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1

CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).  

PubMed

In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

2010-03-01

2

MINERAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS PARTS OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS LINN  

PubMed Central

Ash, minerals and biochemical contents were determined in various parts of root, stem and leaf of Cissus quadrangularis. The maximum ash content was observed in the root. The maximum concentration of carbohydrate and protein in the root and phosphorus, iron, calcium and lipids in the stem were observed. PMID:22557157

Udayakumar, R.; Sundaran, M.; Krishna, Raghuram

2004-01-01

3

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (Linn.) Enhances Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Facilitates Osteoblastogenesis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of the petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation rate of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts (osteoblastogenesis) and extracellular matrix calcification. This study also aimed to determine the additive effect of osteogenic media and Cissus quadrangularis on proliferation, differentiation and calcification. METHODS MSCs were cultured in media with or without Cissus quadrangularis for 4 weeks and were then stained for alkaline phosphatase. Extracellular matrix calcification was confirmed by Von Kossa staining. marrow mesenchymal stem cells cultures in control media and osteogenic media supplemented with Cissus quadrangularis extract (100, 200, 300 ?g/mL) were also subjected to a cell proliferation assay (MTT). RESULTS Treatment with 100, 200 or 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhanced the differentiation of marrow mesenchymal stem cells into ALP-positive osteoblasts and increased extracellular matrix calcification. Treatment with 300 ?g/mL petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis also enhanced the proliferation rate of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cells grown in osteogenic media containing Cissus quadrangularis exhibited higher proliferation, differentiation and calcification rates than did control cells. CONCLUSION The results suggest that Cissus quadrangularis stimulates osteoblastogenesis and can be used as preventive/ alternative natural medicine for bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:19841707

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR; Rao, Muddanna S; Nampurath, Gopalan Kutty; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Muttigi, Manjunatha S

2009-01-01

4

Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on diabetes induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification  

PubMed Central

Background: Delayed fetal skeletal ossification is one of the known complications of maternal diabetes. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) on diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg, intraperitonial) before mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, diabetic control group, and diabetic + CQ group. The diabetic + CQ group pregnant rats were treated with PECQ (500 mg/kg body weight) throughout their gestation period. Immediately after delivery, pups were collected from all three groups and processed for alizarin red S–alcian blue staining in order to examine the pattern of skeletal ossification. Results: Fewer ossification centers and decreased extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones were observed in the neonatal pups of diabetic control group as compared to those in the normal control group. PECQ pretreatment significantly restored the ossification centers and improved the extent of ossification of forelimb and hindlimb bones in the neonatal pups of diabetic + CQ group as compared to those in the diabetic control group. Conclusions: The results suggested that PECQ treatment is effective against diabetes-induced delayed fetal skeletal ossification. However, further studies on the isolation and characterization of active constituents of PECQ, which can cross the placental barrier and are responsible for the bone anabolic activity are warranted. PMID:24812472

Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Ranganath Pai, K. Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar MR

2014-01-01

5

Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis (LINN) Stimulates the Growth of Fetal Bone during Intra Uterine Developmental Period: A Morphometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect Cissus quadrangularis plant petroleum ether extract on the development of long bones during the intra-uterine developmental stage in rats. METHODS Pregnant rats (n=12) were randomly assigned into either a control group (n=6) or a Cissus quadrangularis treatment (n=6) group. Pregnant rats in the Cissus quadrangularis group were treated with Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight from gestation day 9 until delivery. The animals in the control group received an equal volume of saline. Newborn pups were collected from both groups for alizarin red S - alcian blue staining to differentiate ossified and unossified cartilage. The ossified cartilage (bone) was morphometrically analyzed using Scion image software. RESULTS Morphometric analysis revealed that the percentage of the total length of ossified cartilage (bone) in pups born to treated dams was significantly higher (P<0.001– 0.0001) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION The results of the present study suggest that maternal administration of Cissus quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intra-uterine developmental period. PMID:19061006

Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Rao, Muddanna S; N, Gopalan Kutty; Bhat, Kumar MR; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan

2008-01-01

6

Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and its related fractures have become global health issues in the recent days. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most frequent metabolic bone disease; it is characterized by a rapid loss of mineralized bone tissue. Hormone replacement therapy has proven efficacious in preventing bone loss but not desirable to many women due to its side-effects. Therefore we are in need to search the natural compounds for a treatment of postmenopausal symptoms in women with no toxic effects. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ), a plant used in folk medicine, on an osteoporotic rat model developed by ovariectomy. In this experiment, healthy female Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control (OVX). Groups 3 and 4 were orally treated with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) and petroleum-ether extract of CQ (500 mg/kg), respectively, for 3 months. The findings were assessed on the basis of animal weight, morphology of femur, and histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (an osteoblastic marker) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (an osteoclastic marker) in upper end of femur. The study revealed for the first time that the petroleum-ether extract of CQ reduced bone loss, as evidenced by the weight gain in femur, and also reduced the osteoclastic activity there by facilitating bone formation when compared to the OVX group. The osteoclastic activity was confirmed by TRAP staining, and the bone formation was assessed by ALP staining in the femur sections. The color intensity of TRAP and ALP enzymes from the images were evaluated by image analysis software developed locally. The effect of CQ was found to be effective on both enzymes, and it might be a potential candidate for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The biological activity of CQ on bone may be attributed to the phytogenic steroids present in it. PMID:19736603

Potu, Bhagath K; Nampurath, Gopalan K; Chamallamudi, Mallikarjuna R; Prasad, Keerthana; Nayak, Soubhagya R; Dharmavarapu, Praveen K; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, Kumar MR

2009-01-01

7

Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ) impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses) did not alter the glycemic levels in these diabetic rats. Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and hydroxyproline were noted in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. The two doses of PECQ treatment further improved the serum ALP levels and significantly decreased the serum levels of TRAP and hydroxyproline. The effects of PECQ treatment on histological, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters are comparable to those of insulin. Since PECQ improves the bone health in hyperglycemic conditions by enhancing the cortical and trabecular bone growth and altering the circulating bone markers, it could be used as an effective therapy against diabetes-associated bone disorders. PMID:24803925

Rao Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa; Ranganath Pai Karkala, Sreedhara; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Bhat, Kumar M. R.

2014-01-01

8

Pharmacognostical studies on Cissus quadrangularis L. variant I & II  

PubMed Central

The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L.Variant I and II are being used therapeutically for various ailments in indigenous system of medicine. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on the aerial parts were made. Variant I and II were analysed for their physiochemical, microscopical, fluorescent, qualitative and quantitative phytochemical, TLC and HPTLC characteristics. Quantitative variations were noted among seasonal samples and between variants and the results are presented. PMID:22557140

Austin, Anoop; Kannan, R.; Jegadeesan, M.

2004-01-01

9

Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats  

PubMed Central

The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis against rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The coarse powder of the shade dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using solvents petroleum ether (60-80°) and methanol. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) used as reference drug. Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase and bilirubin following rifampicin induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Rifampicin administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activities like reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutas and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant activities. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis further confirms the hepatoprotective activity. The results of the present study indicated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of ?-carotene. PMID:23326004

Swamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha; Kulkarni, Rucha V.; Koti, B. C.; Gadad, P. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Gore, Aparna

2012-01-01

10

Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.  

PubMed

The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis against rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.The coarse powder of the shade dried stem of Cissus quadrangularis was subjected to successive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus using solvents petroleum ether (60-80°) and methanol. Liver damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of rifampicin (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) used as reference drug. Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase and bilirubin following rifampicin induction were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis. Rifampicin administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activities like reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutas and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant activities. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with the methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis further confirms the hepatoprotective activity. The results of the present study indicated the hepatoprotective effect of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis which might be ascribable to its antioxidant property due to the presence of ?-carotene. PMID:23326004

Swamy, A H M Viswanatha; Kulkarni, Rucha V; Koti, B C; Gadad, P C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Gore, Aparna

2012-03-01

11

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis stem.  

PubMed

Polymer composite has contributed tremendously for energy efficient technologies in automotive and aero industries. Environmental and health concerns related to the carcinogenic nature of artificial fiber in polymer composite needs a retrofit. Eco friendly natural cellulosic fiber extract from the stem of Cissus quadrangularis plant is extensively characterized to consider as a viable alternative for man-made hazardous fibers. Anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis were done to establish the certainty of using them as reinforcement fiber. Its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (82.73%) with very little wax (0.18%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties in composite manufacturing. The flaky honeycomb outer surface revealed through electron microscopy contributes for high modulus in CQ stem fiber and thermo gravimetric analysis ensures thermal stability up to 270 °C, which is within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:25498651

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin

2015-03-01

12

Characterization of new natural cellulosic fiber from Cissus quadrangularis root.  

PubMed

Fiber reinforced polymer composites are replacing many metallic structures due to its high specific strength and modulus. However commonly used man-made E-glass fibers are hazardous for health and carcinogenic by nature. Comprehensive characterization of Cissus quadrangularis root fiber such as anatomical study, chemical analysis, physical analysis, FTIR, XRD, SEM analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis are done. The results are very encouraging for its application in fiber industries, composite manufacturing, etc. Due to its light weight and the presence of high cellulose content (77.17%) with very little wax (0.14%) provide high specific strength and good bonding properties. The flaky honeycomb outer surface and low microfibril angle revealed through electron microscopy contributes for its high modulus. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates better thermal stability of the fiber up to 230°C, which is well within the polymerization process temperature. PMID:24906775

Indran, S; Raj, R Edwin; Sreenivasan, V S

2014-09-22

13

Physico-chemical profile of cissus quadrangularis L. Var-I in different soils.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated. PMID:22557225

Kumar, T Sathish; Jegadeesan, M

2006-07-01

14

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. VAR-I IN DIFFERENT SOILS  

PubMed Central

The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated. PMID:22557225

Kumar, T. Sathish; Jegadeesan, M.

2006-01-01

15

A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts.  

PubMed

Extracts and powders of Cissus quadrangularis have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management. This review summarizes the studies in animals, humans and in vitro systems that have been conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of various Cissus preparations. Animal and in vitro studies provide support for the use of Cissus in promoting bone fracture healing and as an anti-osteoporotic. Several human studies support the use of Cissus extracts in weight management. No studies have been conducted demonstrating that Cissus exhibits anabolic and body building activities. Based on studies to date, Cissus extracts appear to be exceedingly safe and free of adverse effects at the doses commonly used. A wide variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Cissus extracts, including steroids, flavonoids, stilbenes, iridoids, triterpenes and gallic acid derivatives. However, in few cases have specific physiological effects been related to identifiable constituents. Better standardization of extracts and more well-controlled human studies are required. PMID:22976133

Stohs, Sidney J; Ray, Sidhartha D

2013-08-01

16

Clinical evaluation of cissus quadrangularis and moringa oleifera and osteoseal as osteogenic agents in mandibular fracture  

PubMed Central

Background: Ayurveda the ancient science of medicine describes various herb preparations that achieve the hastening of bone healing. Harjor showed clinical efficacy in the treatment of fractures. Objectives: The comparative evaluation of herbal agents as osteogenic agents in mandibular fractures. Study design: The patients were divided into four groups. Group 1: Osteoseal; Group 3: Harjor (Cissus quadrangularis); Group 2: Moringa (Moringa Oleifera); Group 4: Placebo. Result and Conclusion: Pain, Swelling, Tenderness, Mobility reduction is maximum in Osteoseal group and minimum in Placebo. There was an increase in the serum calcium and phosphorus level at different follow-ups in each groups but there was a decrease in the placebo group. Ca, Ca+, Phosphrous increase was maximum in the group 1. PMID:22639499

Singh, Vibha; Singh, Narendra; Pal, U. S.; Dhasmana, Satish; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Nimisha

2011-01-01

17

Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Women drastically loose bone during and after menopause leading to osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass increasing the risk of fractures with minor trauma. Existing therapies mainly reduce bone resorption, however, all existing drugs have severe side effects. Recently, the focus is to identify alternative medicines that can prevent and treat osteoporosis with minimal or no side effects. We used Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), a medicinal herb, to determine its effects on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Two-month old mice were either sham operated or ovariectomized and fed CQ diet. After eleven weeks, mice were sacrificed and the long bones scanned using pQCT and ?CT. In the distal femoral metaphysis, femoral diaphysis, and proximal tibia, control mice had decreased cancellous and cortical bone, while CQ-fed mice showed no significant differences in the trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity density, between Sham and OVX mice, except for cortical bone mineral content in the proximal tibia. There were no changes in the bone at the tibio-fibular junction between groups. We conclude that CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in the cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in these mice. PMID:22779034

Banu, Jameela; Varela, Erika; Bahadur, Ali N.; Soomro, Raheela; Kazi, Nishu; Fernandes, Gabriel

2012-01-01

18

Development and Validation of a Simple Isocratic HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Phytosterols in Cissus quadrangularis  

PubMed Central

Cissus quadrangularis L. is a promising remedy prescribed in the ancient Ayurvedic literature for bone fracture healing properties. As this activity has been extensively investigated and well established, a range of formulations containing C. quadrangularis has been marketed. This work reports the development and validation of a reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of phytosterols in the various extracts of the plant. The proposed method utilizes a Cosmosil C8 column (250 ? 4.6 mm) with a compatible Phenomenex C8 guard column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and water (95:5 v/v) at 25°. An effluent flow rate of 2 ml/min and UV detection at 202 nm was used for the analysis of phytosterols. The described method was linear in the range of 1–500 ?g/ml, with excellent correlation coefficients. The precision, robustness and ruggedness values were also within the prescribed limits (less than 2%). The recovery values were within the range, which indicates that the accuracy of the analysis was good and that the interference of the matrix with the recovery of phytosterols was low. The phytosterols were found to be stable in a stock solution for 48 h (% RSD was below 2%) and no interfering extra peaks were observed under controlled stress conditions. The proposed method is simple, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible and thus can be used for routine analysis of C. quadrangularis phytosterols in quality control laboratories. PMID:21969748

Shah, Unnati M.; Patel, S. M.; Patel, P. H.; Hingorani, L.; Jadhav, R. B.

2010-01-01

19

Antiosteoporotic activity of phytoestrogen-rich fraction separated from ethanol extract of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cissus quadrangularis L. (C. quadrangularis L.) (Vitaceae) has been reported in Ayurveda for its antiosteoporotic activity. The study separated the phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND-HE) from aerial parts of C. quadrangularis L. and evaluated its effect on osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy in rats. Materials and Methods: IND-HE was separated from the ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1: Control (distilled water), Group II: IND-HE (75 mg/kg p.o.), Group III: IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) were treated once daily for 8 weeks and Group IV: standard estradiol group, received estrogen (1 mg/kg, s.c. bi-weekly). The effects on body weight were determined. DEXA (Dual energy-emission X-ray absorptimatory analysis) of whole body bone and femur was carried out. Blood was removed and analyzed for biochemical parameters. After sacrificing the animals, biomechanical study of right tibia and histopathology of pelvic bone was carried out. Results: IND-HE showed presence of phytoestrogen-rich fraction. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/ kg) and estrogen treatment showed statistically significant increase in bone thickness, bone density and bone hardness. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) and estrogen treatment significantly increased serum estradiol. IND-HE (100 mg/kg) (P<0.05) and estrogen treatment increased serum vitamin D3 and serum calcium compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly reduced by IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) and estrogen treatment. Histopathology and DEXA results indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) prevented bone loss. Discussion and Conclusion: These findings confirm that phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND- HE) possess good antiosteoporotic activity. PMID:22701244

Aswar, Urmila M.; Mohan, V.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

2012-01-01

20

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract against isoniazid-induced liver damage in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) against isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The successive petroleum ether (60–80°C) and methanol extracts of C. quadrangularis were used. Hepatic damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Simultaneously, CQ (500 mg/kg p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) was used as a reference drug. Results: Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase, and bilirubin following isoniazid administration were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with CQ. Isoniazid administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased antioxidant activities such as reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with CQ significantly decreased LPO and increased the antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of CQ might be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:21189914

Viswanatha Swamy, A.H.M.; Kulkarni, Rucha V.; Thippeswamy, A.H.M.; Koti, B.C.; Gore, Aparna

2010-01-01

21

Anti histaminic activity of cissus quadragularis.  

PubMed

Anti histaminic activity of cissus quadrangularis stem powder was carried out determining the histamine activity and histamine content in carrageenin induced rat paw swelling model and formalin induced peritonitis respectively. The crude powder at the dose of 100mg/1QQ00 gm exerted reduction to the maximum of 44% in the early hisamine phase swelling. Further it significantly reduced the histamine content in the peritoneal fluid. For comparison standard steroidal drug hydrocortisone and avil were used. PMID:22556903

Begum, V H; Sadique, J

1999-01-01

22

ANTI HISTAMINIC ACTIVITY OF CISSUS QUADRAGULARIS  

PubMed Central

Anti histaminic activity of cissus quadrangularis stem powder was carried out determining the histamine activity and histamine content in carrageenin induced rat paw swelling model and formalin induced peritonitis respectively. The crude powder at the dose of 100mg/1QQ00 gm exerted reduction to the maximum of 44% in the early hisamine phase swelling. Further it significantly reduced the histamine content in the peritoneal fluid. For comparison standard steroidal drug hydrocortisone and avil were used. PMID:22556903

Begum, V. Hazeena; Sadique, J.

1999-01-01

23

Estrogenic activity of friedelin rich fraction (IND-HE) separated from Cissus quadrangularis and its effect on female sexual function  

PubMed Central

Women experience menopause differently across the world, in terms of their symptomology. Many experience symptoms of menopause like hot flashes, joint pain and loss of libido. Estrogen replacement is the prescribed therapy for most of the sexual dysfunction observed in menopausal women. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements for relief. In the present study IND-HE (friedelin rich fraction) was studied for estrogenic activity as well as its effect on sexual behavior in overiectomized female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups of six rats each. The Group 1 received distilled water, Group II - IND-HE (75 mg/kg p. o.), Group III - IND-HE (100 mg/kg p. o.) and Group IV received estrogen (estradiol) (1 mg/kg in olive oil suspension, s.c. bi-weekly). The treatment period was 8 weeks. On 1 day, one month and two month of treatment the sexual behavior was studied. At the end of the treatment the blood was withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus. The animals were sacrificed and uterus was removed, weighed and histology was studied. In different group of rats estrous cycle was studied which indicate estrogenic activity and for progestogenic activity of deciduoma formation was studied. The result indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) improved sexual behavior parameters. IND-HE (75 and 100) significantly (P< 0.01) decreased darting and hopping latency. The darting frequency and hopping frequency was significantly (P< 0.01) improved in IND-HE (75 and100 mg/kg p.o.) as well as estrogen group. Lordosis interval (LI) was increased significantly in estrogen group after 1st month (P< 0.05), and after 2nd month (P< 0.01). IND-HE (100) treatment showed increase in LI after 1st month (P< 0.05) remained during 2nd month (P< 0.01). While IND-HE (75) treatment increased LI only after 2nd month (P< 0.05).IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) showed estrogenic activity as indicated by vaginal cornification, increase in uterine weight and rise in serum estrogen. PMID:21808556

Aswar, Urmila M.; Bhaskaran, S.; Mohan, V.; Bodhankar, Subhash. L.

2010-01-01

24

First Report of Myrothecium roridum Causing Leaf and Stem Rot Disease on Peperomia quadrangularis in Korea  

PubMed Central

In 2010, symptoms of leaf and stem rot were observed on potted plants (Peperomia quadrangularis) in a greenhouse in Yongin, Korea. The causative pathogen was identified as Myrothecium roridum based on morphological data, internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, and pathogenicity test. To our knowledge, this is the first report of M. roridum causing leaf and stem rot disease on P. quadrangularis in Korea and elsewhere worldwide. PMID:25071393

Han, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Chan; Park, Jong-Han; Cho, Myoung-Rae

2014-01-01

25

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

26

Philinopsides E and F, two new sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.  

PubMed

Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, philinopside E (1) and F (2), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures have been established by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. Glycoside 1 showed significant cytotoxicity (Ed(50) 0.75-3.50 microg mL(-1)) against ten tumor cell lines. PMID:16644536

Zhang, Shi-Long; Li, Ling; Yi, Yang-Hua; Sun, Peng

2006-04-01

27

Cytotoxic holostane-type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis.  

PubMed

Two new holostane-type triterpene glycosides, named pentactasides I (1) and II (2), and a new natural product, pentactaside III (3), together with two known glycosides, philinopsides A (4) and B (5), were isolated from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. Compounds 1 and 2 possess the same trisaccharide moiety which is a rare structural feature among naturally occurring sea cucumber glycosides and has been infrequently reported, while 3 is a sulfated diglycoside. All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against six tumor cell lines (P-388, A-549, MCF-7, MKN-28, HCT-116, and U87MG) with IC(50) in the range of 0.60-3.95 µM. PMID:20425691

Han, Hua; Xu, Qiang-Zhi; Tang, Hai-Feng; Yi, Yang-Hua; Gong, Wei

2010-11-01

28

Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review  

PubMed Central

Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

2010-01-01

29

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

30

Phytochemical investivations of indigofera tinctoria linn leaves.  

PubMed

Studies of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has shows that it possesses low toxicity. Phytochemical evaluation of leaf extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has been carried out to characterize some constituents present therein. Qualitative analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids. Five compounds have been isolated from petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract and have been characterized by U.V.IR and H1 NMR data, petroleum ether extract were also characterized by HPTLC. PMID:22557060

Verma, S M; Suresh, K B

2002-04-01

31

PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIVATIONS OF INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA LINN LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Studies of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has shows that it possesses low toxicity. Phytochemical evaluation of leaf extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn has been carried out to characterize some constituents present therein. Qualitative analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids. Five compounds have been isolated from petroleum ether extract and methanolic extract and have been characterized by U.V.IR and H1 NMR data, petroleum ether extract were also characterized by HPTLC. PMID:22557060

Verma, S.M.; Suresh, K.B.

2002-01-01

32

Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves  

PubMed Central

Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

2005-01-01

33

Evaluation of the binder effects of the gum mucilages of Cissus populnea and Acassia senegal on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study has been carried out to investigate the binder effects of the gums of Cissus populnea and Accasia senegal on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Tablet mechanical properties evaluated include the packing fraction (Pf), the tensile strength (T) and the brittle fracture tendency (BFI). Varying concentrations of the gum mucilage ranging from 1 - 15% (w\\/v) was

F. E. Eichie

2007-01-01

34

Hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract from Cissus sicyoides  

PubMed Central

Background Cissus sicyoides (Vitaceae) is a medicinal plant popularly known in Brazil as "cipó-pucá, anil-trepador, cortina, and insulina". The plant is used in several diseases, including rheumatism, epilepsy, stroke and also in the treatment of diabetes. In the present work, we studied the hypoglycemic and anti-lipemic effects of the aqueous extract prepared from fresh leaves of the plant (AECS), in the model of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. In addition, hepatic enzyme levels were also determined. Results Results showed that the daily treatment of diabetic rats with AECS for 7 days (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased blood glucose levels in 25 and 22% respectively, as compared to the same groups before AECS treatment. No significant changes were seen in control diabetic rats before (48 h after alloxan administration) and after distilled water treatment. While no changes were seen in total cholesterol levels, a significant decrease was observed in plasma triglyceride levels, in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after AECS treatment with both doses, as compared to the same groups before treatment. Significant decreases in blood glucose (25%) and triglyceride levels (48%) were also observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats after 4 days treatment with AECS (200 mg/kg, p.o.). Aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases levels, in diabetic controls and AECS-treated rats, were in the range of reference values presented by normal rats. Conclusions The results justify the popular use of C. sicyoides, pointing out to the potential benefit of the plant aqueous extract (AECS) in alternative medicine, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:15182373

Viana, Glauce SB; Medeiros, Ana Carolina C; Lacerda, Ana Michelle R; Leal, L Kalyne AM; Vale, Tiago G; Matos, F José de Abreu

2004-01-01

35

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review.  

