate of shoot-bud regeneration was the highest (42.8 and 54.3 shoots\\/culture in stem and leaf derived callus respectively)

  4. In vitro propagation of Acorus calamus Linn.--a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Rani, A S; Subhadra, V V; Reddy, V D

    2000-07-01

    High frequency in vitro propagation protocol was standardized from rhizome explants of A. calamus. Maximum shoot multiplication frequency was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's media supplemented with 4 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine and 0.5 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were rooted in vitro or directly transferred to sterile soil and well developed roots were observed within two weeks. The rooted plants were successfully established in the field. PMID:11215319

  5. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. PMID:21584678

  6. Hypoglycemic activity of Cassia javanica Linn. in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumavat, Urmila C.; Shimpi, Shraddha N.; Jagdale, Sandesh P.

    2012-01-01

    In present work, one of the ornamentals and medicinally less known plant Cassia javanica has been explored for hypoglycemic potential. It aimed to check the hypoglycemic effect of C. javanica leaves on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by acute and sub-acute studies. Prior to the hypoglycemic study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed. Later, the effects of single and multiple doses of test drug were studied using various parameters. Dried powdered leaf material was used as an oral drug. The preliminary phytochemistry of drug was done by standard qualitative tests. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Single and multiple doses of test drug (0.5 g/kg body weight/day) were given to normal and diabetic rats. The parameters studied were blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, and serum proteins. The results of test drug were compared with standard hypoglycemic drug-glibenclamide (0.01 g/kg/day). Statistical analysis was done by ‘Student's ‘t’ test’ and one way ANOVA test. In preliminary phytochemistry, antidiabetic compounds were detected. Unlike acute, subacute treatment of test drug showed highly significant reduction (37.62%) in blood glucose level of diabetic rats in ten days. This effect was considerably good in comparison with standard drug (63.51%). The test drug and standard drug exhibited insignificant change in the abnormal levels of serum metabolites of diabetic rats. Preclinically, C. javanica was proved to be effective hypoglycemic agent. PMID:22470893

  7. Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2014-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-?-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group. PMID:24666370

  8. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  9. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

  10. Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

  11. Analgesic studies on total alkaloids and alcohol extracts of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Mahesh; Isaac, Jolly C; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2004-02-01

    A variety of analgesics are used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in different disease states. A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that does not cause respiratory depression and addiction is needed. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing analgesic properties (e.g. Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraj, Methika, Palandu and Prasikayavani). The present experimental research work was undertaken to determine the analgesic activity of the total ethanol extract of Eclipta alba, and also the isolated alkaloids of Eclipta alba in albino mice by using standard experimental models such as the tail clip method, the tail flick method and the acetic acid induced writhing response. The results from this study show that both the ethanol extract as well as the total alkaloids produce good analgesic activity in all the different models of analgesia used. The total alkaloidal fraction was the most efficacious in all models tested. PMID:15022160

  12. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  13. Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn

    PubMed Central

    Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 ?M acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

  14. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Castellaro

    2008-01-01

    CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 68:136-145 (APRIL-JUNE 2008) A B S T R A C T The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas) in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid's diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of

  15. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

  16. Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

  17. Experimental Studies of Mimicry in some North American Butterflies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Van Zandt Brower

    1957-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS have been conducted to test the effectiveness of presumed mimicry in two groups of North American butterflies : (1) Danaus plexippus Linn. (model) and Limenitis archippus archippus Cram. (mimic), the monarch and viceroy respectively ; (2) Battus philenor Linn. (model) and Papilio troilus Linn., P. polyxenes Stoll, and P. glaucus Linn. (black female) (mimics).

  18. The recognition of certain parasitic worms in tissue sections

    E-print Network

    Payne, Bobby Joe

    1960-01-01

    reticular connective Cissus of highex' animals, Although similar in structure ~ the too are probably no4 hoxxo logcus snd perhaps noC even snalagous, longitudinal muscles coeur throughout the parenchyma except in the central portion which oon4ains...

  19. MADERA PRESERVADA DE ALAMO (Populus Linn.) COMO MATERIAL DE CONSTRUCCION RESISTENTE AL ATAQUE DE HONGOS E INSECTOS ALAMO (Populus Linn.) PRESERVED WOOD FOR USE AS A STRUCTURAL AND FRAMING TIMBER, RESISTANT TO MUSHROOMS AND INSECTS ATTACK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EEA Santa Cruz

    Windbreaks now occupies around 500 hectares in Santa Cruz province (ARGENTINA). Populus nigra is the most common specie for the purposes of sheltering plantations and livestock by wind. Wood treated with certain preservatives provide high quality material, primarily suited for use as a structural and framing timber. The responses of two poplars woods origins was evaluated. Test of available CCA-C

  20. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Jafri; M Aslam; Kalim Javed; Surender Singh

    2000-01-01

    ‘Gulnar farsi’, male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v\\/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg\\/kg, b.w.

  1. Study of the cytoplasmic effects in the interspecific cross Nicotiana umbraticaBurbidge & N. glutinosaLinn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Subhashini; N. GLUTINOSA LINN

    1974-01-01

    Phenotypic abnormalities such as heteromorphic pollen grains and suppressed terminal vegetative bud were noticed in the polyploids of Nicotiana umbratica-glutinosa which was completely absent in the reciprocal polyploids. This was attributed to the interaction of the cytoplasm of the female parent with the nuclear components of the male parent.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

  3. Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.

    PubMed

    Virani, Nilesh V; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N; Jadeja, D B

    2010-07-01

    Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

  4. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  5. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus. PMID:22042504

  6. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

  7. Glucose lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Linn) Blume in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, T; Ngueguim, F T; Kamtchouing, P; Dongo, E; Tan, P V

    2006-03-01

    The glucose-lowering efficacy of the aqueous stem bark extract of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) was evaluated both in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normoglycemic rats, the single oral administration of the aqueous extract of T. orientalis failed to reduce blood glucose levels while in STZ-diabetic rats, the plant extract (38-300 mg/kg) exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity with a maximum effect of 29.67%, 5 hours after administration of the 75 mg/kg dose when compared with the diabetic untreated group. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in STZ-diabetic rats, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycemic rats. The hypoglycaemic property of T. orientalis was also assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in STZ-diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of T. orientalis and the reference drug, glibenclamide, (10 mg/kg) produced significant blood glucose lowering effects in the diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic controls. One week after repeated administration of T. orientalis extract, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and still remained low after 2 weeks (p < 0.01). The results indicated that T. orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. The present investigation provides pharmacological evidence that the use of this plant extract in traditional medicine for cardiovascular disease can be of benefit particulary in diabetic patients. PMID:16599266

  8. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    PubMed

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P < 0.05. Phytotoxic activity showed that dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05. PMID:24577905

  9. The Efficacy of Roselle (Hibicus Sabdariffa Linn.) Flower Tea as Oral Negative Contrast Agent for MRCP Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vithya Varavithya; Sith Phongkitkarun; Janjira Jatchavala; Supap Ngeonthom; Wutthi Sumetchotimaytha; Vichit Leelasithorn

