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1

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

2

Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification  

PubMed Central

Background: Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification. Results: Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group. Conclusions: The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted. PMID:24812472

Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Ranganath Pai, K. Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR

2014-01-01

3

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (LINN) Stimulates the Growth of Fetal Bone during Intra Uterine Developmental Period: A Morphometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect Cissus quadrangularis plant petroleum ether extract on the development of long bones during the intra-uterine developmental stage in rats. METHODS Pregnant rats (n=12) were randomly assigned into either a control group (n=6) or a Cissus quadrangularis treatment (n=6) group. Pregnant rats in the Cissus quadrangularis group were treated with Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight from gestation day 9 until delivery. The animals in the control group received an equal volume of saline. Newborn pups were collected from both groups for alizarin red S - alcian blue staining to differentiate ossified and unossified cartilage. The ossified cartilage (bone) was morphometrically analyzed using Scion image software. RESULTS Morphometric analysis revealed that the percentage of the total length of ossified cartilage (bone) in pups born to treated dams was significantly higher (P<0.001– 0.0001) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION The results of the present study suggest that maternal administration of Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intra-uterine developmental period. PMID:19061006

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Rao, Muddanna S; N, Gopalan Kutty; Bhat, Kumar MR; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan

2008-01-01

4

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

2009-01-01

5

Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses) did not alter the glycemic levels in these diabetic rats. Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and hydroxyproline were noted in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. The two doses of PECQ treatment further improved the serum ALP levels and significantly decreased the serum levels of TRAP and hydroxyproline. The effects of PECQ treatment on histological, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters are comparable to those of insulin. Since PECQ improves the bone health in hyperglycemic conditions by enhancing the cortical and trabecular bone growth and altering the circulating bone markers, it could be used as an effective therapy against diabetes-associated bone disorders. PMID:24803925

Rao Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa; Ranganath Pai Karkala, Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar M. R.

2014-01-01

6

Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis against rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The coarse powder of the shade dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using solvents petroleum ether (60-80°) and methanol. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) used as reference drug. Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase and bilirubin following rifampicin induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Rifampicin administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activities like reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutas and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant activities. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis further confirms the hepatoprotective activity. The results of the present study indicated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of ?-carotene. PMID:23326004

Swamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha; Kulkarni, Rucha V.; Koti, B. C.; Gadad, P. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Gore, Aparna

2012-01-01

7

Cissus quadrangularis augments IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a public health problem which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Growth factors are produced locally in the bone and control cellular events such as induction of bone growth. Signaling through the Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-IR) by locally synthesized IGF - I or IGF-II in osteoblast is considered crucial for normal development and for bone remodeling. Traditional use of Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis) in the treatment of bone disorders have been documented, however its regulatory effects on IGF system components remain largely unknown. The present study is employed to delineate the effects of ethanolic extract of C. quadrangularis on the regulation of IGF system components in human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed an increase in the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis when compared with control cells. The mRNA expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) did not differ significantly between control and C. quadrangularis treated cells. Immunoradiometric analysis revealed increased levels of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 in the conditioned medium of C. quadrangularis treated cultures when compared with control. Western blotting analysis revealed increase in protein levels of IGF-IR in cells treated with C. quadrangularis. These results indicate positive regulation of C. quadrangularis on the IGF system components of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. PMID:22015109

Muthusami, Sridhar; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Krishnamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Govindan, Ramajayam; Narasimhan, Srinivasan

2011-12-01

8

A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts.  

PubMed

Extracts and powders of Cissus quadrangularis have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management. This review summarizes the studies in animals, humans and in vitro systems that have been conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of various Cissus preparations. Animal and in vitro studies provide support for the use of Cissus in promoting bone fracture healing and as an anti-osteoporotic. Several human studies support the use of Cissus extracts in weight management. No studies have been conducted demonstrating that Cissus exhibits anabolic and body building activities. Based on studies to date, Cissus extracts appear to be exceedingly safe and free of adverse effects at the doses commonly used. A wide variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Cissus extracts, including steroids, flavonoids, stilbenes, iridoids, triterpenes and gallic acid derivatives. However, in few cases have specific physiological effects been related to identifiable constituents. Better standardization of extracts and more well-controlled human studies are required. PMID:22976133

Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

2013-08-01

9

The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Aim Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to that of a proprietary formulation containing CQR-300 (CORE) on weight, blood lipids, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese people. Methods The first part of the study investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of CQR-300 and CORE using 3 different methods, while the second part of the study was a double-blind placebo controlled design, involving initially 168 overweight and obese persons (38.7% males; 61.3% females; ages 19–54), of whom 153 completed the study. All participants received two daily doses of CQR-300, CORE, or placebo and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were done at the beginning and end of the study period. Results CQR-300 as well as CORE exhibited antioxidant properties in vitro. They also acted as in vivo antioxidants, bringing about significant (p < 0.001) reductions in plasma TBARS and carbonyls. Both CQR-300 and CORE also brought about significant reductions in weight, body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels over the respective study periods. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol levels, plasma 5-HT, and creatinine. Conclusion CQR-300 (300 mg daily) and CORE (1028 mg daily) brought about significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors. The increase in plasma 5-HT and creatinine for both groups hypothesizes a mechanism of controlling appetite and promoting the increase of lean muscle mass by Cissus quadrangularis, thereby supporting the clinical data for weight loss and improving cardiovascular health. PMID:17274828

Oben, Julius E; Enyegue, Damaris Mandob; Fomekong, Gilles I; Soukontoua, Yves B; Agbor, Gabriel A

2007-01-01

10

The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Aim Once considered a problem of developed countries, obesity and obesity-related complications (such as metabolic syndrome) are rapidly spreading around the globe. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of metabolic syndrome, particularly weight loss and central obesity. Methods The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 123 overweight and obese persons (47.2% male; 52.8% female; ages 19–50). The 92 obese (BMI >30) participants were randomized into three groups; placebo, formulation/no diet, and formulation/diet (2100–2200 calories/day). The 31 overweight participants (BMI = 25–29) formed a fourth (no diet) treatment group. All participants received two daily doses of the formulation or placebo and remained on a normal or calorie-controlled diet for 8 weeks. Results At the end of the trial period, statistically significant net reductions in weight and central obesity, as well as in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein were observed in participants who received the formulation, regardless of diet. Conclusion Cissus quadrangularis formulation appears to be useful in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. PMID:16948861

Oben, Julius; Kuate, Dieudonne; Agbor, Gabriel; Momo, Claudia; Talla, Xavio

2006-01-01

11

The use of a Cissus quadrangularis\\/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the effects of two formulations, Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis\\/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects. METHODS: The study was a 10 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 72 obese or overweight participants (45.8% male; 54.2% female; ages 21–44; mean age = 29.3). The participants were randomly divided into three equal

Julius E Oben; Judith L Ngondi; Claudia N Momo; Gabriel A Agbor; Caroline S Makamto Sobgui

2008-01-01

12

The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effects of two formulations, Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects. Methods The study was a 10 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 72 obese or overweight participants (45.8% male; 54.2% female; ages 21–44; mean age = 29.3). The participants were randomly divided into three equal (n = 24) groups: placebo, Cissus quadrangularis-only, and Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals; no major dietary changes nor exercises were suggested during the study. A total of six anthropomorphic and serological measurements (body weight, body fat, waist size; total plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level) were taken at baseline and at 4, 8 and 10 weeks. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed a statistically significant difference on all six variables by week 10. The magnitude of the differences was noticeable by week 4 and continued to increase over the trial period. Conclusion Although the Cissus quadrangularis-only group showed significant reductions on all variables compared to the placebo group, the Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination resulted in even larger reductions. This apparently synergistic formulation should prove helpful in the management of obesity and its related complications. PMID:18377661

Oben, Julius E; Ngondi, Judith L; Momo, Claudia N; Agbor, Gabriel A; Sobgui, Caroline S Makamto

2008-01-01

13

Protective role of ascorbic acid isolated from Cissus quadrangularis on NSAID induced toxicity through immunomodulating response and growth factors expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigate the effect of ascorbic acid, the major bioactive component isolated from Cissus quadrangularis extract (CAA) on inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric ulcer. Analysis of serum cytokine profile using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed a drastic increase in interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-?, interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and decrease in

Mallika Jainu; Kunju Vijai Mohan

2008-01-01

14

Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. Existing therapies mainly reduce bone resorption, however, all existing drugs have severe side effects. Recently, the focus is to identify alternative medicines that can prevent and treat osteoporosis with minimal or no side effects. We used Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a medicinal herb, to determine its effects on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Two-month old mice were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed CQ diet. After eleven weeks, mice were sacrificed and the long bones scanned using pQCT and ?CT. In the distal femoral metaphysis, femoral diaphysis, and proximal tibia, control mice had decreased cancellous and cortical bone, while CQ-fed mice showed no significant differences in the trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity density, between Sham and OVX mice, except for cortical bone mineral content in the proximal tibia. There were no changes in the bone at the tibio-fibular junction between groups. We conclude that CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in these mice. PMID:22779034

Banu, Jameela; Varela, Erika; Bahadur, Ali N.; Soomro, Raheela; Kazi, Nishu; Fernandes, Gabriel

2012-01-01

15

Effect of Majja Basti (therapeutic enema) and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) in the management of Osteoporosis (Asthi-Majjakshaya)  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder that affects entire skeleton, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of the skeleton, leading to enhanced bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Asthi-Majjakshaya. Basti (therapeutic enema) is the prime therapy for Asthi related diseases and Asthi Shrinkhala (Cissus quadrangularis) is the drug which is being used for strengthening of bone by traditional Vaidya since long. It has been selected for oral administration. In clinical trial, 12 patients treated with Majja Basti along with Asthi Shrinkhala pulp capsules and results are very encouraging. PMID:23049194

Gupta, Ajay K.; Shah, Nehal; Thakar, A. B.

2012-01-01

16

Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis  

PubMed Central

Cissus quadrangularis L. is a promising remedy prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature for bone fracture healing properties. As this activity has been extensively investigated and well established, a range of formulations containing C. quadrangularis has been marketed. This work reports the development and validation of a reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of phytosterols in the various extracts of the plant. The proposed method utilizes a Cosmosil C8 column (250 ? 4.6 mm) with a compatible Phenomenex C8 guard column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and water (95:5 v/v) at 25°. An effluent flow rate of 2 ml/min and UV detection at 202 nm was used for the analysis of phytosterols. The described method was linear in the range of 1–500 ?g/ml, with excellent correlation coefficients. The precision, robustness and ruggedness values were also within the prescribed limits (less than 2%). The recovery values were within the range, which indicates that the accuracy of the analysis was good and that the interference of the matrix with the recovery of phytosterols was low. The phytosterols were found to be stable in a stock solution for 48 h (% RSD was below 2%) and no interfering extra peaks were observed under controlled stress conditions. The proposed method is simple, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible and thus can be used for routine analysis of C. quadrangularis phytosterols in quality control laboratories. PMID:21969748

Shah, Unnati M.; Patel, S. M.; Patel, P. H.; Hingorani, L.; Jadhav, R. B.

2010-01-01

17

Antiosteoporotic activity of phytoestrogen-rich fraction separated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cissus quadrangularis L. (C. quadrangularis L.) (Vitaceae) has been reported in Ayurveda for its antiosteoporotic activity. The study separated the phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND-HE) from aerial parts of C. quadrangularis L. and evaluated its effect on osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy in rats. Materials and Methods: IND-HE was separated from the ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1: Control (distilled water), Group II: IND-HE (75 mg/kg p.o.), Group III: IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) were treated once daily for 8 weeks and Group IV: standard estradiol group, received estrogen (1 mg/kg, s.c. bi-weekly). The effects on body weight were determined. DEXA (Dual energy-emission X-ray absorptimatory analysis) of whole body bone and femur was carried out. Blood was removed and analyzed for biochemical parameters. After sacrificing the animals, biomechanical study of right tibia and histopathology of pelvic bone was carried out. Results: IND-HE showed presence of phytoestrogen-rich fraction. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/ kg) and estrogen treatment showed statistically significant increase in bone thickness, bone density and bone hardness. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) and estrogen treatment significantly increased serum estradiol. IND-HE (100 mg/kg) (P<0.05) and estrogen treatment increased serum vitamin D3 and serum calcium compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly reduced by IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) and estrogen treatment. Histopathology and DEXA results indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) prevented bone loss. Discussion and Conclusion: These findings confirm that phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND- HE) possess good antiosteoporotic activity. PMID:22701244

Aswar, Urmila M.; Mohan, V.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

2012-01-01

18

Evaluation of stem aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis against Hippobosca maculata and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.  

PubMed

The present study was to determine the efficacies of anti-parasitic activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using stem aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis against the adult of hematophagous fly, Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and the larvae of cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Contact toxicity method was followed to determine the potential of parasitic activity. Twelve milliliters of stem aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis was treated with 88 ml of 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution at room temperature for 30 min and the resulting solution was yellow-brown color indicating the formation extracellular synthesis of Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded by UV-visible spectrum at 420 nm and XRD patterns showed the nanoparticles crystalline in nature. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag((+)) ions to Ag NPs were due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract. FESEM image of Ag NPs showed spherical and oval in shape. By using the Bragg's Law and Scherrer's constant, the average mean size of synthesized Ag NPs was 42.46 nm. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. The mortality obtained by the synthesized Ag NPs from the C. quadrangularis was more effective than the aqueous extract of C. quadrangularis and AgNO(3) solution (1 mM). The adulticidal activity was observed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the adult of H. maculata with LC(50) values of 37.08, 40.35 and 6.30 mg/L; LC(90) values of 175.46, 192.17 and 18.14 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.970, 0.992 and 0.969, respectively. The maximum efficacy showed in the aqueous extract, AgNO(3) solution and synthesized Ag NPs against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus with LC(50) values of 50.00, 21.72 and 7.61 mg/L; LC(90) values of 205.12, 82.99 and 22.68 mg/L and r(2) values of 0.968, 0.945 and 0.994, respectively. The present study is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the experimental plant extract and synthesized Ag NPs. This is an ideal eco-friendly and inexpensive approach for the control of H. maculata and R. (B.) microplus. PMID:22750410

Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Marimuthu, Sampath; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Iyappan, Moorthy; Siva, Chinnadurai; Karthik, Loganathan; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara

2012-10-01

19

Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate whether Cissus quandrangularis extract (CQE) had healing effects on gastric ulcer, through modulation of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats. Administration of acetic acid (AA) was accompanied by reduced PCNA which was determined by immunohistochemical staining, 3H-thymidine incorporation using liquid scintillation spectrometry, mitochondrial marker enzymes, polyamine contents and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) expression in gastric mucosa of rats. Administration of CQE after the application of AA to the stomach enhanced the reduction of ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner which was confirmed by histoarchitecture. Moreover, CQE significantly increased the 3H-thymidine incorporation and the levels of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine and spermidine in ulcerated rats. In addition, the extract offers gastroprotection in the ulcerated area by increased expression of TGF-? and also reversed the changes in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats with significant elevation in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and PCNA levels. Based on these results, the healing effect of CQE on AA induced gastric mucosal injury in rats may be attributed to its growth promoting and cytoprotective actions, possibly involving an increase in tissue polyamine contents and cell proliferation. PMID:20931084

Jainu, Mallika; Vijaimohan, K.; Kannan, K.

2010-01-01

20

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

21

Physicochemical Properties of Cissus Gum Powder Extracted with the Aid of Edible Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gum powder was extracted from the stem and root of the cissus (Cissus populnea Guill and perr Ampelidacae) plant using water. Extraction was facilitated by the incorporation of 25–50% edible starches of sweet cassava, sweet potato, and maize. Dry samples were milled and sieved through a 250-µm sieve. Proximate and physicochemical properties of the gum samples were determined using standard

M. O. Iwe; P. O. Obaje; M. A. Akpapunam

2004-01-01

22

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review  

PubMed Central

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

2010-01-01

23

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal\\u000a activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

A. Abdul Rahuman; P. Venkatesan; Geetha Gopalakrishnan

2008-01-01

24

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by ?-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500?mg/kg) decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500?mg/kg) significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after ?-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1?, IL-6, NF?B, TNF-?, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases. PMID:22991570

Chang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Wen-Te; Liao, Jung-Chun; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lin, Yu-Chin

2012-01-01

25

Hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract from Cissus sicyoides  

PubMed Central

Background Cissus sicyoides (Vitaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "cipó-pucá, anil-trepador, cortina, and insulina". The plant is used in several diseases, including rheumatism, epilepsy, stroke and also in the treatment of diabetes. In the present work, we studied the hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract prepared from fresh leaves of the plant (AECS), in the model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. In addition, hepatic enzyme levels were also determined. Results Results showed that the daily treatment of diabetic rats with AECS for 7 days (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased blood glucose levels in 25 and 22% respectively, as compared to the same groups before AECS treatment. No significant changes were seen in control diabetic rats before (48 h after alloxan administration) and after distilled water treatment. While no changes were seen in total cholesterol levels, a significant decrease was observed in plasma triglyceride levels, in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after AECS treatment with both doses, as compared to the same groups before treatment. Significant decreases in blood glucose (25%) and triglyceride levels (48%) were also observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 4 days treatment with AECS (200 mg/kg, p.o.). Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases levels, in diabetic controls and AECS-treated rats, were in the range of reference values presented by normal rats. Conclusions The results justify the popular use of C. sicyoides, pointing out to the potential benefit of the plant aqueous extract (AECS) in alternative medicine, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:15182373

Viana, Glauce SB; Medeiros, Ana Carolina C; Lacerda, Ana Michelle R; Leal, L Kalyne AM; Vale, Tiago G; Matos, F Jose de Abreu

2004-01-01

26

Mycosyrinx and other pair-spored Ustilaginales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revision of the genusMycosyrinx resulted in the recognition of three species, all on Vitaceae:M. cissi (type onCissus sicyoides), M. arabica (type onCissus quadrangularis), andM. microspora (type onCissus afzelii), and in the description of a new genus. After a short historical review, the genusMycosyrinx is characterized and descriptions, synonyms, ilustrations, and a key are given for the three recognizedMycosyrinx species.Mycosyrinx

Kálmán Vánky; Auf der Morgenstelle

1996-01-01

27

Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.  

PubMed

In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan. PMID:12902049

Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

2003-09-01

28

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry.  

PubMed

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Zandi, Keivan

2013-01-01

29

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

30

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

31

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

32

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf  

PubMed Central

Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569825

Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

2012-01-01

33

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

1999-01-01

34

ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAF EXTRACT OF ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM – 2079), Escherichia coli (NCIM-2067), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM-2063), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM-2036), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM-2027) at 100 µg/disc by using disc diffusion method. The extract showed significant anti bacterial activity and were compared to chloramphenicol (30 µg/disc).

S. Suresh Kumar; P. Perumal; B. Suresh

35

Linkage Analysis With Sequential Imputation Zachary Skrivanek, Shili Linn  

E-print Network

Linkage Analysis With Sequential Imputation Zachary Skrivanek, Shili Linn , and Mark Irwin information on all pedigree members, are important for linkage analysis. Exact calculation methods in linkage. In this article, we propose a Monte Carlo method for linkage analysis based on sequential imputation. Unlike exact

Irwin, Mark E.

36

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1,

A. Akinboro; A. A. Bakare

2007-01-01

37

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

38

BRONCHODILATOR EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Euphorbia hirta linn.  

PubMed

The bronchodilator effect of alcoholic extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was evaluated at different doses (50,100 and 200mg/kg,p.o), using histamine aerosol test model. A dose dependent bronchodilator effect was observed in E. hirta pretreated animals. The extract of E. hirta at a dose of 200mg/kg was found to be more effective in histamine induced broncho constriction and a significant (p<0.001) effect was observed. PMID:22557124

Sundari, S Karpagam Kumara; Kumarappan, C T; Jaswanth, A; Valarmathy, R

2004-01-01

39

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

40

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

41

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

2010-01-01

42

Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linn)  

E-print Network

Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo Trutta, Linné) et objet l'estimation de la variabilité génétique de ce caractère chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta Linné la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo Gairdneri, Richardson) III. - Effet du génotype et de la taille des

Boyer, Edmond

43

Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.  

PubMed

The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population. PMID:22735851

Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

2012-06-01

44

Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits  

PubMed Central

Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

2010-01-01

45

Antimicrobial activities of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) extracts.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) and its subsequent fractions in different solvent systems were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Excellent antifungal sensitivity was expressed by the n-butanol fraction against Candida albicans and Candida glaberata (up to 90%) and against Trichophyton longifusus (78%) followed by the chloroform fraction against Microsporum canis (80%). In the antibacterial bioassay, the crude extract and subsequent fractions showed mild to moderate antibacterial activities. Chloroform fraction displayed highest antibacterial sensitivity against Staphylococcus aureous (88%) followed by the crude extract (59%). The total phenol content of the crude extract and fractions of the plant expressed no significant correlation with the antimicrobial activities. PMID:18615278

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Mahmood, Tahira; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

2008-12-01

46

A review on pharmacology and toxicology of Elephantopus scaber Linn.  

PubMed

Elephantopus scaber Linn., family Asteraceae, is a small herb found in the Neotropics, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The parts of this plant have been used traditionally for the treatment of number of diseases in many countries. The plant has been extensively screened for anticancer activity. Sesquiterpene lactones such as deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin and isoscabertopin. have been found to be prominent anticancer constituents. Many other biological activities such as antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiasthamatic, antiplatelet and wound healing ability have been reported in various research articles. This review has been envisaged with an intention to provide the scientific information about the pharmacological and toxicological profile of E. scaber. PMID:24499355

Hiradeve, Sachin M; Rangari, Vinod D

2014-01-01

47

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3)?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9)?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7)?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1)?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7)?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6)ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

48

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:22690244

Mondal, Arijit; Karan, Sanjay Kumar; Singha, Tanushree; Rajalingam, D.; Maity, Tapan Kumar

2012-01-01

49

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

50

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A; Koti, B C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Jaji, M S; Swamy, A H M Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y V; Sadiq, A Jaffar

2010-07-01

51

Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control) and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control) respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process. PMID:21835039

2011-01-01

52

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn  

PubMed Central

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R.; Prasant, K.; Babu, U. V.