PubMed

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

Galani, Varsha J; Patel, B G; Rana, D G

2010-10-01

36

Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry  

PubMed Central

Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

2013-01-01

37

Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

2010-01-01

38

Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

2011-01-01

39

Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill].  

PubMed

A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S

1981-09-01

40

Identification, isolation and some properties of lectin from the seeds of Indian coral tree [Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill  

PubMed Central

A D-galactose-binding lectin agglutinating human erythrocytes has been purified from the seeds of the Indian coral tree (Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. orientalis (Linn.) Merrill] by affinity chromatography on acid-treated Sepharose-6B gel. It has a higher reactivity for O-group erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein having a leucoagglutinating property. PMID:7325983

Datta, T K; Basu, P S

1981-01-01

41

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g\\/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the

Pranee Jaiarj; Paranee Khoohaswan; Yuwadee Wongkrajang; Penchom Peungvicha; Potjanee Suriyawong; M. L. Sumal Saraya; Orawan Ruangsomboon

1999-01-01

42

A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)  

EPA Science Inventory

We disagree with Mr. Linn?s interpretation of our paper, ?High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness?.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

43

Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research T. C ~ a k e r 'and C E. Linn. ~ r : ~ I. Introduction Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, New York. #12;#12;T. C. Baker and C. E. Linn, Jr, Wind Tunnels in Pheromone Research 79 2.1. Moving the Air The two fundamental decisions to make regarding wind tunnels

44

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

45

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON THE FRUITS OF JATROPHA CURCAS LINN  

PubMed Central

Present paper deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the fruits of J. curcas Linn. The 75-80 cells thick pericarp is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Mesocarpic zone embeds non-articulated laticifers, tannin containing idioblasts and randomly distributed vascular bundles. Endocarp shows the occurrence of fibrous sclereids. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the drug powder shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides and tannins. Clinical evaluation of the fresh fruit juice has shown it s anti gingivitic property. PMID:22557042

Joseph, G.V.R.

2001-01-01

46

PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOTS OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, LINN.  

PubMed Central

The roots of Cocculus hirsutus (Linn) Diels was analyzed for preliminary phytochemical studies including physical constant (total ash, acid soluble and insoluble ash and moisture content), extractive values in different solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and water), and phytochemical tests. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine, present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant. PMID:22557132

Jain, Sourabh; Lavhale, Manish; Nayak, S.

2004-01-01

47

STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.  

PubMed

The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research. PMID:22557153

Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

2004-10-01

48

Chemical composition of essential oil from Calligonum polygonoides Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from air dried buds and roots of Calligonum polygonoides Linn., has been extracted from dry steam distillation and analysed for chemical composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In total, 27 and 10 compounds were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 68.42% and 82.12% total contents of the essential oils of buds and roots, respectively. It contains a complex

Muhammad Qasim Samejo; Shahabuddin Memon; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Khalid Mohammed Khan

2012-01-01

49

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

50

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review  

PubMed Central

Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

2010-01-01

51

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200±10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg\\/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg\\/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST,

Kannampalli Pradeep; Chandrasekaran Victor Raj Mohan; Kuppannan Gobianand; Sivanesan Karthikeyan

2007-01-01

52

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MIRABILIS JALAPA LINN. LEAVES  

PubMed Central

Mirabilis Jalapa Linn. is a widely used traditional medicine in many parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases viz. virus inhibitory activity, anti tumour activity. It is claimed in traditional medicine that the leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation. In the present study, the total alcoholic extract and successive petroleum ether fractions of leaves of Mirabilis Jalapa Linn were screened for its anti-inflammatory activity using carageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma models. The total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg p.o and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema model (p<0.01). In cotton pellet granuloma model, the total alcoholic extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg and successive petroleum ether fraction at the dose of 200 mg/kg inhibited granuloma formation significantly (p<0.05) indicating that both test samples inhibit the increase in number of fibroblasts and synthesis of collagen and mucopolysaccharides during granuloma tissue formation during the chronic inflammation. These experimental results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folklore claim of the drug to be used as an anti inflammatory agent. PMID:24825972

Nath, Lekshmi. R.; Manjunath, K. P.; Savadi, R. V.; Akki, K. S.

2010-01-01

53

Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extract of Stem Bark of Cissus populnea on Ferrous Sulphate- and Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat's Testes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Cissus populnea are plants associated with a myriad of medicinal uses in different parts of the world and are good sources of carotenoids, triterpenoids, and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of water extractible phytochemicals from stem bark of C. populnea on FeSO4 and sodium nitroprusside- (SNP-) induced lipid peroxidation in rat testes were investigated in vitro. The results revealed that the extract was able to scavenge DPPH radical, chelate Fe2+ and also had a high reducing power. Furthermore, the incubation of the testes tissue homogenate in the presence of FeSO4 and SNP, respectively, caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the testes. However, the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. populnea caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of both Fe2+ (EC50?=?0.027?mg/mL) and SNP- (EC50?=?0.22?mg/mL) induced lipid peroxidation in the rat testes homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. The water extractible phytochemicals from C. populnea protect the testes from oxidative stress and this could be attributed to their high antioxidant activity: DPPH-scavenging ability, Fe2+-chelating and -reducing power. Therefore, oxidatively stress in testes could be potentially managed/prevented by this plant. PMID:23401792

Akomolafe, Seun F.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.; Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Tade, Oluwatosin G.

2013-01-01

54

Antispasmodic activity of the fruits of Helicteres isora Linn.  

PubMed

Fruits of Helicteres isora Linn., commonly called Murudsheng in India, are usually prescribed in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, especially in Ayurveda, for a variety of intestinal complaints. The antispasmodic activity was checked in vitro on guinea-pig ileum against three spasmogens, acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The IC(50) for each was determined. The activity was compared with standard antispasmodic agents, atropine and diphenhydramine hydrochloride. The activity was also studied in vivo by observing the gastrointestinal motility in mice using the marker technique and the ED(50) was calculated. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on mice using the method of Weil and the LD(50) was determined. The results indicated that the fruits possess very good antispasmodic activity. PMID:11180523

Pohocha, N; Grampurohit, N D

2001-02-01

55

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Leaf powder of Cleome viscosa was extracted with ethanol. The hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed in CCI4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters were estimated and histopathological studies were also performed on rat liver. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by determining a functional parameter, i.e. thiopental-induced sleep of mice poisoned with CCl4. Results: The test material was found effective as hepatoprotective, through in vivo and histopathological studies. The extract was found to be effective in shortening the thiopental induced sleep in mice poisoned with CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa has significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20177580

Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

2009-01-01

56

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

57

Ixora coccinea Linn.: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.  

PubMed

Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. PMID:22231708

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Kurian, Poruthukaran John

2012-01-01

58

Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300?ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

2014-01-01

59

Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., ?-mangostin, ?-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) ?g/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) ?g/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) ?g/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) ?g/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) ?g/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-10-01

60

Hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Cleome viscosa Linn. (Family Capparidaceae) is naturalised throughout the hot and moist parts of India. Fresh leaves of this plant are used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in the folk medicines of the Bundelkhand region of India. The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of leaves was investigated against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The test material was found to be effectively hepatoprotective, as evidenced by biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. The results of the present study support the traditional beliefs of the hepatoprotective effects of C. viscosa Linn. PMID:19735042

Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

2009-01-01

61

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

2010-01-01

62

A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn  

PubMed Central

From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

2012-01-01

63

Anticough and antimicrobial activities of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.  

PubMed

The anticough activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) leaf extract was evaluated in rats and guinea pigs. The results showed that water extract of the plant at doses of 2 and 5 g/kg, p.o. decreased the frequency of cough induced by capsaicin aerosol by 35 and 54%, respectively, as compared to the control, within 10 min after injection of the extract, (P < 0.01). However, the anticough activity is less potent than that of 3 mg/kg dextromethorphan which decreased frequency of cough by 78% (P < 0.01). An experiment on isolated rat tracheal muscle showed that the extract directly stimulated muscle contraction and also synergized with the stimulatory effect of pilocarpine. This effect was antagonized by an atropine. Moreover, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-streptococcus group A, as determined by the disc diffusion method, was inhibited by water, methanol and chloroform extract of dry guava leaves (P < 0.001). The LD50 of guava leaf extract was more than 5 g/kg, p.o. These results suggest that guava leaf extract is recommended as a cough remedy. PMID:10619385

Jaiarj, P; Khoohaswan, P; Wongkrajang, Y; Peungvicha, P; Suriyawong, P; Saraya, M L; Ruangsomboon, O

1999-11-01

64

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn  

PubMed Central

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A.; Koti, B. C.; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Jaji, M. S.; Swamy, A. H. M. Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y. V.; Sadiq, A. Jaffar

2010-01-01

65

Antiinflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy's hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:21218059

Purnima, A; Koti, B C; Thippeswamy, A H M; Jaji, M S; Swamy, A H M Vishwantha; Kurhe, Y V; Sadiq, A Jaffar

2010-07-01

66

Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

2012-01-01

67

Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.  

PubMed

Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis. PMID:23661867

Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

2012-04-01

68

Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

2013-01-01

69

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai)  

PubMed Central

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-01-01

70

Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

2011-01-01

71

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn)  

PubMed Central

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 ?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

Mulla, W. A.; Salunkhe, V. R.; Kuchekar, S. B.; Qureshi, M. N.

2009-01-01

72

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn).  

PubMed

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 mug/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:20490298

Mulla, W A; Salunkhe, V R; Kuchekar, S B; Qureshi, M N

2009-05-01

73

Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats.  

PubMed

Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N V

2010-10-01

74

Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Ko??aikkarantai).  

PubMed

Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

Ramachandran, Shakila

2013-07-01

75

Effect of a sesquiterpene from Aristolochia indica Linn. on fertility in female mice.  

PubMed

A sesquiterpene isolated from the roots of Aristolochia indica (Linn.) was found to exert 100% interceptive activity and 91.7% anti-implantation activity in mice at a single oral dose of 100 mg/kg b. wt. No toxic effect was found at the dose levels used. PMID:923725

Pakrashi, A; Shaha, C

1977-11-15

76

Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration,

L. M Pessoa; S. M Morais; C. M. L Bevilaqua; J. H. S Luciano

2002-01-01

77

Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid reach extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Material and Methods: In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for thefirst group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Results: Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P < 0.05) against CP induced chromosomal aberration. Total chromosomal aberration was found to be 12.16 and 7.33% in 100 and 200 mg/kg of extract treated animals respectively. Conclusion: From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration. PMID:23716897

Deshpande, Supriya S.; Kewatkar, Shailesh M.; Paithankar, Vivek V.

2013-01-01

78

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. leaves and flowers extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of aqueous extract of C. ternatea leaves and flowers on serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea, creatinine were examined in control and extract treated diabetic rats. Glycogen was examined both in the liver

P. Daisy; Kanakappan Santosh; M. Rajathi

79

Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  

PubMed

50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R

1991-01-01

80

Morfologia do fruto, semente e plântula do Mororó (ou pata de vaca) - Bauhína forficata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mororó or cow paw (Bauhinia forficata Linn) presents great importance for the savanna paraibana, so much for the home-made medicine as for its economical value, in spite of it is threatened of extinction according to caririzeiros of the area. It was aimed at the morphologic knowledge of the fruit, seed and plantule of this species. The fruits were collected

Giselle Medeiros; Humberto Silva; Myrthis Virginia; Alves de Almeida; Mário Luiz Farias; Patrícia de Lima Martins

81

Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21?mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19?mm at concentration of 500?µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats. PMID:25224162

Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

2014-09-16

82

Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceTulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity.

Shankar Mondal; Saurabh Varma; Vishwa Deepak Bamola; Satya Narayan Naik; Bijay Ranjan Mirdha; Madan Mohan Padhi; Nalin Mehta; Sushil Chandra Mahapatra

2011-01-01

83

Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.  

PubMed

In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis. PMID:18688644

Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

2008-11-01

84

A study of cytogenetical relationships between Sorghum vulgare Pers., S. virgatum (HACK.) Stapf, and S. halepense (Linn.  

E-print Network

A STUPY OF CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ~SO H VIP PERS, , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF, AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Submitted to the Graduate School of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Genetics A STUDY OP CYTOGENETICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOBOHUM VULGARE PERS. , S. VIRGATUM (HACK. ) STAPF~ AND S. HALEPENSE (LINN. ) A Thesis By Samir P. Mouftah Approved...

Mouftah, Samir Pacha Mohamed Sabri

1966-01-01

85

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum  

PubMed Central

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441?cm?1 (–OH), 1660?cm?1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632?cm?1 (–COO–), 1414?cm?1 (–COO–), and 1219?cm?1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

2014-01-01

86

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

87

Pigment Extraction Techniques from the Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and Chemical Structure Analysis of Their Major Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. are the plants which have been used as natural source of indigo dye and are available in Northern part of Thailand. In this study we carried out methods to find the optimum condition for effective extraction of indigo from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. and Baphicacanthus cusia Brem. and investigated chemical constituents

Nittaya Chanayath; Sorasak Lhieochaiphant; Suree Phutrakul

88

Studies on psychopharmacological effects of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

Methanol extract of the entire plant Cleome viscosa Linn. (CVME) was evaluated for different psychopharmacological actions such as general behaviour, exploratory behaviour, muscle relaxant activity and phenobarbitone induced sleeping time and effects on normal body temperature in rats and mice. The extract was found to cause reduction in spontaneous activity, decrease in exploratory behavioural pattern by the head dip and Y-maze test, reduction in the muscle relaxant by rotarod, 30 degrees inclined screen and traction tests and caused significant lowering of body temperature. In addition, CVME significantly potentiated the phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time. Preliminary tests indicate that the methanol extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. in doses of 200-400 mg/kg has significant psychopharmacological activity. PMID:15022172

Parimala Devi, B; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

2004-02-01

89

Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant. PMID:24312848

Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru

2013-01-01

90

The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.  

PubMed

We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2015-01-15

91

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job’s tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content\\u000a of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g\\/100 g crude extract). The biological

Jiradej Manosroi; Narinthorn Khositsuntiwong; Aranya Manosroi

92

Repenins A–D, four new antioxidative coumarinolignoids from Duranta repens Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemical investigations on the CHCl3-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Duranta repens Linn. led to the isolation of four new coumarinolignoids, Repenins A–D (1–4), along with the known coumarinolignoids, cleomiscosin A (5) and durantin A (6). Their structures were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. The compounds (1–6) showed potent antioxidative

Nisar Ahmad; Fozia Zeb; Ijaz Ahmad; Fanghai Wang

2009-01-01

93

Effects of Cadmium on Chlorophyll Content, Photochemical Efficiency, and Photosynthetic Intensity of Canna indica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium (Cd) on growth status, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency, and photosynthetic intensity were studied on Canna indica Linn. Plant specimens that were produced from a constructed wetland and precultivated hydroponically in 20 L of 1\\/10 Hoagland solution under greenhouse conditions for 1 week were exposed to cadmium in concentrations of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2

Shuiping Cheng; Feng Ren; Wolfgang Grosse; Zhenbin Wu

2002-01-01

94

Phytoremediation of Triazophos by Canna Indica Linn. in a Hydroponic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of triazophos (O, O-diethyl-O-(1-phenyl-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-base) sulfur phosphate, TAP) by Canna indica Linn. in a hydroponic system was studied. After 21 d of exposure, the removal kinetic constant (K) of TAP was 0.0229–0.0339 d and the removal percentage of TAP was 41–55% in the plant system and the K and removal percentage of TAP were about 0.002 d

Shuiping Cheng; Jin Xiao; Huiping Xiao; Liping Zhang; Zhenbin Wu

2007-01-01

95

Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits ofMorinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45,\\u000a HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar; Fayaz Ahmad; Sabira Begum

2007-01-01

96

Isolation and Antioxidant Activity of Acidic Polysaccharide with Water-Solubility from Prunella vulgaris Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new acidic polysaccharide with water-solubility from Prunella Vulgaris Linn was extracted by water, isolated and purified by sequential treatment such as alcohol precipitation, macropole adsorbent resins, and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow anion-exchange column chromatography. The weight-average molecular weight of acidic polysaccharide was 57234 Da. The results of FTIR, UV spectra and elemental analysis of acidic polysaccharide found it contained uronic

Shuangli Xiong; Dabin Hou; Ni Huang

2010-01-01

97

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of a Novel Flavonol Glycoside from the Bauhinia Variegata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7- O

R. N. Yadava; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy

2003-01-01

98

A new biologically active flavonol glycoside from the seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside m.f. C 29 H 34 O 16 , m.p. 260-262°C, [M] + 638 (EIMS) was separated from the chloroform soluble fraction of the concentrated 80% methanolic extract of the seeds of Abrus precatorius (Linn). It was characterised as a new biologically active flavonol glycoside 7,3',5'-trimethoxy-4'-hydroxy flavone-3- O - g - d -galactosyl-(1 M 4)- f -

R. N. Yadava; V. Madhu Sudhan Reddy

2002-01-01

99

Hypolipidemic and Renal Functionality Potentials of the Hexane Extract Fractions of Elephantopus Scaber Linn  

PubMed Central

Background: Abnormalities in lipid profile are one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus. In STZ-induced diabetic rats, the rise in blood glucose is accompanied by a disturbance in lipid profile. Further still is the disturbance in the renal functions which includes abnormality in the serum urea,protein and creatinine levels The aim of the present study is to prove the hypolipidemic and the renal functionality effect of the root of Elephantopus scaber Linn. Procedure: Fractions obtained from crude extracts of hexane prepared from the root of Elephantopus scaber Linn. were administered to white albino rats at a dose of 0.15 g/Kg bwt for a period of 30 days to prove its hypolipidemic effect on a long term basis which is proved to be irreversible as the plant is reported to have regenerative property. Findings: The extract produced a significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL cholesterol), with a significant increase in the level High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) and reporting the restoration in renal functions back to near normal. Conclusion: The fractions of Elephantopus scaber Linn. hexane extract are confirmed to have a hypolipidemic potential and a re-establishment of renal functions. PMID:23675198

Daisy, P.; Edel Priya, Cecilia

2010-01-01

100

Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.  

PubMed

Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton. PMID:22908632

Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

2012-08-01

101

????????????????????????? ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) ??????????? (Acorus calamus Linn.) ????????????????????? ????????????????? Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Clove ( Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison ) and Sweet flag (Acorus calamus Linn. ) on Some Pathogenic Bacteria ??????? ?????????1*, ????? ????????1, ???? ?????????1 , ???? ?????1, ????????? ?????????2 ??? ????? ??????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison and Acorus calamus Linn. at concentrations of 3.3% and 33%. were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this study. Using paper disc diffusion method, Eugenia caryophyllus Bullocks & Harrison extract at 33% could inhibit all strains better than 3.3%. Inhibition of the extract on MRSA

Yingmanee Tragoolpua; Matcha Porn-in; Ranu Yucharoen; Narumol Thongwai

102

Determination of antioxidant capacity, ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of Crotalaria juncea Linn in vitro inhibitory activity of Crotalaria Juncea Linn.  

PubMed

The present study involves the determination of antioxidant capacity and in vitro ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity of the Crotalaria juncea Linn extract. The content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the extracts was estimated by spectrophotometry. Antioxidant activity on goat liver lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid emulsion were determined and ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activity was also evaluated. All the extracts had shown antioxidant property, ?-amylase, and lipase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extract was found to show maximum antioxidant activity on goat liver. Antilipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity were determined to be 66.94 ± 0.616 (p < .01) and 59.54 ± 0.2 (p < .01), respectively. Maximum ?-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities of 71.42 ± 1.37 (p < .01) and 57.14 ± 2.74% (p < .01), respectively, were exhibited by macerated methanol extract. The results had shown that all the extracts exhibited low inhibition and antioxidant activity as compared to standard. PMID:24670121

Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Banji, David; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, Otilia

2014-06-01

103

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S. J.; Gokhale, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Sawant, R. L.; Wadekar, Jyoti B.

2008-01-01

104

Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae) extract in rats.  

PubMed

The antipyretic activity of a methanol extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (CVME) was investigated for its potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. The CVME, at doses of 200, 300, and 400mg/kg BW p.o., showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The effect also extended upto 5h after the drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of CVME was comparable to that of paracetamol (150mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. PMID:12787948

Devi, B Parimala; Boominathan, R; Mandal, Subhash C

2003-07-01

105

Repenins A-D, four new antioxidative coumarinolignoids from Duranta repens Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations on the CHCl(3)-soluble fraction of the whole plant of Duranta repens Linn. led to the isolation of four new coumarinolignoids, Repenins A-D (1-4), along with the known coumarinolignoids, cleomiscosin A (5) and durantin A (6). Their structures were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. The compounds (1-6) showed potent antioxidative scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, with IC(50) values in the range 0.420-0.625mM. Repenin B (2) displayed the strongest scavenging potential with IC(50) values of (0.420mM). PMID:19464173

Ahmad, Nisar; Zeb, Fozia; Ahmad, Ijaz; Wang, Fanghai

2009-07-01

106

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids. PMID:20046718

Surana, S J; Gokhale, S B; Jadhav, R B; Sawant, R L; Wadekar, Jyoti B

2008-01-01

107

Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

2011-01-01

108

Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

2011-01-01

109

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS LINN. ROOT ESSENTIAL OIL  

PubMed Central

The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by ?-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans PMID:24825986

Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

2010-01-01

110

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

111

Immunomodulatory activity of petroleum ether extract of flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether extract from the flower heads of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. was found to be effective in increasing phagocytic activity, hemagglutination antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity when tested in mice. Activity of the petroleum extract was tested at five different dosing levels to establish a dose-response relationship. It was found that 200 mg/kg dose was the optimum dose, and at higher doses the activity was either reduced or showed no further increase. The present study, therefore, reveals that the drug shows good promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts by stimulating both humoral and cellular immunity as well as phagocytic function. PMID:17594985

Bafna, A R; Mishra, S H

2007-01-01

112

Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: An analysis by ABTS .+ decolorization assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free ra- dicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn ., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Menth a extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid,

Ponnan Arumugam; Perumal Ramamurthy; Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan Santhiya; Arabandi Ramesh

113

LCMS QUANTIFICATION OF ROSMARINIC ACID AND URSOLIC ACID IN THE OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. LEAF EXTRACT (HOLY BASIL, TULSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive, and accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) method for the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) and ursolic acid (UA) in the leaves of ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (EEOS) Linn. (Holy Basil, an Indian traditional herb) has been developed for the first time and validated. The LC separation was carried out

R. Shanmuga Sundaram; M. Ramanathan; R. Rajesh; B. Satheesh; D. Saravanan

2012-01-01

114

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g\\/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral

Ramesh L Londonkar; Pramod V Poddar

2009-01-01

115

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Ornamental Fish Toxicity of the Water Extract of Indian Almond Leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective __ To determine concentration of tannin, an antimicrobial substance, in the water extract of Indian almond leaves (Terminalia catappa Linn.), evaluate in vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from aquatic animals, and assess toxicity of the extract in three species of ornamental fish: a guppy, a fancy carp, and the Siam fighting fish. Materials and Methods __ The dried

Nantarika Chansue

116

Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. (MEIC) leaves against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 1 week followed with the simultaneous treatment with doxorubicin (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg in six divided doses for 2 weeks) along with the extracts for the next 14 days. On the 22nd day hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and ECG were recorded. Biochemical study including biomarkers like creatine kinase – MB (CK – MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SGOT and SGPT, tissue antioxidant markers viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extent of lipid peroxidation viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated. Histopathology of heart was also done to assess the cardioprotective effect. Results: Pretreatment with MEIC significantly reduced (P<0.01) the ST segment elevation and also maintained the BP (P<0.01) close to normal. The MEIC significantly reduced the elevated level of biomarkers like CK - MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT (P<0.01) near to normal, the MEIC also increased the tissue antioxidant markers viz. CAT, SOD and decreased the level of MDA (P<0.01) in cardiac tissue by dose-dependant manner. The histopathology of heart also further confirmed the cardioprotection provided by the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves. Conclusion: The results suggest a cardioprotective effect of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:22529471

Momin, Firoz N.; Kalai, Bharatesh R.; Shikalgar, Tabassum S.; Naikwade, Nilofar S.