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of roselle flower tea (RFT) administration as oral negative contrast agent for MRCP study. Material and Method: Roselle flower tea was prepared by packing 4,000 mg of dry ground roselle flower in a tea bag and soaked with 480 ml of hot distilled water. RFT was tested in phantom, volunteer subjects and was studied in

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  11. Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Virani, Nilesh V.; Chandola, H. M.; Vyas, S. N.; Jadeja, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

  12. Research Article EFFICACY OF ANAMIRTA COCCULUS (LINN.) WIGHT AND ARN AND POGOSTEMON PANICULATUS (WILD) BENTH EXTRACT ON CULEX PIPIENS

    E-print Network

    Najeeba M. B; K. P. Santhini; Toxicology Division Department Of Zoology

    ABSTRACT: Acetone extracts of Anamirta cocculus fruit and Pogostemon paniculatus leaf was tested for its larvicidal activity against different instars of Culex pipiens. The data on 24 hr LC50 and LC90 revealed that the acetone extracts of the selected plants have potential larvicidal properties. The LC50 values of the selected plant extracts are dose and time dependent and the data show a three to five fold increase in activity at 72 hr exposure. Total protein content of the different instars of the larvae of Culex pipiens are also estimated by modified Lowry method and result shows no significant differences between the control and treated larvae of Cx. pipiens. The essential oils of the two selected plant materials were extracted and conducted repellency tests. The study concludes that both acetone extracts and essential oils of the selected plant materials showed their potential to be used as biolarvicides especially to control mosquito populations. Key words: Anamirta cocculus, Pogostemon paniculatus larvicidal activity, Culex pipiens

  13. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart. PMID:25241584

  14. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  15. Inhibition of Naja nigricolis (Reinhardt) venom protease activity by Luffa egyptiaca (Mill) and Nicotiana rustica (Linn) extracts.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Aliyu, A B; Abusufiyanu, A; Bashir, M; Sallau, A B

    2011-07-01

    Luffa egyptiaca and Nicotiana rustica are used in traditional medicine to treat snakebites and were evaluated for inhibitory activities on Naja nigricolis venom protease. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of L. egyptiaca significantly reduced the maximum velocity (Vmax) and the computed index of physiological efficiency (Kcat) of the enzyme in a dose dependent fashion. The protease activity was non-competitively inhibited by the aqueous extract of N. rustica with the Vmax significantly decreased and the K(M) remained unchanged. However, the N. rustica ethanol extract completely inhibited the protease activity. Ethyl acetate fractions partitioned from ethanol extracts of both plants were also found to completely inhibit the N. nigricolis venom protease activity at 0.1 and 0.05%. The use of these plants could be important in the treatment of snakebites. PMID:21800507

  16. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock)

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Nishteswar, K.; Nariya, Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedies are preferred much because of lesser side effects and also a lower tendency for habit formation. Pentatropis capensis is such an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug which is popular among folklore remedies for various injuries and inflammatory problems. It is called by the name of K?kan?sik? in Ayurvedic works. This study was designed to investigate the analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of P. capensis leaves (AEPC) in rats. Materials and Methods: AEPC was assessed for Analgesic effect through radiant heat tail-flick model and anti-inflammatory effect through carrageenan-induced paw edema model on Wistar strain of albino rats. Results: Pentatropis capensis leaves aqueous extract showed significant (P < 0.001) increase in the duration of latency of tail flick response at the dose levels of 450 mg/kg, p.o. as compared to the control group. Similarly, the similar dose level produced significant (P < 0.01) anti-inflammatory effect against acute paw edema after 3 h of carrageenan induction when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  17. Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 54 : 101-135 . With 14 figures A generic revision of the Dorvilleidae

    E-print Network

    Jumars, Pete

    , in the Pacific Ocean from the San Diego Trough, the Aleutian Trench, and the abyss near the equator have revealed of the Dorvilleidae (Polychaeta), with six new species from the deep North Pacific PETER A. JUMARS Scripps Institution rudolphi, a species often noted in nearshore pollution studies . Newly described species are Dorviaea batia

  18. Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*

    PubMed Central

    Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

  19. Evaluation of in vitro aldose reductase inhibitory potential of different fraction of Hybanthus enneaspermus Linn F. Muell

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Kumar, R; Kumar, M; Sairam, K; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the aldose reductase inhibitory (ARI) activity of different fractions of Hybanthus enneaspermus for potential use in diabetic cataract. Methods Total phenol and flavonoid content of different fractions was determined. ARI activity of different fractions in rat lens was investigated in vitro. Results The results showed significant level of phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate fraction [total phenol (212.15±0.79 mg/g), total flavonoid (39.11±2.27 mg/g)] and aqueous fraction [total phenol (140.62±0.57 mg/g), total flavonoid (26.07±1.49 mg/g)] as compared with the chloroform fraction [total phenol (68.56±0.51 mg/g), total flavonoid (13.41±0.82 mg/g)] and petrolium ether fraction [total phenol (36.68±0.43 mg/g), total flavonoid (11.55±1.06 mg/g)]. There was a significant difference in the ARI activity of each fraction, and it was found to be the highest in ethyl acetate fraction [IC50 (49.26±1.76 µg/mL)] followed by aqueous extract [IC50 (70.83±2.82 µg/mL)] and it was least in the petroleum ether fraction [IC50 (118.89±0.71 µg/mL)]. Chloroform fraction showed moderate activity [IC50 (98.52±1.80 µg/mL)]. Conclusions Different fractions showed significanct amount of ARI activity, where in ethyl acetate fraction it was found to be maximum which may be due to its high phenolic and flavonoid content. The extract after further evaluation may be used in the treatment of diabetic cataract. PMID:23569883

  20. This resource guide is designed to help families with aging adults living in Linn and Benton Counties access as much

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    ---------------------------- 29 Improving Wellness-------------------------------- 30-31 Healthcare and Benton Counties access as much information and as many programs as possible. This guide is a compilation@oregonstate.edu Website: oregonstate.edu/childcare This publication will be made available in an accessible format upon

  1. High-capacity calcium-binding chitinase III from pomegranate seeds (Punica granatum Linn.) is located in amyloplasts

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chenyan; Masuda, Taro; Yang, Haixia; Sun, Lei; Zhao, Guanghua

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified a new class III chitinase from pomegranate seeds (PSC). Interestingly, this new chitinase naturally binds calcium ions with high capacity and low affinity, suggesting that PSC is a Ca-storage protein. Analysis of the amino acid sequence showed that this enzyme is rich in acidic amino acid residues, especially Asp, which are responsible for calcium binding. Different from other known chitinases, PSC is located in the stroma of amyloplasts in pomegranate seeds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the embryonic cells of pomegranate seeds are rich in calcium ions, most of which are distributed in the stroma and the starch granule of the amyloplasts, consistent with the above idea that PSC is involved in calcium storage, a newly non-defensive function. PMID:22112454

  2. Variation in abundance of blacklip pearl oyster ( Pinctada margaritifera Linne.) spat from inshore and offshore reefs in Solomon Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim J. Friedman; Johann D. Bell

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to test two predictions. The first was that collections of spat of the blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, should be greater from offshore than inshore zones in ‘open’ reef systems adjacent to high islands. The second was that the lack of heavy run-off from land-masses will result in greater abundance of spat being caught from inshore

  3. Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus Microfilariae in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. Method In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. Results The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Conclusions Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2. PMID:23506674

  4. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. Aim: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 ?g/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 ?g/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. Conclusion: This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases. PMID:25364204

  5. A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn.

    E-print Network

    Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

    1966-01-01

    panicles and small grains which shatter and are completely covered by long glumes. Because of the wide morphological differences between the cultivated types and the wild types, Stapf (43) considers them as a different species under the genus ~Sor hum... colchicine induced tetraploids and diploids. However, in some plants of the same material such relations did not exist, which he suggested might be caused by genetic factors. CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHODS ~gor hum ~vul are Pars. , which has a...