2012-01-01

53

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

54

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA  

E-print Network

UPPER PLEISTOCENE GULO GULO (LINNE´ , 1758) REMAINS FROM THE SRBSKO CHLUM-KOMIN HYENA DEN CAVE sites. The Gulo gulo Linne´ material was found in one of the largest Ice Age spotted-hyena dens of carnivore scavenging. The absence of juvenile G. gulo suggests possible importation of the wolverines

55

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

56

Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn was studied in 20 Nigerian dogs that were naturally infected with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups, A, B, C and D. Groups A and B each comprised 4 dogs while groups C and D comprised 6 dogs each. Group A animals were untreated, while those

Adeolu Alex Adedapo; Olufemi Olaitan Shabi; Oyeduntan Adeyoju

57

Capparis sepiaria Linn - Pharmacognostical standardization and toxicity profile with chemical compounds identification (GC-MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was intended to evaluate the various pharmacognostical procedures in the leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn., (Capparidaceae). The various pharmacognostical parameters were carried out as per WHO guidelines procedure i.e., bitterness, fineness, microscopical sections, loss on drying, water and alcoholic extractive values, water insoluble ash, acid soluble ash, total ash, swelling index, foaming index, heavy metal analysis, phytochemical

P. Rajesh; S. Latha; P. Selvamani; V. Rajesh Kannan

2010-01-01

58

Chemistry and medicinal properties of the Bakul ( Mimusops elengi Linn): A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and reports confirm that a great variety of fruiting trees are indigenous to this region of the world. Mimusops elengi Linn (family Sapotaceae) commonly known as Bakul is one such tree native to the Western Ghat region of the peninsular India. However, today this tree is also found growing in other parts

Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga; Ramakrishna J. Pai; Harshith P. Bhat; Princy Louis Palatty; Rekha Boloor

2011-01-01

59

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Studies on the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia,

M. Sathiya; P. Parimala; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

60

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.  

PubMed

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis. PMID:18688644

Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

2008-11-01

61

A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn.  

E-print Network

A STUPY OF CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ~SO H VIP PERS, , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF, AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Submitted to the Graduate School of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Genetics A STUDY OP CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOBOHUM VULGARE PERS. , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF~ AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Approved...

Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

2012-06-07

62

Adsorption of basic dyes on activated carbon prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost activated carbon was prepared from Polygonum orientale Linn by phosphoric acid activation. Its ability to remove the basic dyes, malachite green (MG) and rhodamine B (RB) was evaluated. The surface area of P.orientale Linn activated carbon (PLAC) was found to be 1398m2\\/g. The effects of experimental parameters such as initial concentration, contact time, pH, ionic strength and temperature

Li Wang; Jian Zhang; Ran Zhao; Cong Li; Ye Li; Chenglu Zhang

2010-01-01

63

Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.  

PubMed

Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000?mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000?mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice. PMID:21142779

Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

2011-03-01

64

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.  

PubMed

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm(-1) (-OH), 1660?cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414?cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219?cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

2014-01-01

65

Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as kar?aspho?a. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, ku??ha, p???u, k?aya and sandhiv?ta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum. PMID:25161325

Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.; Singh, Nidhi

2013-01-01

66

Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.  

PubMed

Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation. PMID:25176358

Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

2014-09-01

67

Dterminisme gntique du nombre de cca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linn)  

E-print Network

Déterminisme génétique du nombre de cæca pyloriques chez la Truite fario (Salmo trutta, Linné) et!xGOT et al., 1976) nous avions décrit cette variabilité intraspécifique chez la Truite Fario (Salmo trutta la Truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) II. - Effet du génotype du milieu d'élevage et de

Boyer, Edmond

68

Anti-inflammatory effect of phenethyl isothiocyanate, an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an active ingredient of Raphanus sativus Linne (Cruciferae). However, regulatory mechanism of PEITC involved in caspase-1 signalling has not been fully elucidated in mast cells. First, PEITC inhibited the production of IL-6 through the inhibition of caspase-1\\/receptor-interacting protein 2, followed by regulation of NF-?B\\/I?B? pathway or p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases. Second, PEITC

Phil-Dong Moon; Na-Ra Han; Hyun-Ja Jeong; Hyung-Min Kim

69

Effects of Cadmium on Chlorophyll Content, Photochemical Efficiency, and Photosynthetic Intensity of Canna indica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium (Cd) on growth status, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency, and photosynthetic intensity were studied on Canna indica Linn. Plant specimens that were produced from a constructed wetland and precultivated hydroponically in 20 L of 1\\/10 Hoagland solution under greenhouse conditions for 1 week were exposed to cadmium in concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2

Shuiping Cheng; Feng Ren; Wolfgang Grosse; Zhenbin Wu

2002-01-01

70

Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.0229–0.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 41–55% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

2007-01-01

71

Process Improvement to Preserve the Color of Instant Pennywort Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Method to maintain color of instant Pennywort (Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban or Buo-Bok) during processing was investigated. Two methods of preparation before juice extraction were studied: blanching the Buo-Bok at 95- 100oC for 0 to 10 minutes or blanching Buo-Bok at 95-100oC and then immersing it in 0.005% citric acid solution (pH 4.5) before extracting the juice and adding ZnCl2

Saiwarun Chaiwanichsiri; Narongchai Dharmsuriya; Nirachara Sonthornvit; Theeranun Janjarasskul

2000-01-01

72

Hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent of Rubia cordifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of rubiadin, a major constituent isolated from Rubia cordifolia Linn., were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats. Rubiadin at a dose of 50, 100 and 200mg\\/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase

Guntupalli M. Mohana Rao; Chandana V. Rao; Palpu Pushpangadan; Annie Shirwaikar

2006-01-01

73

Comparative pharmacogonostic studies of genuine and commercial samples of trianthema decandra linn.  

PubMed

Trianthema decandra Linn. (Fam ficoidaceae) Commonly known a "Vellai sharunai'on Tamil and Punaranavi in Sanskrit the roots are used in hepatitis, asthma and suppression of menses the genuine and tree commercial samples of the root of R. Decandra in have been compared pharmacognostically for the first time in the present investigation all the pharmacognostic findings reveal adulteration in the commercial samples. PMID:22556996

Gopalakrishnan, S; Venkataraman, R

2000-07-01

74

In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae), and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which

Atiqur Rahman; Zakia Sultana Shanta; M. A. Rashid; Tanzima Parvin; Shajia Afrin; Mst Khodeza Khatun; M. A. Sattar

75

Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats  

PubMed Central

Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as ‘Radish’ is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine. PMID:23960756

Devaraj, V.C.; Gopala Krishna, B.; Viswanatha, G.L.; Satya Prasad, V.; Vinay Babu, S.N.

2011-01-01

76

A study of the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitisLinn  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the antidiabetic activity of Barleria prionitis Linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extract of leaf and root of B. prionitis was tested for their antidiabetic activity. Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In three groups, diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and all the rats were given different treatments consisting of vehicle, alcoholic extract of leaves, and alcoholic extract roots of B. prionitis Linn (200 mg/kg) for 14 days. The same treatment was given to the other three groups, comprising non-diabetic (normal) animals. Blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, liver glycogen, serum insulin, and body weight were estimated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, before and 2 weeks after administration of drugs. Results: Animals treated with the alcoholic extract of leaves of B. prionitis Linn showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P<0.01) and glycosylated hemoglobin (P<0.01). A significant increase was observed in serum insulin level (P<0.01) and liver glycogen level (P<0.05), whereas the decrease in the body weight was arrested by administration of leaf extract to the animals. The alcoholic extract of roots showed a moderate but non-significant antidiabetic activity in experimental animals. Conclusion: The study reveals that the alcoholic leaf extract of B. prionitis could be added in the list of herbal preparations beneficial in diabetes mellitus. PMID:20711368

Dheer, Reema; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

2010-01-01

77

Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

2013-01-01

78

Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures.

Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

2014-01-01

79

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by ?-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

2010-01-01

80

Urease inhibitory activity of ursane type sulfated saponins from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn.  

PubMed

Five ursane type sulfated saponins have been isolated from the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. (locally called Chashum). The urease inhibitory effects of these compounds have been investigated for the first time as well as their molecular docking studies have also been carried out to check the structure-activity relationship. The IC50 values of these compounds could not be found due to paucity of the samples. The molecular docking studies were performed only for the most active compound mono sodium salt of 3?,23-di-O-sulfonyl-23-hydroxyurs-20(21)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (Zygofaboside A; 1). PMID:24182987

Khan, Saleha Suleman; Khan, Ajmal; Khan, Afsar; Wadood, Abdul; Farooq, Umar; Ahmed, Amir; Zahoor, Aqib; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Sener, Bilge; Erdemoglu, Nurgun

2014-02-15

81

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions.  

PubMed

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K V; Rajashekhara, N; Chauhan, M G; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, P P

2010-04-01

82

A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions  

PubMed Central

Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

Asha, K. V.; Rajashekhara, N.; Chauhan, M.G.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, P. P.

2010-01-01

83

Enzyme inhibition activities of the extracts from rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae).  

PubMed

An alcoholic extract obtained from the rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) was screened for enzyme inhibition activities. The crude extract and its subsequent fractions including chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous were screened against lipoxygenase, actylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and urease. An outstanding inhibition on lipoxygenase was observed. The highest enzyme inhibition potency was expressed by the chloroform fraction (90%) among the tested fractions on lipoxygenase. Overall 67-90% inhibition was found for lipoxygenase, 46-69% for acetylcholinesterase and 10-33% for butyrylcholinesterase, while urease was not inhibited. PMID:18237025

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Hussan, Iqbal

2007-12-01

84

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

85

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

86

Hepatoprotective Effects of Arctium lappa Linne on Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

87

Minimum inhibitory concentration of adherence of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) gel against S. mutans, S. mitis and C. albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of a Punica granatum Linn (pomegranate) phytotherapeutic gel and miconazole (Daktarin® oral gel) against three standard streptococci strains (mutans ATCC 25175, sanguis ATCC 10577 and mitis ATCC 9811), S. mutans clinically isolated and Candida albicans either alone or in association. The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations of the gels

Maria do Socorro; Vieira PEREIRA; Maria Helena Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira Pereira; Jane Sheila Higino; Maria Helena Pereira Peixoto

2006-01-01

88

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

89

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

90

Clinical evaluation of Veerataru (Dichrostachys cinerea Linn.) in the management of Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria)  

PubMed Central

Veerataru is quoted to be effective in various conditions of Mootravaha Srotodushti such as Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria), Mootraghata (Anuria), Ashmari (Urinary calculi), Sharkara (Concretions) etc., by various Acharyas. Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) is a disease of Basti (Bladder). It comes under Mootraapravruttijanyavyadhi, where Kruchchhrata (Shoola –Pain and Daha-Burning) during mootra pravrutti is the chief symptom. As per modern view, dysuria is a leading feature of lower or mid urinary tract infection. Antibiotics have their own limitations due to re-infections and recurrence even after long-term therapy, due to development of resistance of the microorganisms to the drugs. By considering all the above facts and to fulfill the lacuna about the absence of scientific data of Veerataru, the present research work had been taken up especially to evaluate its efficacy on Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria). Patients suffering from Mootrakruchchhra (Dysuria) were selected and divided into two groups, i.e. Group A received Kwatha (decoction) of Veerataru-Dichrostachys cinerea Linn. (Trial drug) and Group B received Kwatha of Punarnava-Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Standard control) respectively. The effects of therapy were assessed by a specially prepared clinical research proforma. The result showed better symptomatic relief in Group A, i.e. trial drug as compared to Group B, i.e. standard control group. PMID:24501517

Patel, Bhupesh R.; Sharma, P. P.

2013-01-01

91

Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKC?, Ras, and NF-?B protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKC?, Ras, and NF-?B protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

2010-11-24

92

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

93

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-04-01

94

Phytochemical Screening and Toxicity Studies on the Leaves of Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Capparidaceae).  

PubMed

Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Family: Capparidaceae) is a rare indigenous in South India but has widespread distribution in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study intended with various phytochemical screening and toxicity studies were carried out on the leaves of the Capparis sepiaria. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the ethanolic extract of revealed that the presence of reducing sugar, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, gums, resins, amino acids, proteins and anthraquinones. The toxicity studies were performed as acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity determined the LD50 value of 300-5000 mg/kg body weight 4-6 weeks. The results of the various phytochemical tests indicated that the plant to be rich in various biologically active compounds which could serve as potential source of the crude drugs and in addition the plant is not toxic to the experimental model. PMID:25206253

Rajesh, P; Latha, S; Selvamani, P; Kannan, V Rajesh

2009-12-01

95

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

96

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF AERIAL PARTS of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl AND Mollugo pentaphylla Linn  

PubMed Central

The anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Celsia coromandeliane Vahl and Mollugo pentaphylla Linn were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECC), chloroform (CCC), ethanol (ECC) extract of C. coromandeliane and petroleum ether (PEMP), benzene (BMP), ethyl acetate (EAMP), ethanol (EMP) extract of M. pentaphylla showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. The anthelmintic effects of CCC, PEMP, BMP and EAMP at 5 mg/ml and PECC at 10-mg/ml concentrations are comparable with that of the effects produced by the reference standards albendazole (10 mg/ml) and piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). PMID:22557204

Pal, Dilip Kumar; Majumder, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pranab Kumar; Jena, Anima; Panday, Rajesh

2006-01-01

97

Identification of seven water-soluble non-storage proteins from pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

As pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn.) processing is fast growing, the usage of pomegranate processing wastes containing seeds has been receiving great attention. The protein component accounts for 100-130?g/kg of the seeds in weight. However, so far, there is no information on the composition and function of the pomegranate seed proteins. In this study, a global view of water-soluble non-storage proteins isolated from mature pomegranate seeds were studied using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. With the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach, over 120 protein spots were resolved, of which 7 abundant protein spots showing low molecular mass were identified. These identified proteins may be linked to seed development and metabolism, but more importantly, the occurrence of these proteins provides the possibility of conversion the pomegranate processing wastes into useful products or raw material for food industry. PMID:22859647

Yang, Haixia; Li, Meiliang; Qi, Xin; Lv, Chenyan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhao, Guanghua

2012-08-01

98

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review  

PubMed Central

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-01-01

99

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.  

PubMed

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-05-01

100

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2014-02-01

101

Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.  

PubMed Central

Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

2012-01-01

102

Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 ?g/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 ?g/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 ?g/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 ?g/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:20429956

2010-01-01

103

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae)  

PubMed Central

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-01-01

104

A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

2011-07-01

105

Hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa linne on liver injuries induced by chronic ethanol consumption and potentiated by carbon tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n=10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol\\/80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n=10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml\\/kg carbon tetrachloride

Song-Chow Lin; Chia-Hsien Lin; Chun-Ching Lin; Yun-Ho Lin; Chin-Fa Chen; I-Cheng Chen; Li-Ya Wang

2002-01-01

106

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent,\\u000a vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD50 values of 48.88 and 80.77 µg\\/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of

S. K. Pandey; Shikha Upadhyay; A. K. Tripathi

2009-01-01

107

A Valued Medicinal Plant - Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) : Successful Plant Regeneration Through Various Explants and Field Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for plant propagation through axillary bud proliferation and organo- genesis were established for Chitrak - Plumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae). MS medium with 4.4 mg\\/l BA and 1.4 mg\\/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (12 multiple shoots) from nodal explants. Leaf based callus differentiated into more than 30 shoots on MS with 160 mg\\/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated

Binita B. Chaplot; Ashok M. Dave; Yogesh T. Jasrai

2006-01-01

108

Impact of cool temperatures on transformation of human and armadillo lymphocytes (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linn.) as related to leprosy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CENTURY-LONG search for an unaltered animal in which to study leprosy in humans culminated in the finding that the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linn.), a primitive mammal native to the southern Western Hemisphere, develops disseminated lepromatous leprosy following inoculation with Mycobacterium leprae isolated from human tissue1-3. Previous animals only developed leprosy following inoculation with leprosy bacilli after having been

David T. Purtilo

1974-01-01

109

Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to identify the active principles responsible for the antipsychotic activity of noni. PMID:23082808

2012-01-01

110

Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer. PMID:18661243

Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

2008-01-01

111

Medico-historical review of Nyagr?dha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).  

PubMed

Nyagr?dha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per V?da it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of L?ks? (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurv?da literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree. PMID:19580111

Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

2007-01-01

112

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

2013-01-01

113

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

114

Protective effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on lead induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice.  

PubMed

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1 g/L) together with TL 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

115

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh  

PubMed Central

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

116

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

117

Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.  

PubMed

Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

2014-02-28

118

Five diterpenoids (agallochins A-E) from the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha Linn.  

PubMed

Chemical examination of the hexane extract of the roots of Excoecaria agallocha Linn collected from the Godavari estuary resulted in the isolation of altogether eleven diterpenoids of which five (1-5) are new. The structures of the new diterpenoids have been elucidated by a study of their physical and spectral (UV, IR, 1H, 13C, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC and MASS) data as 3-oxo-ent-13epi-8(13)-epoxy-15-chloro-14-hydroxylabdane (1), ent-15-chloro-13,14-dihydroxylabd-8(9)-en-3-one (2), ent-15-chloro-labd-8(9)ene-3alpha,13,14-triol (3), ent-11beta-hydroxy-8(14),15-isopimaradien-3-one (4), 8,13-epoxy-3-nor-2,3-seco-14-epilabden-2,4-olide (5). The six known diterpenoids have been characterised respectively as ent-3-oxo-13-epi-manoyl oxide (6), ent-3beta-hydroxy-13-epi-manoyl oxide (7), (13R,14S)-ent-8alpha,13;14,15-diepoxy-13-epi-labdan-3-one (8), ent-16-hydroxy-3-oxo-13-epimanoyl oxide (9), ent-15-hydroxylabda-8(17),13E-dien-3-one (10), labda-8(17),13E-diene-3beta,15-diol (11) by a comparative study of their spectral data with the literature values. PMID:11140521

Anjaneyulu, A S; Rao, V L

2000-12-01

119

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 µg/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.75±1.1 µg/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.5±0.4 µg/ml), SOD (IC50 62.5±2.1 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.50±1.8 µg/ml) and NO (IC50 67.5±2.2 µg/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

120

Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice  

PubMed Central

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

121

Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.  

PubMed

The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

2010-01-01

122

Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of Different Plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level. PMID:21369448

Das, Sanjita; Sasmal, D.; Basu, S. P.

2008-01-01

123

Chronic toxicity study of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze seeds in albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, toxic effects of powder of seeds of Butea monosperma (Linn.) Kuntze were evaluated for a period of 3 months in albino rats. Control group received distilled water. The powder suspension was orally given to the treated group at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Parameters like body weight, weight of important organs, biochemical, hematological parameters, bone marrow cytology and histopathology of vital organs were studied. Test drug administration did not affect the body weight, organ weight and bone marrow cytology to a significant extent. Among the 18 hematological parameters studied, significant changes were observed in three parameters, namely, significant decrease in hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and hematocrit. Of 16 biochemical parameters studied, significant changes were observed in 5 parameters, namely, decrease in total protein, albumin, bilirubin and significant increase in very low density lipoprotein and triglyceride. The histopathology of 18 organs revealed changes such as fatty changes, glomerular congestion and tubular hemorrhage in the kidneys, decrease in the cellularity of the spleen, epithelial disruption in jejunum, decrease in spermatogenesis in the testis, epithelial proliferation in ventral prostate and decrease in epithelial proliferation in the uterus. Thus, toxicity profile obtained from the present study shows that B. monosperma seeds are likely to produce toxic effect when administered in a powder form. PMID:22131770

Donga, Shilpa; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Mishtry, I U

2011-01-01

124

Evaluation of mucilage of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of diclofenac.  

PubMed

This article reports the exploitation of novel hydrophilic excipient, that is, mucilage from Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn, for the development of sustained release tablet. Swelling ratio and flow properties analyses of dried mucilage powder were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used. In factorial design, amounts of dried mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) were taken as independent factors and percentage drug release in 60 and 300 min and time for 80% drug release as dependent variables. Matrix tablet containing dried mucilage and diclofenac sodium (DS) was prepared through direct compression techniques. DS tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro drug release and water uptake, and mass loss study. The dried mucilage powder shows superior swelling capacity and excellent flow properties. Prepared tablets have acceptable hardness, friability, and uniformity in weight. It was found that batch HD8 fulfills all selected criteria. Drug release kinetics from these formulations corresponded best to the zero-order kinetics. Water uptake was independent whereas mass loss was dependent on agitation speed. The concept of similarity factor (f(2)) was used to prove similarity of dissolution profile in distilled water and phosphate buffer and was found to be 90.68. It was concluded that mucilage can be used as release-retarding agent for 12 h when the drug-mucilage ratio was 1:1.5. So, matrix tablet containing dried mucilage is most suitable for sustained release of DS. PMID:18686091

Jani, Girish K; Shah, Dhiren P

2008-08-01

125

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. PMID:23006568

Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

2013-02-01

126

Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

2013-04-01

127

[Analysis of macroelements and microelements in Chinese traditional medicine Plumbago zeylanica Linn by ICP-AES].  