2012-01-01

117

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

118

Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties  

PubMed Central

Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

2011-01-01

119

Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

2011-01-01

120

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant  

PubMed Central

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

121

Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.  

PubMed

Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

2015-01-01

122

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

123

In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

2013-04-01

124

Investigation on antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn.  

PubMed

Many medicinal plants have been used for centuries in daily life to treat microbial diseases all over the world. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn were investigated. Antimicrobial properties of T. populnea Linn was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by broth serial dilution method. The ciprofloxacin (5 ?g/ml) and flucanozole (100 units/disc) were used as positive controls for bacteria and fungi respectively. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 ?g/ml) of ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of T. populnea were checked for the dose dependent antibacterial activity. Thespesia populnea showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and maximum inhibition by ethanolic extract was observed at higher dose (250 ?g/ml) as 27±0.2mm. The MIC of the ethanol extract was 10 ?g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and 750 ?g/ml for Candida albicans. The antifungal activity offered against S. aureus by the ethanolic extract is more than the aqueous extract. The results concluded that the anti-microbial activity of T. populnea was dose dependent. As the concentration increased the inhibition zone also increased. Flavonoids and tannins present in the extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24522124

Senthil-Rajan, D; Rajkumar, M; Srinivasan, R; Kumarappan, C; Arunkumar, K; Senthilkumar, K L; Srikanth, M V

2013-12-01

125

Anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume against Dalton's lymphomae in mice model.  

PubMed

Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume herbs are commonly used for the treatment of in?ammatory and pain in Nigeria. The objective of the present study was to assess the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume in mice model. The treatment of Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor by the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata was determined at concentration of 100 mg/ kg body weight given orally for 11 days, antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, body weight, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathological evidence. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata increased the survival period of animals, decreased the body weight and also altered many hematological markers and also restored the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. These findings indicate that the methanolic extract of C. prostrata has anti-tumor activity by preventing the lipid peroxidation and thereby promoting the antioxidant systems in Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced mice. So, these extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health. PMID:25362615

Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Kannappan, Priya; Shanmugasundaram, Krishnakumari; Abdullah, Noorlidah

2014-11-01

126

Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

2013-01-01

127

Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. root extracts.  

PubMed

The work evaluated the antinociceptive activity of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. root extracts using the central and peripheral antinociceptive experimental animal models. The oral administration of ethanol and aqueous root extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced significant (p < 0.01) and dose dependent results compared to their respective controls. The aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) produced more inhibition of abdominal writhes in mice than the other test extracts. Both the test extracts significantly (p < 0.01) and dose dependently increased the hot plate pain threshold in mice but the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg) was exhibiting more increase in pain threshold than the other test doses of extracts. Dose dependent and significant (p < 0.01) reduction of painful sensation in mice tail immersion test due to oral administration of test doses was also observed. Oral acute toxicity study indicated the non toxic nature of root extracts. The present investigation revealed that ethanol and aqueous root extracts of A. hybridus Linn. possess significant and dose dependent central and peripheral antinociceptive activity justifying its traditional use in treating conditions associated with painful conditions. PMID:21485299

Singh, Sumitra; Sheoran, Sandeep Singh

2011-01-01

128

Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

2011-01-01

129

Herbal remedies for mandibular fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: When a bone is fractured it is usually necessary to employ a mechanical means to reduce and maintain the fragments in position. However, healing of the fracture is governed by biological principles, with which the mechanical measures must be coordinated to the end, such that a satisfactory bony union and restoration of form and function are obtained. We have studied the effect of Cissus quadrangularis (Harjor) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), in the healing of mandibular fractures. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 cases having a fracture in the body of the mandible were included in the study and divided into three groups. Groups A and B were treated with Ocimum sanctum and Cissus quadrangularis, respectively, and fracture healing was assessed with biochemical markers and the bite force. Group C was the control group. Results: The period of immobilization was the lowest in the Group A followed by Group B. A significant increase in alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium was seen in Group B. The tensile strength in terms of the biting force was the maximum in cases of Group B. Conclusion: We conclude that Cissus quadrangularis and Ocimum sanctum help in fracture healing, and use of such traditional drugs will be a breakthrough in the management and early mobilization of facial fractures. PMID:25298715

Mohammad, Shadab; Pal, U.S.; Pradhan, R.; Singh, Nimisha

2014-01-01

130

Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn. showed remarkable antihyperglycemic activity due to its possible systematic effect involving in the pancreatic and extra pancreatic mechanism. Forever, the antihyperlipidemic activity was exerted possible by lowering the higher level of lipid profile and decreasing the intercalated disc space in the heart. The antioxidant activity of extract was due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increasing the SOD, GPx and CAT. It was corroborate that the extract shown the Paederia foetida Linn leaves potential to be act as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties. PMID:24564866

2014-01-01

131

Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)  

PubMed Central

Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

2013-01-01

132

Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea  

PubMed Central

To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen. PMID:21713044

Daswani, Poonam G.; Brijesh, S.; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J.

2011-01-01

133

Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.)  

PubMed Central

In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:24250131

Doshi, Krunal A.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V. J.; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

2013-01-01

134

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.  

PubMed

Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:21644169

Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

2012-01-01

135

Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

2010-01-01

136

Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review.  

PubMed

Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

2014-05-01

137

Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. for anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) (CPE and CPA) were evaluated by cotton pellet granuloma models. Pylorus ligation and aspirin induced ulcer models were employed for evaluating antiulcer activity for both the extracts. Ulcerogenic potential of CP was also evaluated. Result: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of C. pulcherrima significantly decreased (P<0.01) the granuloma tissue development. CPE and CPA at both the doses exhibited significant (P<0.01) antiulcer activity by decreasing the ulcer score in both the ulcer models and it was not ulcerogenic. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of C. pulcherrima (CPE and CPA) possess significant anti-inflammatory and antiulcer activities. PMID:21572651

Sharma, Vivek; Rajani, G.P.

2011-01-01

138

Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.  

PubMed

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-?-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98?±?7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

2014-02-01

139

Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent  

PubMed Central

Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 ?g/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 ?g/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 ?g/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 ?g/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases. PMID:20429956

2010-01-01

140

Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. PMID:23103327

Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

2013-01-01

141

A preliminary study on the influence of gibberellic acid on Mentha arvensis Linn. var. piperascens holmes (Japanese mint)  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions (10–200 p.p.m.) when sprayed onMentha arvensis Linn. var.piperascens at preflowering stage induces 30–50 per cent. increase in the yield of total herb. Apart from the elongation of internode,\\u000a the leaf area was also increased. The stage of development of the plant at the time of treatment, appeared to be a significant\\u000a factor in obtaining favourable Gibberellin

B. K. Kaul; L. D. Kapoor

1965-01-01

142

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on the changes in central cholinergic system induced by acute noise stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn was screened for its effects on the noise induced changes in the central cholinergic system of albino rats by investigating the acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete areas of brain. Exposure to noise (10kHz:100dB) stress for 30min caused a significant reduction in total acetylcholine content and increase in the

K. Sembulingam; Prema Sembulingam; A. Namasivayam

2005-01-01

143

Amino acid sequences and disulfide bridges of serine proteinase inhibitors from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds.  

PubMed

Three serine proteinase inhibitors, MCTI-I, MCTI-II, and MCEI-I, were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds. MCTI-I and MCTI-II were inhibitors for trypsin and MCEI-I was an elastase inhibitor. Their amino acid sequences and the positions of disulfide bridges of MCTI-II were determined to be as follows. (sequence; see text) PMID:2738047

Hara, S; Makino, J; Ikenaka, T

1989-01-01

144

Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family, Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control, and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the anecdotal, folkloric, ethnomedical uses of P. guajava Linn., the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant's extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus model. Hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant's extract. Chlorpropamide (CPP; 250 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference hypoglycemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant's extract (PGE; 50-800 mg/kg, p.o.) caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemia in normal (normoglycemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Moreover, acute intravenous administrations of the plant's extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg i.v.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in systemic arterial blood pressures and heart rates of hypertensive, Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact mechanisms of action of the plant's extract still remain speculative at present, it is unlikely that the extract causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiodepressant effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of the plant's leaf extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses hypoglycemic and hypotensive properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management or control of adult-onset, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities. PMID:16395418

Ojewole, J A O

2005-12-01

145

Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview.  

PubMed

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K

2010-01-01

146

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents  

PubMed Central

Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

2013-01-01

147

Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.  

PubMed

Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats. PMID:21812651

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-09-01

148

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms  

PubMed Central

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

149

Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.  

PubMed

Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, ?-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

2012-01-01

150

Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

2014-01-01

151

Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

2011-01-01

152

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

153

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

2014-03-01

154

Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice  

PubMed Central

Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1?g/L) together with TL 100 and 200?mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

2013-01-01

155

Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

2012-07-01

156

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

2014-01-01

157

Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

2013-04-01

158

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C(18) column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves. PMID:23204626

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M S; Laddha, K S

2012-01-01

159

Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Karanjin in Pongamia pinnata linn. Leaves  

PubMed Central

A rapid, simple and specific reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column using an 85:13.5:1.5 (v/v) mixtures of methanol, water and acetic acid as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was at 300 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity. Validation revealed the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficients (r2>0.997) were obtained for calibration plots in the ranges tested. Limit of detection was 4.35 ?g and limit of quantification was 16.56 ?g. Intra and inter-day RSD of retention times and peak areas was less than 1.24% and recovery was between 95.05 and 101.05%. The established HPLC method is appropriate enabling efficient quantitative analysis of karanjin in Pongamia pinnata leaves. PMID:23204626

Katekhaye, S; Kale, M. S.; Laddha, K. S.

2012-01-01

160

Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Our aim was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antilipid peroxidative effect of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre (Leguminosae) flowers (PpEt) in normal rats and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Hyperglycemia, elevated lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)] and disturbed nonenzymatic [Vitamin E, Vitamin C and glutathione] and enzymatic antioxidants status were noticed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata flowers (300 mg/kg bw) showed significant antihyperglycemic, and antilipidperoxidative effects and enhancement in antioxidants defense system in alloxan induced diabetic rats. However, no significant characteristic changes were noticed in blood glucose level as well as in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in normal rats treated with "PpEt" alone. We have also observed that the "PpEt" considerably reduced the blood glucose concentration in a similar extent to that of the reference drug glibenclamide (600 microg/kg bw) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Our results thus suggested that the "PpEt" could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:16271443

Punitha, R; Manoharan, S

2006-04-21

161

Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

2014-09-01

162

Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

2013-01-01

163

Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.  

PubMed

Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p < 0.05), by blocking the saccharin avoidance response within 5 post-treatment observational days, with the highest saccharin intake being observed on day 5. This finding clearly demonstrates that gastroprotective and calcium channel antagonizing properties of Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. PMID:18853399

Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

2009-02-01

164

Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study  

PubMed Central

Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M.; Thakar, Anup B.; Baghel, Madhav Singh

2012-01-01

165

Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.  

PubMed

Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities. PMID:19377271

Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

2009-02-01

166

A comparative antibacterial evaluation of raw and processed Guńj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Seed of Guńj? (Abrus precatorius Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Guńj? in diseases like Indralupta (alopecia), ?otha (edema), K?mi (helminthes), Ku??ha (skin diseases), Ka??u (itching), Prameha (urinary disorders) etc., after being treated with specific ?odhana (purification) procedures. Objective: To assess the antimicrobial action of of raw and ?hodhita (Processed) Guńj? seeds Methods: Guńj? seeds after being processed with Godugdha (cow's milk), Nimbu swarasa (Lemon juice), K?ńj? (Sour gruel) and water, as the media, were evaluated for its antibacterial effect against clinically important bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Results: Aqueous extracts of raw seeds of Guńj? exert its antibacterial effect on both Gram positive, as well as Gram negative bacteria but none of the ?odhita Guńj? seeds showed any bactericidal effect on any bacterial strains. Chloroform extracts of all the ?odhita Guńj? seed extracts could inhibit bacterial growth but with variations Conclusion: The study displayed that chloroform extracts of raw and ?odhita samples for bacterial study were much sensitive than the aqueous extracts. PMID:23929989

Roy, Sudipta; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Mandal, Narayan C.; Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Roy, Rajiv

2012-01-01

167

Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states. PMID:21548805

Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarăes, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, Joăo Paulo Almeida; da Conceicăo Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

2011-10-01

168

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

2014-01-01

169

Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

2012-01-01

170

Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of Different Plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level. PMID:21369448

Das, Sanjita; Sasmal, D.; Basu, S. P.

2008-01-01

171

In Vitro ?-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for ?-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-?-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 µg/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.75±1.1 µg/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.5±0.4 µg/ml), SOD (IC50 62.5±2.1 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.50±1.8 µg/ml) and NO (IC50 67.5±2.2 µg/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent ?-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

2011-01-01

172

Effect of Momordica charantia Linn. pomous aqueous extract on cataractogenesis in murrin alloxan diabetics.  

PubMed

The fruit extract of Momordica charantia Linn. was studied in Charles Foster rats of both sexes in respect of its dose-response hypoglycemia and at maximal effective dose, its influence on the development of diabetic cataract. Alloxan (120 mg/kg s.c./rat, single dose) diabetic rats with greater than 150 mg% of blood sugar were classified into four groups (n = 10) wherein two were control and the rest were test groups). In the test group, the oral dose response hypoglycemic herbal effect was found to be maximum at 4 g/kg/Day/rat when administered for 20 days. This dose was continued in the 2nd test group for a period of 2 months. Blood sugar in all the rats was estimated by microdetermination method using a dextrometer before and after therapy. The control group of rats received 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl and they developed cataract in 90 to 100 days. The herbal treated diabetics showed cataract in 140 to 180 days. Cataract formation was found to be dependant on blood sugar levels since the control group with blood sugar 307 +/- 81 (mg%) was blind 2 months earlier than herbal treated group which showed blood sugar 149 +/- 66.37 (mg%). PMID:3387455

Srivastava, Y; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H; Verma, Y

1988-03-01

173

Evaluation of nutritional and antioxidant status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: a novel phytofood from Ladakh.  

PubMed

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70-90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2(-) scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Kaur, Tarandeep; Hussain, Khadim; Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

174

Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh  

PubMed Central

Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (?70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18?3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2? scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

2013-01-01

175

Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk  

PubMed Central

Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

2013-01-01

176

Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats  

PubMed Central

The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2%?w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

2011-01-01

177

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

178

Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

Eash, David A.

2004-01-01

179

Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000?mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800?mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

Gautam, M K; Goel, R K

2014-01-01

180

Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview  

PubMed Central

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional system of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn. have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin disease, arthritis, eye diseases, insect bites and so on. The O. sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess anti-fertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, analgesic, antispasmodic and adaptogenic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituents present in O. sanctum L. have been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials. The pharmacological studies reported in the present review confirm the therapeutic value of O. sanctum L. The results of the above studies support the use of this plant for human and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances. PMID:22228948

Pattanayak, Priyabrata; Behera, Pritishova; Das, Debajyoti; Panda, Sangram K.

2010-01-01

181

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

2012-01-01

182

Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (?G(o)). The values of K(ao) and ?G(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction. PMID:22713934

Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

2012-07-01

183

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera sessilis (Linn.) extract and their antimicrobial, antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

The present work focuses the use of the aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates and proteins and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were also tested for proteins and ascorbic acid. Its pH was also determined (5.63). The AgNPs obtained was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, Zeta sizer and TG-DSC. SEM images which revealed the presence of various shapes and sizes. FT-IR spectrum showed the AgNPs having a coating of proteins indicating a dual role of bio-molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Presence of impurities and melting point profile were screened by TG-DSC analyzer. AgNPs were synthesized from the silver nitrate through the reducing power of ascorbic acid present in A. sessilis leaves. In this study, we also investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green synthesized AgNPs. The antimicrobial activity is investigated by Bauer et al.'s method. Antioxidant activity was done by DPPH method. PMID:23006568

Niraimathi, K L; Sudha, V; Lavanya, R; Brindha, P

2013-02-01

184

Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit  

PubMed Central

Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

2012-01-01

185

Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion and gastric ulcers in ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl induced and 90% ethanol-induced ulcer models. PMID:21160779

Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

2009-01-01

186

Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linn, 1758), a key species concerned by changing southern limit, in exploited littoral ecosystems  

E-print Network

1 Microsatellite markers for the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica (Linné, 1758), a key species limit of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica strongly shifted northward. To understand the consequences on the function and structure of coastal ecosystems remain mostly unknown (Walther et al. 2002). The Baltic clam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: A pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyMomordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure\\/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men.

Gursevak S. Kasbia; Jon Thor Arnason; Pascal Imbeault

2009-01-01

188

Observations on the role of the honey bee and bumble bee as pollinators of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) in the Timaru district and Mackenzie country  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on the role of the honey bee and the bumble bee in the pollination of white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) were made in the Timaru District and Mackenzie Country of New Zealand over 2 seasons.Bumble bees were of no importance in the Timaru area, although they played an important part in the Mackenzie Country, where honey bee densities were

T. Palmer-Jones; I. W. Forster; G. L. Jeffery

1962-01-01

189

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Stem bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was extracted in methanol to evaluate their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was determined on Wistar albino rats by hot plate method, tail flick assay, and tail immersion method using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5?mg/kg of body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration?±?SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema using diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100?mg/kg of body weight and expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume?±?SEM. Stem bark extract was given at a dose of 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of body weight. Both standard drugs and extract were administered orally to the animals. Control received distilled water orally. Results showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23984409

Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Pradhan, Paresh; Borah, Sudarshana; Mahato, Kabita; Kumar, Mritunjay

2013-01-01

190

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially), groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) and Curcumin (100 mg/kg) as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl4 as a single dose on the 8th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl4 treated group (P < 0.05). Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver. PMID:23248564

Babitha, S.; Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J. F.

2012-01-01

191

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

192

Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)  

SciTech Connect

The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 ?m. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

2014-02-24

193

Arsenic toxicity in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.): significance of potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

In a hydroponic culture, experiments were performed to study the influence of potassium (K) supplementation (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg L(-1)) on the arsenic (As; 0, 8, and 10 mg L(-1))-accrued changes in growth traits (plant biomass, root-shoot length) and the contents of lepidine, As and K, in garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) at 10 days after treatment. The changes in these traits were correlated with shoot proline content, protein profile, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.8.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11). In general, As-alone treatments significantly decreased the growth traits but lead to significant enhancements in shoot proline and enzyme activities. K-supplementation to As-treated L. sativum seedlings decreased shoot-As content, reduced As-induced decreases in growth traits but enhanced the content of shoot proline, and the activities of the studied enzymes maximally with K100 + As8 and As10 mg L(-1). Both 8 and 10 mg L(-1) of As drastically downregulated the shoot proteins ranging from 43-65 kDa. With As10 mg L(-1), there was a total depletion of protein bands below 23 kDa; however, K80 mg L(-1) maximally recovered and upregulated the protein bands. Additionally, protein bands were downregulated (at par with As-alone treatment) above K80 mg L(-1) level. Interestingly, As-stress increased lepidine content in a dose-dependent manner which was further augmented with the K-supplementation. It is suggested that K protects L. sativum against As-toxicity by decreasing its accumulation and strengthening antioxidant defense system and protein stability. PMID:23529401

Umar, Shahid; Gauba, Nidhi; Anjum, Naser A; Siddiqi, Tariq O

2013-09-01

194

Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents.  

PubMed

The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diarrhoea. In this study, we examined the antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on experimentally-induced diarrhoea in rodents. PGE (50-400 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.01) protection of rats and mice against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, inhibited intestinal transit, and delayed gastric emptying. Like atropine (1 mg/kg, p.o.), PGE produced dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.01) antimotility effect, and caused dose-related inhibition of castor oil-induced enteropooling in the animals. Like loperamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.), PGE dose-dependently and significantly (P<0.05-0.01) delayed the onset of castor oil-induced diarrhoea, decreased the frequency of defaecation, and reduced the severity of diarrhoea in the rodents. Compared with control animals, PGE dose-dependently and significantly (P<0.05-0.01) decreased the volume of castor oil-induced intestinal fluid secretion, and reduced the number, weight and wetness of faecal droppings. PGE also produced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05-0.01) inhibitions of the spontaneous, rhythmic, pendular contractions of the rabbit isolated duodenum. The findings of this study indicate that PGE possesses antidiarrhoeal activity, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric use of the plant as a natural remedy for the treatment, management and/or control of diarrhoea in some rural communities of southern Africa. PMID:19234374

Ojewole, John A O; Awe, Emmanuel O; Chiwororo, Witness D H

2008-12-01

195

Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rats and mice.  

PubMed

In many parts of Africa, the leaf, stem-bark, and roots of Psidium guajava Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) are used traditionally for the management, control, and/or treatment of an array of human disorders. In an effort to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical properties of P. guajava leaf, and probe its efficacy and safety, the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant's leaf aqueous extract in some experimental animal paradigms. The antiinflammatory property of the aqueous leaf extract was investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal (paw) edema, while the analgesic effect of the plant extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice. Diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used respectively as standard, reference antiinflammatory and analgesic agents for comparison. P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) inhibition of fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation (edema) in rats. The plant extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg, i.p.) also produced dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in mice. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, ellagic acid, triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of the plant's leaf extract. In summary, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical, folkloric uses of the plant in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic and other inflammatory conditions in some rural communities of Africa. PMID:17003849

Ojewole, J A O

2006-09-01

196

Biphasic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effects of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting portal veins, as well as on endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded descending thoracic aortic ring preparations of healthy, normotensive rats. Graded concentrations of PGE (0.25-4.0 mg/ml) caused concentration-dependent, initial brief but significant (P<0.05) rises of the basal tones and amplitudes of pendular, rhythmic contractions, followed by secondary pronounced, longer-lasting and significant (P<0.05-0.001) inhibitions of contractile amplitudes of the isolated portal veins. Relatively low concentrations of PGE (<1.0 mg/ml) always contracted freshly-mounted, naďve, endothelium-intact aortic ring preparations. However, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/ml) always produced initial brief contractions/augmentations of noradrenaline (NA, 10(-7)M)-induced contractions of endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations, followed by secondary, pronounced relaxations of the aortic ring muscles. Moreover, relatively high concentrations of PGE (1.0-4.0 mg/kg) always relaxed NA-induced contractions of the aortic ring preparations in a concentration-related manner. The arterial-relaxing effects of PGE were more pronounced in endothelium-intact aortic rings than in endothelium-denuded aortic ring preparations. The relaxant effects of PGE on endothelium-intact aortic rings were only partially inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, suggesting that the vasorelaxant effect of PGE on aortic rings is probably mediated via both endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-dependent and EDRF-independent mechanisms. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that PGE possesses a biphasic effect on rat isolated vascular smooth muscles. PMID:19234376

Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

2008-12-01

197

Hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) whole-plant aqueous extract in rats.  