  6. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn.) flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Nithianantham, Kuppan; Ping, Kwan Yuet; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Chew, Ai-Lan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea) flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40±2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21±0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05). Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

  7. Feeding of the Norwegian spring spawning herring Clupea harengus (Linne) at the different stages of its life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopchuk, Irina

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the diet of herring at different stages of its life cycle. For that purpose feeding of 0-group and immature herring in the Barents Sea, as well as of mature fish from the Norwegian Sea, was studied. 0-Group herring was sampled in the Barents Sea in August-September 2002-2005 during the international 0-group and trawl-acoustic survey of pelagic fish, as well as during the trawl-acoustic survey of demersal fish in November-December 2003-2004. Stomach samples of immature herring (1-3 years) were collected in late May and early of June 2001 and 2005 in the south-western part of the Barents Sea during the trawl-acoustic survey for young herring. Stomach samples of mature herring were collected in the Norwegian Sea in 1996, 1998, 1999, 2001, and 2002 in the course of the international trawl-acoustic survey of pelagic fish. Feeding intensity of herring of all age groups varied considerably between years and this was probably associated with availability and accessibility of their prey. The 0-group herring was found to have the most diverse diet, including 31 different taxa. In August-September, copepods, euphausiids, Cladocera, and larvae Bivalvia were most frequent in the diet of 0-group herring, but euphausiids and Calanus finmarchicus were the main prey taken. In November-December, euphausiids and tunicates were major prey groups. It was found that C. finmarchicus in the diet of 0-group herring was replaced by larval and adult euphausiids with increasing fish length. C. finmarchicus was the principal prey of immature herring and dominated in the diet of both small and large individuals and mainly older copepodites of C. finmarchicus were taken. Larval and adult euphausiids were found in stomachs of immature herring as well, but their share was not large. The importance of different prey for mature herring in the Norwegian Sea varied depending on the feeding area and length of the herring. On the whole C. finmarchicus and 0-group fish were the most important prey for mature herring diet, but fish prey were only important in a small sampling area. Hyperiids, euphausiids, tunicates, and pteropods were less important prey, and in 2002 herring actively consumed herring fry and redfish larvae.

  8. A rapid protocol for in vitro micropropagation of Lepidium sativum linn. and enhancement in the yield of lepidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepshikha Pande; Sapna Malik; Madhumati Bora; P. S. Srivastava

    2002-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Lepidium sativum L., commonly known as ‘garden cress’ possesses variable proportions of benzylcyanide and benzylisothiocynate which contribute\\u000a towards its activity against Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus pyogenes. The plant is also used as an antifertility and antiovulatory drug. Various juvenile (cotyledonary leaves, hypocotyl, radicle)\\u000a as well as mature explants (leaf, shoot apex, nodal segments) callused on Murashige and Skoog's medium

  9. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in - vivo and in - vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

  10. Quantitative TLC Analysis of Sterol (24?-Ethylcholesta-5,22 E ,25-triene-3?-ol) in Agnimantha ( Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karuna Shanker; Subhash Chandra Singh; Sangita Pant; Pooja Srivastava; Akhilesh Kumar Yadav; Richa Pandey; Ram Kishor Verma; Madan Mohan Gupta

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative method using silica gel 60F254 high performance thin layer chromatography plates, automated bandwise sample application, and automated visible mode densitometric\\u000a method has been developed for the determination of 24?-ethylcholesta-5,22E,25-triene-3?-ol (ECTO) in the aerial part of Clerodendrum phlomidis. ECTO was used as a chemical marker for the standardization of C. phlomidis plant extracts. The separation was performed on silica

  11. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chloroform and Methanol Extracts of Centella asiatica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Guria, Tanmoy; Singha, Tanushree; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of active constituents with wide range of pharmacological actions have been reported with Centella asiatica. The present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its leaf extracts. Dried leaves were defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with chloroform and methanol. Both chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for analgesic activity through tail clip, tail flick, tail immersion, and writhing assay tests at doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg using Swiss albino mice. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory assay was performed by carrageenan induced paw edema of methanol extract at 100 and 200?mg doses in Wistar albino rat. Dextropropoxyphene and indomethacin were employed as a standard for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. Our present study demonstrated that Centella asiatica bears significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those models. PMID:24369507

  12. Effect of Punica granatum Linn. (flowers) on blood glucose level in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jafri, M A; Aslam, M; Javed, K; Singh, S

    2000-06-01

    'Gulnar farsi', male abortive flowers of Punica granatum L., are used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine. Oral administration of its aqueous-ethanolic (50%, v/v) extract led to significant blood glucose lowering effect in normal, glucose-fed hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This effect of the extract was maximum at 400 mg/kg, b.w. PMID:10837992

  13. The influence of processing techniques on the energy, ash properties and elemental composition of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale Linn)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Fagbemi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide information on how processing technique affects some of the nutrient in cashew nut. It aims to guide processors of the nut on the processing techniques that can retain or minimize losses of nutrients during processing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Cashew nuts were obtained from commodity support service that procure cashew for export.

  14. Protective effects of Mentha piperita Linn on benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Samarth, R M; Panwar, Meenakshi; Kumar, Madhu; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    The chemopreventive and antimutagenic effects of an aqueous extract of Mentha piperita leaves were evaluated by using 9 week medium term model of benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced lung tumors. Lung tumors were induced by a single subcutaneous injection in the scapular region with BP in newborn Swiss albino mice (<24 h old). The oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) showed a significant reduction in the number of lung tumors from an incidence of 67.92% in animals given only BP to 26.31%. The inhibition rate was 61.26% in ME treated group with respect to reference group (BP-alone). However, tumor multiplicity was reduced from 0.83 in the BP-alone group to 0.31 in the BP+ME group. Also, ME treatment reduced the frequency of BP-induced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in bone marrow cells and decreased the levels of lipoperoxides and increased sulfhydryl groups in liver as well as lung. In cell-free assays, ME showed strong scavenging activity for both the DPPH* and ABTS*+ radicals. ME had an IC50 value of 272 microg/ml in the DPPH* assay. The chemopreventive action and antimutagenic effects observed in the present study is attributed to the antioxidative and radical scavenging properties of ME. PMID:16399846

  15. Analysis of the essential oil from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae), a potential medication for asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Modupe Ogunlesi; Wesley Okiei; Edith Ofor; A. Elizabeth Osibote

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil was obtained from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta, commonly called asthma plant. Analysis of the oil was carried out on a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer fitted with an HP-5 MS (5% phenylmethyl siloxane) column at a temperature programme of 120°C (5 min) increased at 5°C\\/min to 320°C and held for 5 min. The major components identified include

  16. Potential fishery of Nile perch Lates niloticus Linne (Pisces: Centropomidae) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ezekiel N. Okemwa

    1984-01-01

    From bottom trawls, Lates niloticus (Lin.) in Nyanza Gulf was observed to have a gulf-wide distribution. Lates dominated the catch at Homa point. Catch rates in kg h-1 varied from one location to another and from month to month.