PubMed

Twenty macroelements and microelements were analyzed in the leaves, stems and roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn from Guangxi by inductively.coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Four macroelements, Na, K, Ca and Mg, five essential microelements, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr and Co, and eight other elements, Mo, Sb, Bi, Cd, Sr, Pb, Cd and As, were detected in all samples. The contents of the elements are varied in different parts of P. zeylanica. For all the determined elements, the contents in the leaves and roots are relatively higher as compared to those in the stems and it is in concurrence with the active parts of Plumbago zeylanica for the cure of antioxidant and anticancer drugs, as the elements Na, K, Ca, Zn, Fe, Mn, Sr, Cu and Co are the highest in leaves, followed by those is in roots. Many anticancer herbs usually show comparatively rich Zn, Mn, Fe, as well as Cr,Sr and Cu. Plumbago zeylanica exists with abundant Zn, Mn and Fe and a certain amount of Cr, Sr and Cu. The results would provide useful data for discussing the relationship between the elements in Chinese traditional medicine and its activities, and could be useful for the exploitation of the Chinese traditional medicinal resources. PMID:19626914

Tan, Ming-xiong; Chen, Zhen-feng; Wang, Heng-shan; Liu, Yan-cheng; Liang, Hong

2009-04-01

128

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain.

Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2014-01-01

129

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

130

Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

131

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

132

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

133

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

134

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats. PMID:16750340

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2006-10-11

135

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

136

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

137

Role of Aloe barbadensis Linn in the Removal of Toxic Heavy Metal of Kukkutandatwak (Shell of Hen's Egg): A Drug Used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Kukkutandatwak (Shell of hen's egg) is being used as calcium supplement in Ayurveda (Indian system of medicine).The present study is intended to standardisation of Kukkutandatwak (shell of hen's egg) and Aloe barbadensis Linn. The standardisation were carried out as per Pharmacopoeial Standards for Ayurvedic Formulations and WHO guidelines of quality control for medicinal plants. The potential of heavy

Alok Sharma; V. Rao; R. K. Tiwari; Lalit Kumar Tyagi; M. L. Kori; Virendra Singh; Kalpesh Gaur; Kruna Shankar

138

Far infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis for the determination of bioactive constituents in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a method based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection and far infrared-assisted extraction has been developed for the determination of rutin, gentisic acid, and quercetin in the leaves of Lycium barbarum Linn. The effects of detection potential, irradiation time, and the voltage applied on the infrared generator were investigated to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The detection

Haotian Duan; Yi Chen; Gang Chen

2010-01-01

139

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and BioChemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake

E. C. Chuku; D. N. Ogbonna; B. A. Onuegbu; M. T. V. Adeleke

2008-01-01

140

Effect of different fractions of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees) extract of the seeds of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex Murray) Pers. on some microorganisms.  

PubMed

In a model experiment, seed extracts were applied to different bacterial test organisms. Different fractions of seed extracts in petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C) of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Linn. ex. Murray) Pers. when applied to both Gram positive and Gram negative test bacteria, some fractions showed high antagonistic activity. PMID:7737896

Sinhababu, A; Basak, B; Laskar, S; Chakrabarty, D; Sen, S K

1994-01-01

141

Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45 points to perimeter conflicts. The LESA model was validated by testing on 23 parcels in Linn County for which requests to partition and/or convert to nonagricultural uses had been received by the County Planning Department. This testing was an essential part of the development process, as it pointed out inconsistencies and errors in the model and allowed continuous adjustment of factors and point scales. The results of application of the final model to three of the case studies are presented to illustrate the concepts. Three possible uses of the information generated by the LESA system include determining the relative agricultural value of a parcel, determining grades of agricultural land suitability, and determining the impacts of changing land use on other parcels in the vicinity. Relative agricultural value is a direct outcome of application of the evaluation criteria in the LESA model. Good, marginal, and nonagricultural grades of agricultural suitability were determined by examining the data from all 23 test cases and establishing threshold point values for soil quality, conflict, parcel size, and total LESA score. Impact analyses were not done in this study, but could be achieved by calculating LESA scores for all parcels possibly affected by a land-use change both before and after a proposed change. All three applications fall short of making a specific land-use decision, but they do provide information that should be of value to the local jurisdiction charged with making such decisions.

Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

1987-07-01

142

Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

2014-01-01

143

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

144

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

145

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

146

Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

2012-01-01

147

Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (?), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient.

Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

2014-01-01

148

Screening of flavonoid "quercetin" from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 µg/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

2012-01-01

149

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby. PMID:25022247

Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

2014-09-01

150

Influence of various host plants on the consumption and utilization of food by Pieris brassicae (Linn.).  

PubMed

Pieris brassicae (Linn.) is a destructive cosmopolitan pest of cruciferous crops. It is present wherever its host plants occur, and it is considered to be one of the most widely distributed of all the Lepidoptera. We investigated the affect of various host plants on the food consumption and utilization by P. brassicae. We quantified consumption of food, larval duration, pupal duration and weight on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), radish (Raphanus sativus), broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and mustard (Brassica campestris) under laboratory conditions. Insect-host relationships can be better understood by knowing the rate of food consumption, its digestibility and conversion of food eaten to body tissue. The consumption of food generally increased with the advancement of larval age. In our study we found that consumption of food was highest on radish and lowest on broccoli. The highest consumption of a particular host does not always indicate greater suitability of that host, until and unless other factors like consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), approximate digestibility (AD) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD) are also considered. In the current investigation, factors like CI, RGR, ECI and ECD were highest on cabbage. Low body weight of pupa is associated with rapid development. On cabbage, the weight of pupa of both sexes was found lowest. Thus, from the present study, it can be concluded that cabbage is a more suitable host for P. brassicae than other host plants evaluated. Hence, on cabbage, the values of Waldbauer indices were highest and P. brassicae developed with a faster rate. PMID:22030306

Ansari, M S; Hasan, F; Ahmad, N

2012-04-01

151

Evaluation of phytochemical-incorporated porous polymeric sponges for bone tissue engineering: a novel perspective.  

PubMed

Porous polymeric scaffolds are extensively studied for delivery of bone growth factors. Since phytochemicals are known to produce changes in cell signalling and other metabolic pathways, osteogenic phytochemicals, that is, extracts of Cissus quadrangularis and Butea monosperma, are incorporated into sulphonated poly(aryl ether ketone) sponges. The results have shown that the scaffolds with phytochemicals enhanced the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells compared to cells treated on scaffolds without phytochemicals. Hence, these phytochemicals can be evaluated to augment, if not substitute the use of bone morphogenetic proteins in scaffolds. PMID:23736994

Raghavan, Ravi N; Somanathan, N; Sastry, Thottapalli P

2013-08-01

152

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

2012-01-01

153

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

154

Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice).  

PubMed

Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs. PMID:24696580

Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, Vinay J

2013-10-01

155

Composition and Structure of Protein Bodies and Spherosomes Isolated from Ungerminated Seeds of Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench  

PubMed Central

Protein bodies and spherosomes have been isolated from mature seeds of Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench by a procedure which successfully disrupts the protein starch complex in the grain. Protein bodies from whole grain are 68% protein and have a distinct border and a monolithic appearance. Those from embryo are 95% protein and have diffuse borders, vacuoles, and appear very granular. Aleurone tissue protein bodies are 46% protein with a structure similar to those from embryo, but possibly are composed of a protein carbohydrate mixture. Spherosomes from all sources are quite similar in composition and structure. They have an average composition of 27% protein, 12% phosphorus, and 8.6% metals. Microscopically, they appear as small vesicles bounded by a wall which is probably composed of protein and the potassiummagnesium salt of phytic acid. Images PMID:16659009

Adams, Clifford A.; Novellie, Lawrence

1975-01-01

156

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

157

Protective effects of burdock ( Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein and oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effects of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne) on oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and nitric oxide production were investigated. The results showed that methanolic extracts of burdock (MEB) and their major components, chlorogenic acid (CHA) and caffeic acid (CA), showed marked antioxidant activity against oxidative damage of liposome (p<0.05), deoxyribose (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.05). In addition, at a concentration

Bor-Sen Wang; Gow-Chin Yen; Lee-Wen Chang; Wen-Jye Yen; Pin-Der Duh

2007-01-01

158

Nephroprotective activities of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. in carbon tetrachloride induced renal injured Wistar rats: a dose- and time-dependent study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the dose related effect of the aqueous seed extract of Carica papaya Linn. extract (CPE) was evaluated by pre-treating three groups of rats (made up of six male rats per group) with 100 - 400 mg\\/kg body weight per oral of the extract for 7 days before challenging with 1.5 ml\\/kg body weight of 20% carbon

JA Olagunju; AA Adeneye; AG Adeleke

159

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and\\u000a National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria\\u000a (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency

Anshu S. Chatli; Viraj Beri; B. S. Sidhu

2008-01-01

160

150 kDa glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne stimulates caspase-3 activation and reduces inducible nitric oxide production in HCT116 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein (SNL glycoprotein, 150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne, which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. We found that SNL glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate content (69.74%) and protein content (30.26%), which contains more than 50% hydrophobic amino acids such as glycine and proline.

Sei-Jung Lee; Kye-Taek Lim

2006-01-01

161

Effect of urea molasses mineral granules (UMMG) on rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents in goat kids fed sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass-based diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on twenty graded jamunapari goat kids fed on four different groups. Group I was fed solely on roughage, i.e. sola (Aeschonomene indica Linn) grass hay and rice straw (70:30). Groups II, III and IV were fed on de-oiled rice bran (100 g\\/d), urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) and urea molasses mineral granules (50 g\\/d) plus

Nisha Jain; Sita Prasad Tiwari; Pushpraj Singh

162

Coulomb breakup reactions of 11Li in the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus 11Li. We use the coupled-channel 9Li+n+n three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) configurations in 9Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of 11Li are described by using the combined methods of complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s state in the halo ground state of 11Li is shown to play an important role in the explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of 11Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s states of 9Li-n and n-n systems in the final three-body states of 11Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the present analysis, it is suggested that the contributions of the p-wave resonances of 10Li are hardly confirmed in the spectra.

Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Kat?, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

2013-03-01

163

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

164

Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.--an Indian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. (Harsingar) is widely used as a decoction in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of sciatica and arthritis, but it has not yet been screened scientifically. In the present study, the water soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) was screened for the presence of anti-inflammatory activity. NAT inhibited the acute inflammatory oedema produced by different phlogistic agents, viz. carrageenin, formalin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and hyaluronidase in the hindpaw of rats. The acute inflammatory swelling in the knee joint of rats induced by turpentine oil was also significantly reduced. In subacute models, NAT was found to check granulation tissue formation significantly in the granuloma pouch and cotton pellet test. Acute and chronic phases of formaldehyde induced arthritis were significantly inhibited. NAT was also found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods, viz. Freund's adjuvant arthritis and PPD induced tuberculin reaction. Thus anti-inflammatory activity in leaves of Harsingar supports its use in various inflammatory conditions by the followers of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:6482481

Saxena, R S; Gupta, B; Saxena, K K; Singh, R C; Prasad, D N

1984-08-01

165

Effect of steel plant effluent on acid and alkaline phosphatases of gills, liver and gonads of Cyprinus carpio Linn. (1758)  

E-print Network

Fishes are aquatic and poikilothermic animals. Hence, their existence and performance is dominated by the quality of their environment. Pollution of water bodies forces them to acclimatize to various factors thus imposing a considerable amount of stress on their lives. This ability to detect sudden changes in environment and monitoring short or long term changes in water quality makes the fish efficient biomarkers. The Bhilai Steel Plant is situated 30 kilometers (west) of Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh. Besides good quality steel, it also produces important by products, such as, Coal tar, Naphthalene and Benzol. Effluents generated are dumped into the two local rivers, the Kharoon and the Sheonath through various channels. Analysis of the physicochemical constituents of the different effluents reveals the coke oven effluent to contain a high amount of phenol, besides the presence of other toxic substances and hence is not expected to be congenial for the existence of fish. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn, 1758) were exposed to different concentrations (10,20,30%)of this effluent for a short term duration and changes in acid and alkaline phosphatases recorded in the three organs,viz.,gills,liver and gonads at different time points (48,96 and 160 hours).The various concentrations of the effluent were found to alter the acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity in the three organs. Hence, the results from present investigations may be useful in the assessment of environmental stress in the aquatic ecosystem.

Chetna Bakde; Aditi Niyogi Poddar

166

In Vitro Callus Culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity.  

PubMed

The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D. PMID:25248992

Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

2014-12-01

167

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

168

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

2009-08-01

169

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves  

PubMed Central

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

2013-01-01

170

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*  

PubMed Central

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-01-01

171

Antioxidant activity and protective effect of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative damage in rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine whether the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans extract exert significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of its hydroethanolic extract (HEETU) was evaluated by assessing (a) its radical scavenging ability in vitro, and (b) its in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The in vitro antioxidant assay (DPPH) clearly supported HEETU free radical scavenging potential. Moreover, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were significantly enhanced in CCl(4)-treated rats due to oral HEETU-treatment (500 mg/kgb.w.) over 7 and 21 days. In addition, an improvement was observed in lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), indicating a protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injuries, confirmed by histopathological studies. The HEETU effect was comparable to the standard drug Legalon® (50 mg/kgb.w.) under the same experimental condition. Quantitative analysis of the HPLC extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, wich mediate the effects of antioxidant and oxidative stress. In conclusion, extract components exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22940430

Brito, Naira J N; López, Jorge A; do Nascimento, Maria Aparecida; Macêdo, José B M; Silva, Gabriel Araujo; Oliveira, Cláudia N; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; Brandão-Neto, José; Schwarz, Aline; Almeida, Maria das Graças

2012-12-01

172

Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

2014-08-01

173

An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men

M R Safarinejad; N Shafiei; S Safarinejad; Safarinejad

2010-01-01

174

Agroforestry on alkali soil: effect of planting methods and amendments on initial growth, biomass accumulation and chemical composition of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora (SW) DC) with inter-space planted with and without Karnal grass ( Diplachne fusca Linn. P. Beauv.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth responses of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (SW) DC.) during establishment stage to planting methods and amendments were studied in a highly alkali soil (Aquic Natrustalf, ESP 94), at the experimental farm of the Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal in July, 1984. Six combinations of planting methods and amendments with and without Karnal grass (Diplachne fusca Linn. P Beauv) in

Gurbachan Singh; I. P. Abrol; S. S. Cheema

1988-01-01

175

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

176

Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

2014-09-01

177

Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.  

PubMed

Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved. PMID:22296348

Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2011-01-01

178

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

179

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

180

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC–MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2012-01-01

181

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC–MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2011-01-01

182

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

183

Distribution of major xanthones in the pericarp, aril, and yellow gum of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana linn.) fruit and their contribution to antioxidative activity.  

PubMed

Xanthone compounds in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) fruit have been reported to have biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and the major xanthone compounds in mangosteen are ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin. The objectives of this research were to quantify and qualify the major xanthones in each part of the mangosteen fruit with and without yellow gum from the point of view of effective utilization of agricultural product. Quantitative evaluation revealed that yellow gum had extremely high amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin (382.2 and 144.9 mg/g on a wet basis, respectively) followed by pericarp and aril. In mangosteen fruit with yellow gum inside, xanthones seemed to have shifted from the pericarp and to have concentrated in a gum on the surface of aril, and there was almost no difference between the amounts of ?-mangostin and ?-mangostin in whole fruits with and without yellow gum. Pericarp and yellow gum showed much higher radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant potential than the aril. PMID:23649258

Sukatta, Udomlak; Takenaka, Makiko; Ono, Hiroshi; Okadome, Hiroshi; Sotome, Itaru; Nanayama, Kazuko; Thanapase, Warunee; Isobe, Seiichiro

2013-01-01

184

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09??m2 to 35.66 ± 0.10??m2 and 142.90 ± 0.59??m2 to 165.05 ± 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

185

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

186

Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-04-01

187

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

188

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gümral, Nurhan; Doguc Kumbul, Duygu; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2013-01-01

189

Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines of extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. (BP). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the antioxidant properties of different polarity fractions extracted from BP were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging test and FRAP assay. The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-BP) showed the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. In addition, the anti-proliferative activities of the extracts on four human tumor cells, namely MCF-7, HepG2, MGC 803 and RKO, were investigated by MTT method. The EE-BP displayed the most remarkable anti-proliferative effect against the tumor cells, particularly RKO cell in dose- and time-dependent manner. The antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity correlated highly with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Furthermore, The active ingredient BP-6, namely 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,3'-dimethyl-flavonol, was isolated and purified with the purity above 99.00% and content of 0.15% in EE-BP detected by HPLC, which could significantly inhibit the proliferation of RKO cells with the IC(50) value of 6.66 ?mol/l. In order to characterize the apoptotic RKO cells, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assay were performed. Apoptotic cell numbers increased in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment with different concentrations of EE-BP and BP-6 for 12 and 6 h, respectively. DNA ladders in apoptotic RKO cells could be easily visualized when exposed to 200 ?g/ml of the EE-BP for 36 h. Taken together, our work indicated that BP had potentially therapeutic value against colorectal cancer. PMID:22382861

Wu, Jianguo; Wan, Zhongxian; Yi, Jun; Wu, Yanbin; Peng, Wei; Wu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

190

Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9?g/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

2012-09-01

191

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

192

Clinical study on the effect of decoction of Pavetta indica Linn. in treatment of Purishaja Krimi with special reference to Enterobius vermicularis infestation.  

PubMed

Pavetta indica Linn. (Family: Rubiaceae; Sanskrit name: Papata) is 2-5 m tall, shrub or small tree with opposite branches and grows in the Asia - Pacific region including Sri Lanka. Purishaja Krimi is one of the worm infestations described in Ayurveda. Enterobius vermicularis is among the most common of worms affecting children and adults. E. vermicularis is considered as one type of Purishaja Krimi. Sri Lankan traditional and ayurvedic physicians use P. indica to treat different ailments including Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis) infestations successfully. Since no scientific studies have been undertaken to study these effects so far, the present clinical study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. indica in treatment of E. vermicularis infestation. Fifty patients between age of 5 and 12 years (Group A and B) and 50 patients between 13 and 65 years (Group C and D) with symptoms of E. vermicularis infestations such as itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea or constipation and presence of ova in stools were selected. Two decoction of the trail drug with different concentration was prepared. Group A and Group B were treated with 60 ml of decoction 1 and 60 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Group C and Group D were treated with 120 ml of decoction 2 and 120 ml of placebo respectively, twice daily for 14 days. Groups A and C showed complete or partial reduction of symptoms, that is; itching in the anal region, impaired appetite, abdominal pain, eructation, diarrhea and also ova of E. vermicularis were absent in stools after treatment with P. indica. Decoction of P. indica can be recommended as an effective treatment for Purishaja Krimi (E. vermicularis infestation). PMID:24501518

Ediriweera, E R H S S; Rajapaksha, R P V J; Rathnayaka, R L Y U; Premakeerthi, W M S A; Premathilaka, S

2013-07-01

193

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?µg?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

2012-01-01

194

L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

2014-01-01

195

Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.  

PubMed

General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

2012-10-01

196

Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Niono District, Mali.  

PubMed

In Mali the use of traditional medicine is a wide spread phenomenon, not only because of its cultural importance, but also as the majority of people cannot afford the western drugs or medicines. In Mali, the Office du Niger area constitutes the main zone of schistosomiasis transmission where both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium are encountered. An ethnopharmacological survey, using questionnaire, was conducted in the Office du Niger area of the Niono District to determine the plants used against schistosomiasis amongst traditional healers. Forty healers from 21 villages of six different health areas were interviewed. All interviewed healers knew about urinary schistosomiasis, while only six knew about the intestinal form. The presence of blood in urine was reported as the main symptom of urinary schistosomiasis. Fifty-five plants belonging to 30 families were reported to be used alone for treating urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, while nine combinations of plants were used against the urinary form of the disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Stylosanthes erecta were the plants most frequently used and were reported for the first time, to be used against schistosomiasis in Mali. PMID:16414223

Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Dembélé, Seydou; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2006-05-24

197

A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-01-01

198

Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.  

PubMed

With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

2013-06-01

199

A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica. PMID:22228956

Priyashree, S.; Jha, S.; Pattanayak, S. P.

2010-01-01

200

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi. PMID:23570006

Gami, Bharat; Pathak, Smita; Parabia, Minoo

2012-09-01

201

Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract. PMID:21615059

Singh, Navdeep; Kaur, Sarabjit; Bedi, P M S; Kaur, Divneet

2011-05-01

202

The common periwinkle, Littorina littorea , Linne, attracted by sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In its natural habitat this marine snail was found to be very strongly attracted to an agar gel containing glucose. Sucrose and galactose were less but about equally attractive; manose barely attractive and fructose and manitol not attractive.

Richard G. Woodbridge

1978-01-01

203

A Factor in the Dispersal of Burdock (Arctium Lappa, Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE hooks on the involucral bracts of burdock, by clinging to passing animals, secure the removal to a greater or less distance of the fruits from the parent plant; but they do not secure the scattering from one another of the fruits contained in the burr itself. A chance incident that occurred some years ago, but which I have only

Oswald H. Latter

1941-01-01

204

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed Central

Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi. PMID:23570006

Gami, Bharat; Pathak, Smita; Parabia, Minoo

2012-01-01

205

Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological evaluation.  

