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  1. Discussing the air pollution of Sao Paulo City -- Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, J.V. de; Filho, J.B.G.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Sao Paulo has a population of about 10 million people (1998 estimate) and a vehicle fleet of about 4.5 millions. A great increase in the ratio of persons per car occurred in the last 28 years, starting from 11.4 persons per car in 1970 and reaching 2.2 persons per car in 1998, a ratio similar to those in developed countries. The population of the city represents about 6% of the Brazilian population, 30% of the State population, and 61% of Metropolitan population. In the 60's and in the beginning of the 70's the air quality in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and in Sao Paulo City was more influenced by industrial sources. Nowadays emissions in the metropolitan region come mainly from vehicles (94.8% of CO, 94.9% of NO{sub x}, 94.3% of HC and 54.1% of SO{sub x}, in 1997) and 40% contribution in relation to inhaling particulate (PM10) and in the city of Sao Paulo the contribution of vehicle emissions is the same or greater. Light-duty vehicles are powered by gasohol, a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22%, ethanol, and by plain ethanol. Heavy-duty vehicles are diesel oil fueled. A great concern exists in relation to health effects of small sized particulate and photochemical oxidants and its precursors. Besides the implementation of a strong air pollution control for stationary sources of particulate and sulfur dioxide, since the 70's and the existence of a federal law that established a program of emission control for new vehicles in 1986, only the sulfur dioxide control program was successful since the air quality levels of other common pollutants are still above the air quality standards for some part of the year. Other attempts were made in the last years, like the prohibition of free circulation of 20% of cars each day during the weekdays (rodizio of cars). Even with that the air quality levels don't meet the standards the all year, and other measures must be taken to solve the problem.

  2. Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation in the City of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Eduardo W.; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Soares, Jacyra; Ferreira, Mauricio J.; Boznar, Marija Z.; Mlakar, Primoz; Escobedo, Joao F.

    2009-03-11

    This work evaluates objectively the consistency and quality of a 9 year dataset based on 5 minute average values of downward longwave atmospheric (LW) emission, shortwave radiation, temperature and relative humidity. All these parameters were observed simultaneously and continuously from 1997 to 2006 in the IAG micrometeorological platform, located at the top of the IAG-USP building. The pyrgeometer dome emission effect was removed using neural network technique reducing the downward long wave atmospheric emission error to 3.5%. The comparison, between the monthly average values of LW emission observed in Sao Paulo and satellite estimates from SRB-NASA project, indicated a very good agreement. Furthermore, this work investigates the performance of 10 empirical expressions to estimate the LW emission at the surface. The comparison between the models indicates that Brunt's one presents the better results, with smallest ''MBE,''''RMSE'' and biggest ''d'' index of agreement, therefore Brunt is the most indicated model to estimate LW emission under clear sky conditions in the city of Sao Paulo.

  3. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  4. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  5. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  6. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  7. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  8. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  9. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  10. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  11. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  12. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First Republic"…

  13. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  14. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  15. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  16. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  17. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  18. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  19. Nocturnal awakening with headache and its relationship with sleep disorders in a population-based sample of adult inhabitants of Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; Speciali, Jose Geraldo; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the population of São Paulo City according to gender, age (20-80 years old) and socioeconomic classes and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression, fatigue, life quality and obesity. We used a population-based survey with a representative three-stage cluster sample. Questionnaires and scales were applied face-to-face, and polysomnography was performed in 1101 volunteers, aged 42 ± 14 years, 55% women. The complaint of NAH occurring at least once a week had a prevalence of 8.4%, mostly in women, obese subjects and those aged 50-59 years-old. We observed associations of NAH with insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), nightmares and bruxism, but not obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In a logistics regression model, risk factors for NAH were female gender, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.5 (2.8-7.3); obesity, OR 1.9 (1.1-3.3); age between 50 and 59 years, OR 2.4 (1.2-4.7); severe anxiety, OR 8.1 (3.6-18.1); RLS, 2.7 (1.2-5.6); and nightmares, 2.2 (1.3-3.7). Our study shows that NAH was highly prevalent in the population of São Paulo and suggests that this phenomenon has specific characteristics with specific risk factors: obesity, RLS and nightmares. PMID:20974608