  17. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Oroxylum indicum Linn. (root bark) against DNBS-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shrikant V.; Vyas, Bhavin A.; Shah, Payal D.; Shah, Dinesh R.; Shah, Shailesh A.; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Aqueous root extract of Oroxylum indicum was evaluated in rats against dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) induced colitis. Materials and Methods: Rats were pre-treated orally for seven days and continued for four days after the induction of colitis with OIaq (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or vehicle. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 25 mg of DNBS per rat dissolved in 50% alcohol and 4 days later, the colonic mucosal damage was analyzed along with food intake, body weight, colon weight, spleen weight, histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide levels in colonic tissue homogenate. Results: Significant reduction in gross damage area, weight loss and increase in colonic and spleen weight were evident in test substance-pretreated animals’ dose dependently as compared to vehicle treated control. These effects were confirmed biochemically by a reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Furthermore, microscopic examination revealed diminution of inflammatory cell infiltration and submucosal edema in colon segments of rats treated with OIaq. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the protective effect of OIaq in the animal model of acute colitis possibly through an antioxidant, anti-lipoperoxidative or due to reduction in nitric oxide generation. PMID:22144769

  18. Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. treatment on liver, kidney and testes in CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Manjrekar, A P; Jisha, V; Bag, P P; Adhikary, B; Pai, M M; Hegde, A; Nandini, M

    2008-07-01

    Phyllanthus niruri extract is extensively used in treating liver ailments. Effects of aqueous extract of P. niruri on liver, kidney and testes of CCl4 induced hepatotoxic rats were studied. High levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in the CCl4 test group with significant reduction of MDA levels in all groups on P. niruri extract administration. Highest levels of glutathione (GSH) were found in P. niruri group. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes were significantly reduced in the curative group (P. niruri treatment after CCl4 injection). Histopathology of liver showed lesser degree of inflammation in all P. niruri treated groups while the renal and seminiferous tubules showed eosinophilic protein casts with signs of tubular damage and degeneration. Testes also showed decreased amount of mature spermatozoa. The results suggest that P. niruri has anti-oxidant and hepato-protective activity with associated deleterious effects on kidney and testes. PMID:18807755

  19. Dynamic PathBased Software Watermarking # C. Collberg E. Carter S. Debray A. Huntwork C. Linn M. Stepp

    E-print Network

    Debray, Saumya

    . Stepp Department of Computer Science University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721, USA {collberg. # The work of C. Collberg, E. Carter, A. Huntwork, and M. Stepp was supported in part by the National Science

  20. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E. (ed.)

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  1. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn. leaf extracts for its cytotoxicity and potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Deepak; Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan; Kothari, Sweta; Deshmukh, Ranjana; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2013-09-01

    Influenza is a serious respiratory illness which can be debilitating and cause complications that lead to hospitalization and death. Although influenza vaccine can prevent influenza virus infection, the only therapeutic options to treat influenza virus infection are antiviral agents. Given temporal and geographic changes and the shifts in antiviral drug resistance among influenza viruses, it is time to consider natural antiviral agents against influenza virus. Jatropha curcas is known for various medicinal uses. Its antimicrobial, anti-cancer and anti-HIV activity has been well recognized. Because of its broad-spectrum activity, we investigated aqueous and methanol leaf extracts for cytotoxicity and its potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus. The bioactive compounds from leaf extracts were characterized by high-performance thinlayer chromatography which revealed the presence of major phytochemicals including flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The cytotoxic concentration 50 for aqueous and methanol extracts were determined using trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Inhibition of hemagglutinin protein was assessed using minimal cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts and 10(2.5) TCID50 (64 HA titre) of the Influenza A (H1N1) virus with different exposure studies using hemagglutination assay. Aqueous and methanol extracts were found to be non toxic to Madin darby canine kidney cells below concentration of 15.57 and 33.62 mg/mL for respectively. Inhibition of hemagglutinin was studied using reducing hemagglutination titre which confirmed that the J. curcas extracts have direct effect on the process of virus adsorption leading to its inhibition. Our results provide the information which shows the potential of Jatropha extracts in the treatment of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. With an established reduced toxicity and prevention of infection by inhibiting hemagglutinin protein, these extracts and its derivatives may be further developed as broad spectrum anti-influenza drugs for prevention and treatment of infections by different types of influenza viruses with further mechanistic studies on anti-influenza. PMID:24426279

  2. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.(Fabaceae) leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea (EECT) was evaluated in diabetes-induced cognitive decline rat model for its nootropic and neuroprotective activity. Materials and Methods: Effect on spatial working memory, spatial reference memory and spatial working-reference memory was evaluated by Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Neuroprotective effects of EECT was studied by assaying acetylcholinesterase, lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain of diabetic rats. Results: The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) was found to cause significant increase in spatial working memory (P < 0.05), spatial reference memory (P < 0.001) and spatial working-reference (P < 0.001) in retention trials on Y maze, Morris water maze and Radial arm maze respectively. Whereas significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity (P < 0.05), lipid peroxide (P < 0.001), total NO (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD, CAT and GSH levels was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: The present data indicates that Clitorea ternatea tenders protection against diabetes induced cognitive decline and merits the need for further studies to elucidate its mode of action. PMID:24459404

  3. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

  4. Sexually dimorphic distribution of calcium-binding protein, calretinin in the preoptic area of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Arun G; Deshpande, Ketki V

    2014-09-01

    Preoptic area (POA) plays an important role in the hormonal regulation of the pituitary gland in vertebrates. In this study we report the sexually dimorphic distribution of calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) in the POA in the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Nissl staining highlighted the presence of the nucleus praeopticus periventricularis (NPP) and other subdivisions of the nucleus praeopticus (NPO), including supraoptic (NPOs), paraventricular (NPOp) and magnocellular (NPOm) divisions. In NPO, CR immunoreactivity was noted only in females but not in males. In both sexes, CR stained perikarya were found in the NPP. Sexually dimorphic localization of CR in the POA supports the notion that CR may play a gender-specific role and may be involved in hormonal regulation in fishes. PMID:25058431

  5. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4?-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  6. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Govindarajan; P Karuppannan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThe present study deals with the investigation of larvicidal and ovicidal activities of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of Eclipta alba (E. alba) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti).