PubMed

The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing. One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound-healing potential in animal studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72 hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test ointment-treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating acute wounds in animal models. PMID:15866805

Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

2004-09-01

206

The life-history of Ranunculus sceleratus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FAIR amount of work has already been done on the morphology of the Ranunculacem. Representatives from all the divisions and tribes have been worked out, but the genus Ranunculus itself has not received the attention it deserves. Since this is usually considered to be one of the most primitive genera of the dicotyledons, and Ranunculus sceleratus probably the most

Bahadur Singh

1936-01-01

207

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2011-01-01

208

Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): An Emerging Medicinal Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits

Praveen K. Vayalil

2012-01-01

209

Flood profile study, Morgan Creek, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a study made for a 35,000-foot reach of Morgan Creek. The report shows profiles computed for a large flood under existing conditions and for a smaller flood for two assumed conditions of encroachment. Flood-plain management can benefit from this type of information during future expansion of the urban area. This report is a result of a cooperative agreement between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey that provides for the collection and analysis of flood data in, and near, the City of Cedar Rapids.

Schwob, Harlan H.

1970-01-01

210

Antimicrobial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of Indigofera trita Linn.  

PubMed

An in vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of various extracts of Indigofera trita L. viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts were carried out. A total of 21 microorganisms (19 bacteria and 2 fungal strains) were used for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method and a standard procedure was used to identify the phytochemical constituents. Petroleum ether extract showed moderate inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (14.40 mm), S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), Salmonella paratyphi A (12.80 mm), Streptococcus mutans (12.20 mm), Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, S. typhi and Burkholderia cepacia (12.00 mm). The chloroform extract also showed antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (14.20 mm), S. typhimurium (12.60 mm), S. paratyphi A, S. brunei and Yersinia enterocolitica (12.00 mm). The acetone extract of I. trita showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (18.20 mm), S. typhimurium (14.60 mm), S. infantis (13.80 mm), S. aureus (13.40 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.00 mm) and Enterobacter aerogenes (12.00 mm) were documented. Ethanol extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (18.60 mm), S. paratyphi A (14.60 mm), Y. enterocolitica (13.40 mm), S. typhi (12.40 mm), S. aureus, E. aerogenes, S. typhimurium and S. infantis (12.00 mm). Aqueous extract of I. trita considerably inhibited S. epidermidis (13.80 mm), S. paratyphi A and Y. enterocolitica (12.20 mm), E. aerogenes and Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (12.00 mm). All the five extracts showed a minimal antifungal activity when compared to antibacterial activity. The result revealed that the antimicrobial properties of I. trita might be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols and alkaloids. PMID:24146483

Kumar, Raju Senthil; Moorthy, Kannaiyan; Vinodhini, Raja; Punitha, Thambidurai

2013-01-01

211

Effective detoxification of Abrus precatorius Linn. seeds by Shodhana  

PubMed Central

Ayurveda, which is one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports the seeds of Abrus precatorius (family: Fabaceae) can be used therapeutically after shodhana process, which removes the toxin. The main objective was to scientifically study the shodhana process by evaluating the safety and efficacy of A. precatorius seeds. Aqueous extract (A1) and detoxified extract (A2) of the seeds were prepared by a process described in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was developed for the two extracts using different solvent systems. Identical spots were obtained in A1 with reference values (Rf) 0.27, 0.47, and 0.79, whereas A2 showed the absence of spot having Rf value 0.47, which could possibly be the toxin found in the intact seed. A1 and A2 were evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The acute toxicity studies for A1 and A2 revealed that A1 was toxic, whereas A2 was safe at the dose of 2 g/kg. Absence of toxicity in the detoxified extract suggests removal of toxic material in processed seeds. The results obtained for hair growth activity of both the extracts were comparable to that of the standard. However, A2 showed better results in comparison to A1. Thus, the shodhana process described in Ayurveda helps in removing the toxin, while retaining the efficacy at the same time. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance. PMID:23930039

Barve, Kalyani H.; Ojha, Neha

2013-01-01

212

Remedial Prospective of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (Sea Buckthorn)  

PubMed Central

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis. PMID:22530142

Patel, Chirag A.; Divakar, Kalyani; Santani, Devdas; Solanki, Himanshu K.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.

2012-01-01

213

Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant.

A. Sajeli Begum; Shweta Verma; Mahendra Sahai; Kathrin Schneider; Roderich Süssmuth

2009-01-01

214

Hyoscyamal, a new tetrahydrofurano lignan from Hyoscyamus niger Linn.  

PubMed

In addition to the isolation and complete characterisation of a new lignan, hyoscyamal, three other compounds, balanophonin, pongamoside C and pongamoside D have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger. The structures of the compounds were settled on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report on the isolation of these compounds from a solanaceous plant. PMID:19401911

Begum, A Sajeli; Verma, Shweta; Sahai, Mahendra; Schneider, Kathrin; Süssmuth, Roderich

2009-01-01

215

Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food.  

PubMed

Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings. PMID:22214443

Vayalil, Praveen K

2012-01-01

216

Cuminum cyminum Linn. and Coriandrum sativum Linn. extracts modulate Chromium genotoxicity in Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, herbs and spices have enjoyed rich tradition for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their\\u000a medicinal properties. Ayurveda prescribes more than 700 plant based medicines that contain spices and food additives to encourage\\u000a good health. Diet is an important factor in prevention of diseases. Besides flavor and taste to cuisines, they also improve\\u000a immune system. Taking this

Arti Sharma; Manish Kumar; Satwinderjeet Kaur

217

university of alaska museum of the north FY08 annual report 7.20076.2008  

E-print Network

* Ethnology and History Molly Lee, Curator Emerita * Angela Linn, Collection Manager Micole Ogletree Druckenmiller (courtesy of P. Druckenmiller). Ethnology collections manager Angela Linn installs a porcupine

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

218

FY11 annual report 7.20106.2011 The University of Alaska Museum of the North, located on the Fairbanks campus, is the only museum in the state with a tripartite mission of research,  

E-print Network

, Curator* Ethnology and History Molly lee, Curator emerita * angela linn, Collection Manager Exhibition, lavrentiya, Chukotka, Russia; ethnology collection manager Angela Linn examines items donated by John r

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

219

Isolation and characterization of bioactive and antibacterial compound from Helianthus annuus linn.  

PubMed

A bioactive compound with antibacterial activity was isolated and purified from the extract of leaves of sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The bioactive compound was characterized using 1H and 13C NMR. The compound induced auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin in Oryza sativa and Phaseolus mungo. It also showed activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:19245180

Sankaranarayanan, S; Bama, P; Deccaraman, M; Vijayalakshimi, M; Murugesan, K; Kalaichelvan, P T; Arumugam, P

2008-12-01

220

Investigation of wound healing activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing. PMID:22238490

Gupta, N; Jain, U K

2011-01-01

221

76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...cultivated grass fields under a cooperative farming program to provide forage for wintering...be provided primarily via cooperative farming. The refuges would pursue measures to...other grains; the refuges taking over farming on certain high goose use fields;...

2011-05-25

222

Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background: Achyranthes aspera is known as Chirchita (Hindi), Apamarga (Sanskrit), Aghedi (Gujarati), Apang (Bengali), Nayurivi (Tamil), Kalalat (Malyalam) and Agadha (Marathi) in our country. It possesses valuable medicinal properties and used in treatment of cough, bronchitis and rheumatism, malarial fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension and diabetes in Indian folklore. Present study was designed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera (AEAA). Materials and Methods: AEAA leaves and whole plant (i.e. Aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera leaves (AEAAL)/Aqueous extracts of A. aspera whole plant (AEAAW) were studied in albino mice using carrageenan induced left hind paw edema. Both extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity of the extracts was also studied using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD guidelines 423. Results: Acute toxicity study confirmed toxic dose of AEAA to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were the major constituents found in extracts. AEAA reduced the edema induced by carrageenan by 35.71-54.76% on intraperitoneally administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg as compared to the untreated control group. Diclofenac sodium at 10 mg/kg inhibited the edema volume by 42.85%. The results indicated that the AEAA 800 mg/kg body weight shows more significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control respectively. Conclusion: Both AEAA exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity attributed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids phytoconstituents. PMID:23661870

Bhosale, Uma A.; Yegnanarayan, Radha; Pophale, Prachi; Somani, Rahul

2012-01-01

223

ANDREW SOLOMON 123 North Linn Street Suite 2C Iowa City, Iowa 52245  

E-print Network

is an outspoken activist and philanthropist for many causes in LGBT rights, mental health, education and the arts. He is founder of the Solomon Research Fellowships in LGBT Studies at Yale University and serves

Thaxton, Christopher S.

224

Envenomation by neotropical opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linne, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae) in Venezuela.  

PubMed

This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela). The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked improvement of envenomation. The snake was brought to the medical consult and identified as a Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus specimen. This report represents the first T. pallidus accident described in a human. PMID:15517037

Diaz, Fresnel; Navarrete, Luis F; Pefaur, Jaime; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

2004-01-01

225

Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)  

PubMed Central

We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2?) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. PMID:21686161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

2011-01-01

226

Analysis of the origin of Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense (Linn.), by protein electrophoresis  

E-print Network

vi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Effect of' PUP on the ADH activity of sorghum grain extracts. 17 2. Effect of 2-mercaptoethsnol on the ADH activity of S. bicolor (TX414) extracts 20 3. Effect of Cleland's reagent on the ADH activity... of sorghum grain extracts 22 4. ADH isozymes of S. bicolor (TX414) extracts used for Figures 2 snd 3. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 25 5. Disc electrophoresis of' S. bicolor (TX414) extracts 2 used for Figures 2 and 3. 6. Effect of cellulase...

Collier, Glen Eldon

2012-06-07

227

Effect of steroidal fraction of seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn. on rat testis.  

PubMed

Dose-dependent degenerative changes in the testicular weights, sperm count, later stages of spermatogenesis and Leydig cells are observed in testis of rats treated with steroidal fraction of seeds of A. precatorius. These are correlated with the dose-dependent decrease in the enzyme activity of 3 alpha, 3 beta, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and leucine aminopeptidase. The steroidal fraction may also exert its influence indirectly at the pituitary level by a feedback mechanism, leading to decrease in production and release of testosterone which results in significant alterations in the testis. PMID:2253968

Sinha, S; Mathur, R S

1990-08-01

228

Reversible contraception like activity of embelin in male dogs (Canis indicus Linn).  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the long term metabolic effect of embelin on the testes, adult male dogs were fed with embelin (80 mg/kg b.w. each other day) for 100 days. Loss in weights of testes and spermatogenic elements was noticed. The epididymides were devoid of spermatozoa but the functional morphology remain unaltered. 250 days of recovery period brings about normal spermiogenesis with all 1-8 cell stages. Epididymal milieu showed functional physiology. A three tiered finding accompanying histology, tissue biochemistry and blood/serum profile of dogs treated with embelin showed that 100 days therapy inhibits spermatogenesis, whereas 250 days recovery restores it. Sexual potency and libido of the animals did not change. A reversible male contraception with the help of a plant benzoquinone (embelin) is promising. PMID:6316811

Dixit, V P; Bhargava, S K

1983-01-01

229

Reasoning about Joint Administration of Access Policies for Coalition Resources Himanshu Khurana Virgil Gligor John Linn  

E-print Network

attribute certificates. 1. Introduction Management of shared resources (e.g., objects, applications genetics research company that has discovered the gene sequence for a particular disease wishes to form an alliance with a private hospital and a pharmaceutical company for research into finding a cure

Gligor, Virgil D.

230

Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

2013-01-01

231

Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.  

E-print Network

that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides... that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

Hicks, Van Joseph

2012-06-07

232

Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Rats: Influence of Acorus calamus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acorus calamus has been used as a traditional remedy since ancient days but its cardioprotective effect is not yet well characterized. The\\u000a aim of this study was to assess the effect of A. calamus rhizome extract in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with normal saline (0.5 ml\\/kg,\\u000a i.p.), isoproterenol (5 mg\\/kg, i.p.), A. calamus (100 and 200 mg\\/kg, respectively,

Bhulan Kumar Singh; Krishna Kolappa Pillai; Kanchan Kohli; Syed Ehtaishamul Haque

2011-01-01

233

Bull. Soc. linn. Provence, t. 59, 2008 Lichens et champignons lichnicoles du  

E-print Network

. rohlenae (Servít) Cl. Roux comb. nov., Lecidea lapicida var. lithophiloides (Müll. Arg.) Cl. Roux comb. nov. Roux comb. nov., Leci- dea lapicida var. lithophiloides (Müll. Arg.) Cl. Roux comb. nov., Pertusaria

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

OA02.04. Wound healing property of Kanchanara [Bauhinia variegata Linn] - An experimental study.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Wound a clinical entity, is commonly seen as a result of various etiological factors like trauma etc. Kanchanara a plant origin drug. Many of the Nighantu's have mentioned vrana shodhana and vrana ropana properties of Kanchanara. Hence present study of evaluating wound healing property of Kanchanara bark in the form of churna and ointment [sikta taila base] preparations has been taken up. Method: Albino rats were the experimental model. 36 albino rats were selected and divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. 3 groups were used for excision wound model and remaining 3 groups were used for incision wound model, one group being served as the control and remaining two group for the trial drug. Churna and ointment were used for both excision and incision groups. Albino rats were wounded under aseptic conditions using wound techniques suggested by Marton and Malone [1972] and also by hunts model[1969]. In case of excision wound area of wound was measured once in 4 days by using graph sheet. In case of incision wound tensile strength was found out by using tensinometer on 10th post wounding day. Result: The statistical values of both groups were compared with control group and it showed that: 1. Kanchanara ointment promoted epithelization, wound contraction and period of epithelization was reduced in case of excision wound. 2. In incision wound also Kanchanara ointment helps in increasing collagenation and tensile strength. Both ointment and churna group are highly significant when compared with control group. On comparison of ointment group with churna group it statistically showed insignificance. No untoward side effects were noticed during the trial and the wound, healed with minimal scar. Conclusion: Kanchanara ointment and its churna is an effective, safe and well tolerated therapy in the treatment of both excision and incision wound.

Hiremath, Shilpa; Pradeep

2013-01-01

235

Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:21808535

Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

2010-01-01

236

Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.)  

PubMed Central

The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety. PMID:23559810

Kumari, Mamta; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Pandya, Tarulata N.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

237

Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810

Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

2009-10-01

238

Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Studies of Vitex negundo Linn. Extracts  

PubMed Central

Essential oils from fresh leaves, flowers and dried fruits of Vitex negundo were obtained by hydrodistillation. Using Soxhlet extractor five successive extracts from dried and powdered leaves were also taken. The chemical constituents of essential oil of leaves, flowers and dried fruits were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS techniques. Main constituents identified in leaves oil were ?-guaiene, carryophyllene epoxide and ethyl-hexadecenoate; in flowers oil - ?-selinene, germacren-4-ol, carryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol while fruit oil showed ?-selinene, ?-cedrene, germacrene D and hexadecanoic acid as the main constituents. ?-Caryophyllene was only the constituent identified as common to all three oils. ?-Guaiene and guaia-3,7-diene were identified as common constituents in leaf and dried fruit oil while leaf and flower oils showed p -cymene, valencene, caryophyllene epoxide and (E)-nerolidol as common constituent. All the essential oils and successive extracts were evaluated for antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. Each of the essential oils and extracts were found to give promising results against B. subtilis and E. coli. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity against all the tested strains. Fruits and leaves oil were found to be most active against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Only flowers oil was found to be active against P. aeruginosa. PMID:20046787

Khokra, S. L.; Prakash, O.; Jain, S.; Aneja, K. R.; Dhingra, Yogita

2008-01-01

239

Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~  

E-print Network

Hands ­ On Science with NOAA TITLE: Ocean Acidification and Dry Ice OVERVIEW: Participants revolution ocean. 2. In the second container, add the same amount of water and indicator solution IDEAS · Instead of dry ice, bubble smoke from a candle into the indicator solution. · Investigate

240

Estimating Haplotype-Disease Associations With Pooled Genotype D. Zeng and D.Y. Linn  

E-print Network

Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. The corresponding maximum likelihood estimators are approximately-environment interactions; haplotype analysis; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; linkage disequilibrium; maximum likelihood

Lin, Danyu

241

A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn).  

PubMed

The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH)). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak. PMID:21430961

Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

2011-01-01

242

Influence of cadmium on growth and development of Vicia faba Linn.  

PubMed

Influence of cadmium (Cd) on growth and development of broad bean (V. faba) was assessed in pot cultures with cadmium iodide (CdI2) in different concentrations ranging from 15 to 500 mg per kg of soil. There was a decline in plant height and total dry weight. Root size decreased most significantly with a corresponding reduction in the frequency of root nodules. Total soluble protein in leaf, stem and root suffered a pronounced loss with increasing concentration of cadmium. Chlorophyll a was the most sensitive pigment followed by chlorophyll b and carotenoids. Nitrate reductase activity too was adversely affected. Cadmium contamination induced abnormalities in stomata and trichomes. PMID:12557916

Neelu; Kumar, M; Tomar, M; Bhatnagar, A K

2000-08-01

243

The Isolation of the Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Compounds in Seeds of Arctium lappa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lignan compounds namely 3'-demethyl arctigenin (compound 1), arctigenin (compound 2) and arctigenin glucoside (compound 3) were isolated from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) by bioassay-guided fractionation. From 500 g of dried seeds, the yields of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were 26.2, 38.4 and 22.1 mg, respectively. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive NMR

Narisa Kamkaen; Yuji Matsuki; Chikara Ichino; Hiroaki Kiyohara; Haruki Yamada

244

Formation of sporangia and zoospores by a Labyrinthomyxa sp. parasitic in Macoma Balthica Linne  

E-print Network

. Using the trypsin isolation method, sporangia and zoospores were regularly and abundantly obtained which were basically similar to those of L. marina. Using the Waring blender isolation method only two sporangia with zoospores were seen which appeared... of Sporangia and Zoospores 17 18 Comparison of the Sporangial and Zoospore Stages of the Lab rinthom xa sp. from M. balthica with those of L. marina 18 Comparison of the In Vivo Salinity Range of the Spo- rangial and Zoospore Formation by the Lab rinthom...

Valiulis, George Arvidas

2012-06-07

245

Effect of Aloe (Aloe vera Linn.) on Healthy Adult Volunteers: Changes in Urinary Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: 1. To investigate the amount of citrate and tartrate in aloe gel, and in the urine of healthy normal volunteers, before and after consuming fresh aloe gel. 2. To evaluate the changes in the chemical composition of urine among subjects after taking aloe gel. 3. To determine the value of consuming aloe gel for prevention of renal stone formation.

Sukachart Kirdpon; Wichit Kirdpon; Wanchai Airarat

246

Evaluation of honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos Linn.) gum as sustaining material in tablet dosage forms.  

PubMed

In this study, honey locust gum (HLG) obtained from Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust) beans was investigated as a hydrophilic matrix material in the tablets prepared at different concentrations (5% and 10%) by wet granulation method. Theophylline was chosen as a model drug. The matrix tablets containing hydroxyethylcellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as sustaining polymers at the same concentrations were prepared and a commercial sustained release (CSR) tablet containing 200 mg theophylline was examined for comparison of HLG performance. Physical analysis on CSR tablet, matrix tablets and their granules before compression were performed. According to the results obtained from dissolution studies in distilled water, pH 1.2 HCl buffer and pH 7.2 phosphate buffer, no significant difference was found between CSR tablet and the matrix tablet containing 10% HLG in each medium (P > 0.05) and these tablets showed zero-order kinetic model in all the mediums. PMID:15231434

Uner, Melike; Altinkurt, Turan

2004-07-01

247

Energy metabolism in the tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina Linn: Comparisons with temperate abalone species  

E-print Network

in aerated seawater, and there is no significant ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis or phosphagen to the additional inputs from anaerobic glycolysis required by other abalone. Metabolic profiles of foot of enzymes unique to aerobic ATP production, relatively high activities of arginine kinase, tauropine and D

Donovan, Deborah

248

ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

2012-01-01

249

The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower extremity wounds--a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant. PMID:15866819

Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

2004-12-01

250

The relationship between grain yield and waxy endosperm in Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench  

E-print Network

. These species generally create fertile progeny when hybridized with cultivated sorghums. Generally, the wild races of S. bicolor are largely adapted in wet and humid parts of forested central and West Africa. Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor is divided.... These species generally create fertile progeny when hybridized with cultivated sorghums. Generally, the wild races of S. bicolor are largely adapted in wet and humid parts of forested central and West Africa. Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor is divided...

Aydin, Selahattin

2005-08-29

251

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn ( Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. (family: Asteraceae) were tested against acetic

NV Shinde; KG Kanase

252

Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of Cassia occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous extract of whole plant of Cassia occidentalis were orally tested at the dose of 200 mg/kg for hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract-treated diabetic rats, were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathological observations during 21 days treatment were also evaluated. Results: Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Apart from aqueous extract, petroleum ether extract showed activity from day 14 and chloroform extract showed activity from 7 days. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein, and changes in body weight by aqueous extract treated-diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. They also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and serum lipid profiles as well as histopathological studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so might be of value in diabetes treatment. PMID:20927247

Verma, Laxmi; Khatri, Anirudh; Kaushik, Basant; Patil, Umesh K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

2010-01-01

253

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

2012-01-01

254

Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity)  

PubMed Central

Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as ‘Nindita purusha’ including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m2 reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients. PMID:22661848

Pattonder, Ranjan K.; Chandola, H. M.; Vyas, S. N.

2011-01-01

255

ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN.- A HIGH POTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of Clitoria ternatea. The organic solvent (Petroleum ether, Ethyl acetate and Methanol) extracts from the leaves of Clitoria ternatea (Papilionoideae) were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi by agar disc and well diffusion methods. The results showed promising antibacterial activity against the tested microbial pathogens. Among these, methanol extract was found to possess a more potent inhibitory activity effect when compared to the other extracts (Petroleum ether and Ethyl acetate). The results of this study validate the use methanol extract of this species in ethnomedicine, favouring the isolation of antibacterial agents from the leaf extracts of Clitoria ternatea. Key words: Microbial pathogens, ethnomedicine, solvents, Clitoria ternatea.