PubMed

Various morphological parts (roots, stems, leaves and fruits) of Momordica charantia Linn (family: Cucurbitaceae) are used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the folkloric, anecdotal and ethnomedical uses of M charantia, the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects of M charantia whole-plant aqueous extract (MCE) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycaemic effect of the plant extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes mellitus models. Normotensive (normal), and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to probe the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract. Chlorpropamide was used as reference hypoglycaemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant extract caused dose-related, significant hypoglycaemia in normal (normoglycaemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Furthermore, acute intravenous administrations of MCE produced dose-dependent, significant reductions in systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of normal, and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact hypoglycaemic and hypotensive mechanisms of action of the plant extract remain speculative at the moment, it is unlikely that the herb causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiovascular effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. However, the findings of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses hypoglycaemic and hypotensive properties, and therefore, lend pharmacological credence to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management and/or control of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in some rural African communities. PMID:17117226

Ojewole, John A O; Adewole, Stephen O; Olayiwola, Gbola

2006-01-01

198

Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

2014-01-01

199

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

200

Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400?mg/kg and 900?mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6?weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900?mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26?mg/g, 1.4?mg/g and 1.19??g/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

2012-01-01

201

Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  

PubMed Central

Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 ?M). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 ?M)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 ?M), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of ?-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders. PMID:23025418

2012-01-01

202

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

203

Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower  

PubMed Central

A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

Habib, M. Rowshanul

2009-01-01

204

Bioassay-guided isolation of a sesquiterpene lactone of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber Linn. active on Trypanosome brucei rhodesience.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of 70 Malaysia plants were screened for their in vitro antitrypanosomal activity using Trypanosome brucei rhodesience, strain STIB 900 and mouse skeletal cell (L-6) in cytotoxicity activity assay. Results indicated that methanol extract from Elephantopus scaber Linn. (E. scaber) possessed the highest value of antitrypanosomal activity with good selectivity index (antitrypanosomal IC50 of 0.22±0.02 ?g/ml, SI value of 204.55). Based on these results, E. scaber was chosen for further study by applying bioassay guided fractionation to isolate its antiprotozoal principle. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate partition through solvent fractionation and crystallization process. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as deoxyelephantopin on the basis of its spectral analysis (FTIR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:24269185

Zahari, Zuriati; Jani, Nor Akmalazura; Amanah, Azimah; Latif, Mohd Naffidi Abdul; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

2014-02-15

205

Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of two new triterpenoids from Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoids characterised as 30-normethyl fernen-22-one (capillirone, 1) and hopan-3?-ol (capillirol B, 2), along with two known triterpenoids, 4-?-hydroxyfilican-3-one and 3-?,4-?-dihydroxyfilicane, have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the fronds of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (Adiantaceae). Compounds 1 and 3 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with 33.07% (p < 0.01) and 42.30% (p < 0.001) inhibition as compared to indomethacin that exhibited 60.00% (p < 0.001) inhibition after 3 h in the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema method. Compound 3 showed potent anti-nociceptive activity with 42.37% inhibition as compared to indomethacin that showed 45.34% inhibition in the writhing test. PMID:23972143

Haider, Saqlain; Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Mohammad; Alam, Mahboob; Nazreen, Syed; Ali, Yakub

2013-01-01

206

Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

2012-10-01

207

Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

2014-11-01

208

Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium  

PubMed Central

Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C) and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8) was determined. PMID:23662136

Che Omar, Siti Nurhadis; Ong Abdullah, Janna; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Chin Chin, Sieo; Hamid, Muhajir

2013-01-01

209

Induction of apoptosis in human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and U937 by diethylhexylphthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from Aloe vera Linne on the apoptosis of human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and U937 to examine its pharmacological activity. At a level of 10 microg mL(-1) DEHP a significant anti-leukaemic effect was observed for all three cell lines, as measured by clonogenic assay. After treatment with 10 microg mL(-1) DEHP for 4 h, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometric analysis confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis. These results indicate that DEHP isolated from Aloe vera Linne has a potent antileukaemic effect, and thus represents a new type of pharmacological activity with respect to human leukaemic cells. PMID:11007077

Lee, K H; Hong, H S; Lee, C H; Kim, C H

2000-08-01

210

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and\\u000a National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria\\u000a (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency

Anshu S. Chatli; Viraj Beri; B. S. Sidhu

2008-01-01

211

Influence of the Leaf Extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (Mint) on the Survival of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Gamma Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Mentha arvensis (mint) on the survival of mice exposed to various doses of whole-body gamma radiation. Material and Methods: The radioprotective effect of various doses (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg\\/kg body weight) of chloroform extract of mint (Mentha arvensis Linn.) was studied

Ganesh Chandra Jagetia; Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

2002-01-01

212

Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.  

PubMed

The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

2014-04-01

213

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.  

PubMed

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains. PMID:1769715

Sivaswamy, S N; Balachandran, B; Balanehru, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1991-08-01

214

Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content  

PubMed Central

Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds. PMID:22529660

Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2011-01-01

215

Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn (Amaranthaceae). Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were used. Methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera (MEAA) was administered in the doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. Hole board (HB), open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark exploration (LDE) tests were used for determination of anxiolytic activity. Results: The methanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in HB test. The extract also significantly increased the time spent and the number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE test, the extract produced significant increase in time spent and number of crossings and decreased the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearing, assisted rearing and the squares crossed. Conclusion: In the present study, MEAA exhibited anxiolytic activity which might be attributed to its phyto-constituents viz. alkaloid, steroid and triterpenes. Since Achyranthes aspera is ubiquitous and abundantly grown, it could be a fairly economical therapeutic agent for management of anxiety disorders. PMID:22345872

Barua, Chandana C.; Talukdar, Archana; Begum, Shameem Ara; Borah, Prabodh; Lahkar, Mangala

2012-01-01

216

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

217

Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.  

PubMed

Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, ?-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

2013-12-01

218

Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.  

PubMed

Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days. PMID:25114335

Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

2014-08-01

219

Efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure--effect on water quality and growth of Cyprinus carpio (Linn.).  

PubMed

Experiment was conducted in (0.002 ha) cemented tanks for 120 days to assess the efficacy of vermicompost as fish pond manure at a dose of 10,000 kg/ha/year (VC(10)), 15,000 kg/ha/year (VC(15)) and 20,000 (VC(20)) kg/ha/year) in comparison to semi-digested cow dung (8-10 days old), which was utilized at a dose of 20,000 kg/ha/year (CD(20)). One fourth of the doze was applied 15 days prior to fish stocking and rest in equal weekly installments. Twenty fingerlings of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn.) were stocked (10,000/ha) and fed with supplementary diet @ 2% of their body weight daily. Water quality parameters were found to be within the optimum limits for carp culture in all the treatments. Zooplankton production in all the treatments did not differ significantly. Fish growth in terms of weight gain, percent weight gain, specific growth rate and yield was maximum in VC(15) followed by VC(20), VC(10) and CD(20). PMID:20338752

Kaur, Vaneet Inder; Ansal, Meera D

2010-08-01

220

Effect of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaf soluble solids on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of aqueous and ethanol soluble solid extracts of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) leaves on hypoglycemia and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide were injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type 2 diabetes. Acute and long-term feeding tests were carried out, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to follow the changes in plasma glucose and insulin levels was performed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extracts in diabetic rats.The results of acute and long-term feeding tests showed a significant reduction in the blood sugar level in diabetic rats fed with either the aqueous or ethanol extract of guava leaves (p < 0.05). Long-term administration of guava leaf extracts increased the plasma insulin level and glucose utilization in diabetic rats. The results also indicated that the activities of hepatic hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in diabetic rats fed with aqueous extracts were higher than in the normal diabetic group (p < 0.05). On the other hand, diabetic rats treated with the ethanol extract raised the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05) only. The experiments provided evidence to support the antihyperglycemic effect of guava leaf extract and the health function of guava leaves against type 2 diabetes. PMID:18819164

Shen, Szu-Chuan; Cheng, Fang-Chi; Wu, Ning-Jung

2008-11-01

221

Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.  

PubMed

A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

222

Study of anti-inflammatory activity in the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn.--an Indian medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Nyctanthes arbor tristis Linn. (Harsingar) is widely used as a decoction in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of sciatica and arthritis, but it has not yet been screened scientifically. In the present study, the water soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbor tristis (NAT) was screened for the presence of anti-inflammatory activity. NAT inhibited the acute inflammatory oedema produced by different phlogistic agents, viz. carrageenin, formalin, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and hyaluronidase in the hindpaw of rats. The acute inflammatory swelling in the knee joint of rats induced by turpentine oil was also significantly reduced. In subacute models, NAT was found to check granulation tissue formation significantly in the granuloma pouch and cotton pellet test. Acute and chronic phases of formaldehyde induced arthritis were significantly inhibited. NAT was also found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods, viz. Freund's adjuvant arthritis and PPD induced tuberculin reaction. Thus anti-inflammatory activity in leaves of Harsingar supports its use in various inflammatory conditions by the followers of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. PMID:6482481

Saxena, R S; Gupta, B; Saxena, K K; Singh, R C; Prasad, D N

1984-08-01

223

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.  

PubMed

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

2013-03-01

224

Analysis of the responses of rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.). Isolated portal vein to electrical stimulation and to drugs.  

PubMed

The responses of the rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) isolated portal vein to transmural electrical stimulation and to drugs have been examined. The isolated venous muscle preparation strongly contracted in response to exogenously administered adrenaline and noradrenaline (10(-8)-2.5 x 10(-6) M) and also weakly contracted to acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (10(-7) - 10(-5) M). The vein relaxed in response to exogenous administrations of isoprenaline (10(-8) - 2.5 x 10(-6) M) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 10(-7) - 10(-5) M). Transmural electrical stimulation of the isolated vein at 1-40 Hz induced frequency-dependent contractions of the venous smooth muscle which were inhibited or abolished by tetrodotoxin, alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, adrenergic neurone blocking agents, local anaesthetics, and by pretreatment of rainbow lizards with reserpine. Analysis of these findings shows that the electrical stimulation-evoked contractions of the venous blood vessel resulted from the excitation of post-ganglionic sympathetic neurones. A comparison of the relative potentiation of the venous preparation contractions induced by electrical stimulation, adrenaline and noradrenaline suggested that noradrenaline is the sympathetic transmitter mediating the contractile effects due to electrical excitation. The advantages of this preparation for studying sympathetic nerve-smooth muscle mechanisms and as a pharmacological model for investigating venous blood vessel activity are discussed. PMID:6142991

Ojewole, J A

1983-12-01

225

Isolation, structure elucidation and in vivo hepatoprotective potential of trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid from Indigofera tinctoria Linn.  

PubMed

The bioassay guided fractionation of the dried aerial part of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. led to the identification of an active fraction labelled as indigotin. On further chemical analysis, a compound isolated from indigotin was identified and characterized as trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid (TCA). The chemical structure of this compound was established on the basis of physical properties and spectral data, including NMR. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Silymarin, a well known plant based hepatoprotective agent, and N-acetylcysteine, which has proven efficacy as a replenisher of sulfhydryls, were used for relative efficacy. TCA was found to reverse the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality for the 15 day period of observation after administration of a single dose of drug in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of TCA as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rats and mice and may be useful in the management of liver disorders. PMID:16841368

Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Sharma, N; Bhardwaj, V; Satti, N K; Gupta, V N; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Suri, O P

2006-10-01

226

Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2?g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

227

Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.  

PubMed

Abstract The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

2014-11-20

228

Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*  

PubMed Central

Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

2014-01-01

229

Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver, kidney, heart and pancreas. Conclusion The antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effect of methanolic extract from Melastoma malabathricum Linn suggests a potential therapeutic treatment to antidiabetic conditions. PMID:24010894

2013-01-01

230

Isolation and Structure Determination of a Benzofuran and a Bis-Nor-Isoprenoid from Aspergillus Niger Grown on the Water Soluble Fraction of Morinda Citrifolia Linn. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new benzofuran and a bis-nor-isoprenoid, blumenol C, hitherto unreported from this source. The structures of these have been elucidated as 5-benzofuran carboxylic acid-6-formyl methyl ester (1) and 4-(3?(R)-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5, trimethyl-cyclohex-2-en-1-one (2) respectively through spectroscopic studies. The NMR data (including 1D, 2D techniques) and stereochemistry at C-3? of Compound 2 is also being reported

Bina S. Siddiqui; Fouzia A. Sattar Ismail; Tahsin Gulzar; Sabira Begum

2003-01-01

231

EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS  

PubMed Central

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

2010-01-01

232

Development of HPLC method by UV-VIS detection for the quantification of phenolic acids in different Ocimum sanctum Linn. extracts.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of five phenolic acids including Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid, Syringic acid, Benzoic acid and Vanillic acid by HPLC with UV-VIS detector. These Phenolic acids were separated by analytical column Intersil ODS-3 C18, a gradient elution system of ACN and acidified water solution with 1ml/min flow rate and quantified in a total run of 30 minutes at 210nm wavelength. In the quantitative analysis of these compounds showed good regression (0.995-0.999). The limit of detection [LOD] and limit of quantification [LOQ] of these compounds were in the range of 0.15-0.46 and 0.42-2.47 ?g/mL. The average recoveries were between 95.8-103.1% and their RSD values were less than 3.34%. By the proposed method Gallic acid, Chloroganic acid and Syringic acid were found and quantified in Methanolic, Ethanolic and Acetonic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. While the two other phenolic acids benzoic acid and vanillic acid was not found in the extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves. PMID:25176382

Shafqatullah; Khan, Rasool; Hassan, Waseem; Hussain, Arshad; Asadullah; Rehman, Khaliqur; Ali, Javid

2014-09-01

233

Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.  

PubMed

The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant. PMID:16170979

Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

2005-04-01

234

Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

Jarald, E. E.; Joshi, S. B.; Jain, D. C.; Edwin, S.

2013-01-01

235

Proapoptotic and antimetastatic properties of supercritical CO2 extract of Nigella sativa Linn. against breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (~17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 ?g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M; Nassar, Zeyad D; Aisha, Abdalrahim F; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R; Abd Kadir, Mohd Omar; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2013-12-01

236

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

237

Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500?psi (?17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15??g/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

2013-01-01

238

In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 ?g/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 ?g/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 ?g/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

2010-01-01

239

Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

2014-11-01

240

Effects of drugs and electrical stimulation on rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) isolated gastrointestinal tract smooth muscles.  

PubMed

The effects of some autonomic drugs and transmural electrical stimulation have been investigated on different isolated regions (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum) of the rainbow lizard (Agama agama Linn.) alimentary canal. Acetylcholine and its natural or synthetic analogues (5 X 10(-10)-10(-6)M) contracted the rainbow lizard isolated oesophagus, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum (but not the stomach) in a concentration-dependent manner. Acetylcholine cholinoceptors on the lizard gut were classified as "muscarinic" since acetylcholine-induced contractions of the muscle preparations were inhibited or abolished by relatively low concentrations of atropine (10(-9)-10(-6)M), but not by d-tubocurarine or hexamethonium (at the same concentration levels. Atropine exhibited characteristics of competitive antagonism and gave a high mean pA2 value (9.40 +/- 0.25) against acetylcholine on lizard isolated rectum. Physostigmine (eserine, 10(-8)-10(-4)M) did not contract any isolated region of the lizard gut. However, low to medium concentrations of eserine (10(-8)-10(-6)M) potentiated acetylcholine-but not carbachol-induced contractions of the isolated smooth muscle segments taken from different regions of the rainbow lizard alimentary canal. The selective potentiation of ACh-elicited contractions of the muscle preparations by eserine is therefore thought to suggest the presence of acetylcholinesterases in the tissues, and their inhibition by physostigmine. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) or nicotine (10(-8)-10(-5)M) did not contract any of the isolated segments from the different regions of the rainbow lizard alimentary canal. Adrenaline and all its analogues examined (10(-8)-10(-5)M) dose-dependently relaxed isolated segments from different regions (except the stomach) of the rainbow lizard gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine-induced relaxations of the lizard gut smooth muscles were inhibited or abolished by low concentrations of phentolamine (10(-7)-2.5 X 10(-6)M). This observation probably suggests the presence of "alpha" adrenoceptors on rainbow lizard gastrointestinal tract. Repetitive transmural electrical excitation induced tetrodotoxin- (and atropine-) resistant, frequency-dependent contractions of all isolated segments taken from different regions (except the stomach) of the lizard alimentary canal. The findings that medium to high concentrations of physostigmine (10(-6)-10(-4)M), DMPP and nicotine (10(-6)-10(-5)M) failed to elicit intrinsic nerve-mediated contractions, coupled with the fact that tetanic transmural electrical stimulation caused tetrodotoxin-resistant contractions of the rainbow lizard isolated gut muscles, strongly suggest that the autonomic innervation of this reptilian alimentary canal differs from that of a conventional mammalian (e.g. guinea-pig) gastrointestinal tract... PMID:6604856

Ojewole, J A

1983-06-01

241

Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0?mg/kg, 5?mg/kg, 10?mg/kg, and 20?mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

2014-09-01

242

Rapid and efficient purification of chrysophanol in Rheum Palmatum LINN by supercritical fluid extraction coupled with preparative liquid chromatography in tandem.  

PubMed

Chrysophanol has high pharmaceutical values. However, it was difficult to use the traditional extraction method to extract high-concentration chrysophanol. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to purify and separate chrysophanol in traditional herb, Rheum Palmatum LINN, by using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) for rapid and large-scale isolation. The method is efficient for selective extraction of chrysophanol from the herbs, which have complex compositions. The extraction efficiency of chrysophanol with SFE is 25 × higher than that of boiled water extraction under the same extraction time. The optimal conditions for SFE were 210 atm and 85 °C for 30 min; for P-HPLC, a C18 column was used with a gradient elution of methanol and 1% acetic acid at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. According to (1)H NMR and LC-MS analyses, the purity of the isolated chrysophanol was as high as 99%. The recovery for chrysophanol in Rheum after SPE/PHPLC processing was in the range of 88-91.5%. Compared with other extraction and purification methods, the sequential system (SFE/P-HPLC) achieved the highest amount of extracted chrysophanol from Rheum Palmatum LINN (0.38 mg/g) and the shortest run time (3h). Hence, this rapid and environmentally friendly method can separate compounds based on polarity with high efficiencies and, coupled with P-HPLC, it may be applicable in the large-scale production of foods and medicines in the future. PMID:22436825

Lo, Tiffany Chien-Ting; Nian, Hung-Chi; Chiu, Kong-Hwa; Wang, Ai-Yih; Wu, Ben-Zen

2012-04-15

243

A New Flavone Glycoside, 5Hydroxy 7,3?,4?,5?-Tetra-Methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-Xylopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-Rhamnopyranoside from Bauhinia Variegata Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavone glycoside m.f. C30H36O15, m.p. 252–253°C, [M] 636 (EIMS) was isolated from the acetone soluble fraction of the concentrated 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Bauhinia variegata (Linn). It was identified as 5-hydroxy7,3?,4?,5?-tetra-methoxyflavone 5-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) by various colour reactions, chemical degradations and spectral techniques.

R. N. Yadava; V. M. S. Reddy

2001-01-01

244

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC–MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2012-01-01

245

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC–MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The

Poonkodi Kathirvel; Subban Ravi

2011-01-01

246

Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.  

PubMed

Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian almond leaf extract concentrations (6 concentrations) between the highest concentration that did not kill fish and the lowest concentration that killed all fish were used. Each concentration had three replicates (20 fish/replication). Mortality was observed after 96 hours. The LC50 value was calculated using probit analysis. The 96-h LC50 value for green and red leaf extracts was 1,765.69 and 1,651.21 ppm, respectively. When Siamese fighting fish were cultured in water added with Indian almond water extract at 5 concentrations for 5 days and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila at a concentration of 1 x 106 CFU/mL, the survival rate of the Siamese fighting fish infected by A. hydrophila could be decreased by bathing with Indian almond red leaf extract at 750 ppm while green leaf Indian almond extract was effective for Aeromonad septicemia therapy in Siamese fighting fish when used at a concentration of 1,000 ppm. In conclusion, red leaf Indian almond aqueous extract had high potential for the control of pathogenic bacteria at a concentration of 750 ppm which should be safe for Siamese fighting fish taking into consideration the toxic level of the extract. PMID:23885412

Purivirojkul, Watchariya

2012-01-01

247

Mitigation of starch-induced postprandial glycemic spikes in rats by antioxidants-rich extract of Cicer arietinum Linn. seeds and sprouts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Consumption of highly processed calories dense diet leads abrupt increase in postprandial blood glucose level, which in turn induces immediate oxidative stress. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) and resultant oxidative stress is one of the earliest detectable abnormalities in diabetes prone individuals, independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular disorders (CVD), a major pathophysiological link between diabetes and CVD and an important contributing factor in atherogenesis even in non-diabetic individuals. Therefore, dietary supplements mitigating PPHG spikes along with potent antioxidant activities may help decrease development of PPHG and oxidative stress induced pathogenesis. Objectives: The study evaluated free radicals scavenging, antioxidant properties and intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity in methanol extract of two varieties of Cicer arietinum Linn viz. Bengal gram and Kabuli chana and green gram (Vigna radiata Linn. Wilczek) raw grains and their sprouts and studied their influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy grains were procured from local markets. Free radicals scavenging antioxidant and glucose-induced hemoglobin (Hb)-glycation inhibition activities were analyzed using standard in vitro procedures. In vitro antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated by assessing rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Influence on starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion in rats was studied by pre-treatment of rats with extracts. Results: Compared with raw seeds increase in total polyphenol and flavonoids concentration in green gram sprouts and Kabuli chana sprouts (KCs) were observed. Total protein concentrations in sprouts did not differ from non-sprouted grains. 2,2’- Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation scavenging activity was more than twice in Bengal gram sprouts of (BGs) and KCs than their raw seeds. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, nitro blue tetrazolium reducing and glucose-induced Hb-glycation inhibitory activity did not differ from non-sprouted raw grains. Increase in rat intestinal ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed in BGs and KCs. BGs significantly mitigated 1st 30 min starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursions and reduced 2 h postprandial glycemic load. Conclusion: Sprouting leads dynamic changes in free radicals scavenging potentials and antioxidant activities in grains. Consumption of seeds as well as BGs before the starch-rich meal can significantly mitigate 1st 30 min postprandial glycemic excursion and reduce 2 h postprandial glycemic burden. PMID:24302835

Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sahana, Chinthapatla; Zehra, Amtul; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Kumar, Domati Anand; Agawane, Sachin Bharat

2013-01-01

248

Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2?mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09??m2 to 35.66 ± 0.10??m2 and 142.90 ± 0.59??m2 to 165.05 ± 0.58??m2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

2013-01-01

249

Brucine, an alkaloid from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and metastasis: the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway.  

PubMed

Brucine is an alkaloid derived from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. HCC prognosis can be greatly influenced by metastasis. There has thus far been little research into brucine as a source of anti-metastasis activity against HCC. In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic effects. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF-1-dependent luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of four known HIF-1 target genes involved in HCC metastasis, i.e., fibronectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, lysyl oxidase, and cathepsin D, were also attenuated after brucine treatment. Experiments in vivo showed that an intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg of brucine resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the lung metastasis of H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. Moreover, a dosage of brucine at 15 mg/kg exhibited very low toxic effects to tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, brucine downregulated expression levels of HIF-1 responsive genes in vivo. Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway is implicated in the anti-metastasis activity of brucine. PMID:23933019

Shu, Guangwen; Mi, Xue; Cai, Jian; Zhang, Xinlin; Yin, Wu; Yang, Xinzhou; Li, You; Chen, Lvyi; Deng, Xukun

2013-10-24

250

Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

2014-09-01

251

Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 ?g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ? 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

252

Induction of apoptosis by methanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia Linn in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Rubia cordifolia Linn, which belongs to the Rubiaceae family, is a well-known herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, we investigated the influence of a methanolic extract (RC) on the induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 (human laryngeal carcinoma) cell line, as evidenced by cytotoxicity, morphological changes and modification in the levels of pro-oxidants. Inhibition of cell proliferation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased in a time and dose-dependent manner. Further, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione transferase (GST) and protein levels decreased and lipid peroxidation increased significantly on RC treatment in a dose dependent manner when compared to controls. Based on the results we determined the optimal dose as 30 mg/ ml and the apoptotic effect of RC extract (30 mg/ml) on HEp-2 cells was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based on morphological and ultrastructural changes. RC extract suppressed the proliferation of HEp-2 oral cancer cells inducing apoptotic cell death in vitro. These results point to potential of RC extract as an agent for the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22938454

Shilpa, P N; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Niranjali Devaraj, S

2012-01-01

253

Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

254

Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40?mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200??g/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6??g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and ?1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100?mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40?mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60?mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5?mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5?mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

2014-01-01

255

Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.  

PubMed

Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

2012-07-01

256

Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers.  

PubMed

The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

Ramachandran, S; Asokkumar, K; Uma Maheswari, M; Ravi, T K; Sivashanmugam, A T; Saravanan, S; Rajasekaran, A; Dharman, J

2011-01-01

257

Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200?mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200?mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100?mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

2011-01-01

258

Spatial localisation of curcumin and rapid screening of the chemical compositions of turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.) using Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS).  