  7. Anthiovulatory activity of five indigenous plants in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

    1974-08-01

    The petroleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of 5 indigenous plants, known to have antifertility activity in female rats and mice (Areca catechu Linn, Carica papaya Linn, Daucus carota Linn, Mentha arvensis Linn and polygonum hydropiper Linn), were evaluated for their possible antiovulatory activity in rabbits with copper-induced ovulation. The alcoholic extract of Mentha arvensis (leaves) and the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Polygonum hydropiper were the most successful agents, inhibiting ovulation in 60% of the animals. All the other extracts inhibited ovulation in 40%, or less, of the animals. PMID:4442983

  8. Effects of moisture content, seed size, loading rate and seed orientation on force and energy required for fracturing cumin seed ( Cuminum cyminum Linn.) under quasi-static loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Saiedirad; A. Tabatabaeefar; A. Borghei; M. Mirsalehi; F. Badii; M. Ghasemi Varnamkhasti

    2008-01-01

    Force and deformation curve of agricultural material must be provided for proper design of harvesting, processing machineries. In this research, fracture resistance of whole cumin seed was measured in terms of average compressive force, seed rupture force and energy absorbed. In this study 10 treatments were performed as randomized complete block design with 20 replications. Cumin seeds were quasi-statically loaded

  9. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  10. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced TEC, TLC, Total Ig, total protein, NBT activity, serum lysozyme activity and myeloperoxidase level in different treatment groups in comparison with control group. Similarly, SGOT, SGPT and blood glucose level were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) high but PCV and Hb did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative percentage survival (42.60%) when compared with the control against A. hydrophila infection. This study indicated that azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. PMID:23261511

  11. Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

    2013-12-30

    This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. PMID:24373492

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, Linn. for enhanced antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P; Gnanaprakasam, P; Emmanuel, R; Arokiyaraj, S; Saravanan, M

    2013-08-01

    Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has attracted nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, L. at room temperature. Formation of stable AgNPs at 1mM concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) typically gave spherical shape particles with diameter range from 55 to 83nm. The kinetic properties of particle formation were proportional to the effect of concentration of AgNO3 solution. In order to identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag(+) ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Mimusops elengi, L. leaf extract was investigated using FTIR. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed using the surface plasmon resonance band shown in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern. Furthermore these green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:23563291

  13. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  14. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive nervus terminalis innervation to the pituitary in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.): demonstration by lesion and immunocytochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna, N. S.; Subhedar, N.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Certain thick FMRFamide-like immunoreactive fibers arising from the ganglion cells of nervus terminalis in the olfactory bulb of Clarias batrachus can be traced centripetally through the medial olfactory tract, telencephalon, lateral preoptic area, tuberal area, and hypothalamohypophysial tract to the pituitary. Following 6 days of bilateral olfactory tract transection, the immunoreactivity in the thick fibers, caudal to the lesion site, was partially eliminated, whereas after 10 and 14 days, it was totally abolished in the processes en route to the pituitary. The results indicate a direct innervation of the pituitary gland by the FMRFamide-like peptide containing fibers of the nervus terminalis.

  15. DECOLORIZATION OF BASIC, DIRECT, AND REACTIVE DYES BY PRE-TREATED NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL (TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA LINN.). (R829415E01)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Displays Anti-Inflammatory Responses during Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumorigenesis through Simultaneous and Differential Regulation of NF-?B and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Animesh; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Trianthema portulacastrum, a medicinal and dietary plant, has gained substantial importance due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. We have recently reported that a characterized T. pofrtulacastrum extract (TPE) affords a considerable chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis though the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TPE during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in rats by monitoring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumors were harvested from our previous study in which TPE (50–200 mg/kg) was found to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of intratumor COX-2, HSP90, NF-?B, inhibitory kappaB-alpha (I?B?) and Nrf2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. TPE downregulated the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, blocked the degradation of I?B?, hampered the translocation of NF-?B from cytosol to nucleus and upregulated the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis. These results in conjunction with our previous findings suggest that TPE prevents DMBA-induced breast neoplasia by anti-inflammatory mechanisms mediated through simultaneous and differential modulation of two interconnected molecular circuits, namely NF-?B and Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:25622256

  17. The effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn leaf – a preliminary clinical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. O Orafidiya; E. O Agbani; A. O Oyedele; O. O Babalola; O Onayemi; F. F Aiyedun

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to investigate possible synergistic effect of aloe vera gel on the anti-acne properties of Ocimum gratissimum oil and to compare the activities of both agents singly and in combinations with the anti-acne agent Dalacin™ – a 1% Clindamycin phosphate solution.Methods: 84 subjects presenting with clinically significant Acne vulgaris (mainly undergraduates of a University) were randomly

  18. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years.

  19. Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Whole Fruit on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tajudin, T-Johari S. A.; Mat, Nashriyah; Siti-Aishah, Abu Bakar; Yusran, A. Aziz M.; Alwi, Afnani; Ali, Abdul Manaf

    2012-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora whole fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell lines by using the MTT assay. The CD50 of the extract for 72 hours was 0.9??g/mL whereas the value for the cytotoxic drug vincristine was 0.2??g/mL. The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0??g/mL. The extract inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation with dose dependence. AO/PI staining of HL-60 cells treated with the extract revealed that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. Flow cytometry analysis of HL-60 cells treated at CD50 of the extract showed that the early apoptotic cells were 31.0, 26.3 and 19.9% at 24, 48, and 72 hours treatment, respectively. The percentage of late apoptotic cells was increased from 62.0 at 24 hours to 64.1 and 70.2 at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Meanwhile, percent of necrotic cells were 4.9, 6.6, and 8.5 at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. This study has shown that the methanolic extract of C. cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less cytotoxic towards NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:23227094

  20. Willow (Salix fragilis Linn.): A multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Yashwant S; Oinam, Santaram S; Vishvakarma, Subhash C R; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Kuniyal, Jagdish C

    2006-02-01

    Salix fragilis is the most common willow species grown extensively under the indigenous agroforestry system in the cold desert of Lahaul valley located in the northwestern Himalayas, India. Presently, this tree is under severe pest attack, and other infections have made its survival in the area questionable. This deciduous multipurpose tree species provides vegetation cover to the barren landscape of Lahaul and is a significant contributor of fuel and fodder to the region. This study is a detailed profile of the plant in three villages within this region: Khoksar, Jahlma, and Hinsa. The willow provided 69.5%, 29%, and 42% of the total fuelwood requirements of Jahlma, Khoksar, and Hinsa respectively. A striking observation was that only 30.0 +/- 20.1% trees were healthy: 55.2 +/- 16.1% of the willows have dried up and 14.8 +/- 6.1% were in drying condition due to a combination of pest infestation and infection. To sustain this cultivation of willow under the existing agroforestry system in the region, we recommend that locally available wild species and other established varieties of willow growing in similar regions of the Himalayas be introduced on a trial basis. PMID:16615699

  1. Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-01-01

    Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MSn) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and 1H and 13C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

  2. A new variant of antimetabolic protein, arcelin from an Indian bean, Lablab purpureus (Linn.) and its effect on the stored product pest, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Sundaram; Sakthivelkumar, Shanmugavel; Veeramani, Velayutham; Radhika, Dixit; Muthukrishanan, Subbaratnam