S. P. An; A. Doss

256

Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn.  

PubMed

Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica, commonly known as 'Railway creeper', was carried out against the larvae of four vector species of mosquitoes in order to evaluate its mosquito larvicidal effect. Bioassay test revealed that the essential oil of the plant possess remarkable larvicidal properties as it could induce 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (100 ppm), Aedes aegypti (120 ppm), Anopheles stephensi (120 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus (170 ppm) mosquitoes at concentrations rangeing from 100 to 170 ppm. The LC(50) and LC(90) values estimated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 14.8 and 78.3, 22.3 and 92.7, 14.9 and 109.9, and 58.9 and 161.6 ppm, respectively. The essential oil was found to be most highly toxic to the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus followed by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. PMID:15329451

Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Rao, Sunder; Lal, Shiv

2004-08-01

257

Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin  

PubMed Central

Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

Dougnon, Tamegnon Victorien; Bankole, Honore Sourou; Klotoe, Jean Robert; Senou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frederic; Boko, Michel

2014-01-01

258

FEEDING AND GROWTH RESPONSES TO COPPER, ZINC, MERCURY AND LEAD IN THE TERRESTRIAL GASTROPOD ARIONATER (LINNE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption and growth variations related to several dosages of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) in diet were studied in the terrestrial slug Arion ater for 27 days of experimental treatment. The work reported here is part of a larger project to investigate the histological effects of metal exposure in pulmonate gastropods. Graphics on food consumption and growth

J. A. MARIGOMEZ; E. ANGULO; V. SAEZ

1986-01-01

259

Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.  

PubMed

The whole seed extract of S. nux vomica (in low doses) effectively neutralized Daboia russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, PLA2 enzyme activity and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA2 enzyme activity. The seed extract potentiated polyvalent snake venom antiserum action in experimental animals. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, which effectively antagonised D. russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activity and N. kaouthia induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA, enzyme activity. Polyvalent snake venom antiserum action was significantly potentiated by the active compound. Spectral studies revealed it to be a small, straight chain compound containing methyl and amide radicals. Detailed structure elucidation of the compound (SNVNF) is warranted before its clinical trials as a snake venom antagonist. PMID:15233470

Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

260

RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)  

PubMed Central

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

2014-01-01

261

IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF ACALYPHA INDICA Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of present study was to evaluate anthelmintic potential of crude alcoholic extract of root of Acalypha indica using Pheretima posthuma as test worm. Three concentrations (10, 25 and 50 mg\\/ml) of alcoholic extract and its various fractions were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time paralysis (P) and the time of death (D) of the worms.

B. CHENGAIAH; K. MAHESH KUMAR; M. ALAGUSUNDARAM; C. SASIKALA; C. MADHUSUDHANA

262

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

263

J. Linnes, S. Wong BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Spring 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

. Twice-monthly course evaluations will be used to guide the teaching and learning styles of the course, 4 pm ­ 6 pm Location 685 Commonwealth Ave (CAS), Room 324 Website https://learn.bu.edu Instructors will require intensive teamwork outside of class hours. Due to differences in opinions as well as learning

Vajda, Sandor

264

Mosquito Larvicidal Properties of Essential Oil of an Indigenous Plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 5 decades the indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture and public health programs for the control of pest species has created multifarious problems viz. insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and other non-target organisms. In attempt to overcome these problems, great emphasis has been recently placed on the research and development of forms of

Thekkevilayil George Thomas; Sunder Rao; Shiv Lal

265

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

2012-05-01

266

A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn)  

PubMed Central

The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae). Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet MuhammadPBUH). In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak. PMID:21430961

Akhtar, Jamal; Siddique, Khalid M.; Bi, Salma; Mujeeb, Mohd

2011-01-01

267

Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-?B p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

2013-07-01

268

In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ?g/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

2012-01-01

269

Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

2012-10-01

270

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Composition and antituberculosis activity of the volatile oil of Heliotropium indicum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile oil from the aerial parts of H. indicum was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was obtained in 0.004% yield as a light brown liquid. The major constituents of the volatile oil of H. indicum were phytol (49.1%), 1-dodecanol (6.4%) and ?-linalool (3.0%). In

Theeraphan Machan; John Korth; Boonsom Liawruangrath; Saisunee Liawruangrath; Stephen G. Pyne

271

Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas is a herbal preparation used in the tropics for the treatment of threatened abortion and related problems associated with pregnancy. The Stem bark of Jatropha curcas is used ethno medicinally in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country for the treatment of infertility and spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). The present study was undertaken in order to validate the folkloric claim, using scientific experimental procedures and bioassay guided fractionation. The crude powdered sample was subjected to phytochemical screening testing for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and VLC) were carried out using various solvent systems. The effect of methanolic extracts on rat uterine contractions was studied in vitro, in 40ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution of De Jalon maintained at 370C, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 with an isometric transducer connected an UgoBasile recorder under a resting tension of 750mg. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract abolished significantly the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50mg/ml. The tocolytic effects indicate the presence of active principle(s) which would explain the ethno medicinal use of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas to treat spontaneous abortion. PMID:22547181

Falodun, Abiodun; Nworgu, Z A M; Osayemwenre, Erharuyi

2011-12-01

272

Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Prese nce of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrol ithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a se rious, debilitating problem in all societies throug hout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH) is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi). Struvite sto nes are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as

C. K. Chauhan; M. J. Joshi; A. D. B. Vaidya

273

In vitro rooting of Psoralea corylifolia Linn: Peroxidase activity as a marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of rooting in microshoots of Psoraleacorylifolia was achieved within 6–8 days of cultureon half-strength basal Murashige and Skoog's(1962) medium supplemented with 0.005–0.01 mg\\/lindole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2% (w\\/v) sucrose. Rooting was drastically reduced and friable callusformed at the cut end of the microshoots when themedium was supplemented with a higher concentration ofauxin. Rooting was totally inhibited when themicroshoots were

G. R. Rout; S. Samantaray; P. Das

2000-01-01

274

VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (LINN.) NASH A MULTIPURPOSE ECO-FRIENDLY GRASS OF INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vetiveria zizanioides is popularly known as Khas Khas, Khas or Khus grass in India. It is a densely tufted grass, found throughout the plains and lower hills of India, particularly on the riverbanks and in rich marshy soil. Vetiver has been known to India since ancient times. It has been considered as a high- class perfume and copper plate inscriptions

R. R. Rao; M. R. Suseela

275

Naam: mw. prof. dr. S.C. Linn Leeropdracht Translationele Oncologie met focus op het mammacarcinoom  

E-print Network

breast cancer and benefit of high-dose, platinum-based, chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer to predict prognosis of patients with node-negative breast cancer: a prospective community-based feasibility

Utrecht, Universiteit

276

Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

2014-01-01

277

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

278

Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. PMID:23073108

Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

2012-12-01

279

[Rational close planting in raising the seedlings of Panax quinguefolium linn].  

PubMed

It has been found that the effect of planting density is hardly noticeable for one-year-old seedlings, but very apparent for 2-year-old ones. With the increase of planting density, the leaf area gets smaller, stem higher, and root thinner and shorter. The larger the planting density. The smaller the dry weights of canopy and root and the root-canopy ratio. It is thus advocated that rational planting densities be selected according to the proper cultivation systems. PMID:1820788

Wang, T; Zhao, O; Li, R; Tan, S; Guo, C; Liu, Y

1991-10-01

280

Histochemical study of shoot-root apices in Panicum miliaceum Linn. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histochemical nature of shoot and root apices inPanicum miliaceum L. seedlings was studied using light microscopic histochemical procedures on tissue-sections. The substances localized are:\\u000a RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and reducing sugars.\\u000a \\u000a The shoot apex generally shows uniform distribution of starch grains in all the zones, the presence of which is noticed more\\u000a in the subtending area of the shoot apex.

C. K. Rudramuniyappa; M. G. Panchaksharappa

1975-01-01

281

Seabuckthorn(Hippophae Linn. sps.) - A potential Resource for Biodiversity conservation in Nepal Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.) berry is very rich source of vitamins and it possesses a number of unique medicinal properties, which have a great potential to provide health-foods & a variety of medicines. However, despite rich under exploited potential, Nepal is yet to harness the rich potential of Seabuckthorn in producing foods, medicines, juices, and other cosmetic products where as countries

A. Sahim Ansari

282

Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn  

PubMed Central

Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 ?M acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

2011-01-01

283

Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

2013-01-01

284

Alterations in enzymes in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.), exposed to vanadium  

SciTech Connect

The increase in air and water borne concentrations of vanadium, a physiologically and pharmacologically active substance, has caused renewed interest in the toxicology of this metal. Toxicity studies of vanadium on fish are comparatively scarce. Cytochrome P-450 monoxygenases and conjugating enzymes are important in fish metabolism and elimination of endogenous as well as foreign lipophilic compounds. These enzymes are also known to participate in activation and inactivation of carcinogenic and environmental chemicals. (In vitro) investigations have shown that fish metabolize xenobiotics by mechanisms very similar to those found in mammals. Impairment of drug-metabolizing enzymes is thus deleterious to the organism. Heavy metals are known to influence this group of enzymes. This prompted us to investigate the effect of vanadate, in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, on the relative rates and patterns of hepatic glutathione transferase (GST) activity, UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450) level in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus. We chose an aquatic species for our experiment since the environment where aquatic animals live is the main destination of industrial and agricultural wastes. The variations recorded in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450, glutathione transferase and UDP-glu-curonyl transferase are discussed in relation to carcinogenic risk depending on the environment of the fish. In support of the above, petroleum has been found to induce cytochrome P-450 and subsequently produce high levels of neoplasia in fish. Furthermore, GST, UDPGT and Cyt P-450 have been reported as reliable markers for preneoplastic lesions in liver. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Chakraborty, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Chatterjee, M. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

1995-02-01

285

Of all foods bread is the most noble: Carl von Linn? (Carl Linneaus) on bread1  

PubMed Central

Carl von Linné was interested in dietetics, which in his time covered all aspects of a healthy life. As a utilitarian he understood the importance of private economy and paid attention to bread in many of his publications. Two texts, Ceres noverca arctoum and De pane diaetetico, were wholly devoted to bread and bread-making. Linné classified different types of bread, and described their nutritional value and health-related aspects, as well as milling, baking and storing, in detail. While discussing the food habits of social classes Linné accepted as a fact that the peasants and the poor should eat less tasty bread than the rich. The less palatable bread had, however, many nutritional and health advantages. Linné paid much attention to substitutes for grain to be used in times of famine, an important topic in eighteenth century Sweden. He regarded flour made of pine bark or water arum roots as excellent famine food, was enthusiastic about the new plant, maize, but considered potato only as a poor substitute for grain. Linné and his followers praised bread not only as the core component of diet, but also for its versatile role both in health and in disease.

Rasanen, Leena

2007-01-01

286

Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity).  

PubMed

Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as 'Nindita purusha' including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m(2) reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients. PMID:22661848

Pattonder, Ranjan K; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N

2011-10-01

287

Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.  

PubMed

With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. PMID:21584678

Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

2011-09-01

288

A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce).  

PubMed

A new pentacyclic triterpenoid constituent, characterized as 3-oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29?-carboxylic acid (1) on the basis of detailed spectral studies, was isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Limnophila indica (Scrophulariaceae). Compound 1 exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (MICs within a range of 25-30 ?g/ml) and moderate activity against four Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea ananatis (MICs within a range of 30-100 ?g/ml). The plant pathogenic bacterium P. ananatis and human pathogenic S. typhimurium responded at comparatively higher concentrations of the compound 1, which were 75 and 100 ?g/ml respectively. The compound inhibited the growth of Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa completely with a clear bactericidal mode of action at their MIC values. The compound upon treatment on both B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa released substantial amount of nucleic acid in the external medium and also effected the change of morphology towards pleomorphicity, thereby indicating its probable action on cell membrane. Furthermore, the triterpenoid 1 was found not to inhibit a probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LABW4 under in vitro condition and to possess no toxicity in Swiss albino mice. PMID:23876368

Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Roy, Rajiv; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Sarkar, Sajal; Jash, Shyamal K; Mondal, Sadhan

2013-10-01

289

INTRODUCTION The ostrich (Struthio camelus, Linn 1758) is capable of remarkable  

E-print Network

and constitutes an important reservoir for elastic energy storage (e.g. Rubenson et al., 2007; Schaller et al that are truly digitigrade. The resulting `additional' limb joint increases the capacity for shock absorption

D'Août, Kristiaan

290

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

291

Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn extract against CCl 4-iduced oxidative damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum nigrum L. (SN) is an herbal plant that has been used as hepatoprotective and anti-inflammation agent in Chinese medicine. In this study, the protective effects of water extract of SN (SNE) against liver damage were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with SNE (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0gkg?1 bw) along with

Hui-Mei Lin; Hsien-Chun Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Jin Lin; Chia-Wen Lo; Fen-Pi Chou

2008-01-01

292

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.  

PubMed Central

Butanol and hexane leaves extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) were assessed for its antioxidant potential by in vitro methods. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of plant extracts were studied using different in vitro assays. UPLC analysis of extracts was carried out for the identification of chemical constituents. The total phenolic contents of the butanol and hexane leaf extract were 42?mgGAE/g and 34?mgGAE/g whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.044?mgRE/g and 0.005?mgRE/g, respectively. Among both extracts, butanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 93.88%, 80.02%, 52.06%, 94.68%, and 69.37% in DPPH, non-site-specific and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.852 and 0.522 in reducing power and CUPRAC assay at the highest concentration tested. The FRAP and TAC values of butanol extract were found to be 678??M Fe(II)/g and 36?mgAAE/100?mg. UPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of various polyphenols. The tested plant extracts were found to possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. PMID:24822217

Sharma, Sonia; Vig, Adarsh Pal

2014-01-01

293

Linn Havelick From: White, Diane K [white.diane@cleanharbors.com  

E-print Network

will need to keep the wording from Michael McDonald's original indemnification language. Please let me know, New Mexico, Arizona work/cell: 303-263-0663 No virus found in this outgoing message. Checked by AVG

294

Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.  

PubMed

Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation. PMID:22557354

Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

2010-01-01

295

Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic and ulcer-healing properties of Ocimum sanctum Linn.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated its anti-ulcerogenic activity in cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague-Dawley rats, histamine-induced duodenal (HST) ulcer in guinea pigs, and ulcer-healing activity, in acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model. We found that OS, decreased the incidence of ulcers and also enhanced the healing of ulcers. OS at a dose of 100 mg/kg was found to be effective in CRU (65.07%), ASP (63.49%), AL (53.87%), PL (62.06%), and HST (61.76%) induced ulcer models and significantly reduced free, total acidity and peptic activity by 72.58, 58.63, 57.6%, respectively, and increased mucin secretion by 34.61%. Additionally, OS completely healed the ulcers within 20 days of treatment in AC. We observed that anti-ulcer effect of OS may be due to its cytoprotective effect rather than antisecretory activity. Conclusively, OS was found to possess potent anti-ulcerogenic as well as ulcer-healing properties and could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease. PMID:15234753

Dharmani, Poonam; Kuchibhotla, Vijay Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Sudhir; Sharma, Sharad; Palit, Gautam

2004-08-01

296

Seedling Growth Performance of Cassia fistula (Linn.) Using Climate Change Scenarios for Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is a key factor which determines the distribution of plants and animals. The time has come to identify the indigenous and\\/or exotic forest tree species considering nationally viable and adaptable to future climate change. A need may exist to develop the management techniques with experimental settings to facilitate the survival and make best use of suitable species as well.

M. R. Ullah; M. Al-Amin

297

Successful plant regeneration from callus cultures of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful procedure was established for in vitro plant regeneration from callus derived from stem and leaf explants of Centella asiatica on semisolid modified Murashige and Skoog's [7] medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L3 kinetin and 4.0 mg L3 a-naphthaleneacetic acid. The rate of shoot-bud regeneration was the highest (42.8 and 54.3 shoots\\/culture in stem and leaf derived callus respectively)

A. Patra; B. Rai; G. R. Rout; P. Das

1998-01-01

298

Gastroprotective Effect of Rubia cordifolia Linn. on Aspirin Plus Pylorus-Ligated Ulcer  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric ulcer and compare activity with its fractions by employing aspirin plus pylorus-ligated ulcer screening model in Wistar rats. Total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output, and pepsin activity show significant reduction, when compared with the control group. The present study confirmed that chloroform fraction showed the significant activity at lower doses compared to parent extract. The mechanism can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretary activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanism by prostaglandin synthesis and antioxidant potential. PMID:21423635

Deoda, R. S.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S. S.

2011-01-01

299

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn.), red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh.), red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), garlic (Allium sativum Linn.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne.), which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant

Wiwat Wangcharoen; Wallaya Morasuk

300

Experimental Studies of Mimicry in some North American Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXPERIMENTS have been conducted to test the effectiveness of presumed mimicry in two groups of North American butterflies : (1) Danaus plexippus Linn. (model) and Limenitis archippus archippus Cram. (mimic), the monarch and viceroy respectively ; (2) Battus philenor Linn. (model) and Papilio troilus Linn., P. polyxenes Stoll, and P. glaucus Linn. (black female) (mimics).

Jane Van Zandt Brower

1957-01-01

301

Brazilian Bidens pilosa Linn? yields fraction containing quercetin-derived flavonoid with free radical scavenger activity and hepatoprotective effects  

PubMed Central

Bidens pilosa is a plant used by Amazonian and Asian folks for some hepatopathies. The hydroethanol crude extract and three fractions were assessed for antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. Higher levels of scavenger activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, inhibition of deoxyribose oxidation and lipid peroxidation in vitro were detected for the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50~4.3–32.3 µg/ml) followed by the crude extract (IC50~14.2–98.0 µg/ml). The ethyl acetate fraction, again followed by the crude extract, showed high contents of total soluble polyphenols (3.6±0.2 and 2.1±0.2 GAE/mg, respectively) and presence of a quercetin-derived flavonoid identified as quercetin 3,3?-dimethyl ether 7-O-?-D-glycopyranoside. Both products were assayed for hepatoprotector effects against CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. Markers of oxidative stress and hepatic injury were evaluated. The results showed that the 10-day pretreatments (15 mg/kg, p.o.) protected the livers against injury by blocking CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and the DNA fragmentation was decreased (~60%). The pretreatments avoided the loss of the plasma ferric reducing/antioxidant power and the elevation of serum transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The results suggest that the main constituents responsible for the hepatoprotective effects with free radical scavenger power associated are well extracted by performing fractionation with ethyl acetate. The findings support the Brazilian traditional use of this plant and justify further evaluations for the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction to treat some liver diseases. PMID:21526045

Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Correia, Joao Francisco Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Rossi, Maria Helena; Gatti, Fernando de Moura; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

2011-01-01

302

Bioassay of three sulphur containing compounds as rat attractant admixed in cereal-based bait against Rattus rattus Linn.  

PubMed

Three sulphur containing compounds, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide and dimethyl sulphide were bioassayed for preference after admixing them in cereal base as ready bait block for use against commensal rat, R. rattus (wild type) in four way choice chamber system. Rat preference for different baits was also studied with automatic recording animal activity meter. Rats exhibited attractancy to the baits at 0.005% concentration of all the three compounds while at 0.01% concentration they have showed repellency. Dimethyl sulphide at 0.005% concentration showed better attractancy towards both sexes of rat. PMID:12597027

Veer, Vijay; Gopalan, N; Kumar, Santosh; Prakash, Shri

2002-08-01

303

Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.  

PubMed

Although consumers and the food industry have an interest in reducing the use of synthetic additives, the consumption of processed meat in Brazil has been increasing because of the easy preparation and low cost. Owing to the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO), it has potential applications in food products. Polyphosphates are already used in meat processing with the goal of improving the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and O. basilicum EO, when added separately or together, on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during the shelf life of chicken sausage. We also performed sensory analysis of the product prepared in this manner. Six different treatments were produced in which the substances were tested together or separately, and the content of EO was 0.3 or 0.03%. The samples were analyzed after 1, 7, and 15 days of storage at 4°C. An increase in pH on days 7 and 15 in samples that contained SHMP was observed. In the samples that contained either 0.3 or 0.03% EO, coliforms were inhibited throughout the study period (P < 0.05), which was not observed in samples with EO plus SHMP, thus demonstrating that the stabilizer blocked the antibacterial action of EO. There was a reduction in the cook loss and increased compressive force in the samples with 0.5% SHMP, contributing to greater juiciness of the product. The EO had substantial impact on acceptability of samples, but it did not influence the activities already described of polyphosphate. PMID:24853522

Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Albano, Mariana; Castilho, Ivana Giovannetti; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Athayde, Natália Bortoleto; Delbem, Nara Laiane Casagrande; Roça, Roberto de Oliveira; Fernandes, Ary

2014-06-01

304

Anethum graveolens Linn. (dill) extract enhances the mounting frequency and level of testicular tyrosine protein phosphorylation in rats*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of Anethum graveolens (AG) extracts on the mounting frequency, histology of testis and epididymis, and sperm physiology. Methods: Male rats induced by cold immobilization before treating with vehicle or AG extracts [50, 150, and 450 mg/kg body weight (BW)] via gastric tube for consecutive 1, 7, and 14 d were examined for mounting frequency, testicular phosphorylation level by immunoblotting, sperm concentration, sperm acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis, respectively. Results: AG (50 mg/kg BW) significantly increased the mounting frequency on Days 1 and 7 compared to the control group. Additionally, rat testis treated with 50 mg/kg BW AG showed high levels of phosphorylated proteins as compared with the control group. In histological analyses, AG extract did not affect the sperm concentration, acrosome reaction, and histological structures of testis and epididymis. Conclusions: AG extract enhances the aphrodisiac activity and is not harmful to sperm and male reproductive organs. PMID:23463768

Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Srisaard, Panee; Uabundit, Nongnut; Thukhammee, Wipawee; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

2013-01-01

305

In Vitro Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Mesua beccariana (Baill.) Kosterm., Mesua ferrea Linn., and Mesua congestiflora Extracts  

PubMed Central

The in vitro cytotoxicity tests on the extracts of Mesua beccariana, M. ferrea, and M. congestiflora against Raji, SNU-1, HeLa, LS-174T, NCI-H23, SK-MEL-28, Hep-G2, IMR-32, and K562 were achieved using MTT assay. The methanol extracts of Mesua beccariana showed its potency towards the proliferation of B-lymphoma cell (Raji). In addition, only the nonpolar to semipolar extracts (hexane to ethyl acetate) of the three Mesua species indicated cytotoxic effects on the tested panel of human cancer cell lines. Antioxidant assays were evaluated using DPPH scavenging radical assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extracts of M. beccariana and M. ferrea showed high antioxidant activities with low EC50 values of 12.70 and 9.77??g/mL, respectively, which are comparable to that of ascorbic acid (EC50?=?5.62??g/mL). Antibacterial tests were carried out using four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria on Mesua beccariana extracts. All the extracts showed negative results in the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria. Nevertheless, methanol extracts showed some activities against Gram positive bacteria which are Bacillus cereus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while the hexane extract also contributed some activities towards Bacillus cereus. PMID:24089682

Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Mah, Siau Hui; Lim, Yang Mooi; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ahmad, Zuraini

2013-01-01

306

Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment. PMID:19809544

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

2009-01-01

307

Chemical composition and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the essential oils from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. Radiata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oils from Bidens pilosa, a traditional medicinal plant widely distributed in the subtropics and tropics. The essential oils from the fresh leaves and flowers of B. pilosa were analyzed by GC–MS. Forty-four components were identified, of which ?-caryophyllene (10.9% and 5.1%) and ?-cadinene (7.82% and 6.13%) were

Farah Deba; Tran Dang Xuan; Masaaki Yasuda; Shinkichi Tawata

2008-01-01

308

An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of Acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other Acorus species.  