PubMed

Curcumin is a potent antioxidant agent having versatile biological activities is present in turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa Linn.). Powder of turmeric rhizomes is consumes as curry spicy worldwide, especially in Asia. In this study, we demonstrate that, bioactive curcumin and its analog demethoxycurcumin are chiefly concentrated in the pith rather than the other parts of the turmeric rhizomes and it was discovered using modern atmospheric ionisation source 'Direct Analysis in Real Time' (DART) connected with an Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. In addition, all the major components present in turmeric rhizomes were detected in positive and/or in negative ion mode using DART. PMID:25466050

Rahman, A F M Motiur; Angawi, Rihab F; Kadi, Adnan A

2015-04-15

259

Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.  

PubMed

It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

2015-01-01

260

Isolation and characterisation of phosphate solubilising microorganisms from the cold desert habitat of Salix alba Linn. in trans Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh.  

PubMed

Phosphate solubilising microorganisms (PSM) (bacteria and fungi) associated with Salix alba Linn. from Lahaul and Spiti valleys of Himachal Pradesh were isolated on Pikovskaya (PVK), modified Pikovskaya (MPVK) and National Botanical Research Institute agar (NBRIP) media by spread plating. The viable colony count of P-solubilising bacteria (PSB) and fungi (PSF) was higher in rhizosphere than that of non-rhizosphere. The frequency of PSM was highest on MPVK followed by NBRIP and PVK agar. The maximum proportion of PSM out of total bacterial and fungal count was found in upper Keylong while the least in Rong Tong. The PSB frequently were Gram-positive, endosporeforming, motile rods and belonged to Bacillus sp. The PSF mainly belonged to Penicillium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. spp. and non-sporulating sterile. Amongst the isolates with high efficiency for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilisation, seven bacterial and seven fungal isolates dissolved higher amount of P from North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP) than Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and Udaipur rock phosphate (URP). However, the organisms solubilised higher-P in NBRIP broth than PVK broth. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) bacterial isolates exhibited maximun P solubilisation (40 and 33 ?g ml(-1) respectively) whereas FC28 (Penicillium sp.) isolate (52.3 ?g ml(-1)) amongst fungi while solubilising URP. The amount of P solubilised was positively correlated with the decrease in pH of medium. SBC5 (Bacillus sp.), SBC7 (Bacillus sp.) and SBC4 (Micrococcus) decreased the pH of medium from 6.8 to 6.08 while FC28 (Penicillium sp.) and FC39 (Penicillium sp.) isolates of fungi recorded maximum decrease in pH of medium from 6.8 to 5.96 in NBRIP broth. PMID:23100719

Chatli, Anshu S; Beri, Viraj; Sidhu, B S

2008-06-01

261

The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.  

PubMed

Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

2013-09-01

262

Activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The pastes prepared from roots of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and barks of Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. are widely used by traditional healers for the treatment of arthritis in rural northern Karnataka. Objective: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the safety and efficacy of traditionally used formulations in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: The study, approved by IAEC was carried out in male Wistar rats and dermal toxicity in rabbits. Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 6th hour postchallenge. Chronic inflammation was developed by using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). Paw volume, ankle joint circumference, and body weight were assessed on 1st, 4th, 8th, 14th, 17th, and 21st day. Paste was applied once every day to the inflamed area of the paw of respective groups of animals, continuously for 14 days. Statistics: The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ? 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulations did not show any dermal toxicity and found to be safe. Both the pastes significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed, carrageenan-induced paw edema at 6th hour and Holoptelea integrifolia appears to be more effective than Plumbago zeylanica. Significant reduction was observed in paw volume, ankle joint circumference and animal body weight gained. Conclusions: The tested formulations (P. zeylanica root and H. integrifolia bark pastes) showed significant antiinflammatory activity. The present findings therefore support its utility in arthritic pain, inflammation and the claim of traditional practitioners. PMID:24812473

Kumar, Dushyant; Ganguly, Kuntal; Hegde, H. V.; Patil, P. A.; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S. D.

2014-01-01

263

The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats  

PubMed Central

Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective.

Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

2014-01-01

264

Trypsin and elastase inhibitors from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds: purification, amino acid sequences, and inhibitory activities of four new inhibitors.  

PubMed

Serine proteinase inhibitors of the squash family were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds by the conventional purification method. Heat treatment of the extract of the seeds allowed removal of large amounts of protein without loss of trypsin and elastase inhibitory activities. From the supernatants thus obtained, the inhibitors were isolated to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and reversed phase chromatography. One trypsin inhibitor (Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor-III; MCTI-III) and three elastase inhibitors (Momordica charantia elastase inhibitor-II, -III, and -IV; MCEI-II, -III, and -IV) were newly isolated in addition to trypsin inhibitors MCTI-I and -II and elastase inhibitor MCEI-I previously reported [Hara, S. et. al. (1989). J. Biochem. 105, 88-92]. The primary structures of the four new inhibitors were determined as follows. [sequence: see text] The dissociation constants, Ki, of MCTI-III complex with bovine beta-trypsin, and of MCEI-II, -III, -IV with porcine elastase were determined to be 1.9 x 10(-7) M, 9.4 x 10(-9) M, 4.0 x 10(-9) M, and 4.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively. Although MCTI-III differed from MCTI-I in only two amino acids, having Gly(3) and Gln(13) in place of Arg(3) and Arg(13), the Ki value of MCTI-III was 20-fold larger than that of MCTI-I. Addition of an amino terminal Glu residue, a dipeptide (Glu-Glu-), and a tripeptide (Glu-Glu-Glu-) to MCEI-I strengthened its elastase inhibitory activity by 200-fold. PMID:7608135

Hamato, N; Koshiba, T; Pham, T N; Tatsumi, Y; Nakamura, D; Takano, R; Hayashi, K; Hong, Y M; Hara, S

1995-02-01

265

Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments. PMID:22557438

Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

2011-01-01

266

Applications of 'TissueQuant'- a color intensity quantification tool for medical research.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the use of TissueQuant - an image analysis tool for quantification of color intensities which was developed for use in medical research where the stained biological specimen such as tissue or antigen needs to be quantified. TissueQuant provides facilities for user interaction to choose and quantify the color of interest and its shades. Gaussian weighting functions are used to provide a color score which quantifies how close the shade is to the user specified reference color. We describe two studies in medical research which use TissueQuant for quantification. The first study evaluated the effect of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) on osteoporotic rats. It was found that the analysis results correlated well with the manual evaluation, p < 0.001. The second study evaluated the nerve morphometry and it was found that the adipose and non adipose tissue content was maximum in radial nerve among the five nerves studied. PMID:21924792

Prasad, Keerthana; P, Bhagath Kumar; Chakravarthy, Marx; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna

2012-04-01

267

Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), ?-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3?µg?mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity. PMID:21939371

Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

2012-01-01

268

Psoralea corylifolia Linn.-"Kushtanashini".  

PubMed

Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its chemoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on P. corylifolia with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects. Other aspects, such as toxicology and precautions are also discussed. This will be helpful to create interest toward babchi and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. PMID:22228944

Khushboo, P S; Jadhav, V M; Kadam, V J; Sathe, N S

2010-01-01

269

Psoralea corylifolia Linn.—“Kushtanashini”  

PubMed Central

Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its chemoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on P. corylifolia with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects. Other aspects, such as toxicology and precautions are also discussed. This will be helpful to create interest toward babchi and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. PMID:22228944

Khushboo, P. S.; Jadhav, V. M.; Kadam, V. J.; Sathe, N. S.

2010-01-01

270

An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naďve to treatment.  

PubMed

Saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) have been perceived by the public as a strong aphrodisiac herbal product. However, studies addressing the potential beneficial effects of saffron on erectile function (EF) in men with ED are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron administration on EF in men with ED. After a 4-week baseline assessment, 346 men with ED (mean age 46.6+/-8.4 years) were randomized to receive on-demand sildenafil for 12 weeks followed by 30 mg saffron twice daily for another 12 weeks or vice versa, separated by a 2-week washout period. To determine the type of ED, penile color duplex Doppler ultrasonography before and after intracavernosal injection with 20 microg prostaglandin E(1), pudendal nerve conduction tests and impaired sensory-evoked potential studies were performed. Subjects were assessed with an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) diary questions, patient and partner versions of the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and the Global Efficacy Question (GEQ) 'Has the medication you have been taking improved your erections?' No significant improvements were observed with regard to the IIEF sexual function domains, SEP questions and EDITS scores with saffron administration. The mean changes from baseline values in IIEF-EF domain were +87.6% and +9.8% in sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.08). We did not observe any improvement in 15 individual IIEF questions in patients while taking saffron. Treatment satisfaction as assessed by partner versions of EDITS was found to be very low in saffron patients (72.4 vs 25.4, P=0.001). Mean per patient 'yes' responses to GEQ was 91.2 and 4.2% for sildenafil and saffron, respectively (P=0.0001). These findings do not support a beneficial effect of saffron administration in men with ED. PMID:20520621

Safarinejad, M R; Shafiei, N; Safarinejad, S

2010-01-01

271

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of aromatic turmerone from Curcuma longa Linn. induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-triggered intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative and antitumor activities of aromatic turmerone (ar-turmerone), a volatile turmeric oil isolated from Curcuma longa Linn., have been largely unknown. In this study, 86% pure ar-turmerone was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid-solid chromatography and its potential effects and molecular mechanisms on cell proliferation studied in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Ar-turmerone exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 64.8 ± 7.1, 102.5 ± 11.5, and 122.2 ± 7.6 ?g/mL against HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B cells, respectively. Ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis, confirmed by increased annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation, was accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, increased Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) levels, Bax mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release, Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4) augmentation, and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation. Exposure to caspase inhibitors, Fas-antagonistic antibody, DR4 antagonist, and furosemide (a blocker of Bax translocation) effectively abolished ar-turmerone-triggered apoptosis. Moreover, ar-turmerone stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and activation; treatment with JNK and ERK inhibitors markedly reduced PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 levels and reduced apoptosis but not ROS generation. Furthermore, antioxidants attenuated ar-turmerone-mediated ROS production; mitochondrial dysfunction; JNK and ERK activation; PUMA, Bax, Fas, and DR4 expression; and apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that ar-turmerone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells is through ROS-mediated activation of ERK and JNK kinases and triggers both intrinsic and extrinsic caspase activation, leading to apoptosis. On the basis of these observations, ar-turmerone deserves further investigation as a natural anticancer and cancer-preventive agent. PMID:22946656

Cheng, Shao-Bin; Wu, Li-Chen; Hsieh, Yun-Chih; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Chieh-Ming J; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Teng, Chieh-Lin; Wu, Chun-Chi

2012-09-26

272

L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

2014-01-01

273

L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa's College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

2014-01-28

274

Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs.  

PubMed

General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO(2) levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO(2) and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO(2) and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1)) under two levels of CO(2) (360 and 860 ?L L(-1), respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO(2) than under ambient CO(2) for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg(-1), the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO(2) was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO(2) than ambient CO(2). The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient CO(2) with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO(2) significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO(2) fertilization for improvement of phytoextraction of soils contaminated with radionuclides. PMID:22507353

Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

2012-10-01

275

Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa.  

PubMed

Extracts of five medicinal plants: Boscia angustifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longipedunculata, Stylosanthes erecta and Trichilia emetica, used traditionally in Malian traditional medicine were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activity. Four extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activities, with the dichloromethane extract of leaf of Securidaca longipedunculata being the most active (IC(50) of 7 microg/ml [95% CI: 5-9]). The dichloromethane extract of leaf of Trichilia emetica, in addition to its antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 12 microg/ml [95% CI: 12-14]), exhibited a good binding activity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor, while water and methanol extracts of the same plant did not show any activity. A strong GABA(A)-receptor complex binding activity was observed in the methanol extract of aerial part of Stylosanthes erecta. The results in this study justify some of the traditional indications of the plants investigated and may thus be candidates for Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. PMID:17126508

Bah, Sekou; Jäger, Anna K; Adsersen, Anne; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2007-04-01

276

Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control. PMID:23054800

Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

2013-02-01

277

A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2009-01-01

278

Stomatal development in Convolvulus arvensis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of stomata on the leaf, stem, petiole, peduncle, bract and sepal is described. The development has been studied\\u000a in all organs except the peduncle. Three types of stomata—paracytic, anisocytic and anomocytic—occur on the leaf, bract and\\u000a sepal but only the first two types are present in the remaining organs. Stomata with one or two subsidiary cells unilaterally\\u000a flanking

G. L. Shah

1967-01-01

279

Marissa Linne Current Address: Contact Information  

E-print Network

for the course, Atomic Structure of Matter -MSE 2060 Other Experience Fitness Monitor, Cornell University, Ithaca NY Fall 2010 ­ Spring 2013 Greet, assist and monitor the safety of fitness center members, upkeep Fall 2010 Community Service Chair, Society of Women Engineers Fall 2009 Additional Skills MATLAB

Daly, Samantha

280

Antidiabetic evaluation of Mucuna pruriens, Linn seeds.  

PubMed

Effects of powdered Mucuna pruriens seeds on blood glucose levels were investigated in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. In normal group 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg of M. pruriens pulv significantly decreased the blood glucose levels while in alloxan-diabetic rabbits only 1 and 2 g/kg body weight caused a significant fall. The reference drug, acetohexamide in 500 mg/kg dose significantly reduced the blood glucose levels but in normal rabbits only. High levels of trace elements like manganese, zinc, and others were found in these seeds. Therefore, it is conceivable that M. pruriens seeds contain hypoglycaemic principles, may be both organic and mineral, which seem to act indirectly by stimulating the release of insulin and/or by a direct insulin-like action. PMID:2125657

Akhtar, M S; Qureshi, A Q; Iqbal, J

1990-07-01

281

Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.  

PubMed

Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples. PMID:23929988

Kannan, R; Babu, U V

2012-07-01

282

Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn  

PubMed Central

Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples. PMID:23929988

Kannan, R.; Babu, U. V.

2012-01-01

283

Effects of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai Medicinal Plant, on the Mutagenicity of Various Known Mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by the Colon Carcinogens Azoxymethane and 2Amino1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine in F344 rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 80% ethanol extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a medicinal plant in Thailand, was examined for antimutagenic and chemopreventive activity in a colon carcinogenesis model. It reduced about 60–90% of the mutagenicity induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and other heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ),2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline(MeIQx),3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2),2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1),2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3?,2?-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), at a concentration of 12.5mg\\/plate in the Salmonella mutation assay. The

T Chewonarin; T Kinouchi; K Kataoka; H Arimochi; T Kuwahara; U Vinitketkumnuen; Y Ohnishi

1999-01-01

284

Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.  

PubMed

With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

2013-06-01

285

Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous (Aq) extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) and alcoholic (Alc) extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (FG) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) was investigated in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The Aq extract of PM (1 g\\/kg PO) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32±5.62 to 61.35±1.2 mg%

V Vats; J. K Grover; S. S Rathi

2002-01-01

286

Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, Ocimum sanctum Linn and Pterocarpus marsupium Linn in normal and alloxanized diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous (Aq) extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) and alcoholic (Alc) extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (FG) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) was investigated in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The Aq extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood sugar levels from 72.32+/-5.62 to 61.35+/-1.2 mg% 2 h after oral administration of the extract and also significantly lowered the blood glucose in alloxan diabetic rats from 202.91+/-5.44 to 85.22+/-11.28 mg% 21 days after daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Similarly, reduction was seen with Alc extract of FG (74.33+/-4.77 to 60.56+/-1.9 in normal rats and 201.25+/-7.69 to 121.25+/-6.25 in diabetic rats) (P<0.001) and OS (204.48+/-11.0 to 131.43+/-7.86 in normal rats and 73.54+/-3.7 to 61.44+/-2.3 in diabetic rats) (P<0.001). In addition, the extract also showed a favorable effect on glucose disposition in glucose fed hyperglycemic rats. PMID:11744301

Vats, V; Grover, J K; Rathi, S S

2002-01-01

287

Remedial Prospective of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (Sea Buckthorn)  

PubMed Central

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis. PMID:22530142

Patel, Chirag A.; Divakar, Kalyani; Santani, Devdas; Solanki, Himanshu K.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.

2012-01-01

288

Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view. PMID:23248567

Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, M. Aftab; Asif, M.; Akhtar, Mohd; Saud, Ibne

2012-01-01

289

Antioxidative iridoid glycosides from the sky flower (Duranta repens Linn).  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations were performed on the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the whole plant of the sky flower (Duranta repens) which led to the isolation of the iridoid glycosides 1-6. Their structures were elucidated by both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds showed potent antioxidative scavenging activity in four different tests, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values in the range 0.481-0.719 mM against DPPH radicals, 4.07-17.21 ?M for the hydroxyl radical (·OH) inhibitory activity test, 43.3-97.37 ?M in the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitory activity test, and 3.39-18.94 ?M in the peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) scavenging activity test. Duranterectoside A (1) displayed the strongest scavenging potential with IC(50) values of (0.481 ± 0.06 mM, 4.07 ± 0.03, 43.30 ± 0.05, 3.39 ± 0.02 ?M) for the DPPH radicals, ·OH inhibitory activity test, total ROS inhibitory activity test and the ONOO(-) scavenging activity test, respectively. PMID:21299433

Ijaz, Fozia; Ul Haq, Azhar; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ahmad, Nisar; Hussain, Javid; Chen, Sibao

2011-02-01

290

Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous, of the flower buds of Michelia champaca, and to identify the antidiabetic activity of active antihyperglycemic extract. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. To confirm its utility in the higher model, the effective extract of M. champaca was subjected to antidiabetic study in alloxan induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The ethanolic extract of M. champaca exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Apart from this extract, the crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were found active only at the end of the first hour. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) (P<0.01) and the activity was found dose dependent. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications. PMID:21279181

Jarald, E. Edwin; Joshi, S.B.; Jain, D.C.

2008-01-01

291

Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

2014-12-01

292

Hepatoprotective activity of Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or thioacetamide and chronic liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin. In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava leaf extracts (250 and 500mg/kg, po) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. The higher dose of the extract (500 mg/kg, po) prevented the increase in liver weight when compared to hepatoxin treated control, while the lower dose was ineffective except in the paracetamol induced liver damage. In the chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, the higher dose (500 mg/kg, po) of P. guajava leaf extract was found to be more effective than the lower dose (250 mg/kg, po). Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the aqueous extract of leaves of guava plant possesses good hepatoprotective activity. PMID:16629373

Roy, Chanchal K; Kamath, Jagadish V; Asad, Mohammed

2006-04-01

293

Identification of alpha amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn seeds.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of S. cumini or Eugenia jambolana seeds and Psidium guajava leaves showed higher inhibition against the porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase among the medicinal plants studied. The alpha-amylase inhibitors from S. cumini seeds were separated from the extract by preparative thin layer chromatography into fractions with different Rf values. The fraction with Rf value between 0.285 and 0.43, which showed maximum inhibitory activity, was eluted and analyzed through LC-MS. The compounds identified from the seed extract ofS. cumini were betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone, which were reported earlier from S. formosanum and other plants. Dixon plot showed that the inhibition was noncompetitive in nature. PMID:18949899

Karthic, K; Kirthiram, K S; Sadasivam, S; Thayumanavan, B

2008-09-01

294

RAPD Profile for Authentication of Medicinal Plant Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct identification and quality assurance is indispensable to ensure reproducible medicinal quality of herbal drugs. Authentication is especially useful in case of those medicinal herbs that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties morphologically and phytochemically indistinguishable. In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for authentication of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from its

Salim Khan; Khanda Jabeen Mirza; Malik Zainul Abdin

2009-01-01

295

Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological review of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

Mimusops elengi is Indian native plant and is used for a long time in the history of the medicine. Plant was well studied in majority of the world because of its high potential medicinal value. Traditionally all different part of this plant, namely leaf, root, fruit, seed, bark and flower are used to cure various kinds of disorders. Information compiled here will be useful to improve the present investigation of several health care research regarding the Mimusops elengi. PMID:23570006

Gami, Bharat; Pathak, Smita; Parabia, Minoo

2012-09-01

296

The life-history of Ranunculus sceleratus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FAIR amount of work has already been done on the morphology of the Ranunculacem. Representatives from all the divisions and tribes have been worked out, but the genus Ranunculus itself has not received the attention it deserves. Since this is usually considered to be one of the most primitive genera of the dicotyledons, and Ranunculus sceleratus probably the most

Bahadur Singh

1936-01-01

297

Riboflavine and Thiamine Contents of Saffron, Crocus sativus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOUR authenticated samples of saffron were analysed by us for the presence of riboflavine and thiamine by use of the spectrophotometer. An acetic acid buffer (pH 4.5) extract of saffron to which papain was added was taken. The pigment in the extract obtained (after destroying the enzyme papain by heating) was destroyed by addition of 10 ml. of 4 per

J. V. Bhat; Rajul Broker

1953-01-01

298

Saffron (Crocus Sativus Linn.) — Cultivation, processing, chemistry and standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron is an interesting minor spice with a colorful history. In this review article, the following aspects of saffron have been covered: cultivation, producing countries and world trade, uses, harvesting, processing and yields, chemistry of the constituents including pigments and volatiles, range of variation of the chemical constituents, saffron adulterants and methods for their detection, and official standards and purity

S. R. Sampathu; S. Shivashankar; Y. S. Lewis; A. B. Wood

1984-01-01

299

Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.  

PubMed Central

The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

Kumar, H. K. Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M. B. V.

2010-01-01

300

Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice.  

PubMed

The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract. PMID:21615059

Singh, Navdeep; Kaur, Sarabjit; Bedi, P M S; Kaur, Divneet

2011-05-01

301

www.botan.uu.se Giftigt hos Linn  

E-print Network

fylld av giftiga växter,gifternas funktion, mord i litteraturen och deckargåtor. Under ca två timmar får- mord i böckernas värld. Vi löser deckargåtor och fundera kring varför växter är giftiga. Sista

Flener, Pierre

302

A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica. PMID:22228956

Priyashree, S.; Jha, S.; Pattanayak, S. P.

2010-01-01

303

Evaluation of wound-healing activity of Acorus calamus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the wound-healing activity of ethanolic extracts of Acorus calamus leaves. A wound was induced by an excision- and incision-based wound model in rats of either sex. The mature green leaves of A. calamus were collected and authenticated. Extractions of dried leaves were carried out with 80% ethanol in a soxhlet apparatus.

Nilesh Jain; Ruchi Jain; Arti Jain; Deepak Kumar Jain; H. S. Chandel

2010-01-01

304

Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tephrosia purpurea is a well-known herb for its hepatoprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, antibacterial and in healing bleeding piles, etc. The present study was aimed for wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (aerial part) in the form of simple ointment using three types of wound models in rats as incision wound, excision wound and dead space wound. The results

Santram Lodhi; Rajesh Singh Pawar; Alok Pal Jain; A. K. Singhai

2006-01-01

305

Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

2014-09-01

306

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.  

PubMed Central

The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

Mishra, M. R.; Mishra, A.; Pradhan, D. K.; Panda, A. K.; Behera, R. K.; Jha, S.

2013-01-01

307

Copper Availability and Accumulation by Portulaca Oleracea Linn. Stem Cutting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cu accumulation capacity of stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea was assessed in two different soils, alfisol and vertisol, which differ from each other mainly due to their clay content~—\\u000a several fold lower in the former than in the latter. The DTPA extractable concentration of Cu in soil and the level of its\\u000a accumulation in stem cuttings were, therefore, greater

R. Deepa; P. Senthilkumar; S. Sivakumar; P. Duraisamy; C. V. Subbhuraam

2006-01-01

308

Responses of Portulaca oleracea Linn. to selenium exposure.  

PubMed

The present study was investigated to evaluate the uptake and accumulation of selenium (Se) by the stem cuttings of Portulaca oleracea L. grown in alfisol amended with various concentrations of Se. P. oleracea accumulated a maximum of 63.4 µg g(-1) dry weight in a short growth period of 42 days. The order of accumulation of Se among the plant parts was leaves (31.5 ?g g(-1)) > stems (16.4 ?g g(-1)) > roots (15.5 ?g g(-1)). The accumulation potential was fourfold higher than the plant available concentration of 15.2 ?g g(-1) of Se g(-1) of soil (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extracted). Although the plant was able to accumulate Se in their tissues, increase in Se concentrations in soil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in the growth rate of plants (regeneration of leaves, number of leaves, number of roots, root length, stem length and biomass). PMID:23363577

Prabha, D; Sivakumar, S; Subbhuraam, C V; Son, H K

2013-01-30

309

In vitro antioxidant studies of Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn).  