    2012-12-15

    The anti-metabolic or insecticidal gene, arcelin (Arl) was isolated, cloned and sequenced using sequence specific degenerate primers from the seeds of Lablab purpureus collected from the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The L. purpureus arcelin nucleotide sequence was homologous to Arl-3 and Arl-4 alleles from Phaseolus spp. The protein it encodes has 70% amino acid identity with the amino acid sequences of Arl-3I, Arl-3III, Arl-4 precursor, Arl-4 and Arl-4I. The partially purified arcelin from the seeds of L. purpureus using an artificial diet confirmed the complete retardation of development of the stored product pest Callosobruchus maculatus at 0.2% w/w arcelin-incorporated artificial seeds. PMID:22980880

  3. , 20120437, published 26 August 20133682013Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B David A. Caron, Alle A. Y. Lie, Linn J. Hoffmann and David A. Hutchins

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    : ocean acidification, warming, diatom, phytoplankton community, competition, adaptation Author, Dunedin 9012, New Zealand Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence, Catriona L. Hurd, Philip W. Boyd, diatom community to acidification and warming Short- and long

  4. The supplementation of phytase RONOZYME® P on the growth and the utilisation of phosphorus by sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jirawat Tudkaew; Jacques Gabaudan; Wutiporn Phromkunthong

    The effect of phytase supplementation to a low fish meal based diet on growth performance and phosphorus utilis- ation was investigated in sex-reversed red tilapia. Diets were prepared without phytase or inorganic phosphorus supplement- ation, with phytase, with supplemented inorganic phosphorus and with both phytase and supplemental inorganic phosphorus. Available phosphorus was set below requirement and the total phosphorus set

  5. Insulin secreting and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of hexane extract of Annona squamosa Linn. in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ranjana; Tripathi, Yamini B

    2014-06-01

    The hexane extract of A. squamosa (ASHE) in 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose raised the insulin level when compared with Glimepiride (1 mg/kg) and also inhibited alpha-glucosidase activity when compared with Acarbose (10 mg/kg) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The ASHE significantly reduced peak blood glucose (Gp30) and area under curve (AUC) in diabetic rats in oral glucose (OGTT) and oral sucrose (OSTT) tolerance test, but there was more reduction of Gp30 value than AUC in OSTT. Thus, it can be suggested that the ASHE, has hypoglycemic role at 2 levels, i.e. it acts as secretagogue and also inhibits the intestinal enzymes, responsible for glucose metabolism. PMID:24956893

  6. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity.

  7. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E. [ed.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  8. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Displays Anti-Inflammatory Responses during Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumorigenesis through Simultaneous and Differential Regulation of NF-?B and Nrf2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Animesh; Bishayee, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    Trianthema portulacastrum, a medicinal and dietary plant, has gained substantial importance due to its various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. We have recently reported that a characterized T. portulacastrum extract (TPE) affords a considerable chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis though the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory mechanisms of TPE during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in rats by monitoring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mammary tumors were harvested from our previous study in which TPE (50-200 mg/kg) was found to inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in a dose-response manner. The expressions of intratumor COX-2, HSP90, NF-?B, inhibitory kappaB-alpha (I?B?) and Nrf2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. TPE downregulated the expression of COX-2 and HSP90, blocked the degradation of I?B?, hampered the translocation of NF-?B from cytosol to nucleus and upregulated the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 during DMBA mammary carcinogenesis. These results in conjunction with our previous findings suggest that TPE prevents DMBA-induced breast neoplasia by anti-inflammatory mechanisms mediated through simultaneous and differential modulation of two interconnected molecular circuits, namely NF-?B and Nrf2 signaling pathways. PMID:25622256

  9. EXCHANGE RESONANCES IN GADOLINIUM IRON GARNET AT 24.000 MHz By S. GESCHWIND, L. R. WALKER and D. F. LINN,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    344 EXCHANGE RESONANCES IN GADOLINIUM IRON GARNET AT 24.000 MHz By S. GESCHWIND, L. R. WALKER and D garnet at 24 000 Mc in the vicinity of the magnetic compensation point at Tc = + 13 °C. The two modes, FÉVRIER-MARS 1959, Introduction. - The rare earth iron garnets are, strictly, systems with three

  10. The effects of herbal essential oils on the oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activities of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Siriporn, P; Mayura, S

    2012-03-01

    The effect of oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal of seven essential oils were evaluated towards three mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values of six essential oils namely Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Ocimum basilicum and Syzygium aromaticum indicated that there were more deterrent than the control whereas Citrus sinensis oil acted as oviposition attractant. At higher concentration (10%) of Ca. odorata (ylang ylang flowers) showed high percent effective repellency (ER) against oviposition at 99.4% to Ae. aegypti, 97.1% to An. dirus and 100% to Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results showed that mean numbers of eggs were lower in treated than in untreated water. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between essential oil concentrations and ovicidal activity. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1%, 5% and up to 10% conc., the hatching rate decreased. The essential oil of Ca. odorata at 10% conc. gave minimum egg hatch of 10.4% (for Ae. aegypti), 0.8% (for An. dirus) and 1.1% (for Cx. quinquefasciatus) respectively. These results clearly revealed that the essential oil of Ca. odorata served as a potential oviposition-deterrent and ovicidal activity against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22543614

  11. The Adequacy of Health Care Among the Indian and Spanish Populations in Polk, Lincoln, Benton, Linn and Southwestern Portion of Marion Counties. A Public Opinion Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GMA Research Corp., Portland, OR.

    A bilingual and bicultural organization, CISCO (Chicano-Indian Study Center of Oregon) assists students to escape the poverty cycle through vocational training, academic programs, and general guidance counseling. A major CISCO goal is to provide vocational training in the health care industry in conjunction with a program meeting the health needs…

  12. Clinical study of the responsible lesion for dysarthria in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Katsuhiko; Yoshihashi, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kamei, Satoshi; Mizutani, Tomohiko

    2010-01-01

    There have been few reports describing the lesion for cerebellar dysarthria. We compared MRI findings of 4 reported patients (including our previously reported patient) to that of our patient who showed ataxic speech and ataxic gait. The lesions of 4 patients involved lobulus quadrangularis and lobulus simplex, and the lesion of the present patient involved lobulus semilunaris superior and lobulus simplex. Since lobulus simplex and lobulus quadrangularis were involved in many patients, we speculated that the cerebellar dysarthria of the present patient was due to the damage of these areas in the upper cerebellum. PMID:20453409

  13. Involvement of serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Qiu Mao; Yan-Fang Xian; Siu-Po Ip; Chun-Tao Che

    2011-01-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (P. longum Linn.), and its antidepressant-like effect has been previously demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible contribution of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in mice. The results showed that piperine significantly reduced the immobility time in the

  14. Key Considerations When Measuring Teacher Effectiveness: A Framework for Validating Teachers' Professional Practices. AACC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Carole; Rabinowitz, Stanley; Yeagley, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Researchers recommend that policymakers use data from multiple sources when making decisions that have high-stakes consequences (Herman, Baker, & Linn, 2004; Linn, 2007; Stone & Lane, 2003). For this reason, a fair but rigorous teacher-effectiveness rating process relies on evidence collected from different sources (Goe, Bell, & Little, 2008;…