  20. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  1. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  2. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  3. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  4. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  5. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  6. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    PubMed

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321100

  7. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  8. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were <10(2) colony-forming units/g in the majority of samples (62.5%). Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25407460

  9. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  10. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p < 0.001), but no relationship between fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p < 0.05). Understanding the relationship between local neighborhood environments and increasing rates of poor diet, physical activity, and obesity is essential in countries undergoing rapid economic and urban development, such as Brazil, in order to provide insights for policies to reduce increasing rates of NCDs and food access and health inequalities. PMID:21327549

  11. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  12. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  13. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  14. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  15. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally defined).…

  16. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  17. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  18. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20004487

  19. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  20. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  1. Seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone in the Sao Paulo (Brazil) metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massambani, Oswaldo; Andrade, Fatima

    This paper presents a study of the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area as observed during 1987. The 03, NO, NO 2, NMHC, and meteorological data were collected at an air quality station in downtown Sao Paulo by the State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB). The air pollutant measurements were related to both daily total insolation and the number of hours of insolation measured at the Sao Paulo University Climatological Station. Correlations between both radiation parameters and total daily integrated ozone amounts were performed. The total number of sunshine hours was highly correlated to mean hourly ozone concentration values during each month of 1987. The seasonal behavior of NO, NO 2, and NMHC was also studied. Two diurnal peaks in average NO concentration were observed, i.e. one in early morning and one in early evening; both were due to emissions from urban mobile sources. The magnitude of these peaks doubled in value during the winter months. Its diurnal concentration variation was inverse to that of the 03; similar behavior was found for NO 2 and for NMHC. The data presented herein show the influence of solar radiation and of ozone precursors on photochemical smog formation in this tropical region.

  2. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  3. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  5. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  6. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  7. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  8. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  9. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  10. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  12. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  13. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  15. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  16. Cost and benefits of a distribution automation system for the northeast area of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Jardini, J.A.; Carvalho, J.C.M.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the costs and the benefits of distribution automation was done for an area in the northeastern part of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed that the savings pay for the automation cost. The major gain relies on the substation supervision and staff reduction. CESP is one of the three utilities responsible for the distribution of electricity in Sao Paulo, a state crossed by the Capricornium Tropic in the southeast of Brazil. CESP generates power (9,3 GW), has transmission (20,000 km), bulk power supply to other utilities, and distributes power to six regions covering 120,000 km2 , where 1,300,000 customers are located. The main regional office is in a town called RIO CLARO, which economy is based on agro industries and manufacturers. RIO CLARO area represents 8% of CESP`s area, has 26% of customers, and is responsible for 37% of the income. In Brazil, the experience with DA is limited, and consists basically on prototypes installed in a few pilot areas, being one in CESP`s area. This prototype includes digital automation of three substations and feeders in GUARUJA, a seaside town. The system has been in operation since 1984 and has proved to be satisfactory. DA has not been given an adequate attention before, because: salaries in Brazil are low if compared to the developed countries; Brazilian computer market was protected up to 1992 meaning that only a few Brazilian manufacturers could offer automation products; foreign products were not available; there was shortage of investment even in the main equipments due to the course of the Brazilian economy. Recently, there has been access to foreign technology, there is a competitive market and offer of good products and maintenance services.

  17. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  18. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  19. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  20. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  1. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  2. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure. PMID:12313650