PubMed

Acorus calamus (Sweet flag) has a long history of use and has numerous traditional and ethnomedicinal applications. Since ancient times, it has been used in various systems of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Chinese medicine, etc. for the treatment of various aliments like nervous disorders, appetite loss, bronchitis, chest pain, colic, cramps, diarrhea, digestive disorders, flatulence, gas, indigestion, rheumatism, sedative, cough, fever, bronchitis, inflammation, depression, tumors, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, numbness, general debility and vascular disorders. Various therapeutic potentials of this plant have been attributed to its rhizome. A number of active constituents from leaves, rhizomes and essential oils of A. calamus have been isolated and characterized. Of the constituents, alpha and beta-asarone are the predominant bioactive components. Various pharmacological activities of A. calamus rhizome such as sedative, CNS depressant, anticonvulsant, antispasmodic, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cryoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, anticancer and antidiabetic has been reported. Genotoxicity and mutagenecity of beta and alpha-asarone is reported, which limits their use at high dosage. Though A. calamus has been used since ancient times, many of its uses are yet to be scientifically validated. In the present review an attempt has been made to explore traditional uses and pharmacological properties of A. calamus. PMID:24200497

Rajput, Sandeep B; Tonge, Madan B; Karuppayil, S Mohan

2014-02-15

309

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn.) flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea) flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity. Methods The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis. Results The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40±2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21±0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05). Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.

Nithianantham, Kuppan; Ping, Kwan Yuet; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Jothy, Subramanion L; Darah, Ibrahim; Chen, Yeng; Chew, Ai-Lan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

2013-01-01

310

Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P < 0.05. Phytotoxic activity showed that dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05. PMID:24577905

Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

2014-03-01

311

Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

2013-01-01

312

Coulomb breakup reactions of $^{11}$Li in the coupled-channel $^9$Li~+~$n$~+~$n$ three-body model  

E-print Network

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus $^{11}$Li. We use the coupled-channel $^9$Li + $n$ + $n$ three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various $2p$-$2h$ configurations in $^9$Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of $^{11}$Li are described by using the combined methods of the complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s-state in the halo ground state of $^{11}$Li is shown to play an important role in explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of $^{11}$Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s-states of $^9$Li-$n$ and $n$-$n$ systems in the final three-body states of $^{11}$Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the presen...

Kikuchi, Yuma; Kato, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

2013-01-01

313

Coulomb breakup reactions of $^{11}$Li in the coupled-channel $^9$Li~+~$n$~+~$n$ three-body model  

E-print Network

We investigate the three-body Coulomb breakup of a two-neutron halo nucleus $^{11}$Li. We use the coupled-channel $^9$Li + $n$ + $n$ three-body model, which includes the coupling between last neutron states and the various $2p$-$2h$ configurations in $^9$Li due to the tensor and pairing correlations. The three-body scattering states of $^{11}$Li are described by using the combined methods of the complex scaling and the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The calculated breakup cross section successfully reproduces the experiments. The large mixing of the s-state in the halo ground state of $^{11}$Li is shown to play an important role in explanation of shape and strength of the breakup cross section. In addition, we predict the invariant mass spectra for binary subsystems of $^{11}$Li. It is found that the two kinds of virtual s-states of $^9$Li-$n$ and $n$-$n$ systems in the final three-body states of $^{11}$Li largely contribute to make low-lying peaks in the invariant mass spectra. On the other hand, in the present analysis, it is suggested that the contributions of the p-wave resonances of $^{10}$Li is hardly confirmed in the spectra.

Yuma Kikuchi; Takayuki Myo; Kiyoshi Kato; Kiyomi Ikeda

2013-02-13

314

Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.  

PubMed

Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

Virani, Nilesh V; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N; Jadeja, D B

2010-07-01

315

Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails ( Typha angustifolia Linn.): Effects of dye, salinity and metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Narrow-leaved cattails were studied in synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) under caustic conditions. The effects of the toxic dye were expressed in terms of relative plant growth rate and the appearance of symptoms such as necrosis, and chronic or acute wilting. The dye toxicity was 25.33 mg l?1 which was close to approximate the concentration of dye residue from the textile

S. Nilratnisakorn; P. Thiravetyan; W. Nakbanpote

2007-01-01

316

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

317

In vitro antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract on clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In the present study, antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of Psidium guajava leaves was evaluated against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains collected from hospitals in northern (Malabar region) Kerala. The strains which exhibited resistance against all the antibiotics tested was selected for antibacterial assays. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for methanolic and aqueous extracts was found to be 625 ug/ml and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) recorded for methanolic and aqueous extracts was 1.25 and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. Methanolic extract at minimum bactericidal concentration inhibited the growth of MDR strain by 80%. Time-kill assay revealed that methanolic extract (4 mg/ml) killed MDR bacteria within 10 hr. Total polypeptide profiling of bacterial cultures by SDS-PAGE indicated a high degree of protein degradative activity of the extract. Finally, a human RBC based haemolytic assay showed absence of haemolysis even at concentrations higher than that of MBC, advocating thereby its safety in therapeutic use. PMID:18697570

Anas, K; Jayasree, P R; Vijayakumar, T; Manish Kumar, P R

2008-01-01

318

[Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes LINNE 1758) in south Sachsen-Anhalt--1: Cestodes].  

PubMed

Between January 1993 and November 1994 a total of 1300 red foxes from the administrative districts Halle and Dessau were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis and other cestodes. Echinococcus multilocularis-infections were detected in only 4 of 1300 (0.3%) foxes. Furthermore the following cestodes were found: Mesocestoides spp. (54.1%), Taenia crassiceps (17.7%), Taenia polyacantha (11.9%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (0.2%), Taenia serialis (0.15%), Taenia pisiformis (0.15%), not determinable taeniids (9.2%), Dipylidium caninum (0.2%) and Hymenolepis spp. (0.08%). PMID:9445786

Pfeiffer, F; Kuschfeldt, S; Stoye, M

1997-10-01

319

Oily fraction of Semecarpus anacardium Linn nuts involves protein kinase C activation for its pro-inflammatory response.  

PubMed

The oily fraction (non polar fraction-NPF) of S. anacardium (SA) significantly increased the expression of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) in macrophages in concentration dependent manner, which was similar to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) response. Further, H-7 (1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine), an inhibitor of PKC significantly inhibited this NPF mediated response in a concentration dependent manner. In the post treatment kinetics, H-7 showed this inhibition only up to 6 min post NPF/PMA addition, but in similar condition, quercetin, a flavone with reported antioxidant property, showed this inhibition only up to 2 min. The results clearly suggest that oily fraction of SA nuts enhances the expression of PKC protein, which may be responsible for its reported pro-inflammatory property. PMID:21250602

Tripathi, Yamini B; Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Deepshikha; Tripathi, Pratibha

2010-12-01

320

The study of aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa Linn. on cytokine TNF-? in type 2 diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic systemic inflammation is an early process in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of traditionally known plant Ficus religiosa on elevated glucose and inflammatory marker namely tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rat model. Aqueous extract of F. religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg was given orally to desired group of animals for a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose and TNF-? in serum were analyzed. Results: Aqueous extract of F. religiosa at both dose levels i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg decreased the elevated glucose and TNF-? in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract at 200 mg/kg had more pronounced effect. Conclusion: Modulation of cytokine TNF-? by the aqueous extract of F. religiosa indicates that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory property of the plant is related with its potential anti-diabetic activity. PMID:21731392

Kirana, H.; Jali, M. V.; Srinivasan, B. P.

2011-01-01

321

Analysis of the essential oil from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta Linn (Euphorbiaceae), a potential medication for asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil was obtained from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta, commonly called asthma plant. Analysis of the oil was carried out on a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer fitted with an HP-5 MS (5% phenylmethyl siloxane) column at a temperature programme of 120°C (5 min) increased at 5°C\\/min to 320°C and held for 5 min. The major components identified include

Modupe Ogunlesi; Wesley Okiei; Edith Ofor; A. Elizabeth Osibote

2009-01-01

322

Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

Virani, Nilesh V.; Chandola, H. M.; Vyas, S. N.; Jadeja, D. B.

2010-01-01

323

Anti-skin cancer properties of phenolic-rich extract from the pericarp of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.).  

PubMed

Skin cancers are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy. This study examined the anti-skin cancer properties of crude ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp (MPEE) on human squamous cell carcinoma A-431 and melanoma SK-MEL-28 lines. Significant dose-dependent reduction in% viability was observed for these cell lines, with less effect on human normal skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk and keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines. Cell distribution in G(1) phase (93%) significantly increased after 10 ?g/ml of MPEE versus untreated SK-MEL-28 cells (78%), which was associated with enhanced p21(WAF1) mRNA levels. In A-431 cells, 10 ?g/ml MPEE significantly increased the sub G(1) peak (15%) with concomitant decrease in G(1) phase over untreated cells (2%). In A-431 cells, 10 ?g/ml MPEE induced an 18% increase in early apoptosis versus untreated cells (2%). This was via caspase activation (15-, 3- and 4-fold increased caspse-3/7, 8, and 9 activities), and disruption of mitochondrial pathways (6-fold decreased mitochondrial membrane potential versus untreated cells). Real-time PCR revealed increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c release, and decreased Akt1. Apoptosis was significantly increased after MPEE treatment of SK-MEL-28 cells. Hence, MPEE showed strong anti-skin cancer effect on these two skin cancer cell lines, with potential as an anti-skin cancer agent. PMID:22705325

Wang, Jing J; Shi, Qing H; Zhang, Wei; Sanderson, Barbara J S

2012-09-01

324

Evaluation of Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. oil in enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits from fungal rotting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from 17 higher plants belonging to different families were screened against Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing stem end rot disease and anthracnose disease in mango respectively. The essential oil of Eupatorium cannabinum was found to be fungitoxic in nature against both the mango-rotting fungi. Eupatorium oil was standardized through physico-chemical and fungitoxic properties. Gas Liquid Chromatography

R. K. Dubey; Rajesh Kumar; Æ Jaya; N. K. Dubey

2007-01-01

325

In-silico homology modeling of three isoforms of insect defensins from the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linn., 1762).  

PubMed

Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1-4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens includes cellular mechanisms and a battery of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, cecropins etc. Defensins--cationic, cysteine-rich peptides consisting of approximately 40 amino acids with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria--have been reported from a wide range of organisms. In the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three isoforms of defensins are reported to be expressed in a spatial and temporal fashion. This report presents the three-dimensional structures of the three isoforms of Ae. aegypti defensins predicted by comparative modeling. Prediction was done with Modeller 9v1 and the structures validated through a series of tests. The best results of the prediction study are presented, and may help lead to the discovery of new synthetic peptides or derivatives of defensins that could be useful in the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19085024

Dhananjeyan, K J; Sivaperumal, R; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Tyagi, B K

2009-05-01

326

Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

2013-01-01

327

The repellent activity of Piper aduncum Linn. (Fam: Piperaceae) essential oil against Aedes aegypti using human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Piper aduncum was investigated for the repellent activity against Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The repellent effect against Ae. aegypti indicated the effective dose ED 50 value of 2.4170 µgcm -2 , ED 90 value of 53.8099 µgcm -2 at 60 seconds exposure, ED 50 of 1.2360 µgcm -2, ED 90 of 34.0364 µgcm

Norashiqin Misni; Sallehudin Sulaiman; Hidayatulfathi Othman

328

Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of essential oils from Zingiberaceae plants against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes.  

PubMed

We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of herbal essential oils from 12 species of Zingiberaceae plants to determine their larvicidal and pupicidal activity against fourth instar larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Probit analysis was used to analyze the data. Larval mortality was recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes and 24 hours. Pupal mortality was recorded at 15 and 30 minutes and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. All the essential oils tested showed larvicidal activity. Zingiber cassumunar and Amomum biflorum oils proved to have the greatest activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LT50 of 1.4 minutes and 100% mortality at 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. Boesenbergia rotunda, Curcuma zedoaria and Hedychium coronarium essential oils had activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with LT50 of 1.7 minutes and 100% mortality at 10 minutes, 5 minutes and 15 minutes, respectively. All the herbal essential oils tested resulted in 100% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae at 60 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae were susceptible to Z. ottensii oil (LT50 of 0.2 hour) and Z. zerumbet oil (LT50 of 0.6 hour) and had pupicidal activity with 100% mortality at 6 and 3 hours, respectively. All the essential oils test had pupicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus by inducing 100% mortality at 48 hours. PMID:24437311

Phukerd, Ubol; Soonwera, Mayura

2013-09-01

329

This resource guide is designed to help families with aging adults living in Linn and Benton Counties access as much  

E-print Network

Nursing Homes/Assisted Living Facilities--------- 16-18 Albany Nursing Homes/Assisted Living Facilities---------- 19-20 Checklists for Nursing Homes/Assisted Living Facilities---- 21-22 Hospice-------------------------------------- 10-12 For Caregivers--------------------------------------- 12-13 Local Living Facilities & In-Home

Escher, Christine

330

Adulticidal and repellent properties of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Caesalpinaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes have developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, chloroform, benzene, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf of Cassia tora were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticidal effects; however, the highest adult mortality observed was found in methanol extract. The LC(50) and LC(90) values of C. tora leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, chloroform benzene, acetone, and methanol) C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi were the following: C. quinquefasciatus LC(50) values were 338.81, 315.73, 296.13, 279.23, and 261.03 ppm and LC(90) values were 575.77, 539.31, 513.99, 497.06, and 476.03 ppm; A. aegypti LC(50) values were 329.82, 307.31, 287.15, 269.57, and 252.03 ppm and LC(90) values were 563.24, 528.33, 496.92, 477.61, and 448.05 ppm; and A. stephensi LC(50) values were 317.28, 300.30, 277.51, 263.35, and 251.43 ppm and LC(90) values were 538.22, 512.90, 483.78, 461.08, and 430.70 ppm, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, chloroform, benzene, acetone, and methanol extracts of C. tora plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on mosquito adulticidal and repellent activities of the reported C. tora against mosquito vectors from Southern India. PMID:22821231

Amerasan, Duraisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; John William, Samuel; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

2012-11-01

331

Persistence and dissipation of flubendiamide and des-iodo flubendiamide in cabbage (Brassica oleracea Linne) and soil.  

PubMed

Flubendiamide belongs to a novel class of insecticide which controls lepidopteran pest complex of cabbage such as diamondback moth, cabbage white butterfly, cluster caterpillar etc. Being a newly introduced insecticide no information is available on its residue persistence in cabbage. A study was undertaken to evaluate the residue persistence of flubendiamide in cabbage and soil following 2 applications of flubendiamide 480 SC at the recommended and double the recommended dose of 24 and 48 g a.i. ha(-1). Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide in cabbage were 0.33 and 0.49 mg kg(-1) respectively. The residues persisted for 10 days from the both the treatments and dissipated with the half-life of 3.9 and 4.45 days, respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide, a metabolite of flubendiamide, was not detected in cabbage at any time during the study period. Soil sample collected from the treated field after 15 days was free from any residue of flubendiamide or its metabolite. PMID:20661541

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi; Jagadish, G K; Rashmi, N

2010-09-01

332

Comparison of subcritical CO2 extraction with conventional methods of extraction to isolate the flower fragrance from Michelia champaca Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of champa flowers by conventional methods and compared with the subcritical CO2 extraction. The headspace volatile composition of living flowers and after plucking was determined by solid phase micro extraction on PDMS fiber for comparison. Solvent extraction of fresh flowers of Michelia champaca with pentane yields 1.5 ± 0.05 % concrete. The concrete was extracted with subcritical CO2

P. K. Rout; R. C. Maheshwari; S. N. Naik; Y. R. Rao

333

Extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) demonstrate activities against Onchocerca volvulus Microfilariae in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious. Method In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined. Results The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms. Conclusions Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2. PMID:23506674

2013-01-01

334

An Evaluation of the Genotoxic Effects of the Seed Decoction of Cassia tora Linn. (Leguminosae) in an Allium cepa Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytological effects of Cassia tora seed decoction were evaluated in Allium cepa root tip cells. Bulbs were grown in pure tap water (controls, Gr. I) and also in six concentrations (0.15 mg\\/ml, 0.31 mg\\/ml, 0.62 mg\\/ml, 1.25 mg\\/ml, 2.5 mg\\/ml and 5 mg\\/ml) of C. tora seed decoction in tap water (experimental, Grs. II). Parameters of study were 'mean root

2008-01-01

335

Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

Hill, B.E. (ed.)

1992-10-01

336

?????????????????????????????????????????????? Producing of full-sib families from controlled-crossing pollination of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) ?????? ?????????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies were conducted at teak plantation near Mae Gar Forest Tree Seed Production Station, Phayao. Three clones, V.4, V.29, and V.23 were selected from 30-year-old teak seed orchard. To produce full-sib families for progeny teak and to study fruit setting, controlled-crossing-pollination were conducted during flowering season of 1999-2000. Four full-sib families were produced. Fruit setting studies showed three stages

Suwan Tangmitcharoen

337

In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  

PubMed

Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus. PMID:22042504

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

2012-05-01

338

Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).  

PubMed

Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), blood glucose and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in T5 group revealed that higher concentration of azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis. PMID:23090629

Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

2013-08-01

339

Antiparasitic efficacy of piperine against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758): in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

Argulus are common aquatic ectoparasites that create one of the major threats to aquaculture due to absence of suitable therapy. Piperine, a bioactive component of Piper longum, has medicinal properties and acts as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antifungal, considering eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness. The present study aimed to evaluate antiparasitic effect of piperine against an ectoparasite Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus. Artificial Argulus infection was carried out by cohabitation method, and the fishes were selected for in vivo study when intensity of Argulus infestation was observed to be 15-20 Argulus per fish. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed at different concentration 1.0 (T (1)), 3.0 (T (2)), 5.0 (T (3)), 7.0 (T (4)), and 9.0 mg l(-1) (T (5)) of piperine solution to treat Argulus for 3 and 72 h, respectively. The acute toxicity test for piperine EC 97 % against goldfish was performed for 96 h. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for piperine was found to be 52.64 mg l(-1). In vitro effect of piperine solution led to 100 % mortality of Argulus at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 3 h whereas, under in vivo test, the 100 % antiparasitic efficacy of piperine solution was found at 9.0 mg l(-1) in 48 h. The EC(50) for 48 h was 9.0 mg l(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 5.8. The results revealed that piperine at a concentration of 9.0 mg l(-1) can be used as a potential natural agent for controlling Argulus parasite. PMID:22864920

Kumar, Abhay; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Vikash; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Saurav

2012-11-01

340

Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.  

PubMed

Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart. PMID:25241584

Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

2014-09-01

341

Relaxant effects of the neutral extract of the leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn on isolated rat vascular smooth muscle.  

PubMed

The long-lasting antihypertensive effect of a neutral extract of Bidens pilosa has been suggested to be due to vasodilation. The present work was undertaken to assess this hypothesis. The vasorelaxant effect of a neutral extract (NBp) of the leaves of B. pilosa was evaluated in vitro on isolated rat aorta contracted with KCl or norepinephrine. NBp induced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation of the rat aorta precontracted with KCl (60 mM) by 25%-105% at the respective concentrations of 0.25-1.5 mg/mL. The maximal concentration of 1.5 mg/mL provoked 88% relaxation of norepinephrine-induced contractions. There were no significant differences between the effects of the extract on the aorta strips with or without endothelium. In the presence of indomethacin or pyrilamine maleate, the relaxant response induced by the plant extract was significantly inhibited at the lower concentrations. The plant extract was able to reduce the aorta resting tone, inhibit the KCl-induced contractions (90% at 1.5 mg/mL) and the CaCl2-induced contractions by 95% at a concentration of 0.75 mg/mL. These results demonstrate the vasodilating properties of the neutral extract of Bidens pilosa and indicate that it may act as a calcium antagonist. PMID:15934016

Nguelefack, T B; Dimo, T; Mbuyo, E P Nguelefack; Tan, P V; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A

2005-03-01

342

Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective property of leaf extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats.  