PubMed

The free radical scavenging potential of the plant S. indicus was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The ethanolic extract at 1000 microg/ml showed maximum scavenging of the radical cation, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) observed upto 41.99% followed by the scavenging of the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl, 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) (33.27%), superoxide dismutase (25.14%) and nitric oxide radical (22.36%) at the same concentration. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of iron chelation (14.2%). Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be 160.85 nmol/g ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:17176673

Shirwaikar, Annie; Prabhu, Kirti S; Punitha, I S R

2006-12-01

310

Cuminum cyminum Linn. and Coriandrum sativum Linn. extracts modulate Chromium genotoxicity in Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, herbs and spices have enjoyed rich tradition for their flavor enhancement characteristics and for their\\u000a medicinal properties. Ayurveda prescribes more than 700 plant based medicines that contain spices and food additives to encourage\\u000a good health. Diet is an important factor in prevention of diseases. Besides flavor and taste to cuisines, they also improve\\u000a immune system. Taking this

Arti Sharma; Manish Kumar; Satwinderjeet Kaur

311

Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

-1 body weight over a 60 day study period revealed that continuous exposure of the plant extract had no damaging effects on the organs of xenobiotic metabolism (liver and kidney). results of levels of serum ast, alt, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, bilirubin and triglycerides of the two groups were not significantly different (p ? ? ? ? 0.05) at the end

G. M. Saibu

312

Ethnobotanical study of plants used in management of livestock health problems by Afar people of Ada’ar District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background The great majority of the Afar people of Ethiopia are pastoralists, highly dependent on livestock and livestock products. Livestock productivity is, however, frequently affected by different diseases. Although many districts in the Region have veterinary clinics, they lack basic facilities. As a result, the Afar people are still dependent on local materials, mainly plants, and traditional knowledge to manage livestock health problems. However, there is a serious threat to such local resources mainly due to recurrent drought and influence of modernization. Hence there is a need for proper documentation and evaluation of the existing ethnoveterinary knowledge in the Region. This study was aimed at documenting and analysing ethnoveterinary knowledge of people in Ada’ar District of the Afar Region associated with the use of plants. Methods The study involved interviewing selected knowledgeable Afar people in Ada’ar District on the use of plants to manage livestock ailments. Fidelity Level (FL) values were calculated for the reported medicinal plant to estimate their healing potentials. Specimens of reported medicinal plant were collected, identified and deposited at the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Results The study revealed 49 medicinal plants as being used by the Afar people of Ada’ar District for the treatment of various livestock ailments, the majority of which (67.3%) were shrubs. Highest number of medicinal plants was used to treat blackleg, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), sudden sickness and pneumonia. Leaf was the most frequently sought plant part, accounting for 47% of the reported plants. All the medicnal plants used in the District were uncultivated ones growing in semi-disturbed and disturbed habitats as remnant plants and weeds. Cissus quadrangularis and Solanum incanum were the plants scoring the highest fidelity level values for their use to treat blackleg and respiratory tract problems, respectively. Conclusion The study revealed that there is still rich knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine in Ada’ar District. There was no habit of cultivating medicinal plants by people in the study area. Efforts, should, therefore, be made to protect these medicinal plants from further depletion, especially those that are scarcely availabale. Better attention should be given to medicinal plants with the highest fidelity level values as such values could indicate potencies of the plants. PMID:23343251

2013-01-01

313

Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account. PMID:17040567

Lans, Cheryl A

2006-01-01

314

Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer f or waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil) and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil) and used for the isolation

Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA; Dália dos Prazeres RODRIGUES; Flávia Araújo GONÇALVES; Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de MENEZES; Janisi Sales ARAGĂO; Oscarina Viana SOUSA

2001-01-01

315

Effects of the flower extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. On the meristematic cells of Allium Cepa  

PubMed Central

The aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea was evaluated for its cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the meristematic cells of onion root tip. The percentage of abnormalities was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of the extract from 20 to 60 mg/ml. With 80 mg/ml completed arrest or total inhibition of cell division was observed. The major abnormalities were unprinted chromosomes at metaphase. Stickiness and clumping of chromosomes were induced by higher concentrations of the extract. Sticky anaphase bridges and formation of micronuclei were induced at the highest concentration (80mg/ml) tried. The significance of these abnormalities is discussed in detail. The results point to the potential use of the aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea in the chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:22556853

Latha, P.G.; Chandralekha, C.T.; Vilasini, G.; Panikkar, K.R.

1998-01-01

316

Wound healing potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed

Ocimum sanctum, a well known herb in Indian medicine, possesses various therapeutic properties including healing properties and cytokine induction. Wound healing activity of cold aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves along with its effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was assessed using excision model of wound repair in Wistar albino rats. After application of the O. sanctum extract, rate of epithelization with an increase in wound contraction was observed. In animals, treated with 10% O. sanctum extract in petroleum jelly, wound healing was faster as compared to control group which were treated with petroleum jelly alone but significant accelerated healing was noticed in animals which in addition to the topical application of 10% extract of O. sanctum, were prefed with 250 mg/kg body weight of aqueous O. sanctum extract daily for 20 consecutive days. During wound healing phase TNF-alpha level was found to be up regulated by O. sanctum treatment. Early wound healing may be pronounced due to O. sanctum extract, by elevating TNF-alpha production. PMID:20726339

Goel, Anjana; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Dilip Kumar; Bhatia, Ashok Kumar

2010-04-01

317

Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.  

PubMed

In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities. PMID:12597545

Gupta, S K; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Sushma

2002-07-01

318

Oil and brine inclusions at the Jumbo and Prescott mines, Linn County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

Well north of the Tri-State district, small deposits containing Pb, Zn, and Ba associated with organic matter occur in M. Pennsylvanian beds. One of these, the Jumbo Pb mine lies 2.5 km SE of Pleasanton, Kansas, and takes the form of a mineralized pipe or circle deposit. Similar mineralization occurs at the Prescott Zn deposit located approximately 12 km SSE of the Jumbo in a abandoned coal mine. Several minerals at both mines contain amber petroleum inclusions, fluorescent in UV light. Primary oil inclusions in sphalerite from the Jumbo and Prescott mines homogenize at 83-93/sup 0/C. Freezing data for aqueous inclusions in sphalerite imply salinities of 21-23 wt% NaCl equivalent. Some primary inclusions in calcite contain translucent reddish crystals, which may be a daughter mineral, possibly ferroan dolomite. It is not clear whether organics have played an active chemical role in either transporting or precipitating the sulfides of the Jumbo and Prescott mines. Nevertheless, data from both mines are consistent with the basinal brine theory of origin postulated for Mississippi Valley-type deposits and suggest the possibility that these small deposits formed at or near a local oil-water interface or that local formational waters were exceptionally rich in oil droplets.

Blasch, S.R.; Ragan, V.M.; Coveney, R.M. Jr.

1985-01-01

319

Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats. PMID:23798886

Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

2013-01-01

320

Study of glucose uptake activity of Helicteres isora Linn. fruits in L-6 cell lines  

PubMed Central

The effect of hot water extract of fruits of Helicteres isora on glucose uptake was studied in rodent skeletal muscle cells (L-6 cells) involved in glucose utilization. H. isora is an antidiabetic medicinal plant being used in Indian traditional medicine. Hot water extracts were analysed for glucose uptake activity and found to be significantly active at 200 ?g/ml dose comparable with insulin and metformin. Elevation of glucose uptake by H. isora in association with glucose transport supported the upregulation of glucose uptake. It was concluded that hot water extract of H. isora activate glucose uptake in L-6 cell line of mouse skeletal muscles. PMID:20336200

Gupta, R. N.; Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S.; Basniwal, Pawan K.; Jain, Deepti

2009-01-01

321

Hypoglycemic Effect of Calotropis gigantea Linn. Leaves and Flowers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity of chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers in normal rats and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Methods The hypoglycemic activity in normal rats was carried out by treatment using chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaf and flower 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, orally. The oral glucose tolerance test was carried out by administering glucose (2 g/kg, p.o), to non-diabetic rats treated with leaf and flowers extracts at oral doses 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, p.o and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. The serum glucose was then measured at 0, 1.5, 3 and 5 hr after administration of extracts/drug. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administered the same doses of leaf and flower extracts, and standard drugs glibenclamide was given to the normal rats or 0.5 ml of 5% Tween-80, for 27 days. The blood sample from all groups collected by retro-orbital puncture on 7, 14, 21 and 27th days after administration of the extracts/drug and used for the estimation of serum glucose levels using the glucose kit. Results The Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers extracts were effective in lowering serum glucose levels in normal rats. Improvement in oral glucose tolerance was also registered by treatment with Calotropis gigantean. The administration of leaf and flower extracts to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in serum glucose levels. Conclusion It is concluded that chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers have significant anti-diabetic activity. PMID:22043394

Rathod, Nanu R; Chitme, Havagiray R; Irchhaiya, Raghuveer; Chandra, Ramesh

2011-01-01

322

Study of glucose uptake activity of Helicteres isora Linn. fruits in L-6 cell lines.  

PubMed

The effect of hot water extract of fruits of Helicteres isora on glucose uptake was studied in rodent skeletal muscle cells (L-6 cells) involved in glucose utilization. H. isora is an antidiabetic medicinal plant being used in Indian traditional medicine. Hot water extracts were analysed for glucose uptake activity and found to be significantly active at 200 mug/ml dose comparable with insulin and metformin. Elevation of glucose uptake by H. isora in association with glucose transport supported the upregulation of glucose uptake. It was concluded that hot water extract of H. isora activate glucose uptake in L-6 cell line of mouse skeletal muscles. PMID:20336200

Gupta, R N; Pareek, Anil; Suthar, Manish; Rathore, Garvendra S; Basniwal, Pawan K; Jain, Deepti

2009-10-01

323

Abortifacient activity of Plumeria rubra (Linn) pod extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential abortifacient activity of the aqueous, alcohol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of P. rubra pod in female albino rats 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight doses of each extract were administered from day 11 to 15 of pregnancy and animals were allowed to go full-term. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, simple phenolics, steroids, tannins and saponins. Clinical toxicity symptoms such as respiratory distress, salivation, weight loss, dull eyes, diarrhea, and change in the appearance of fur as well as mortality were not observed in the animals at any period of the experiment. All the four extracts of P. rubra pods exhibited abortifacient activity (8-100%). The extracts significantly reduced the number of live fetuses, whereas the resorption index and post implantation losses increased significantly. The % of abortion was found to be highest (100%) with 200 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of P. rubra pods. PMID:23214263

Dabhadkar, Dinesh; Zade, Varsha

2012-10-01

324

RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)  

PubMed Central

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

2014-01-01

325

Analysis of the origin of Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense (Linn.), by protein electrophoresis  

E-print Network

. Source Origin S. 818 1 (S. 81 1 * S. ~it 2 (869-3) * S. ~hl (FS) S. ~hl (869-3) (FS) TX414 Kaoliang 869-3 869-5 Dr. J. D. Smith China 8' This identification is tentative. 12 Insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), commercially avail- able...-bonding and irreversibly by covalent condensation following oxidation. Loomis and Bettaile devised s technique to adsorb these phenolic compounds snd allow for the isolation of ective enzymes. Insoluble polyvinylpyrroli- done (PVP), which contains groups similar...

Collier, Glen Eldon

1971-01-01

326

J. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2013 COURSE DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

, homework, and brainstorming sessions will be applied towards problem identification, materials selection in their Sophomore and Junior years and satisfies a course elective requirement for the Technology Innovation, and failure mode evaluation. Twice-monthly course evaluations will be used to guide the teaching and learning

Vajda, Sandor

327

J. Linnes BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Fall 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

, and brainstorming sessions will be applied towards problem identification, materials selection, and failure mode years and satisfies a course elective requirement for the Technology Innovation concentration. Case evaluation. Twice-monthly course evaluations will be used to guide the teaching and learning styles

Vajda, Sandor

328

J. Linnes, S. Wong BE 428 Device and Diagnostic Design Spring 2014 COURSE DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

sessions will be applied towards problem identification, materials selection, and failure mode evaluation and satisfies a course elective requirement for the Technology Innovation concentration. Case studies. Twice-monthly course evaluations will be used to guide the teaching and learning styles of the course

Vajda, Sandor

329

Molecular diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia associated with Lablab purpureus (Linn.) grown in Southern China.  

PubMed

As an introduced plant, Lablab purpureus serves as a vegetable, herbal medicine, forage and green manure in China. In order to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with this plant, a total of 49 rhizobial strains isolated from ten provinces of Southern China were analyzed in the present study with restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or sequence analyses of housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, IGS, atpD, glnII and recA) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC). The results defined the L. purpureus rhizobia as 24 IGS-types within 15 rrs-IGS clusters or genomic species belonging to Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Ensifer (synonym of Sinorhizobium) and Mesorhizobium. Bradyrhizobium spp. (81.6%) were the most abundant isolates, half of which were B. elkanii. Most of these rhizobia induced nodules on L. purpureus, but symbiotic genes were only amplified from the Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium leguminosarum strains. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five lineages corresponding to B. yuanmingense, B. japonicum, B. elkanii, B. jicamae and R. leguminosarum. The coherence of housekeeping and symbiotic gene phylogenies demonstrated that the symbiotic genes of the Lablab rhizobia were maintained mainly through vertical transfer. However, a putative lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was found in the B. liaoningense strain. The results in the present study clearly revealed that L. purpureus was a promiscuous host that formed nodules with diverse rhizobia, mainly Bradyrhizobium species, harboring different symbiotic genes. PMID:21498018

Chang, Yue Li; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Chen, Wen Xin

2011-06-01

330

Evaluation of the Histo - Gastroprotective and Antimicrobial Activities of Heliotropium Indicum Linn (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Heliotropium indicum of the family Boraginaceae is used locally in Nigeria to treat ailments such as ulcer and fever. In this study, ulceration of the gastric mucosa in Wistar rats was induced via the oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin. Histological analyses of the stomach body wall in the rats of Groups 2 and 4 (which received 100mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin and 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin only respectively) showed erosion of the mucus-secreting cells, gastric pit, upper and middle parts of gastric glands and some of the parietal cells. Histological observations of the stomach body wall in rats of Group 5 (which received 200mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin) showed erosion of the mucus-secreting cells, gastric pit and the upper most part of the gastric gland. Histological observations of the stomach body wall in rats of Groups 1, 6 and 3 (which received 50mg/kg/bodyweight of Ranitidine and 400mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin; and only 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Normal Saline respectively) showed normal morphological appearance of the different components of the mucosa layer. Thus, the aqueous extracts of the dried leaves of Heliotropium indicum have dose dependent histo-gastroprotective effects. PMID:22570586

Adelaja, Akinlolu Abdulazeez; Ayoola, M. D.; Otulana, J. O.; Akinola, O. B.; Olayiwola, Abimbola; Ejiwunmi, A. B.

2008-01-01

331

Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models  

PubMed Central

Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed that MEAV had significant (p<0.01) dose dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Hence present investigation reveals the antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis. PMID:23408482

Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

2009-01-01

332

Spectrofluorimetric Estimation of Scopoletin in Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. and Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy.  

PubMed

A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the analysis of total coumarins calculated as scopoletin in the plants Evolvulus alsinoides and Convulvulus pluricaulis. The fluorescent nature of scopoletin proved to be of immense value in the development of the spectrofluorimetric method. The excitation and emission wavelengths for scopoletin were 430 nm and 460 nm respectively and the instrument was Shimadzu RF 5301 PC spectrofluorophotometer. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The proposed spectrofluorimetric method provides a faster and cost effective qualitative and quantitative control for routine analysis of scopoletin in Evolvulus alsinoides and Convulvulus pluricaulis and their formulations. PMID:21369458

Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

2008-11-01

333

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cerebroprotective Effect of Medicago sativa Linn. against Ischemia and Reperfusion Insult  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants have been the focus of studies for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the therapy for stroke, which is an acute and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Medicago sativa (MS) has a long tradition of use as ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicine in central nervous system disorders. The plant has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 15?min followed by 24-h reperfusion, resulted in significant elevation in infarct size, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, superoxide anion (O•?2) production and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and significant depletion in endogenous antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) groups] systems in mice brain. Further, BCAO led to impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with MS (100 or 200?mg?kg?1, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size, XO, O•?2 and TBARS levels, significantly restored GSH, SOD and T-SH levels and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. In addition, MS directly scavenged free radicals generated against a stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and O•?2 generated in phenazine methosulphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide systems, and also inhibited XD/XO conversion and resultant O•?2 production. The data from this study suggest that treatment with MS enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity. PMID:21785631

Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

2011-01-01

334

Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by

J. S. Balirwa

1998-01-01

335

Evaluation of aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Linn for wound healing in albino rats.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of leaves of M. oleifera was investigated and rationalised for its wound healing activity. The aqueous extract was studied at dose level of 300 mg/kg body weight using resutured incision; excision and dead space wound models in rats. Significant increase in wound closure rate, skin-breaking strength, granuloma breaking strength, hydroxyproline content, granuloma dry weight and decrease in scar area was observed. The prohealing actions seem to be due to increased collagen deposition as well as better alignment and maturation. From the results obtained, it may be concluded that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera has significant wound healing property. PMID:17205710

Rathi, B S; Bodhankar, S L; Baheti, A M

2006-11-01

336

Mechanism of action of antiatherogenic and related effects of Ficus bengalensis Linn. flavonoids in experimental animals.  

PubMed

One month treatment of alloxan diabetic dogs with a glycoside, viz. leucopelargonin derivative (100 mg/kg/day) isolated from the bark of F. bengalensis decreased fasting blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin by 34% and 28% respectively. Body weight was maintained in both the treated groups while the same was decreased significantly by 10% in the control group. In cholesterol diet fed rats, as the atherogenic index and the hepatic bile acid level and the faecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols increased, the HMGCoA reductase and lipogenic enzyme activities in liver and lipoprotien lipase activity in heart and adipose tissue and plasma LCAT activity and the incorporation of labelled acetate into free and ester cholesterol in liver decreased significantly. On treatment with the two ficus flavonoids, viz. leucopelargonin and leucocyanin derivatives and another flavonoid quercetin (100 mg/kg/day) the above said effects except on bile acids and sterols and lipogenic enzymes were significantly reversed in the cholesterol fed rats. However in the treated rats the hepatic level of bile acids and the faecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols still further increased and the action of lipogenic enzyme glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase was still further decreased. These effects of leucopelargonidin and quercetin were better than that of the second. Toxicity studies are required to be carried out to find out if the ficus flavonoids could be used as health promoters as they are hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant in action. PMID:15255637

Daniel, Regi Susan; Devi, K S; Augusti, K T; Sudhakaran Nair, C R

2003-04-01

337

Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.  

PubMed

The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

2011-01-01

338

Antinociceptive activity of Sesbania sesban (Linn) wood extracts, a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The wood of the plant Sesbania sesban, is reported to have antinociceptive activity. To validate its folk use in the treatment of pain, wood was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water to produce respective extracts. The extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) were screened for antinociceptive activity using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose-dependent activity in both the tests. In order to find out the involvement of opioid receptors, effect of naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) on the action of extracts was checked in hot plate test. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose dependant antinociceptive activity. The antinociceptive action of the extracts was blocked by naloxone, suggesting involvement of opioid receptors in the action. PMID:22279943

Nirmal, S A; Bairagi, J H; Patil, A N; Pal, S C; Upasani, C D; Mandal, S C

2012-01-01

339

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

2012-01-01

340

Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defined as the persistent inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual performance. By 2025, men with ED will be approximately 322 million, an increase of nearly 170 million men from 1995. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction. In this study, a total of 95 patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction satisfying the DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria were selected, out of them 86 patients completed the course of treatment. In Trial Group, Ashwagandha root powder and in Control group, Placebo (Wheat powder) were given for 60 days. Treatment selection and its allocation were done by following computerized randomization plan. Criterion of assessment was based on the scoring of International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) Scale. Paired and Unpaired t test were used for statistical analysis. In Trial group (n=41), 12.6% and in Control group (n=45), 19.11% of improvement was observed with the significance of (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) found in between the two groups. Both Ashwagandha and Placebo provided no relief (<25% improvement on IIEF) in psychogenic erectile dysfunction. PMID:22529644

Mamidi, Prasad; Thakar, A B

2011-01-01

341

Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.  

PubMed

Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites. PMID:24082329

Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

2012-01-01

342

Formation of sporangia and zoospores by a Labyrinthomyxa sp. parasitic in Macoma Balthica Linne  

E-print Network

. Sayed Z. El-Sayed for their critical review of this paper. Special thanks are due to Dr. John G. Mackin for his suggestion of this research topic and his continued aid throughout the course of this work. Also I am indebted to Dr, Jay D. Andrews... probably formed in the seawater as part of the life cycle of this parasite. At about the same time that D. marinum was first described, Andrews and Hewatt began extensive studies of oyster mortalities in the lower Chesapeake Bay region (Andrews 1955...

Valiulis, George Arvidas

1968-01-01

343

New triterpene saponins from Duranta repens Linn. and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

From the leaves of Duranta repens (Verbenaceae) two new triterpene saponins, named durantanin IV (1) and V (2)were isolated.In addition, ten known compounds were isolated, namely a bidesmosidic saponin, oleanolic acid, three phenylethanoids and five flavonoids. All metabolites were isolated for the first time from this genus except for 3 (oleanolic acid) and 7 (E/Z acteoside). The structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC). Cytotoxic screening of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts was carried out on brine shrimps. In addition, the investigated methanol extract and compounds 1, 2 and 7 showed significant cytotoxic activity against a HepG2 cell line. PMID:19471216

Ahmed, Wafaa S; Mohamed, Mona A; El-Dib, Rabab A; Hamed, Manal M

2009-01-01

344

Pattern of anti-HIV dipyranocoumarin expression in callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.  

PubMed

Callus cultures of Calophyllum inophyllum were established using seed, nodal/ internodal and leaf explants on WPM basal medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in different combinations and concentrations with the view to study the influence of hormones on callus induction and the pattern of expression of dipyranocoumarins including anti-HIV, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors inophyllum B and P in callus cultures. 96.01% seed explants, 87.50% nodal/internodal explants and 86.66% leaf explants were converted into calluses when inoculated on WPM supplemented with IBA 4.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1), IBA 4.0 mg l(-1), and picloram 6.0 mg l(-1) along with BAP 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Calluses induced from seed explants were white, friable and irregular whereas nodal/internodal and leaf explants induced dark brown, nodular and compact calluses. In order to facilitate the rapid quantitative analysis of dipyranocoumarins under study, a novel HPLC method capable of separating all six dipyranocoumarins in a single isocratic run has been optimized. Quantitative HPLC analysis of callus extracts revealed that highest inophyllum B (40.59 mg 100g callus(-1)) was expressed in callus induced from seed explant on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid, while highest inophyllum P (141.35 mg 100g callus(-1)) was estimated in seed callus induced on medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid along with BAP 1.0 mg l(-1). PMID:17601621

Pawar, Kiran D; Joshi, Swati P; Bhide, Sunil R; Thengane, Shubhada R

2007-07-15

345

Germ-cell origin in the adult caecilian Ichthyophis glutinosus (Linn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ichthyophis glutinosus, no residual spermatogonia traceable to primordial germ cells of the embryo are seen, the primary spermatogonia of each season being formed afresh. Their only source so far as the adult is concerned, is the lining of the collecting duct and its numerous branches which ramify in the testis. No evidences of their origin from the surface epithelial

B. R. Seshachar

1937-01-01

346

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

347

FEEDING AND GROWTH RESPONSES TO COPPER, ZINC, MERCURY AND LEAD IN THE TERRESTRIAL GASTROPOD ARIONATER (LINNE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption and growth variations related to several dosages of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) in diet were studied in the terrestrial slug Arion ater for 27 days of experimental treatment. The work reported here is part of a larger project to investigate the histological effects of metal exposure in pulmonate gastropods. Graphics on food consumption and growth

J. A. MARIGOMEZ; E. ANGULO; V. SAEZ

1986-01-01

348

Mosquito Larvicidal Properties of Essential Oil of an Indigenous Plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 5 decades the indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture and public health programs for the control of pest species has created multifarious problems viz. insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans and other non-target organisms. In attempt to overcome these problems, great emphasis has been recently placed on the research and development of forms of

Thekkevilayil George Thomas; Sunder Rao; Shiv Lal

349

Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants,\\u000a Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest\\u000a larval mortality

A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

2008-01-01

350

Anti - diabetic activity of the seed kernel of syzygium cumini linn.  