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN INDIAN FOLKLORE MEDICINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinal plants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be

  16. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Effects of Neem Flowers, Thai and Chinese Bitter Gourd Fruits and Sweet Basil Leaves on Hepatic Monooxygenases and Glutathione S-transferase Activities, and In Vitro Metabolic Activation of Chemical Carcinogens in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R Kusamran; A Ratanavila; A Tepsuwan

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450),

  18. The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

    2008-01-01

    In this rebuttal to Linn's critique (see EJ802887), the authors state that, while Linn provides a thoughtful critique of the culture-centered approach by questioning its feasibility, he missed the idea that the very concept of effectiveness is brought under scrutiny by the culture-centered approach, with the focus being on examining the universal…

  19. Histórico da malacologia no Brasil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Ricardo; L. Simone

    The written history of Brazilian malacology began before the times of Carl Linne, with the works of Anchieta and Seba. Post-Linnean works are numerous and classified in three periods. Period I: Linne to the very early 20th century; voluminous publications resulting from expeditions, mainly European. The Brazilian authors limited themselves to popularization writings. Period II: Rest of 20th century until

  20. Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning By Design, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

  1. Knowledge Integration in Science Teaching: Analysing Teachers' Knowledge Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Davis

    2004-01-01

    This paper tests the utility of a new sociocognitive frame for analysing the development of teachers' knowledge – the knowledge integration perspective (Linn, Eylon, & Davis, in press; Linn & Hsi, 2000). In doing so, the paper describes one prospective elementary teacher's developing knowledge and highlights its complexity. The prospective teacher demonstrates relatively well-integrated science subject matter knowledge, but she

  2. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF SOME COLOURING PLANTS USED IN HOMOEOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, P.; Sunilkumar

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards. PMID:22557040

  3. Flower species identification and coverage estimation based on hyperspectral remote sensing data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingying Gai; Wenjie Fan; Xiru Xu; Yuanzhen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring grass species and coverage accurately makes a significant contribution to species diversity research and sustainable development of grassland ecosystem. Plants grown in grassland usually own unique spectral characteristics in florescence. Compared with the nutrient stage, species are more easily identified during florescence. In this study, flowers such as Galium verum Linn., Hemerocallis citrina Baroni, Serratula centauroides Linn., Clematis hexapetala

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS FOR HAIR GROWTH-PROMOTING ACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Thorat; V. M. Jadhav; V. J. Kadam

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae), Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn (Malvaceae), Nardostachys Jatamansi ( Valerianaceae) is a well known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. Hair formulation of Eclipta alba Hassk ( Asteraceae ) 10% w\\/v, Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn ( Malvaceae ) 10 %

  5. Insights into carbohydrate recognition by Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin: the crystal structure at 2 Å resolution in complex with ?1-3 mannobiose1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus K. Sauerborn; Lisa M. Wright; Colin D. Reynolds; J. Günter Grossmann; Pierre J. Rizkallah

    1999-01-01

    Carbohydrate recognition by monocot mannose-binding lectins was stu- died via the crystal structure determination of daffodil (Narcissus pseudonar- cissus) lectin. The lectin was extracted from daffodil bulbs, and crystallised in the presence of a-1,3 mannobiose. Molecular replacement methods were used to solve the structure using the partially refined model of Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin as a search model. The structure was

  6. Floral composition of a sphagnum bog in Robertson county, Texas

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Chester Morrison, Jr

    1949-01-01

    plants in zone three, other than the dominants, were as follows: Dewberry, Rubus velox Bailey Stretchberries, Smilax laurifolia L. (Figs. 11&12&+) Smilax ~lauca )Tait, Smilax rotundifolia L arche. Aa cuiurse yrMI j arete Peppervine, Cissus arborea... to Florida, The specimen from the Southworth bog was compared with herbarium specimens bi the same soecies to check identification. Rosaceae Rubus veL ox Bailey Blackberry Important member of zone III, also found in zones I and II Spring flowering...

  7. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  8. ?-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mangosteen fruit has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Recently, the compound ?-mangostin, which is isolated from the pericarp of the fruit, was shown to induce cell death in various types of cancer cells in in vitro studies. This led us to investigate the antitumor growth and antimetastatic activities of ?-mangostin in an immunocompetent xenograft model of mouse metastatic mammary cancer having a p53 mutation that induces a metastatic spectrum similar to that seen in human breast cancers. Methods Mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of BALB/c mice syngeneic with metastatic BJMC3879luc2 cells, were subsequently treated with ?-mangostin at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day using mini-osmotic pumps and histopathologically examined. To investigate the mechanisms of antitumor ability by ?-mangostin, in vitro studies were also conducted. Results Not only were in vivo survival rates significantly higher in the 20 mg/kg/day ?-mangostin group versus controls, but both tumor volume and the multiplicity of lymph node metastases were significantly suppressed. Apoptotic levels were significantly increased in the mammary tumors of mice receiving 20 mg/kg/day and were associated with increased expression of active caspase-3 and -9. Other significant effects noted at this dose level were decreased microvessel density and lower numbers of dilated lymphatic vessels containing intraluminal tumor cells in mammary carcinoma tissues. In vitro, ?-mangostin induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and G1-phase arrest and S-phase suppression in the cell cycle. Since activation by Akt phosphorylation plays a central role in a variety of oncogenic processes, including cell proliferation, anti-apoptotic cell death, angiogenesis and metastasis, we also investigated alterations in Akt phosphorylation induced by ?-mangostin treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Quantitative analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that ?-mangostin significantly decreased the levels of phospho-Akt-threonine 308 (Thr308), but not serine 473 (Ser473), in both mammary carcinoma cell cultures and mammary carcinoma tissues in vivo. Conclusions Since lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients, the antimetastatic activity of ?-mangostin as detected in mammary cancers carrying a p53 mutation in the present study may have specific clinical applications. In addition, ?-mangostin may have chemopreventive benefits and/or prove useful as an adjuvant therapy, or as a complementary alternative medicine in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:21639868

  9. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Maitrayee; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Das, Dolan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Mitra, Smita; Mitra, Chandan

    2006-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of an oil extract of garlic on the in vivo intestinal transference of calcium, and also to verify its role in maintaining the bone mineral content and bone tensile strength in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. The results suggest that, in this experimental model, oil extract of garlic promotes intestinal transference of calcium by modulating the activities of both intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Ca(2+) activated ATPase. Also the observed low bone mineral content and low bone tensile strength in these rats were significantly restored by garlic oil supplementation. Further, garlic oil supplementation was able to revive partially the bilateral ovariectomy-induced decrease in the serum estrogen titer. The serum parathyroid hormone level, however, was found unaltered in these rats. The garlic oil supplemented partial recovery in serum estrogen titer in bilaterally ovariectomized rat was found to be persistently associated with enhanced calcium transference and better preservation of bone mineral content. The results of this study propose that the phytoestrogenic efficacy of an oil extract of garlic prevents ovarian hormone deficiency induced bone mineral loss possibly by promoting intestinal transference of calcium through the partial revival of the serum estrogen titer. PMID:16619371