  3. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  4. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  5. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  6. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  7. Radon Content in Ground Waters Drawn From the Metamorphic Basement, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Ground water drawn from granitic and metamorphic rocks frequently presents relatively high radioactivity, mostly due to the presence of uranium, radium and radon isotopes. In particular, the radon isotope 222Rn seems to have particular significance since it is normally much enriched in ground water in relation to other uranium series isotopes and is in large disequilibrium with its 226Ra mother isotope. Furthermore, radon is one of the main agents of radioactivity transfer from crust uppermost layers to lower atmosphere. At the eastern part of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, it outcrops a metamorphic terrain with a large number water bearing fractures that composes a set of fractured aquifers. Ground water is drawn from these aquifers through a large number of relatively shallow drilled wells, mostly less than 200 m deep. The radioactivity, and in particular the radon activity concentration, of the ground waters drawn from this metamorphic terrain has not yet been investigated in detail. The 222Rn activity concentration was measured in ground waters drawn from three wells drilled in different rocks of this metamorphic basement. The first well cuts a K-feldspar bearing granite, the second well cuts a granite- gneiss and the third well cuts a gneiss. The ground water samples were collected between July, 2005 and August, 2006 with a time interval of about one month between sampling campaigns. The year long mean activity concentrations were, (76 +/- 7) Bq/L for the first well, (26 +/- 3) Bq/L for the second well and (39 +/- 4) Bq/L for the third one. The activity concentrations show a time dependent variability that is interpreted as consequence of rain fall seasonal variations.

  8. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world. PMID:18228152

  9. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  10. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America. PMID:7860085

  11. Ammonia determination in a roadway tunnel of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira da Silva Filho, M.; Fornaro, A.; Pedrotti, J.; Ito, D.; Prado, Y.; Coelho, L. H. G.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation in air quality has been one of the most serious health problems afflicting the more than 19 million inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP). There are more than 7.5 million vehicles being 40% running with ethanol as fuel, 80% using a 3-way catalyst, and 15% being flex-fuel. This vehicular fleet is the main responsible for the air pollution problems, highlighting the aerosol. The different evaluations of the ionic composition of the aerosol and rainwater samples of the MASP showed the importance of the ammonium, from ammonia gas phase incorporated in liquid or solid atmospheric phase. Ammonia is the third most abundant nitrogen compound in the atmosphere, and whose global emissions are mainly from biogenic sources. Despite its short residence time it has a significant role influencing the acidity of cloud water and the formation of secondary aerosols. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ammonia in urban area and in a roadway tunnel, with intense light vehicles traffic. The air sampling was carried out inside and outside the Janio Quadros roadway tunnel in MASP between 5 and 10 May, 2011 by using a simplified impinger system with 1.0 mmol L-1 H2SO4 solution, 1 L min-1 flux during 1 h. The ammonium measurements were carried out by a flow injection system using gas-diffusion and coupled contactless conductivity detection. The results point out that the number and the velocity of the vehicles influence on the ammonia concentration in both site sampling. The ammonia concentrations were twice higher inside the roadway tunnel, reaching the maximum value of 98 ?g m-3, with mean value of 48.1 (?15.4) ?g m-3. These data suggest that atmospheric ammonia is not only restricted to biogenic emissions, but also by vehicles in the MASP. Consequently, more regional assistance should be given to the sources of this compound, considering the increase of the megacities in the world and their effects on the global emissions.

  12. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  13. Larval immersion tests with ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval immersion tests (LIT) with commercial formulation of ivermectin were carried out with larvae of two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from commercial dairy farms of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a susceptible strain (Porto Alegre) to differentiate resistant suspect...

  14. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  15. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  16. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  17. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  18. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  19. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  1. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  2. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  3. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. PMID:25548080

  4. Magnetic Properties of Brazilian Peats From SA~o Paulo State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquó, T. S.; Thompson, R.; Partiti, C. S. M.

    The low temperature magnetic properties of peats from middle Paraíba do Sul Valley (São Paulo State) Brazil have been studied in 5 meter long cores with maximum radio- carbon ages of around 11,000 years BP. The magnetic susceptibility in general is low, but consistently presents an increase near the bottom of profile. Results from Möss- bauer spectroscopy indicate the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, but only de presence of Fe3+ at the top of cores. The additional Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, may be related to the higher magnetic susceptibility. Measurements from a SQUID magnetometer MPMS XL show a strong (super)paramagnetic behavior in (i) hysteresis loops (fields up to 6 T, at both room temperature and 10K) and in (ii) low temperature magnetic curves. Slope changes on 1/ plots indicate that two mag- netic components are responsible for the low temperature magnetic properties. During heating using a Bartington (air atmosphere) susceptibility bridge, some peat samples generate new phases with higher magnetic susceptibility than initially. The new phases have reversible magnetic properties and Curie temperatures of around 580oC. These samples usually are from the bottom of the core.