PubMed

Extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa leaves were evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in the acetaminophen-induced liver damage model. Antioxidative evaluation of ethanolic extract gave total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin C content and vitamin E content and the levels of selenium and zinc as 6.6+/-0.2mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 0.092+/-0.003 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 0.21+/-0.03 mg/g, 0.054+/-0.002 mg/g, 0.52+/-0.05 ppm and 9.28+/-0.16 ppm, respectively. The DPPH scavenging capacity and the reductive potential were 78.32+/-2.41% and 0.65+/-0.02 mg/g ascorbic acid, respectively. Pretreatment with aqueous and ethanolic extracts decreased the activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the level of bilirubin in the serum that were elevated by acetaminophen. The two extracts also ameliorated the elevation in the activities of the enzymes in the liver. Acetaminophen intoxication led to reduction in serum and liver albumin levels which were not significantly increased by pretreatment with the extracts. The extracts also protected against acetaminophen induced lipid peroxidation. These results indicated that leaf extracts from B. diffusa possess hepatoprotective property against acetaminophen-induced liver damage which may be mediated through augmentation of antioxidant defenses. PMID:20553784

Olaleye, M Tolulope; Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Ogunboye, Adebayo A; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A

2010-01-01

343

Potential fishery of Nile perch Lates niloticus Linne (Pisces: Centropomidae) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

From bottom trawls, Lates niloticus (Lin.) in Nyanza Gulf was observed to have a gulf-wide distribution. Lates dominated the catch at Homa point. Catch rates in kg h-1 varied from one location to another and from month to month.

Ezekiel N. Okemwa

1984-01-01

344

Smallholder Cacao (Theobroma cacao Linn.) cultivation in agroforestry systems of West and Central Africa: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural features, management practice, environmental sustainability, and economic profitability of smallholder cacao\\u000a (Theobroma cacao)production in West and Central Africa are reviewed. The aim is tohighlight factors affecting the cacao production and marketing\\u000a sectorand to propose appropriate strategies to ensure sustainable and profitable cacao production in the region. The cacao\\u000a cultivation system causes minimum damage to soil resources. In terms

B. Duguma; J. Gockowski; J. Bakala

2001-01-01

345

HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of ?-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right

Srinivas V. Pullela; Ashok K. Tiwari; UmaMaheswara S. Vanka; Anuradha Vummenthula; Hari B. Tatipaka; Krishna R. Dasari; Ikhlas A. Khan; Madhusudana R. Janaswamy

2006-01-01

346

Effect of radish (Raphanus sativus Linn.) on thyroid status under conditions of varying iodine intake in rats.  

PubMed

Cruciferous plants viz. cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, mustard etc. that contain goitrogenic/antithyroid substances, constitute a portion of regular human diet. The effect of chronic feeding of fresh and cooked radish, R. sativus under varying state of iodine intake on morphological and functional status of thyroid in albino rats was evaluated by thyroid gland morphology and histology, thyroid peroxidase activity, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotropin levels. The consumption pattern of iodine and goitrogens of cyanogenic origin was evaluated by measuring urinary iodine and thiocyanate levels respectively. After chronic radish feeding, increased weight of thyroid gland, decreased thyroid peroxidase activity, reduced thyroid hormone profiles and elevated level of thyrotropin were observed resembling a relative state of hypoactive thyroid gland in comparison to control even after supplementation of adequate iodine. PMID:16924836

Chandra, Amar K; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Dishari; Tripathy, Smritiratan

2006-08-01

347

Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Background: Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. Aim: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 ?g/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 ?g/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. Conclusion: This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases. PMID:25364204

Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

2014-01-01

348

Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

2013-01-01

349

Effects on spermatogenesis in swiss mice of a protein isolated from the roots of Ricinus communis (Linn.) (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62 kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study showed that sperm motility and count were decreased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. The fertility index of the treated groups was reduced by 100%. The activity of HMG Co A reductase and cholesterol were increased significantly in the treated group. The testicular activities of 3?HSD, 17?HSD, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme and the level of serum testosterone were decreased significantly in the treated group. The expression of 3?HSD and 17?HSD were decreased and the expression of StAR increased significantly in the treated group as compared to the control. Proteolytic digestion of the native protein with trypsin and chymotrypsin showed that the proteolytic cleavage did not affect the spermicidal action of Rp. Hence this study can be concluded that Rp impaired spermatogenesis in vivo by suppressing the production of testosterone. PMID:21288636

Nithya, R S; Anuja, M M; Swathy, S S; Rajamanickam, C; Indira, M

2011-03-15

350

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Wound Healing Effects of Alcoholic and Aqueous Extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn in Rats  

PubMed Central

In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of alcoholic and aqueous extract of O. sanctum. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision, excision and dead space wounds in extract-treated rats and controls. Both the doses of alcoholic and aqueous extract significantly increased wound breaking strength, hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamines, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly decreased percentage of wound contraction and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. The results suggest that O. sanctum has antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for faster wound healing and this plant extract may be useful in the management of abnormal healing and hypertropic scars. PMID:18317555

Udupa, Saraswati; Udupa, Laxminarayana

2008-01-01

351

Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. Natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. Typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (MDR) bugs of Salmonella typhi. Due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. Mango leaves have been Reported for various medicinal effects like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antiallergic etc. Objective of present study was to investigate anti-typhoid properties of acetone mango leaf extract (AMLE) against antibiotic sensitive and MDR S. typhi isolates. A total of 50 isolates of S. typhi including MDR (n=30) and antibiotic sensitive (n=20) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) were used as quality control strains. AMLE was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion screening method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), by agar dilution technique. Zone of inhibition (mm) of AMLE against MDR and antibiotic sensitive isolates was 18±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi. PMID:23811447

Hannan, Abdul; Asghar, Samra; Naeem, Tahir; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aneela, Syeda; Hussain, Shabbir

2013-07-01

352

Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.  

PubMed

The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

1969-05-01

353

Workshop on Statistical Approaches for the Evaluation of Complex Computer Models  

E-print Network

Robert Fovell, Rodman Linn, Frederic Schoenberg, Nagui Rouphail, Jerome Sacks, Byungkyu Park, Alan Perelson and Peter BickelRobert Fovell, Rodman Linn, Frederic Schoenberg, Nagui Rouphail, Jerome Sacks, Byungkyu Park, Alan Perelson and Peter Bickel

Berk, Richard; Bickel, Peter; Campell, Katherine; Keller-McNulty, Sallie; Kelly, Elizabeth; Sacks, Jerome

2001-01-01

354

MFR PAPER 1183 Helen Reef's large tridacnid  

E-print Network

, 1965). They are: Tridacna gigas (Linne). T. derasa (Roding). T. squamosa Lamarck, T. maxima (Roding). T. crocea Lamarck. and Hippopus hippopus (Linne). In March 1972 a group of biologists from the Honolulu

355

Anthiovulatory activity of five indigenous plants in rabbits.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of 5 indigenous plants, known to have antifertility activity in female rats and mice (Areca catechu Linn, Carica papaya Linn, Daucus carota Linn, Mentha arvensis Linn and polygonum hydropiper Linn), were evaluated for their possible antiovulatory activity in rabbits with copper-induced ovulation. The alcoholic extract of Mentha arvensis (leaves) and the petroleum ether extract of the roots of Polygonum hydropiper were the most successful agents, inhibiting ovulation in 60% of the animals. All the other extracts inhibited ovulation in 40%, or less, of the animals. PMID:4442983

Kapoor, M; Garg, S K; Mathur, V S

1974-08-01

356

Simple and rapid biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using dried leaves of Catharanthus roseus. Linn. G. Donn and its anti microbial activity.  

PubMed

Nanoparticles have been used to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. The plant extracts are eco-friendly, economical and cost effective for synthesis of large scale of nanoparticles. In this paper we represent the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from room dried leaves of Vinca rosea. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy. The AgNPs are crystalline in nature, were determined from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), and also the size of the NPs was calculated by using Hariba Nanoparticle analyzer and the stability was calculated by using the Zetapotential. The nanoparticles obtained from leaf extracts were of size 27±2 and 30±2 respectively and Zetapotential of AgNPs was found to be -63.1 mV, so it indicates the dispersion and stability. The synthesized AgNPs have very good antimicrobial activity. PMID:23376746

Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Rao, Y Subba; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Prasad, T N V K V; Reddy, A Varada; Gopal, D V R Sai

2013-05-01

357

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, Linn. for enhanced antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has attracted nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, L. at room temperature. Formation of stable AgNPs at 1mM concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) typically gave spherical shape particles with diameter range from 55 to 83nm. The kinetic properties of particle formation were proportional to the effect of concentration of AgNO3 solution. In order to identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag(+) ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Mimusops elengi, L. leaf extract was investigated using FTIR. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed using the surface plasmon resonance band shown in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern. Furthermore these green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:23563291

Prakash, P; Gnanaprakasam, P; Emmanuel, R; Arokiyaraj, S; Saravanan, M

2013-08-01

358

Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the pectoral girdle during upside-down locomotion of two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus, Linn? 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background Theria (marsupials and placental mammals) are characterized by a highly mobile pectoral girdle in which the scapula has been shown to be an important propulsive element during locomotion. Shoulder function and kinematics are highly conservative during locomotion within quadrupedal therian mammals. In order to gain insight into the functional morphology and evolution of the pectoral girdle of the two-toed sloth we here analyze the anatomy and the three-dimensional (3D) pattern of shoulder kinematics during quadrupedal suspensory ('upside-down') locomotion. Methods We use scientific rotoscoping, a new, non-invasive, markerless approach for x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), to quantify in vivo the 3D movements of all constituent skeletal elements of the shoulder girdle. Additionally we use histologic staining to analyze the configuration of the sterno-clavicular articulation (SCA). Results Despite the inverse orientation of the body towards gravity, sloths display a 3D kinematic pattern and an orientation of the scapula relative to the thorax similar to pronograde claviculate mammalian species that differs from that of aclaviculate as well as brachiating mammals. Reduction of the relative length of the scapula alters its displacing effect on limb excursions. The configuration of the SCA maximizes mobility at this joint and demonstrates a tensile loading regime between thorax and limbs. Conclusions The morphological characteristics of the scapula and the SCA allow maximal mobility of the forelimb to facilitate effective locomotion within a discontinuous habitat. These evolutionary changes associated with the adoption of the suspensory posture emphasized humeral influence on forelimb motion, but allowed the retention of the plesiomorphic 3D kinematic pattern. PMID:20619000

2010-01-01

359

Alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced changes in behavioral and biochemical aspects: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative stress has been evidenced to play a vital role in its causation. In this study, we evaluated whether alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM), an antioxidant and memory enhancer can slow the neuronal injury in a 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's. Rats were treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight of AEBM for 3 weeks. On Day 21, 2 ?l of 6-OHDA (12 ?g in 0.01 % in ascorbic acid-saline) was infused into the right striatum, while the control group received 2 ?l of vehicle. Three weeks after the 6-OHDA injection, the rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip test, forced swim test, radial arm maze) and were killed after 6 weeks for the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The deficits in behavioral activity due to 6-OHDA lesioning were significantly and dose dependently restored by AEBM. Lesioning was followed by an increased lipid peroxidation and significant depletion of reduced GSH content in the substantia nigra, which was prevented with AEBM pretreatment. The activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, CAT and SOD in striatum were reduced significantly by lesioning, which were restored significantly and dose dependently by AEBM. This study indicates that the extract of B. monniera might be helpful in attenuating 6-OHDA-induced lesioning in rats. PMID:22527857

Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumar, Radhakrishnan Ramesh; Sumathi, Thangarajan

2012-10-01

360

Antimalarial efficacy of dynamic compound of plumbagin chemical constituent from Plumbago zeylanica Linn (Plumbaginaceae) against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector. PMID:25028206

Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

2014-08-01

361

Chemopreventive Role of Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn) and its Isolated Flavonoid Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced Renal Histopathological Damage in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study is an attempt to evaluate the tissue protective efficacy of isolated flavonoid and hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (HEEN) leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA) induced renal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Carcinogenicity was induced in Albino mice by oral administration of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight). The HEEN (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight), Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; 0.5 and 1%), and Euphorbia neriifolia flavonoid (ENF; 50 mg/kg body weight) were evaluated for their possible tissue carcinogenesis protective potential. Results: DENA treated animals showed alterations in normal renal histo-architecture, which comprised of necrosis (N) and vacuolization of the cells. On the other hand, the mice treated with Euphorbia neriifolia lower (ENL) and higher (ENH) dose and ENF before intoxicated with DENA showed that the renal cells were normal (Day 31). Whereas, BHA higher (BHAH) and lower (BHAL) dose failed to diminish the abnormalities caused by DENA. Conclusions: The findings of the present study Suggested that ENH and ENF showed highest renal-protective activity among all the pretreatments. The results could also be expressed in the order of ENH > ENF > ENL > BHAH > BHAL. PMID:23833445

Sharma, Veena; Janmeda, Pracheta

2013-01-01

362

Characterization and Quantification of Compounds in the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Leaves from Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Their Mutagenic Activity.  

PubMed

Terminalia is a genus of Combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7?:?3, v/v) of the leaves from T. catappa by HPLC-PDA, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(n)) and NMR, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the Salmonella/microsome assay on S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, and TA102. The quantification of analytes was performed using an external calibration standard. Punicalagin is the most abundant polyphenol found in the leaves. The presence of this compound as a mixture of anomers was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and (1)H and (13)C NMR. Mutagenic activity was observed in strains TA100 and TA97a. As the extract is a complex mixture of punicalagin, its derivatives, and several other compounds, the observed mutagenicity may be explained in part by possible synergistic interaction between the compounds present in the extract. These studies show that mutagenic activity of T. catappa in the Ames test can only be observed when measured at high concentrations. However, considering the mutagenic effects observed for T. catappa, this plant should be used cautiously for medicinal purposes. PMID:24734110

Mininel, Francisco José; Leonardo Junior, Carlos Sérgio; Espanha, Lívia Greghi; Resende, Flávia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

2014-01-01

363

DECOLORIZATION OF BASIC, DIRECT, AND REACTIVE DYES BY PRE-TREATED NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL (TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA LINN.). (R829415E01)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

364

Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of aqueous extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. in mice using tail suspension and forced swim tests--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The present study was done to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of B. diffusa on depression in mice using behavioral models such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, po) was administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On 14th day, 60 min after administration, mice were subjected to TST and FST. The administration of aqueous extract of B. diffusa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, po) significantly decreased immobility period in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The lowest dose (50 mg/kg) of the extract decreased the immobility period most significantly in FST, showing most potent antidepressant-like action. The efficacy of the extract (50 mg/kg) was comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg). The extract did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. The extract showed significant monoamine oxidase -A inhibitory activity. There was no significant effect of the extract on plasma corticosterone levels. Prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABA(B) agonist), and p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor) significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect, when tested in TST. The extract might produce antidepressant-like effect by interaction with alpha1-adrenoceptors, dopamine-D2 receptors, serotonergic, and GABA(B) receptors. Thus, aqueous extract of B. diffusa showed significant antidepressant-like activity in mice probably through involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:24617015

Dhingra, Dinesh; Valecha, Rekha

2014-01-01

365

Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug. PMID:22432800

Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

2012-03-01

366

, 20120437, published 26 August 20133682013Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B David A. Caron, Alle A. Y. Lie, Linn J. Hoffmann and David A. Hutchins  

E-print Network

, Catriona L. Hurd, Philip W. Boyd, diatom community to acidification and warming Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming. Phil Trans R Soc B 368: ocean acidification, warming, diatom, phytoplankton community, competition, adaptation Author

Rohs, Remo

367

Punarnavine, an alkaloid isolated from ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. reverses depression-like behaviour in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.  

PubMed

Punarnavine (20 and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) per se administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased immobility periods of both unstressed and stressed mice in forced swim test. These drugs also significantly decreased sucrose preference in both stressed and unstressed mice as compared to their respective controls, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The alkaloid also significantly decreased monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) activity, malondialdehyde levels in both unstressed and stressed mice; and significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase activity. It also significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels. Thus, punarnavine showed antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels and due to its antioxidant activity. In addition, punarnavine also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice possibly through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:25141543

Dhingra, Dinesh; Valecha, Rekha

2014-08-01

368

Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Whole Fruit on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extract of Cynometra cauliflora whole fruit was assayed for cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the normal mouse fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell lines by using the MTT assay. The CD50 of the extract for 72 hours was 0.9??g/mL whereas the value for the cytotoxic drug vincristine was 0.2??g/mL. The viability of the NIH/3T3 cells was at 80.0% when treated at 15.0??g/mL. The extract inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation with dose dependence. AO/PI staining of HL-60 cells treated with the extract revealed that majority of cells were in the apoptotic cell death mode. Flow cytometry analysis of HL-60 cells treated at CD50 of the extract showed that the early apoptotic cells were 31.0, 26.3 and 19.9% at 24, 48, and 72 hours treatment, respectively. The percentage of late apoptotic cells was increased from 62.0 at 24 hours to 64.1 and 70.2 at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Meanwhile, percent of necrotic cells were 4.9, 6.6, and 8.5 at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. This study has shown that the methanolic extract of C. cauliflora whole fruit was cytotoxic towards HL-60 cells and induced the cells into apoptotic cell death mode, but less cytotoxic towards NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:23227094

Tajudin, T-Johari S. A.; Mat, Nashriyah; Siti-Aishah, Abu Bakar; Yusran, A. Aziz M.; Alwi, Afnani; Ali, Abdul Manaf

2012-01-01

369

The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg\\/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60,

Thambusamy Pushpanathan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Marimuthu Govindarajan

2008-01-01

370

The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.  

PubMed

The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743

Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

2011-08-01

371

Effect of exogenous ATP on Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) induced inhibition of d-glucose, l-tyrosine and fluid transport across rat everted intestinal sacs in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Momordica charantia (MC) is a common oriental vegetable with known antidiabetic, laxative and antimicrobial properties. This study investigates the effects of aqueous fruit extract of MC on the transport of d-glucose, l-tyrosine and fluid across rat-everted intestine in vitro. Everted intestinal sacs from rats were mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs–Henseleit bicarbonate buffer. Graded concentrations (1.5–12mg\\/ml) of MC fruit

M. F. Mahomoodally; A. Gurib-Fakim; A. H. Subratty

2007-01-01

372

Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02?m) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. PMID:24746767

Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

2014-08-01

373

Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

Hill, B.E. [ed.

1992-10-01

374

Effects of bicarbonate, xanthan gum, and preparation methods on biochemical, physicochemical and gel properties of Nile tilapia (Oreochomis niloticus Linn) mince  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to determine the effects of phosphate compound substitutions (sodium bicarbonate and xanthan gum) and preparation methods [headed, gutted whole fish, and mince; fresh and after frozen storage (-20°C for 3 months)] on Nile tilapia mince qualities. Results showed that bicarbonate (0.3% with 8% sucrose\\/sorbitol) is an efficient phosphate compound replacement as evidenced by the comparative values

Geerada Kaewjumpol; Supawan Thawornchinsombut; Araya Ahromrit; Thanakorn Rojanakorn

2012-01-01

375

Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.  

PubMed

This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours. PMID:21073057

Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

2010-07-01

376

Hepatoprotective Effect of Soapworts (Saponaria officinalis), Pomegranate Peel (Punica granatum L) and Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum linn) on Mice with CCl Hepatic Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soapworts, pomegranate peel and cloves are widely used in Egypt as a herbal medicine. However, their action as hepatoprotcetional agents still remains to be elucidated. To clarify its effect on liver functions, Eight-week-old male mice were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl ) at the single dose of 0.5 ml\\/kg body 4 weight intraperitonially for 30 days, 3 groups of mice

Manal K Abdel-Rahman; Ashraf A. Abd El-Megeid

377

Some new diseases of Citrus in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis-(LINN.) OSBECK locally known as malta orange; mandarin and tangerines (C. reticulata BLANCO var. mandarin and var. tangerine); lemon (C. limon (LINN.)BURM. f.); Grapefruit (C. paradisi MACFAYDEN); Shaddock (C. decumana MURR.) vern. Chokotra; lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWIGLE); sour or bitter orange (C. aurantium LIN1;. sub. sp. amara LINN.) Sweet lime (C. auranti\\/olia SWtNGLE (= C. limetta RlSSO)

Abdul Hamid Khan

1959-01-01

378

Toxicological Evaluation of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Momordica charantia and Euphorbia hirta in Rats.  

E-print Network

??There is a pressing need to make available scientifically tested herbal medicines to smallholder livestock farmers for increased livestock production in Ghana. Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Linn),… (more)

Otsyina, Hope Richard

2008-01-01

379

Key races set for May and In order for candidates to appear on the May 18th primary ballot they had  

E-print Network

, Grant, Baker, Deschutes, Crook, Jackson, Klamath, Lake, Harney, Malheur, and Josephine Counties Congressional District 4 (Benton, Linn, Lane, Douglas, Coos, Curry, and Josephine Counties) Democrat: Peter A De

Escher, Christine

380

Genotoxicity assessment of water extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Morinda lucida and Citrus medica using the Allium cepa assay (Evaluación de la genotoxicidad de extractos acuosos de Ocimum gratissimum, Morinda lucida y Citrus medica mediante el ensayo de Allium cepa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal preparations may be with a single or combination of herbs. With continuous and uncontrolled use of medicinal plants, there may be sufficient exposure to permit the expression of genotoxicity. In this study, the genotoxicity of water extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) alone, and in combination with Morinda lucida (Benth.); and combination of Morinda lucida extract and Citrus medica (Linn.)