  10. Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, K; Sivakumar, S; Senthilkumar, P; Prabha, D; Subbhuraam, C V; Song, Y C

    2009-10-01

    The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced and roots regenerated and an increase in the number of days required for the initiation of roots. The number of leaves produced showed an increasing trend in almost all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd with an increase in the duration of experiment, whereas, with an increase in the treatment concentration of metals a significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the number of leaves produced. The number of days required for root initiation in metal solutions, however, increased with increasing concentration of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. The root development was completely arrested from 10 mg l(-1) of Ni and 4 mg l(-1) of Cd. Compared to the control, a significant decrease was recorded in the number of roots produced in all treatment concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd. Pink colouration of metal solution consequent to leaching of plant pigment from T. triangulare was observed which was not persistent and disappeared after a few days. Decaying of stem was observed when exposed to Ni and Cd but not to Cu and Pb. Although, copper accumulation by T. triangulare at treatment concentration of 15 and 20 mg l(-1) exceeded 1,000 mg kg(-1) dry matter, necessary pot culture experiment is required before "T. triangulare" can be definitely classified as a Cu hyperaccumulator. PMID:19590954

  11. Role of neuropeptide Y in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone system in the forebrain of Clarias batrachus (Linn.): immunocytochemistry and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, A; Biju, K C; Muthal, P L; Saha, S; Subhedar, N

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and reproduction has been highlighted in recent years, the neuroanatomical substrate within which these substances might interact has not been fully elucidated. Present work was undertaken with a view to define the anatomical-physiological correlates underlying the role exercised by NPY in the regulation of GnRH in the forebrain of the teleost Clarias batrachus. Application of double immunocytochemistry revealed close associations as well as colocalizations of the two peptides in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the glomeruli, ganglion cells of nervus terminalis, medial olfactory tract, fibers in the area ventralis telencephali/pars supracommissuralis and cells as well as fibers in the pituitary. NPY containing axons were found to terminate in the vicinity of GnRH cells in the pituitary with light as well as electron microscopy. Double immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated gold particles for NPY and GnRH colocalized on the membrane and in dense core of the secretory granules in the cells distributed in all components of the pituitary gland. To assess the physiological implication of these observations, NPY was injected via the intracranial route and the response of GnRH immunoreactive system was evaluated by relative quantitative morphometry as well as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Two hours following NPY (20 ng/g body weight) administration, a dramatic increase was observed in the GnRH immunoreactivity in the ORNs, in the fibers of the olfactory bulb (163%) and medial olfactory tract (351%). High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the immunocytochemical data. Significant rise in the salmon GnRH (sGnRH)-like peptide content was observed in the olfactory organ (194.23%), olfactory bulb (146.64%), telencephalon+preoptic area (214.10%) and the pituitary (136.72%) of the NPY-treated fish. However, GnRH in the hypothalamus was below detection limit in the control as well as NPY-treated fish. Present results suggest the involvement of NPY in the up-regulation of sGnRH containing system at different level of neuraxis extending from the olfactory epithelium to the pituitary in the forebrain of C. batrachus. PMID:15893649

  12. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agri culture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata : Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredie nts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilart Pompimon; Jinnantina Jomduang; Uma Prawat; Samlee Mankhetkorn

    Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investiga te the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal

  13. Vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract (Garcinia mangostana Linn) in hypercholesterol-diet-given Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain

    PubMed Central

    Wihastuti, Titin Andri; Sargowo, Djanggan; Tjokroprawiro, Askandar; Permatasari, Nur; Widodo, Mohammad Aris; Soeharto, Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in atherosclerosis produces H2O2 and triggers the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-?B) and increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The formation of vasa vasorum occurs in atherosclerosis. Vasa vasorum angiogenesis is mediated by VEGFR-1 and upregulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). The newly formed vasa vasorum are fragile and immature and thus increase plaque instability. It is necessary to control vasa vasorum angiogenesis by using mangosteen pericarp antioxidant. This study aims to demonstrate that mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract can act as vasa vasorum anti-angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in rats given a hypercholesterol diet. Methods This was a true experimental laboratory, in vivo posttest with control group design, with 20 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats divided into five groups (normal group, hypercholesterol group, and hypercholesterol groups with certain doses of mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract: 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight). The parameters of this study were H2O2 measured by using colorimetric analysis, as well as NF-?B, iNOS, and HIF-1?, which were measured by using immunofluorescence double staining and observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope in aortic smooth muscle cell. The angiogenesis of vasa vasorum was quantified from VEGFR-1 level in aortic tissue and confirmed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Analysis of variance test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract had a significant effect (P<0.05) in decreasing vasa vasorum angiogenesis through H2O2, HIF-1?, NF-?B, and iNOS inhibition in hypercholesterol-diet-given R. norvegicus Wistar strain. Conclusion Mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract 800 mg/kg body weight is proven to decrease vasa vasorum angiogenesis. Similar studies with other inflammatory parameters are encouraged to clarify the mechanism of vasa vasorum angiogenesis inhibition by mangosteen pericarp ethanolic extract. PMID:25187725

  14. Antimutagenicity of some flowers grown in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L

    2010-04-01

    The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. PMID:20100534

  15. Assessment of total phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of Passiflora species.

    PubMed

    Ramaiya, Shiamala Devi; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses. PMID:25028673

  16. Turmeric

    MedlinePLUS

    ... suggest that a chemical found in turmeric—called curcumin—may have anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties, ... July 22, 2009. Turmeric ( Curcuma longa Linn.) and curcumin. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www. ...

  17. 78 FR 67383 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...Cloud, Coffey, Comanche, Cowley, Crawford, Dickinson, Edwards, Elk, Ellsworth, Ford, Geary, Greenwood, Hamilton, Harper, Harvey, Hodgeman, Kingman, Kiowa, Lane, Linn, Lyon, Marion, McPherson, Meade, Montgomery, Morris, Ness,...

  18. Design and Field-test of Solar-passive Thermal Refugia for Overwintering Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) in Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Putegnat, John William

    2013-12-05

    . 1976. The effect of exposure to low temperature on fingerlings of local tilapia Tilapia aurea (Steindachner) and imported tilapia Tilapia vulcani (Trewavas) and Tilapia nilotica (Linne) in Israel. Bamidgeh. 28:25-29. Chervinski, J., and Stickney, R...

  19. Support for (Z)-11-Hexadecanal as a Pheromone Antagonist in Ostrinia nubilalis: Flight Tunnel and Single Sensillum

    E-print Network

    . Musto & Thomas C. Baker & Wendell L. Roelofs Received: 4 October 2006 /Accepted: 16 February 2007 Ecol DOI 10.1007/s10886-007-9268-3 C. E. Linn Jr. :C. J. Musto :W. L. Roelofs Department of Entomology

  20. Comparison of value-added models for school ranking and classification: a Monte Carlo study

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhongmiao

    2009-05-15

    span of grades may measure different knowledge and abilities, which may make the vertical equating of test scores across different grades invalid (Linn, 2005; Martineau, 2006). Furthermore, datasets of test scores across several years usually have...