  5. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  6. Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Prisoners in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Blay, Sergio Luiz; Taborda, Jose Geraldo Vernet; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression), the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. Conclusions This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations. PMID:24551174

  7. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  8. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  9. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  10. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana; Godoy, Luciana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007. Results The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30–39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a

  11. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary. PMID:22349281

  12. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  13. Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; Armond, Jane de Eston; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Pernambuco, Henrique; Iporre, Ramiro Ortiz; Colombo-Souza, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327804

  14. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  15. Lead exposure in pregnant women and their newborns in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Troster, E.J.; Schvartsman, S. )

    1988-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations of a group of mothers and their newborns were studied. The results showed a correlation between maternal and newborn levels. It is suggested that biochemical alterations may be present in some of the mothers and in a smaller proportion of the newborns. In addition, a comparison of the lead levels in blood with those in the environment was made.

  16. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  17. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development. PMID:23950068

  18. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  19. [Professional trajectory of obstetric nurses from the University of Sao Paulo College of Nursing: a focus on social phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the experiences of students that were enrolled in the Obstetric Nursing Program offered by the University of São Paulo College of Nursing. Data were collected through interviews with the former students, who had different life histories after their graduation. The proposal of this research was based on Alfred Schutz' Social Phenomenology framework, considering that people express, in their actions socially experienced, the meaning of these experiences. Results showed two social types: the ones who continue in the area because they like what they do and the ones who do not work in the area as they were disappointed with the lack of professional autonomy. The reasons mentioned offer important guidelines that must be analyzed by the ones who are still working in the area, by the class associations and the ones who are responsible for the capacitation of these professionals. PMID:12641050

  20. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    SciTech Connect

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-07

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  1. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  2. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  3. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  4. [The crowdsourcing and cyberactivism agenda in São Paulo city].

    PubMed

    Segurado, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study that analyzed 144 Facebook profiles to identify how digital media are used in setting the agendas for discussions and in organizing and mobilizing people about social, political and cultural topics like ethnic, racial, gender, and citizens' rights issues in São Paulo city. This platform was chosen because of its growing appropriation for political actions. The study found that the incorporation of digital tools in political action is bringing about a number of changes in the discussion of social, political, and cultural topics, and redefining the ways that agendas and deliberations are organized, fostering innovative forms of participation by social actors. PMID:26785873

  5. Pb isotopic signatures of the atmosphere of the São Paulo city Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babinski, M.; Aily, C.; Ruiz, I. R.; Sato, K.

    2003-05-01

    Lead isotopic compositions of the atmosphere of the São Paulo city, Brazil, were determined from particulate matter (PM{10}) collected on teflon filters, and rainwater samples at the São Paulo University for the period between Auguste 1999 and September/2000. The PM{10} ^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb ratios range from 0.786 to 0.875, and ^{208}Pb/^{206}Pb from 1.934 to 2.119, defining an array on the Pb diagram. Lead concentrations range from 3.02 to 254.52 ng/m^3. Rainwater samples displayed the same isotopic ratios measured on PM{10} collected the same day, thus indicating that aerosols are scavenged by rain. Analyses of possible pollutants sources such as gasoline and ethanol, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and particulate material from industrial emissions, collected on fiberglass filters, mostly yielded isotopic compositions falling into an interval defined by 84% of the PM{10} samples (^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb = 0.840-0.870). However, 15% of the PM{10} samples are more radiogenic, indicating a significant, unidentified radiogenic source (^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb < 0.780), evident mainly in samples collected during weekends and from November/1999 to April/2000. We suggest that most of the anthropogenic Pb found in the São Paulo atmosphere comes from industrial emissions, since the amount of Pb present in vehicular fuels is negligible.