Bernice M. OYEDARE; Adekunle A. BAKARE; Akeem AKINBORO

381

Flower species identification and coverage estimation based on hyperspectral remote sensing data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring grass species and coverage accurately makes a significant contribution to species diversity research and sustainable development of grassland ecosystem. Plants grown in grassland usually own unique spectral characteristics in florescence. Compared with the nutrient stage, species are more easily identified during florescence. In this study, flowers such as Galium verum Linn., Hemerocallis citrina Baroni, Serratula centauroides Linn., Clematis hexapetala

Yingying Gai; Wenjie Fan; Xiru Xu; Yuanzhen Zhang

2011-01-01

382

This product was created by the Technical Outreach and Assistance Team(TOAST), 2004. It is meant for informational and display purposes only and was created with best data  

E-print Network

Pelton Reregulating Dam Round Butte Reservoir DamRound Butte Reservoir Dam CrookCrook WascoWasco Deschutes tes River Fall R Cresent Cr Deschutes River LinnLinn LaneLane Ochoco DamOchoco Dam Arthur R. Bowman DamArthur R. Bowman Dam Wickiup DamWickiup Dam Bakeoven Cr La Pine Bend Maupin Madras Sisters Redmond

383

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN INDIAN FOLKLORE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinal plants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be

J. P. Patel

2010-01-01

384

Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces

R Maiti; D Jana; U. K Das; D Ghosh

2004-01-01

385

Grand Prize and Citation Winners: Ten School with Soaring Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design features of the grand prize winners of the 2002 "Learning by Design" contest--an addition to West Linn High School in West Linn, Oregon, and the renovation of Beaver Brook Academic Center/The Ethel Walker School in Simsbury, Connecticut. Also describes the designs of the eight citation winners. (EV)

Learning By Design, 2002

2002-01-01

386

Oregon State University | College of Public Health and Human Sciences A Resource Guide to  

E-print Network

needs in Linn and Benton counties access as much information and as many United Way of Benton County........................ 18 United Way of Linn CountyOregon State University | College of Public Health and Human Sciences 1 A Resource Guide to Raising

Escher, Christine

387

1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, FROM PARK AND MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, ALONG 20TH STREET NORTH TOWARDS THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH BIRMINGHAM MUSEUM OF ART (BOTTOM LEFT), BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (BOTTOM RIGHT), BIRMINGHAM CITY HALL (CENTER RIGHT), JEFFERSON COUNTY COURTHOUSE (CENTER LEFT) AND LINN PARK (CENTER) - Linn Park, Bounded by Park Place, Eighth Avenue, Short Twentieth & Twenty-first Streets, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

388

Effects of Neem Flowers, Thai and Chinese Bitter Gourd Fruits and Sweet Basil Leaves on Hepatic Monooxygenases and Glutathione S-transferase Activities, and In Vitro Metabolic Activation of Chemical Carcinogens in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450),

W. R Kusamran; A Ratanavila; A Tepsuwan

1998-01-01

389

Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in

Neelam Makare; Subhash Bodhankar; Vinod Rangari

2001-01-01

390

The Case of the Radio Communication Project in Nepal: A Culture-Centered Rejoinder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this rebuttal to Linn's critique (see EJ802887), the authors state that, while Linn provides a thoughtful critique of the culture-centered approach by questioning its feasibility, he missed the idea that the very concept of effectiveness is brought under scrutiny by the culture-centered approach, with the focus being on examining the universal…

Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Basnyat, Iccha

2008-01-01

391

Cyto–morphological studies and their significance in evolution of family Vitaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyto-morphology and chromosome number worked out for 60 accessions belonging to genera and species of the family Vitaceae\\u000a show marked variations in their chromosome numbers. Grape cultivars and Vitis species have 2n?=?38, while in wild types like Ampelopsis, Ampelocissus and Parthenocissus 2n?=?40 and 80 were encountered. Chromosome numbers of Cissus, Cayratia and Tetrastigma have variations from 2n?=?22 to 120. These

Surekha P. Karkamkar; S. G. Patil; Satish Chandra Misra

2010-01-01

392

Effects of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd) in the aquatic medium on the restoration potential and accumulation in the stem cuttings of the terrestrial plant, Talinum triangulare Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd) accumulation capacity of the stem cuttings of the terrestrial, ornamental plant, Talinum triangulare was assessed in hydroponic medium. The stem cuttings of T. triangulare, grew well in distilled water regenerating roots and aerial parts. On exposure to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and\\u000a Cd, a concentration dependent decrease was observed in

K. Rajkumar; S. Sivakumar; P. Senthilkumar; D. Prabha; C. V. Subbhuraam; Y. C. Song

2009-01-01

393

Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

2014-01-01

394

Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination.  

PubMed

Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO(2) (860 ?L L(-1)) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg(-1)). Elevated CO(2) and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO(2) than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO(2) concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO(2) and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO(2)- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. PMID:22074893

Tang, Shirong; Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang; Zhou, Xiaomin

2011-12-30

395

14. Detail view of west elevation, showing details of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Detail view of west elevation, showing details of the drop siding, corner boards and exposed rafter trails as well as door and window treatment. - Bolton Store, 21420 Willamette Drive, West Linn, Clackamas County, OR

396

77 FR 62528 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Stephens, & 200 & 300 blks. Oak Sts., Iowa Falls, 12000889 Linn County Iowa Wind Mill and Pump Company...Androscoggin County Lamb Block, 10 Depot St., Livermore Falls, 12000891 Hancock County Free Baptist Church of Great Pond, The, 1231...

2012-10-15

397

76 FR 17670 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Recreation Area, Overton, 11000212 NORTH CAROLINA Guilford County Model Farm, 2058 Brentwood...resources: OREGON Linn County Angell-Brewster House...Rd, Lebanon, 92001330 TENNESSEE Washington County Memorial Stadium,...

2011-03-30

398

Oregon State University | College of Public Health and Human Sciences A Resource Guide to Raising  

E-print Network

and Benton counties access as much information and as many programs as possible. This guide has been compiled Center................................. 17 United Way of Benton County........................ 17 United Way of Linn County............................ 17 Will. Valley Down Syndrome Association.... 18 State

Escher, Christine

399

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

400

PUBLICATIONS Peer-reviewed articles and book chapters  

E-print Network

Analysis and Machine Intelligence 31: 288-305. 2008 Mayden, R.L., K.L. Tang, R. M. Wood, W-J, Chen, M. K. 2005. LINNE: Legacy Infrastructure Network for Natural Environments. Illinois Natural History Survey

Bart Jr., Henry L. "Hank"

401

Isolation of Uridine Diphosphate-Glycosyl Compounds from the Slug  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of the acidsoluble nucleotides of Limax maximus Linne revealed, among others, several uridine diphosphate-glycosyl compounds. Nucleotides isolated and identified were the uridine diphosphates of glucose, acetylglucosamine, and acetylgalactosamine.

Robert W. Wheat

1960-01-01

402

WESLEYAN STUDENT ASSEMBLY End of Year Report  

E-print Network

Couch '13, Chair Michael Yee '14 Justin Raymond `14 Kara Linn '15 Nicole Brenner '15 Silvia Diaz-Roa '15 Alexandria Williams `15 Concert Committee (CC) Sky Stallbaumer '12, Chair #12;4 I. YEAR END COMMITTEE REPORTS

Devoto, Stephen H.

403

4-H Alumni Recognition Historical Document Oregon 4-H Alumni Award Recipients  

E-print Network

1963 Randall Grimes, Linn Co 1964 Marshall Gifford, Multnomah Co Mrs. Grant Henderson, Union Co 1965 *Kirby Brumfield, Multnomah Co 1970 William Cadle, Polk Co 1971 Gloria Davis, Gilliam Co 1972 Albert G

Tullos, Desiree

404

Meet the amazing students who created this newspaper, inside ... THEPRIDEOREGON STATE UNIVERSITY and THE OREGONIAN  

E-print Network

-EXCHANGE PROGRAM GUARDS PUBLIC HEALTH IN BENTON, LINN COUNTIES PAGE 18 BELOW · OSU BATTLES CHILDHOOD OBESITY and backgrounds that are underrepresented in America's newsrooms. These are students who, despite their youth

Escher, Christine

405

The State of Our Health 2013: Key Health Indicators for Oregonians  

E-print Network

Tillamook Washington Yamhill Polk Benton Linn Lane DouglasCoos Curry Josephine Jackson Deschutes Je erson Wasco Clackamas Marion Multnomah Hood River Sherman Gilliam Morrow Grant Umatilla Union Wallowa Baker-Level Indicators ________________________________________________________17 Baker County

Chapman, Michael S.

406

June 4, 2010 SE N A T E CA N D I D A T E S I N T H E 2010 GE N E R A L EL E C T I O N  

E-print Network

/Washington Tualatin, West Linn, Lake Oswego, Portland Richard Devlin (D) Mary Kremer Richard Devlin 20. Clackamas) Wayne Krieger Lynn Kindred 2. Douglas/Jackson/ Josephine Roseburg Tim Freeman (R) Tim Freeman Harry Mc

Escher, Christine

407

21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.  

...bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne...evergreen tree, with lesser quantities of seed coat and germ. (b) The...

2014-04-01

408

Gender and Mathematics: Mythology and Misogyny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disadvantages faced by women in mathematics in career access and earning power are not accounted for by cognitive and psycho-social gender differences (Linn & Hyde, 1993). Thus the mythology does not explain the reality. Does the misogyny?

Mary Gray

409

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2014-01-01

410

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2012-01-01

411

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2011-01-01

412

7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...and Clackamas and Multnomah Counties in Oregon. (2) District 2—Marion and Polk Counties in Oregon. (3) District 3—Linn, Lane,...

2013-01-01

413

The uptake of copper by plants dominantly growing on copper mining spoils along the Yangtze River, the People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun., Commelina communis Linn., and Rumex acetosa Linn. are the dominant species that vastly grow\\u000a over the copper mining spoil heaps and copper-contaminated soil of the areas along the middle and lower streams of the Yangtze\\u000a River. Each has its own ecological habits. Chemical analytical data show that these plants can accumulate copper to various\\u000a extents, depending on

Shirong Tang; B.-M. Wilke; Changyong Huang

1999-01-01

414

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils Extracted by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation From the Flowers of Two Plumeria Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) was applied to obtain essential oils from the fresh flowers ofPlumeria rubra Linn (PRL) andPlumeria rubra Linn var. acutifolia (PRLA) cultivated in China, which were subsequently analyzed via gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The essential oils were assessed for their antimicrobial activity. A variation of the chemical composition attributed to

Yanqing Liu; Hongwu Wang; Shoulian Wei; Zijun Yan

2012-01-01

415

Reducing organic substances from anaerobic decomposition of hydrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation–reduction properties of surface sediments are tightly associated with the geochemistry of substances, and reducing\\u000a organic substances (ROS) from hydrophytes residues may play an important role in these processes. In this study, composition,\\u000a dynamics, and properties of ROS from anaerobic decomposition of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Potamogenton crispus\\u000a Linn, Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, Lemna trisulca Linn and Microcystis flos-aquae (Wittr)

Wen Zhang; Qingman Li; Xingxiang Wang; Yu Ding; Jingxian Sun

2009-01-01

416

COMIT FRANAIS D'HISTOIRE DE LA GOLOGIE -Troisime srie -  

E-print Network

Analyse d'ouvrage G. Laurent : La naissance du Transformisme Lamarck entre Linné et Darwin �ditions celui de Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) dans l'histoire des idées sur la structure du monde vivant livre de présentation agréable intitulé La naissance du Transformisme, Lamarck entre Linné et Darwin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Evaluation of 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates 5?-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5?-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5?-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5?-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5?-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5?-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5?-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5?-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2014-08-01

418

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of eastern Cuba.  

PubMed

Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products are used in 199 formulas, galones being the more complex. Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae), Erythroxylum havanense Jacq. (Erythroxylaceae) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl. (Verbenaceae) are the species most frequently cited. The ecological distribution of the taxa and cultural and anthropological aspects of mixtures are highlighted; particularly American and African influences that have shaped local knowledge about plant combinations are discussed. PMID:15013195

Cano, Juan Hernández; Volpato, Gabriele

2004-02-01

419

Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Validation of the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Artemisia vulgaris Linn. (Compositae), Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae), Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae), and Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae); stems of Nopalea cochinellifera (Linn.) Salm-Dyck (Cactaceae); roots of Imperata cylindrica Beauv. (Gramineae); dried bark of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) as anti-diabetic agents using the oral glucose tolerance test showed that only the bark of Syzygium cumini and the leaves of Vitex negundo and Eucalyptus tereticornis exhibited anti-hyperglycemic activities when fed simultaneously with glucose. At the same dosages of 5 mg/20 g mouse, Syzygium cumini-treated mice showed a significant decrease in blood glucose levels (BGLs) at 30 min (alpha=0.10) and from 45 min onwards at alpha=0.05. Vitex negundo exhibited greater anti-hyperglycemic activity than Eucalyptus tereticornis. Both showed a significant decrease in BGLs at 60 min but at alpha=0.05 for Vitex negundo and at alpha=0.07 for Eucalyptus tereticornis. There was no significant lowering in BGLs for Imperata cylindrica and Solanum nigrum while there was even an increase in BGLs for Nopalea cochinellifera and Artemisia vulgaris. PMID:16253452

Villaseñor, Irene M; Lamadrid, Mary Rose A

2006-03-01

420

Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.  

PubMed

The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:1473788

Aruna, K; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1992-11-01

421

Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice.  

PubMed

Mangifera indica Linn, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the alcoholic extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica Linn (Extract I containing mangiferin 2.6%), has been investigated for its effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of test extract I produced increase in humoral antibody (HA) titre and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It is concluded that test extract I is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties. PMID:11694357

Makare, N; Bodhankar, S; Rangari, V

2001-12-01

422

Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

2014-01-01

423

Please cite this article in press as: Linn, R.R., et al., Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes. Agric. Forest Meteorol. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.101  

E-print Network

speeds when dead needles were on the trees compared to live woodlands. When dead needles fell with dead needles on the trees also increased by a factor of 2 over propagation in live woodlands patches of herbaceous veg- etation scattered between clumps. Extensive stands of dead pinyon trees

424

Clinical evaluation of Rasayana compound as an adjuvant in the management of tuberculosis with anti-Koch's treatment.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001). PMID:23049182

Vyas, Purvi; Chandola, H M; Ghanchi, Firoz; Ranthem, Shivprakash

2012-01-01

425

Rumen Microorganisms in Buffalo from Southern Utah  

PubMed Central

Rumen microbial populations from buffalo (Bison bison bison Linn.) in southern Utah were identified on the basis of their morphology and staining characteristics. The rumen bacteria and ciliate protozoa were similar in number and kind to those found in domestic livestock. PMID:16349763

Pearson, Henry A.

1967-01-01

426

Arsenic uptake by two vegetables grown in two soils amended with As-bearing animal manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organoarsenicals are widely used as growth promoters in animal feed, resulting in unabsorbed arsenic (As) left in animal manures. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and As uptake of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor Linn, a crop with an axial root system) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, a crop with a fibrous root system) grown in a paddy

Li-Xian Yao; Guo-Liang Li; Zhi Dang; Zhao-Huan He; Chang-Min Zhou; Bao-Mei Yang

2009-01-01

427

Herbal fish toxicant used by fishers of Karbi-Anglong district, Assam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of plant, Polygonum hydropiper Linn. (Smartweed) as fish toxicant by the tribal people of Karbi-Anglong district of Assam for catching fish from natural aquatic resources as well as for removal of uneconomical fishes from the aquaculture pond has been discussed. Indigenous Technical Knowledge on aquaculture has generously been passed on to newer generation by older ones. Plant's botanical identity,

Bhagaban Kalita; Amalesh Dutta; M Choudhury; Assam Guwahati

428

Predation pressure on an imperfect Batesian micicry complex in the presence of alternative prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential predation pressure and the probability of predation on a Batesian mimicry complex and on alternative prey were estimatedin a field experiment. The mimicry complex was composed of a noxious model (Eleodes obscura (Say)) and a palatable mimic (Stenomorpha marginata (LeConte)). House crickets (Acheta domesticus) (Linn.) were used as alternative prey. The experiment was conducted for 23 nights in August

Martin Hetz; C. N. Slobodchikoff

1988-01-01

429

QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION  

E-print Network

.4 Data Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data ..................................5 2QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI SITE REMEDIATION April 15, 2004 Prepared for: Colorado School Littleton, CO 80127 #12;i QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN CSMRI Site Remediation Approved By: Date: Linn

430

Evidence of Predation on the Rugose Coral Calceola sandalina (Devonian, Czech Republic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specimen of Calceola sandalina (Linne 1771) from the Givetian of the Czech Republic shows severe injury on its right side when observed from its cardinal side. Approximately one-half of the counter side is missing between the counter septum and the alar corallite angle. The injury is healed within the calice, as visible also on deformed septa close to injury,

Arnost Galle; Radek Mikulas

2003-01-01

431

CATALOGUE OF THE ORDER ODONATA: Frank F. Hasbrouck Insect Collection  

E-print Network

-8 Libellula pulchella Drury.... 84-8 Libellula quadrimaculata Linn 84-8 Libellula saturata Uhler.... 84.... 84-7 Libellula comanche Calvert.. 84-7 Libellula croceipennis Selys.... 84-7 Libellula forensis Hagen.... 84-7 Libellula luctuosa Burm 84-7/8 Libellula lydia (Burmei.) 84-7 Libellula nodisticta Hagen.... 84

Franz, Nico M.

432

Actes du Colloque Women in the middle, Women in French -Fourth International Conference, Fort Worth, University of North Texas, April 10-12, 2008, paratre dans Women in French Studies, Special volume, 2010.  

E-print Network

Worth, University of North Texas, April 10-12, 2008, à paraître dans Women in French Studies, Special'éducation des filles, elles dissimulent une présentation scientifique rigoureuse du système de Linné sous des apparences frivoles et galantes. En particulier elles abusent des figures de style qui associent les femmes

Boyer, Edmond

433

The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn & Peterson,…

Jones, Tracy Anne

2010-01-01

434

124 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 1881. HINCKELMANN,Herr [Pishmaster at Flensburg]. Beitrag eur  

E-print Network

.),Jor. & Copeland.-Black Salmon. Percopsis guttartusus,A&-Trout Perch. Perm puviutilis, Linn.-Yellow Perch. Pomosys annuluris, Raf.-White Perch, Bachelor Perch. Bubalichtlbys urus, Ag.-Black Buffalo. I Salmon. #12;BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 125 Ickthyobus bubu7us, Ag.-Buffalo Perch. Cycleptus elongcrfus

435

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Lamiaceae), commonly called Indian Borage, are often eaten raw with bread and butter. The chopped leaves are also used as a substitute for sage (Salvia officinalis Linn.) in stuffing. In the present study, the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried aqueous extract of C. aromaticus was investigated, employing various established in vitro systems, such as the

A. Kumaran; R. Joel karunakaran

2006-01-01

436

Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamon, Clove and Galangal Essential Oils and Their Principal Constituents, and Possible Application in Active Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum iners), clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn.) and galangal (Alpinia galangal) and their principal constituents including cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and geraniol have been investigated for their antimicrobial activity against ten pathogenic and spoilage bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O1587:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella enteridis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and

Nutcha Sanla-Ead; Anuvat Jangchud; Vanee Chonhenchob; Panuwat Suppakul

437

Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcumin, contained in the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa Linn, is a naturally occurring phytochemical that has been used widely in India and Indonesia for the treatment of inflammation. The pleiotropic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) induces the production of interleukin-1 ? (IL-1), and, together, they play significant roles in many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. They have been

Marion Man-Ying Chan

1995-01-01

438

Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the

Amrita Bhowmik; Liakot Ali Khan; Masfida Akhter; Begum Rokeya

2009-01-01

439

Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: Investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to

Hidehiko Beppu; Kan Shimpo; Takeshi Chihara; Takaaki Kaneko; Ikuko Tamai; Sachiyo Yamaji; Sayaka Ozaki; Hiroshi Kuzuya; Shigeru Sonoda

2006-01-01

440

Change of Colour in Captive Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR. HAROLD MILLAR invites notes on this subject (NATURE, February 5, p. 600). The case of the crossbill (Loxia curvirostra, Linn.) seems in point. My attention was directed to it some years ago, when I saw a number of crossbills-six or eight, if I remember aright-confined in a large cage or small aviary at Glenferness, Nairnshire. The brilliant scarlet plumage

Herbert Maxwell

1920-01-01

441

Micropropagation of Selected Genotype of Aloe vera L.—An Ancient Plant for Modern Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloe vera Linn. (Syn. Aloe barbadensis Mill; Gwar-patha in Hindi) belongs to family Liliaceae. The plant, for its medicinal properties, has commercial value. Some of the genotypes of Aloe vera are consumed as a vegetable and processed to make curry and other edible products. We report here on the development of an efficient method for rapid clonal propagation by shoot

Mangal Singh; M. S. Rathore; D. Panwar; J. S. Rathore; H. R. Dagla; N. S. Shekhawat

2009-01-01

442

International Relations Office, Linnaeus University Information updated 2010-04-08  

E-print Network

International Relations Office, Linnaeus University Information updated 2010-04-08 Institutional Information 2010/2011 Full legal name of institution Linnaeus University/Linnéuniversitetet (S VAXJO03) Postal.Vinci-Hytter@lnu.se Fax: +46 470 837 85 E-mail: intrel@lnu.se #12;International Relations Office