PubMed

Syzygium cumini seed kernel (aqueous suspension) was screened for its antibiadetic activity at the dose levels of 1g., 2g., 4g and 6 g/kg body weight. 4g / kg dose level was found to exhibit maximum hypoglycaemic effect (42.64%) in rabbits, 3hr. after medication. Like Tolbutamide the drug may also be promoting endogenous release of insulin. An extra pancreatic site of action of the drug cannot be ruled out, since it produced a significant decrease in the blood sugar level (17.04%) in alloxan diabetic rats. PMID:22557552

Nair, R B; Santhakumari, G

1986-10-01

351

The relationship between grain yield and waxy endosperm in Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench  

E-print Network

in temperate regions of the world. Harlan and his colleagues (1976) identified four wild species and five cultivated races for cereal sorghums. The four wild races of Sorghum bicolor are arundinaceum, virgatum, aethiopicum, and verticilliflorum...

Aydin, Selahattin

2005-08-29

352

Structural requirements for the binding of oligosaccharides to immobilized lectin of Erythrina variegata (Linn) var. orientalis.  

PubMed

The structural requirements for the interaction of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins with Erythrina variegata agglutinin (EVA) were investigated by means of affinity chromatography on an EVA-Sepharose column. Some of the branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides obtained from human erythrocyte band 3 glycoprotein were found to show high affinity to EVA-Sepharose, whereas complex-type oligosaccharides were shown to have low affinity. Hybrid type, oligomannose-type and unbranched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides bound very little or not at all to EVA-Sepharose. To further study the carbohydrate-binding specificity of this lectin, we investigated the interaction of immobilized EVA and oligosaccharide fragments obtained through partial hydrolysis from branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides. Branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine-type oligosaccharides were subjected to limited hydrolysis with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 40 min and then separated on an amino-bonded silica column. One of pentasaccharides thus prepared strongly bound to the EVA-Sepharose column. Structural analysis of this pentasaccharide showed that the Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal sugar sequence, which is an I-antigen determinant, was essential for the high affinity binding of the oligosaccharides to the EVA-Sepharose column. PMID:2136348

Li, H; Yamamoto, K; Kawashima, H; Osawa, T

1990-01-01

353

Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects.  

PubMed

This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

Kumar, A; Lingadurai, S; Jain, A; Barman, N R

2010-07-01

354

Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.  

PubMed

The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

1992-11-01

355

Amino acid sequence of chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI from the seeds of Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis.  

PubMed

The amino acids of the chymotrypsin inhibitor (ECI) from the Erythrina variegata seeds have been sequenced. The sequence was solved by analysis of peptides derived from the protein by enzymatic digestions with trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, as well as by chemical cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid. The ECI consists of 179 amino acid residues with a pyroglutamic acid as the N-terminal residue and has a calculated molecular weight of 19,791. Comparison of this sequence with the sequences of the two trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, from the E. variegata seeds shows that about 60% of the residues of ECI are identical to those of ETIa and ETIb and that the reactive sites, Arg63, in ETIa and ETIb change to Leu64 in ECI. PMID:7763417

Kimura, M; Kouzuma, Y; Yamasaki, N

1993-01-01

356

Biopotency of Acalypha indica Linn on Membrane Bound ATPases and Marker Enzymes urolithic Rats  

PubMed Central

The ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica was tested for its biopotency on membrane bound enzymes and marker enzymes in urolithiasis in male wistar albino rats. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water for 30 days. There was a significant decrease in membrane bound enzymes such as Ca2+ ATPase, Mg2+ ATPase, Na+K+ ATPase and marker enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in liver and kidney. The AST, ALT, ACP and ALP were increased in serum and urine of rats. Therapeutic treatment with plant extract (200mg/kg b.wt.dose-1 day-1 oral-1) has significantly ameliorated to near normalcy in the curative group. These results of the present study concluded that A. indica can play an important role in the prevention of disorders associated with kidney stone formation. PMID:22736883

Sathya, M.; Kokilavani, R.; Teepa, K.S. Ananta; Balakrishnan, A.

2011-01-01

357

Effect of Cassia auriculata Linn. on serum glucose level, glucose utilization by isolated rat hemidiaphragm.  

PubMed

An aqueous leaf extract of Cassia auriculata (C. auriculata) was found to lower the serum glucose level in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was observed after 4 h at a dose levels of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. In normal rats the serum glucose level reduction at 4th h was 23% by 100 mg/kg body weight and 31% by 200 mg/kg body weight. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the serum glucose level from third day to till the end of the experiment. The extract was also found to inhibit the body weight reduction induced by alloxan administration. Glucose uptake and glycogen deposition studies suggest that C. auriculata leaf extract probably has no direct insulin like effect which can enhance the peripheral utilization of glucose. PMID:12007712

Sabu, M C; Subburaju, T

2002-05-01

358

Effect of Cassia auriculata Linn. root extract on cisplatin and gentamicin-induced renal injury.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of the roots of Cassia auriculata was studied for its nephroprotective activity in cisplatin- and gentamicin-induced renal injury in male albino rats. In the cisplatin model, the extract at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body wt. reduced elevated blood urea and serum creatinine and normalized the histopathological changes in the curative regimen. In the gentamicin model, the ethanol extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg body wt. reduced blood urea and serum creatinine effectively in both the curative and the preventive regimen. The extract had a marked nitric oxide free-radical-scavenging effect. The findings suggest that the probable mechanism of nephroprotection by C. auriculata against cisplatin- and gentamicin-induced renal injury could be due to its antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property. PMID:16121515

Annie, S; Rajagopal, P L; Malini, S

2005-08-01

359

Clinical efficacy of Shilajatu (Asphaltum) processed with Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.) in Sthaulya (obesity)  

PubMed Central

Obesity is defined as the condition in which excessive amount of fat is accumulated in the body. Classical Ayurvedic texts describe eight types of despicable designated as ‘Nindita purusha’ including atisthaulya. Corpulent people are characterized by short in longevity, slow movement, difficult to indulge in sex, weak, emission of bad body odor, profuse perspiration, excessive hunger and excessive thirst. Sixty to seventy percent of cardiac patients die of obesity and contribute to develop coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, 66 patients of obesity were treated with Shilajatu processed with Agnimantha. After complition of therapy, 5.09 ± 0.24 kg and 2.06 ± 0.10 kg/m2 reduction of body weight and body mass index, respectively were noted. The result was found to be statistically highly significant (P<0.001). No adverse effects were observed in any of the treated patients. PMID:22661848

Pattonder, Ranjan K.; Chandola, H. M.; Vyas, S. N.

2011-01-01

360

DOCUMENTATION OF ANNUAL GROWTH LINES IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE  

E-print Network

Island, New York, in 1978. Shells of live specimens recovered 1 and 2 years later were radially sec or micro- projection; selected specimens were similarly prepared for examination by scanning electron commercially important species. Numerous bivalve species form periodic growth lines in their shells (Rhoads

361

Analgesic studies on total alkaloids and alcohol extracts of Eclipta alba (Linn.) Hassk.  

PubMed

A variety of analgesics are used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain in different disease states. A narcotic or a non-narcotic analgesic that does not cause respiratory depression and addiction is needed. In Ayurveda a large number of indigenous drugs have been mentioned possessing analgesic properties (e.g. Guggul, Erand, Rasna, Bhringaraj, Methika, Palandu and Prasikayavani). The present experimental research work was undertaken to determine the analgesic activity of the total ethanol extract of Eclipta alba, and also the isolated alkaloids of Eclipta alba in albino mice by using standard experimental models such as the tail clip method, the tail flick method and the acetic acid induced writhing response. The results from this study show that both the ethanol extract as well as the total alkaloids produce good analgesic activity in all the different models of analgesia used. The total alkaloidal fraction was the most efficacious in all models tested. PMID:15022160

Sawant, Mahesh; Isaac, Jolly C; Narayanan, Shridhar

2004-02-01

362

Comparative evaluation of different extracts of leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. for hepatoprotective activity.  

PubMed

The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous) of P. guajava in acute experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol. The effects observed were compared with a known hepatoprotective agent, silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o.). In the acute liver damage induced by different hepatotoxins, P. guajava methanolic leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity whereas P. guajava aqueous leaf extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. P. guajava ethyl acetate and aqueous leaf extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Histological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotection. It is concluded that the methanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava plant possesses better hepatoprotective activity compared to other extracts. PMID:20067861

Roy, Chanchal K; Das, Amit Kumar

2010-01-01

363

Propagation of Robinia pseudoacacia Linn. and Grewiaoptiva Drummond from rooted stem cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid vegetative propagation of promising multipurpose trees is an important need in agroforestry development. Grewia optiva andRobinia pseudoacacia are two such species, about the propagation of which very little is known. The rooting ability of stem cuttings harvested\\u000a from juvenile (2 year-old) and mature hardwood(15 year-old) trees of Robinia pseudoacacia andGrewia optiva was significantly influenced by the period or season

S. L. Swamy; S. Puri; K. Kanwar

2002-01-01

364

Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn  

PubMed Central

“Pashanbheda” is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of “Pashanbheda”. Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal. PMID:24696579

Jani, Switu; Shukla, Vinay J.; Harisha, C. R.

2013-01-01

365

Investigation of wound healing activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Mimusops elengi Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of bark part of Mimusops elengi. It is well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for wound healing potential. A methanolic extract of bark parts of Mimusops elengi was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on mice: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug Betadine ointment in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time, tensile strength and dry granuloma weight. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that Mimusops elengi bark extract exhibits significant wound healing. PMID:22238490

Gupta, N; Jain, U K

2011-01-01

366

Food, Glorious Food Mary-Slater Linn & Jeffrey Nystuen with Chef Chandra Longsaravane getting ready to  

E-print Network

and serve galangal or ginger chopped onion tamarind sauce firm fish oyster sauce fish sauce fresh cilantro green onions Stir fry galangal and onion in hot oil Add tamarind sauce Add fish chunks, careful

Nystuen, Jeffrey A.

367

Identification of major aroma compounds in the leaf of Morinda citrifolia Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia, commonly named noni, has been used as food and as a folk medicine throughout the tropics. The use of the leaves to make\\u000a hot water beverages is increasing in popularity, especially in Japan and the United States. To better understand the effects\\u000a of processing on the content of the major aroma compounds, volatile oils were collected from samples

Brett J. West; Bing-nan Zhou

2008-01-01

368

Pharmacological studies on the venomous spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus Linn) sting extract on experimental animals.  

PubMed

A sting of the fish S. argus, a venomous edible spotted butterfish, produces tremendous local pain, severe swelling, rise of body temperature, throbbing sensation etc. To establish the pharmacological activities of S. argus sting extract, the present investigation, was carried out on experimental animals. The LD50 of extract was found to be 9.3 mg/kg (iv) in male albino mice. The extract showed loss of sensation, urination and salivation in mice. It potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Extract produced a fall of cat and guinea pig blood pressure, which was completely abolished by mepyramine. It produced a transient reduction of respiratory rate in rat, but decreased respiratory amplitude in cat, which was abolished after vagotomy. On isolated toad heart, the extract increased both the amplitude and rate of contraction. On isolated guinea pig heart, the sting extract decreased both the rate and amplitude of contraction leading to cardiac arrest, but it had no effect on isolated guinea pig auricle. The extract produced a reversible blockade of electrically induced twitch response of isolated chick biventer cervices preparation, but it had no effect on the isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. It produced a slow contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat fundal strip preparations but produced slow relaxation on isolated rat duodenum preparation. The contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum and rat fundal strip was antagonised by SC19220. It did not produce any significant cutaneous haemorrhage in mice and did not produce any haemolysis on saline washed erythrocytes. The sting extract significantly increased capillary permeability of guinea pig dorsal flank and produced oedema in mice hind paw. PMID:15233469

Muhuri, D; Karmakar, S; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

369

1811 Iguanoides Oppel, Die Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 26. Type genus: "Iguana Linne" (= Iguana Laurenti, 1768.  

E-print Network

" (= Iguana Laurenti, 1768. 1843 Hypsilophi Fitzinger, Syst. Rept.: 16. Type genus: Hypsilophus Wagler, 1830 (= Iguana Laurenti, 1768). 1987 Amblyrhynchina de Queiroz, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 118: 160. Type

370

Plant regeneration through organogenesis and shoot proliferation in Trichodesma indicum (Linn) R. Br. - a medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

6 -benzyl Aminopurine) or NAA (?- naphthalene acetic acid) produced callus and adventitious shoots; whereas those placed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) formed callus. On subculture, the nodal pieces produced axillary shoots that were suitable for further propagule proliferation. Rhizogenesis occurred in 60% micro shoots treated with IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) pulse. The regenerated plants successfully acclimatized and

Neelambra Verma; V. Koche; K. L. Tiwari; S. K. Mishra

371

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

1999-01-01

372

Purification and characterization of polygalacturonase-inhibitory proteins from Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of polygalacturonase inhibitory proteins [PGIPs] in plant cell walls, has acquired importance since the finding that they play a role in resistance of plants to fungal attack. PGIP activity has been demonstrated in many plant species in diverse families. PGIPs have now been shown to be similar to signal transaction molecules and have been found to be homologous

Aishwarya Deo; N. V Shastri

2003-01-01

373

Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.)  

PubMed Central

The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety. PMID:23559810

Kumari, Mamta; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Pandya, Tarulata N.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-01-01

374

Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.).  

PubMed

The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety. PMID:23559810

Kumari, Mamta; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B; Pandya, Tarulata N; Acharya, Rabinarayan

2012-04-01

375

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK (LINN.) BENTH. IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for natural anti-diabetic drugs, as continuous oral administration of insulin can culminate in many side effects and toxicity. In our endeavour to formulate some cost-effective herbal medicines for diabetes, we undertook this study to evaluate the antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Albizzia lebbeck (ALL) in diabetic rats. The oxidative stress in alloxan-induc ed diabetic

C. R. RESMI; M. R. VENUKUMAR; M. S. LATHA

376

Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of serial extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.).  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of serial petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from leaves of Aegle mawmelos were investigated against bacterial and fungal species. All the extracts exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 10 to 22 mm against bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aenrginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, fungi: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillusflavus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentrations (MMC) of the extracts ranged from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL and 2.5 to 20 mg/mL respectively. Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of different extract revealed that Staphylococcus aureus, beta Streptococcus haemolyticus group A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli showed high susceptibility to petroleum ether extract. Proteus mimrabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high susceptibility to chloroform extract and Salmonella typhi showed high susceptibility to methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract exhibited the highest antifungal efficacy against all tested fungal species. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, sterols in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts, whereas tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins and triterpenoids in methanol extract. The ability of the leaf extracts of Aegle manmelos to inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity which could be a potential source for development of novel bioactive antimicrobial agents. PMID:21928713

Kothari, Saroj; Mishra, Vaibhav; Bharat, Savita; Tonpay, Shrinivas D

2011-01-01

377

Celosia argentea Linn. leaf extract improves wound healing in a rat burn wound model.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea (CA) is used in traditional medicine for sores, ulcers, and skin eruptions. The present study was aimed at investigating the healing efficacy of CA extract in an ointment formulated (10 % w/w) as an alcohol extract of CA using a rat burn wound model. Wound closure occurred earlier in the treated rats (15 days vs. 30 in the untreated group; p < 0.05). Granulation tissue collected on every fifth day of healing showed an increase in collagen and hexosamine content at a faster rate in the treated wounds. This correlated with the accelerated wound closure observed in the treated groups. To probe the cellular basis of this effect, we investigated the effect of this extract on two major cellular responses; cell proliferation and cell motility, in two key cell lineages, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. CA was not toxic at concentrations of < 3 microg/ml in fibroblasts and < 30 microg/ml in keratinocytes. The alcohol extract promoted cell motility and proliferation of primary dermal fibroblasts at 0.1-1.0 microg/ml but did not alter these responses in primary keratinocytes. In an initial examination of molecular mechanisms, we found that the CA extract did not alter fibroblast and keratinocyte responses to the wound repair-associated epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. In short, we demonstrate a salutary action of the CA extract on wound healing, and suggest that this may be due to mitogenic and motogenic promotion of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:15555053

Priya, Kulasekaran S; Arumugam, Gnanamani; Rathinam, Bhuvaneswari; Wells, Alan; Babu, Mary

2004-01-01

378

Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

2013-06-01

379

Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas is a herbal preparation used in the tropics for the treatment of threatened abortion and related problems associated with pregnancy. The Stem bark of Jatropha curcas is used ethno medicinally in Nigeria especially in the eastern part of the country for the treatment of infertility and spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). The present study was undertaken in order to validate the folkloric claim, using scientific experimental procedures and bioassay guided fractionation. The crude powdered sample was subjected to phytochemical screening testing for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. Chromatographic analysis (TLC and VLC) were carried out using various solvent systems. The effect of methanolic extracts on rat uterine contractions was studied in vitro, in 40ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution of De Jalon maintained at 370C, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 with an isometric transducer connected an UgoBasile recorder under a resting tension of 750mg. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. The extract abolished significantly the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50mg/ml. The tocolytic effects indicate the presence of active principle(s) which would explain the ethno medicinal use of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas to treat spontaneous abortion. PMID:22547181

Falodun, Abiodun; Nworgu, Z A M; Osayemwenre, Erharuyi

2011-12-01

380

Changes in Quality and Bioactive Properties of Concentrated Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to monitor quality changes a nd bioactive properties of concentrated roselle extract in lug cap glass conta iners as affected by pasteurization and storage conditions. It was found that quality chang es and bioactive properties of concentrated roselle extract before and after paste urization included pH of 2.79 ± 0.00 and 2.80 ± 0.01, total acidity

Pensri Ruangsri; Paramee Chumsri; Anchalee Sirichote; Arunporn Itharat

381

Bioefficiency of indigogera tinctoria linn. On isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in albinorats.  

PubMed

Indigofera tincoria leaf extract has been evaluated for its anti-hepatotoxic activity on Rats. Isoniazid is a first line agent for treatment of tuberculosis. Acute ingestion by adults with little dose can lead to mild liver toxicity. In our study, administration of isoniazid (100mg/Kg of the body weight) to normal albino rats for 15 days, results in the induction of hepatitis, which is reversed by the leaf extract of Indigofera tincoria. Two different dose volumes of Indigofera tincoria (5ml/kg of the body weight and 10ml/kg of body weight) were given to determine the hepatoprotective efficacy. The effect of the extract was found to be dose dependent and the altered levels of AST, ALT, ALP and other serum parameters such as total protein, total bilirubin are showing normal values. Indigofera tinctoria provided significant protection against most of the biochemical alterations produced by isoniazid in test animals. PMID:22557116

Chitra, M; Muthusudha, N; Sasikala, R

2003-10-01

382

Hepatoprotective activity of indigtone--a bioactive fraction from Indigofera tinctoria Linn.  

PubMed

A bioactive fraction, indigtone (FA), obtained by fractionation of a petroleum ether extract of the aerial parts of Indigofera tinctoria, showed significant dose related hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4) induced liver injury in rats and mice. Hexobarbitone induced 'sleeptime', zoxazolamine induced 'paralysis time', levels of transaminases, bilirubin and total protein in serum were employed as indices of liver injury. Pre and post treatment with FA significantly reversed the majority of the parameters altered by the hepatotoxin. This indicated the preventive and restorative effect of FA in the process of CCl(4) induced liver damage. The fraction possessed a high therapeutic ratio, as no mortality was observed up to a dose of 2 g/kg p.o. in mice. PMID:11406850

Singh, B; Saxena, A K; Chandan, B K; Bhardwaj, V; Gupta, V N; Suri, O P; Handa, S S

2001-06-01

383

BIOEFFICIENCY OF INDIGOGERA TINCTORIA LINN. ON ISONIAZID INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINORATS  

PubMed Central

Indigofera tincoria leaf extract has been evaluated for its anti-hepatotoxic activity on Rats. Isoniazid is a first line agent for treatment of tuberculosis. Acute ingestion by adults with little dose can lead to mild liver toxicity. In our study, administration of isoniazid (100mg/Kg of the body weight) to normal albino rats for 15 days, results in the induction of hepatitis, which is reversed by the leaf extract of Indigofera tincoria. Two different dose volumes of Indigofera tincoria (5ml/kg of the body weight and 10ml/kg of body weight) were given to determine the hepatoprotective efficacy. The effect of the extract was found to be dose dependent and the altered levels of AST, ALT, ALP and other serum parameters such as total protein, total bilirubin are showing normal values. Indigofera tinctoria provided significant protection against most of the biochemical alterations produced by isoniazid in test animals PMID:22557116

Chitra, M.; Muthusudha, N.; Sasikala, R.

2003-01-01

384

Rooting and juvenile growth differences in half-sib seedlings of Gmelina arborea, Linn.  

E-print Network

that the rooting of terminal cuttings was poor with Salix cinerea, while the position on the stem made no difference in rooting and growth of Salix fragilis, S. triandra, and S. viminalis x americana. The lower cuttings from two-year-old ~po ulus deltoides...

Hicks, Van Joseph

2012-06-07

385

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

386

Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200?mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

2014-01-01

387

In vitro analysis of antioxidant activities of Oxalis corniculata Linn. fractions in various solvents.  

PubMed

As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The total phenolic contents in terms of µg of gallic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were approximately 21.0, 28.2, 34.5, 162.0, 70.0, and 49.2 in methanolic, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions respectively, while the flavonoid contents in these solvents were 362.4, 214.1, 317.1, 177.1, 98.8 and 53.5 respectively in terms of µg of rutin per mg of dried mass. In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest free radical scavenging activity, 24.0% with 1 mg/mL concentration. The second strongest fraction was chloroform (21.5%). The EC50 and TEC50 values of the methanolic extract were 3.63 mg/mL and 23 min respectively. The FRAP values in terms of µg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass for these solvents were 288.0, 1705.3, 437.1, 72.0, 28.0, and 44.0 respectively while total antioxidant activity measured by phosphomolybdate assay in terms of µg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were 50.0, 117.0, 78.6, 57.8, 3.4 and 8.3 respectively. All the samples showed remarkable ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation exhibiting much better and sustainable peroxidation inhibitory activity than the standard butylated hydroxyanisole. PMID:24082338

Ahmed, Dildar; Zara, Saman; Baig, Hira

2012-01-01

388

Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity profile of the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the rhizome of Smilax china (EESC and EAF, respectively) in mice. Materials and Methods: The anticonvulsant activities of EESC and EAF were studied against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice and neurotoxicity was determined using rotarod test. Results: The duration of hindleg extension in MES test was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) by EESC at a dose level of 400 mg/kg and EAF at both higher dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg). In PTZ model, the seizure latency was prolonged by all the test groups. Conclusion: The EESC and EAF may help to control petit mal and grand mal seizures. PMID:21455417

Vijayalakshmi, A.; Ravichandiran, V.; Anbu, J.; Velraj, Malarkodi; Jayakumari, S.

2011-01-01

389

Isolation and Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Glycosaminoglycans from Marine Mollusc Amussium pleuronectus (Linne) using Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is a polyanionic sulfated polysaccharide most recognized for its anticoagulant activity.\\u000a In the present study, the GAGs were extracted from bivalve mollusc Amussium pleuronectus. The crude GAGs were fractionated by ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose and Amberlite IRA-900 & 120) chromatography. The recovered\\u000a active fractions (as determined by metachromatic assay) were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the active

R. Saravanan; A. Shanmugam

2010-01-01

390

Isolation and characterization of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans from marine mollusc Amussium pleuronectus (linne) using chromatography.  