  6. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  7. Causes of Hospitalization among Children Ages Zero to Nine Years Old in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Sucupira, Ana Cecília Silveira Lins; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The profile of child morbidity is an important parameter for defining and altering health policies. Studies about infant mortality are more numerous than those on morbidity, especially related to hospital admissions. The objective of this study is to describe the causes of admission in the public health system for children from zero to nine years of age in the city of São Paulo during the years 2002 to 2006 and compare these results to those from the national data. METHOD: Through a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the Hospital Information System, which is available in the Information System of the Unified Health System - DATASUS. RESULTS: Within the period, 16% of the total admissions corresponded to children from zero to nine years of age, with most of the children being younger than one year of age. In the city of São Paulo, the admission coefficient increased 11%, and in Brazil, it decreased 14%. Respiratory diseases were the main causes of hospitalization. In São Paulo, the second most frequent causes of admission were diseases that originated during the perinatal period (15.9%), and in Brazil, the second most frequent cause of admission was infectious-parasitic diseases (21.7%). Admissions for perinatal diseases increased 32% in São Paulo and 6% in Brazil. While hospitalizations for diarrhea decreased in Brazil, an increase was recorded in the city of São Paulo for children under five years old. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show a paradoxical increase in the number of hospitalizations during an expansion of primary attention, indicating that the rise was not associated with a significant improvement in the quality of service. PMID:20126344

  8. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Aline D; D'Auria, Sandra R N; Camargo, Maria C G O; Rosa, Adriana R; Sodré, Miriam M; Galvão-Dias, Maria A; Jordão, Luciana R; Dubey, J P; Gennari, Solange M; Pena, Hilda F J

    2014-12-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoan with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were searched using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:16) and IgG anti-bat antibodies produced in sheep on samples collected during 2006-2011; 32.62% (201/616) of bats had T. gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 1:25) was performed on samples collected during 2010-2011; 18.61% (35/188) were seropositive. The concordance between IFAT and MAT (serum samples from 2010 to 2011) by Kappa (95% CI) was 0.144, resulting in a low agreement between the techniques. The specificity and sensitivity of MAT and IFAT have not been evaluated for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in bats. Thus, it was verified that bats are exposed to T. gondii during their lifetime and they are also part of the toxoplasmosis epidemiology. PMID:25468027

  9. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, Carlos Mera; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    It is estimated that the city of São Paulo has over 2.5 million dogs and 560 thousand cats. These populations are irregularly distributed throughout the territory, making it difficult to appropriately allocate health services focused on these species. To reasonably allocate vaccination sites, it is necessary to identify social groups and their access to the referred service. Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control is vaccination. The present study aims to introduce an approach to quantify the potential spatial accessibility to the vaccination sites of the 2009 campaign against rabies in the city of São Paulo and solve the overestimation associated with the classic methodology that applies buffer zones around vaccination sites based on Euclidean (straight-line) distance. To achieve this, a Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area method with a travel-friction coefficient was adapted in a geographic information system environment, using distances along a street network based on Dijkstra's algorithm (short path method). The choice of the distance calculation method affected the results in terms of the population covered. In general, areas with low accessibility for both dogs and cats were observed, especially in densely populated areas. The eastern zone of the city had higher accessibility values compared with peripheral and central zones. The Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment method with a travel-friction coefficient was used to assess the overestimation of the straight-line distance method, which is the most widely used method for coverage analysis. We conclude that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of resource use when planning rabies control programs in large urban environments such as São Paulo. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance and intervention in isolated areas. PMID:23602338

  10. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  11. Assessment of the landslide and flood risks in São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Bianca; Listo, Fabrízio