PubMed

The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is a polyanionic sulfated polysaccharide most recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In the present study, the GAGs were extracted from bivalve mollusc Amussium pleuronectus. The crude GAGs were fractionated by ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose and Amberlite IRA-900 & 120) chromatography. The recovered active fractions (as determined by metachromatic assay) were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the active fractions were purified in Sephadex G-100 column. Fractionated and purified GAG molecular weight was determined through gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The structural characterization of low molecular weight GAG was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activated partial thromboplastin time of purified GAG is 95 IU/mg and has molecular weight 6,500-7,500 Da. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the GAG sample was sulfated like porcine intestinal mucosal heparan sulfate, and it contains equivalent amount of uronic acid and hexosamine. The results of this study suggest that the GAG from A. pleuronectus could be an alternative source of heparin. PMID:19184547

Saravanan, R; Shanmugam, A

2010-03-01

391

Evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic and ulcer-healing properties of Ocimum sanctum Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We evaluated its anti-ulcerogenic activity in cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in Sprague–Dawley rats, histamine-induced duodenal (HST) ulcer in guinea pigs, and ulcer-healing activity, in acetic acid-induced (AC) chronic ulcer model. We found that OS, decreased the incidence of ulcers and

Poonam Dharmani; Vijay Kumar Kuchibhotla; Rakesh Maurya; Sudhir Srivastava; Sharad Sharma; Gautam Palit

2004-01-01

392

Micropropagation of ‘Holy Basil’ (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) from young inflorescences of mature plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro micropropagation of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), an Indian medicinal herb, has been accomplished on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium utilizing young inflorescence explants. MS supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or thidiazuron (TDZ) produced only non-morphogenetic callus. Direct multiple shoots differentiated within 2--3 weeks when explants were cultured on MS containing 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Of the various levels

Nirmal K. Singh; C. B. Sehgal

1999-01-01

393

Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol leaf and flower extracts of Ocimum sanctum were studied against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 values of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti

A. Mohamed Anees

2008-01-01

394

Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS; 6h\\/day for 21 days) alone or along with either hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Os; 100mg\\/kg; orally) or MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist (0.3mg\\/kg; i.p.). In the rats subjected to only CRS, plasma cAMP level was significantly raised on day 21, with no significant change in plasma corticosterone level. There

S. Sood; D. Narang; M. K. Thomas; Y. K. Gupta; S. K. Maulik

2006-01-01

395

Immunostimulatory effect of leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum on (i) the specific and non-specific immune responses and (ii) disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated in Oreochromis mossambicus. Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Heat aggregated bovine serum albumin (HA-BSA) were used as antigens for specific and non-specific immune response studies, respectively. Antigens were administered through intraperitoneal route. Anti-SRBC antibody titres

S. M. Logambal; S. Venkatalakshmi; R. Dinakaran Michael

2000-01-01

396

Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum linn ) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of oral administration of 200 mg\\/Kg body weight of the aqueous extract ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed with diet for eight weeks to diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats was studied. There was significant reduction\\u000a in fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, (LPO) and improvement in glucose tolerance. The\\u000a aqueous extract also decreased LPO formation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

Eshrat Halim M. A. Hussain; Kaiser Jamil; Mala Rao

2001-01-01

397

Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.  

PubMed

Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

2010-10-01

398

Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

2014-01-01

399

Alterations in enzymes in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.), exposed to vanadium  

SciTech Connect

The increase in air and water borne concentrations of vanadium, a physiologically and pharmacologically active substance, has caused renewed interest in the toxicology of this metal. Toxicity studies of vanadium on fish are comparatively scarce. Cytochrome P-450 monoxygenases and conjugating enzymes are important in fish metabolism and elimination of endogenous as well as foreign lipophilic compounds. These enzymes are also known to participate in activation and inactivation of carcinogenic and environmental chemicals. (In vitro) investigations have shown that fish metabolize xenobiotics by mechanisms very similar to those found in mammals. Impairment of drug-metabolizing enzymes is thus deleterious to the organism. Heavy metals are known to influence this group of enzymes. This prompted us to investigate the effect of vanadate, in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, on the relative rates and patterns of hepatic glutathione transferase (GST) activity, UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450) level in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus. We chose an aquatic species for our experiment since the environment where aquatic animals live is the main destination of industrial and agricultural wastes. The variations recorded in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450, glutathione transferase and UDP-glu-curonyl transferase are discussed in relation to carcinogenic risk depending on the environment of the fish. In support of the above, petroleum has been found to induce cytochrome P-450 and subsequently produce high levels of neoplasia in fish. Furthermore, GST, UDPGT and Cyt P-450 have been reported as reliable markers for preneoplastic lesions in liver. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Chakraborty, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Chatterjee, M. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

1995-02-01

400

Histochemical study of shoot-root apices in Panicum miliaceum Linn. seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histochemical nature of shoot and root apices inPanicum miliaceum L. seedlings was studied using light microscopic histochemical procedures on tissue-sections. The substances localized are:\\u000a RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and reducing sugars.\\u000a \\u000a The shoot apex generally shows uniform distribution of starch grains in all the zones, the presence of which is noticed more\\u000a in the subtending area of the shoot apex.

C. K. Rudramuniyappa; M. G. Panchaksharappa

1975-01-01

401

Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).  

PubMed

Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

2009-10-01

402

Effects of the flower extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. On the meristematic cells of Allium Cepa.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea was evaluated for its cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the meristematic cells of onion root tip. The percentage of abnormalities was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of the extract from 20 to 60 mg/ml. With 80 mg/ml completed arrest or total inhibition of cell division was observed. The major abnormalities were unprinted chromosomes at metaphase. Stickiness and clumping of chromosomes were induced by higher concentrations of the extract. Sticky anaphase bridges and formation of micronuclei were induced at the highest concentration (80mg/ml) tried. The significance of these abnormalities is discussed in detail. The results point to the potential use of the aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea in the chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:22556853

Latha, P G; Chandralekha, C T; Vilasini, G; Panikkar, K R

1998-04-01

403

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

2012-05-01

404

Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

2008-04-01

405

Evaluation of Myrtus communis Linn. berries (common myrtle) in experimental ulcer models in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of the dried berries of Myrtus communis L. in gastric ulcer against ethanol, indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced models in Wistar rats. Two doses of aqueous extracts of M. communis (AE 1 and AE2) at the dose 105 and 175 mg\\/kg, respectively, and methanolic extracts (ME1 and ME2) at the

Sabiha Sumbul; Mohd Aftab Ahmad; Mohd Asif; Ibne Saud; Mohd Akhtar

2010-01-01

406

Evaluation of Myrtus communis Linn. berries (common myrtle) in experimental ulcer models in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of the dried berries of Myrtus communis L. in gastric ulcer against ethanol, indomethacin and pyloric ligation induced models in Wistar rats. Two doses of aqueous extracts of M. communis (AE( 1) and AE(2)) at the dose 105 and 175 mg/kg, respectively, and methanolic extracts (ME(1) and ME(2)) at the dose of 93 and 154 mg/kg, respectively, were administered orally to animals prior to the exposure of ulcerogens. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, gastric pH, total acidity, gastric wall mucus and histopathological studies. Oral administration of AE(1) and AE(2) significantly reduced the ulcer index in all models of ulcers. Low dose of aqueous extract and high dose of methanolic extract of M. communis exhibited more significant effect in comparison to omeprazole (standard drug) in ethanol-induced ulcer model. Both the doses of aqueous and methanolic extracts also reduced the gastric juice volume, total acidity and increased the gastric pH and gastric wall mucus content in all the models of ulcers used in the present study. Histopathological examinations of gastric tissues of rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic extracts in indomethacin-induced ulcer exhibited significant ulcer-protective effect at both the dose levels. PMID:20197454

Sumbul, Sabiha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab; Asif, Mohd; Saud, Ibne; Akhtar, Mohd

2010-11-01

407

Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice. PMID:22529480

Chockalingam, Vijaya; Kadali, SDV Suryakiran; Gnanasambantham, Pratheesh

2012-01-01

408

Vinegar production from Togolese local variety Mangovi of Mango mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae).  

PubMed

The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol and acetic acid in the juice during the production of vinegar were monitored by gas chromatography and titrimetry methods, respectively. The physiological state of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2056 was determined by flow cytometry using a dual fluorescent labeling of diacetate carboxy-fluorescein (CFDA) and propidium iodide. The results indicated that 200 mL of mango juice, sugar content 20 Brix, set in alcoholic fermentation with 10(6) yeast cells produced 22.4 g L(-1) ethanol in 72 h. Acetic fermentation transformed 93% of this ethanol to acetic acid in 288 h. Twenty-four hours after the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, 91% of cells were viable, 8.85% were stressed and 0.05% died. After 24 h of acetic fermentation, viable, stressed and dead cells were 45, 12 and 39%, respectively; corresponding to the passage of acetic vinegar level from 0.9 to 2.1 degrees. At the end of the acetic fermentation, dead cells were estimated to 98% at and acetic acid to 4.7 degrees. Using consecutive fermentations is suitable technique for vinegar production from mango juice. The application of the present results may contribute to avoid fruits post harvest losses. PMID:20437702

Ameyapoh, Y; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Karou, Simplice D; Bouix, M; Sossou, Seyram K; De Souza, C

2010-02-01

409

Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract  

PubMed Central

Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (?) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319?±?0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141?±?0.001 to 0.265?±?0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the ?- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the ?-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (??

2013-01-01

410

Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.  

PubMed

This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-?-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group. PMID:24666370

Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

2014-01-01

411

Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn  

PubMed Central

Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 ?M acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

2011-01-01

412

Anticonvulsant activity of raw and classically processed Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) rhizomes  

PubMed Central

The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha. PMID:23049196

Bhat, Savitha D.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, R. N.; Ravishankar, B.

2012-01-01

413

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Sphaeranthus indicus on albino mice and rat of either sex. The flowers of S. indicus are an important herb used in folk eastern medicines. In this study, the ethanolic extract of S. indicus in doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg was used. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the mean decrease in hind paw volume after the sub planter injection of carrageenan. The analgesic activity was tested against acetic acid induced writhing response using albino rats. Result of the study shows that at the end of one hour the inhibition of paw edema was 42.66 and 50.5% respectively and the percentage of protection from writhing was 62.79 and 68.21 respectively. S. indicus possesses several important pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties. The current study describes that flower of S. indicus has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusion of the study is that this herbal medicine can be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of minor to moderate types of inflammation and as a painkiller. PMID:21715276

Ali, Adam; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Gauhar, Shahnaz; Saeed, Rehana

2011-07-01

414

Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects  

PubMed Central

This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

Kumar, A.; Lingadurai, S.; Jain, A.; Barman, N. R.

2010-01-01

415

Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits.  

PubMed

Aim is to study the antidiabetic effect of a compound GII purified earlier from the water extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds by Murthy and his colleagues (patented in India and USA) in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by injecting 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan intravenously into rabiits. Rabbits were subdivided into subdiabetic [fasting blood sugar (FBG) up to 120 mg/dl with abnormal glucose tolerance in glucose tolerance test (GTT)], moderately diabetic (FBG below 250 mg/dl) and severely diabetic (FBG above 250 mg/dl). Blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were estimated by procedures in the kits of Stangen Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai using, respectively, glucose oxidase method and absorbance at 415 nm. Serum insulin was estimated by the ELISA method as described in the kit of Boehringer Mannheim Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai, India. GII was found to improve blood glucose utilization in GTT and reduced FBG and HbA1C. In the present communication detailed studies were carried out with GII in the subdiabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw per day brought down the elevated FBG levels in the untreated subdiabetic (FBG 96.6 ± 7 mg/dl), moderately diabetic (150.1 ± 14 mg/dl) and severely diabetic rabbits (427 ± 46 mg/dl) to normal in 12, 15 and 28 days of treatment. It improved serum HbA1C and insulin levels also in these rabbits. Intermittent therapy once a week for 6 weeks with GII at the same dose brought down the FBG values to normal in the subdiabetic (FBG 96.0 ± 2 mg/dl) and in the moderately diabetic rabbits to 133.0 ± 12 mg/dl. After stopping therapy of the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits whose FBG values came to normal after treatment with GII 50 mg/kg bw, the values remained normal for 1 week and showed a tendency to increase only after 15 days. If these animal studies are applicable to humans these results indicate that a diabetic person need not take GII daily when once the FBG value comes to normal or near to normal. Patients might be able to take GII only when the FBG value shows tendency to increase. So, intermittent therapy is possible with the potent product GII of the fenugreek seeds which is of a great advantage. PMID:23277708

Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

2012-01-01

416

Coccidia of Brazilian edentates: Eimeria cyclopei n.sp. from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus (Linn.) and Eimeria choloepi n.sp. from the two-toed sloth, Choloepus didactylus (Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000aEimeria cyclopei n.sp. is described from the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus, from Pará State, north Brazil. Undifferentiated oocysts, passed in the faeces, complete sporulation in seven days at 26 to 28°C. Oocysts are ellipsoidal to sub-spherical, with a mean size of 28.1 × 23.6 m: the wall is 1.5 to 2.0 m thick, apparently with an outer thin, colourless

Ralph Lainson; Jeffrey J. Shaw

1982-01-01

417

Sem study on the invasion of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) on silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn. causing green muscardine.  

PubMed

The mature conidia of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) germinate on the larval integument of Bombyx mori within 24 h and penetrate the cuticle within 36 h after inoculation at 24.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C temperature and 80.0 +/- 5.0% relative humidity. The penetrating hyphae multiply by budding and septa formation in the hemocoel, and the larva succumbs to the infection 6-7 days post-treatment. The hyphal bodies elongate and become interwoven with other hyphae forming a mycelial complex across different tissues. The ramification of hyphae along the epidermal tissue results in larval mummification in 7-8 days. Numerous conidiophores emerge, producing a confluent white fungal mat over the entire surface of the host larva by 9-10 days. Pale green conidia develop, making the larval body green. Life cycle of the fungus on B. mori is completed in 10-11 days. PMID:16283452

Kumar, V; Singh, G P; Kumar, V; Babu, A M; Datta, R K

1997-01-01

418

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

2013-01-01

419

Microbial counts and invert sugars in juice extracts from stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus Linn. (earth almond).  

PubMed

The microbial populations and the levels of invert sugars in juice extracts from healthy tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. stored at 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C were determined. Bacterial counts increased with time and attained the peak on the 25th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. Similar trends were obtained for the yeasts, but the peak counts were recorded on the 20th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. At 10 and 20 degrees C, the counts, both for bacteria and yeasts increased throughout the 40-d period. Invert sugar levels increased throughout the investigation period at all the tested temperatures. Highest levels were recorded at about 30 and 40 degrees C while the lowest levels were obtained at 10 degrees C. Of the seven bacteria and five yeasts tested, only Saccharomyces rouxii, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces sp., Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis brought about significant hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro. Results on the microbial populations and levels of invert sugars in raw juice extracts suggest that yeasts could possibly play a greater role than bacteria in the hydrolysis of sucrose in vivo. PMID:8121474

Adebajo, L O

1993-01-01

420

Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

2012-11-15

421

Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.  

PubMed

Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

Virani, Nilesh V; Chandola, H M; Vyas, S N; Jadeja, D B

2010-07-01

422

Clinical study on erectile dysfunction in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and its management with Ficus relegiosa Linn.  

PubMed Central

Healthy sexual functioning plays an essential role in maintaining the harmony and happiness in marital life. It provides a media to express love, which is the base for all sorts of creative activities. The absence of this function hampers the marital relationship, leading to frustration and, sometimes, ending in divorce, and causes inadequacy in performing the routine duties. In this study, 53 patients having diabetes mellitus were surveyed to find out the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). Considering the high prevalence of the disease and the need to look for alternative medicine, a clinical trial on 44 patients of ED was carried out. These patients were divided into two main groups: diabetic and non-diabetic, and were further divided into two subgroups as trial group and placebo group. In the trial group, Ashvattha Kshirpaka prepared with 10 g powder of its root bark, stem bark, fruit and tender leaf buds was given twice a day. In both the diabetic and the non-diabetic subjects, Ashvattha provided encouraging results on ED as well as on seminal parameters in comparison to the placebo. PMID:22131726

Virani, Nilesh V.; Chandola, H. M.; Vyas, S. N.; Jadeja, D. B.

2010-01-01

423

Therapeutic efficacy of Nigella sativa Linn. seed extract against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intake damages liver. We evaluated therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. The hepatic damage induced by CCl4 @ 1.5 mL/kg, ip was evidenced by a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, protein and urea lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as reduction in hepatic antioxidant system e.g. reduced glutathione. Hepatic total protein and glucose-6-phosphatase activity were found decreased. Histological studies substantiated the above biochemical findings. However, after 48 h of administration of aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg, po) it not only detoxified the toxicity but also reversed LPO, GSH, AST, ALT and serum protein changes at all the three doses. Both higher doses of extract were found effective in monitoring urea, albumin, total protein and G-6-Pase activity. However, on the basis of percent protection highest dose i.e., 750 mg/kg proved better. The result suggests that the aqueous extract of N. sativa seeds can be used as a hepatoprotective agent. PMID:25675711

Jaswal, Amita; Shukla, Sangeeta

2015-01-01

424

Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4?-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

2014-01-01

425

Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5?mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100?mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300?mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-?-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-?1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

2014-01-01

426

Antioxidative potential of Duranta repens (Linn.) fruits against H2O2 induced cell death in vitro.  

PubMed

The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death to evaluate its antioxidative potential in vitro. HEK293T cells were treated with different concentrations [0-1000 µg/ ml] of ethanol extract (E-Ex) and methanol extract (M-Ex) of D. repens for 24h, and then treated with 100 µM H2O2 for 24h. Cell viability, antioxidant parameters of cells, and antioxidant constituents of the extracts were determined. Treatment with limited dose of E-Ex or M-Ex increased the survival rate of H2O2-treated HEK293T cells, however the extra-high dose showed growth inhibitory effect. Treatment with E-Ex or M-Ex protected cellular lipid per-oxidation. In vitro analyses showed the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and H2O2 scavenging activities as well as reducing potential of the extracts. We report here that the limited dose of E-Ex and M-Ex possess antioxidative potential, which can protect H2O2-induced oxidative cell damage. PMID:24146472

Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur; Tania, Mousumi; Shoshee, Nusrat Fatima; Xu, Ai-hua; Chen, Han-chun

2013-01-01

427

Effects of biochemical alteration in animal model after short-term exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95-52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O; Oviasogie, Efosa F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Idemudia, Omoruyi G

2013-01-01

428

Beneficial Effects of Pentanema vestitum Linn. Whole Plant on the Glucose and Other Biochemical Parameters of Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits.  

PubMed

The residents of Lower Dir and Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, use the dry powder of whole plant of Pentanema vestitum for the treatment of asthma and diabetes. No documented reports are available about the therapeutic action of Pentanema vestitum. The present study was aimed to explore the antihyperglycemic effect of 70% methanol extract of Pentanema vestitum whole plant in glucose-induced nondiabetic hyperglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. During this study, the effects of plant extract on the serum lipid profile, GPT, ALP, bilirubin and creatinine of diabetic rabbits were also studied. The extract of Pentanema vestitum whole plant exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rabbits. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits with extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the elevated levels of serum glucose, GPT, ALP, bilirubin and creatinine. During the study of lipid profile, the extract proved to be antihyperlipidemic and HDL boosting in diabetic rabbit models. From the finding of the present research, it was concluded that the 70% methanol extract of Pentanema vestitum whole plant has beneficial effects on serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, GPT, ALP, bilirubin, and creatinine of diabetic rabbits. PMID:23316385

Ilahi, Ikram; Asghar, Ali; Ali, Shujat; Khan, Murad; Khan, Nasrullah

2012-01-01

429

In Vitro Cytotoxic, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Mesua beccariana (Baill.) Kosterm., Mesua ferrea Linn., and Mesua congestiflora Extracts  

PubMed Central

The in vitro cytotoxicity tests on the extracts of Mesua beccariana, M. ferrea, and M. congestiflora against Raji, SNU-1, HeLa, LS-174T, NCI-H23, SK-MEL-28, Hep-G2, IMR-32, and K562 were achieved using MTT assay. The methanol extracts of Mesua beccariana showed its potency towards the proliferation of B-lymphoma cell (Raji). In addition, only the nonpolar to semipolar extracts (hexane to ethyl acetate) of the three Mesua species indicated cytotoxic effects on the tested panel of human cancer cell lines. Antioxidant assays were evaluated using DPPH scavenging radical assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The methanol extracts of M. beccariana and M. ferrea showed high antioxidant activities with low EC50 values of 12.70 and 9.77??g/mL, respectively, which are comparable to that of ascorbic acid (EC50?=?5.62??g/mL). Antibacterial tests were carried out using four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria on Mesua beccariana extracts. All the extracts showed negative results in the inhibition of Gram negative bacteria. Nevertheless, methanol extracts showed some activities against Gram positive bacteria which are Bacillus cereus, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while the hexane extract also contributed some activities towards Bacillus cereus. PMID:24089682

Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Mah, Siau Hui; Lim, Yang Mooi; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ahmad, Zuraini

2013-01-01

430

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail ( Typha angustifolia Linn.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of

Duangrat Inthorn; Siritham Singhtho; Paitip Thiravetyan; Eakalak Khan

2004-01-01

431

Decolorization of basic, direct and reactive dyes by pre-treated narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

The efficiency of basic, direct and reactive dye removal from water by narrow-leaved cattail (NLC) powder treated with distilled water (DW-NLC), 37% formaldehyde+0.2 N sulfuric acid (FH-NLC), or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH-NLC) at various pH levels (3, 5, 7, and 9) was tested. Desorption of the adsorbed dyes was also investigated. The type of NLC treatment and pH of the dye solution had little effect on removal of basic dyes, and efficiencies ranged from 97% to 99% over the range of pH used. Over a wide range of pH levels, all types of treated cattail powder had negative charges and probably attracted the basic dyes possessing positive charges. Efficiency of removal by the three NLC treatments ranged from 37% to 42% for direct dyes and from 22% to 54% for direct dyes at pH 7. The pH of the dye solution had substantial effects on the efficiency of removal in direct and reactive dyes. Dye removal was highest at pH 3, with 99% for a direct dye (Sirius Red Violet RL) and 96% for a reactive dye (Basilen Red M-5B). There was mutual attraction between negatively charged direct dye molecules and positively charged molecules on the surface of the FH-treated cattail. In tests of desorption of dyes from cattail in distilled water, the desorption percentage for FH-NLC after adsorbing basic, direct and reactive dyes was 6%, 10% and 35%, respectively, which indicated a chemisorption mechanism for basic and direct dyes and some physiosorption for reactive dyes. PMID:15182837

Inthorn, Duangrat; Singhtho, Siritham; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Khan, Eakalak

2004-09-01

432

A constructed wetland model for synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.).  

PubMed

Textile wastewater is contaminated by reactive dye causing unattractive levels of wastewater color, high pH and high salt content when discharged into public water systems. Decolorization of textile wastewater by plant, phytoremediation, is an alternative, sustainable method which is suitable for long term operation. Narrow-leaved cattails are one species of wetland plant with efficiency for decolorizing and remediating textile wastewater. In addition, chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be lowered and dye residue can be removed. The plant also showed a good salt tolerance even after being exposed to a salt solution for 15 days. The narrow-leaved cattails were set up in a constructed wetland model with a vertical flow system operating from bottom to top for synthetic reactive dye wastewater (SRDW) removal. Narrow-leaved cattails could achieve the removal of SRDW at approximately 0.8 g(SRDW) m(-2) day(-1). Decolorization of SRDW by this plant was approximately 60%. The advantage of this method is that it is suitable for textile wastewater management and improvement of wetland. These plants could lower COD, remove dye, sodium and total dissolved solids (TDS) whereas other biological and chemical methods could not remove TDS and dye in the same time. These results suggested that the spongy cell structu