    2010-05-01

    In Brazilian cities, especially during summer, the landslides and floods cause disaster and economic losses. Aricanduva basin is one of the most critical in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (RMSP), where many types of morphodynamic processes occur. This is the largest river basin in São Paulo City. The current situation is characterized by intense urbanization, soil sealing and consequent reduction of soil infiltration, increasing the frequency of flood events in this area. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to map risk areas of landslides and floods in the sub-basin Limoeiro, located in the head of the Aricanduva basin. For mapping the risk areas, we prepared a record field to floods and landslides, based on several studies. Initially, it were identified the natural indicators (vegetation, topography, surface cover and drainage) and anthropogenic (urban pattern, soil cover, building types, occupation density, road conditions, infrastructure, drainage systems, distance between houses and slope, at the top and base, and the drainage channel). On the second step of this research, we identified the evidences of mass movements (scars, cracks, subsidence, trees, poles and inclined walls). Thus, on the basis of this analysis it was possible to define the risk probability: R1 (low or no risk), R2 (moderate), R3 (high) and, R4 (very high). Subsequently, by means of oblique photographs (taken from helicopter flight) it was possible to define risk areas in the basin. In all the sectors identified, were recorded approximately 903 urban settlements. The results showed that from the 25 sectors of risk, 14 sectors (56%) presented landslide risk and 11 (44%), flood risk. Of the sectors that showed landslide risk areas, 21% have very high probability (R4), 21% high (R3), 29% moderate (R2) and 29% low (R1). The sectors at flood risk presented 45% of very high probability (R4), 10% high (R3), 18% moderate (R2) and 27% low (R1). There is large presence of sediments from

  12. TDEM survey in urban environmental for hydrogeological study at USP campus in São Paulo city, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo; Sobrinho, Esther Novais Santos; Santos, Thiago Gomes dos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, some TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic) results at USP ( University of São Paulo) campus in São Paulo city, Brazil, are presented. The data were acquired focusing on two mains objectives: (i) to map geoelectrical stratigraphy of São Paulo sedimentary basin, emphasizing on hydrogeological studies about sedimentary and crystalline aquifers, and (ii) to analyze the viability of TDEM data acquisition use in urban environment. The study area is located in São Paulo basin border, characterized by Resende and São Paulo formations, which are constituted by sand-clays sediments over a granite-gneissic basement. Two equipments were used in order to acquire database: Protem47 (low power), and Protem57-MK2 (high power). Capacitive noise affect obtained data with Protem47 due to the presence of metal pipes buried at IAG/USP (Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics, and Atmospheric Science) test site at USP. On the other hand, capacitive noise did not affect acquired data with Protem57-MK2, and the data present high signal to noise ratio. Surveys helped in determining sedimentary and crystalline aquifers, characterized by a fracture zone with water inside basin basement (conductive zone). Results show good agreement with local geology obtained from lithological boreholes located in the study areas. Moreover, it shows that TDEM method can be used in urban environments with a countless potential in hydrogeological studies, offering great reliability. Studies showed that main TDEM-method limitation at USP was the lack of space for opening the transmitter loop. Results are very promising and open new perspectives for TDEM-method use in urban environments as this area remains unexplored.

  13. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011in the vicinity of São Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. The SP-LMA data also will be intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment and analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities

  14. [Implementation of the Family Health Program and socio-spatial exclusion in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bousquat, Aylene; Cohn, Amélia; Elias, Paulo Eduardo

    2006-09-01

    The present article analyzes the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP) in São Paulo, Brazil, taking as its reference the occupation of the city's space, characterized by strong socio-spatial segregation. The population coverage and consolidation achieved by the FHP and the partner institutions' legal and institutional formats were identified in 96 Administrative Districts (AD). The study then proceeded to stratify these ADs beginning with their position in a ranked social exclusion map. ADs were classified in five groups. Based on these results, a typology was produced in the FHP implementation in this capital city of the State of São Paulo. Clearly distinct patterns were identified when the ADs were ranked for exclusion/inclusion. FHP implementation was effective within the peripheral ADs, especially those in Group 1, indicating pressure for the Municipal Health Secretariat to comply with its discourse, which had assumed the FHP as a health care model to be implemented throughout the city, at least reaching the entire low-income population. PMID:16917591

  15. [Social reproduction of leprosy: a study of patients profile with leprosy in the city of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Helene, Lúcia Maria Frazão; Salum, Maria Josefina Leuba

    2002-01-01

    This study discusses the relationship between work and living conditions among leprosy patients enrolled in the São Paulo municipal public health system in 1996. Social patterns were studied based on the theory of social determination of the health-disease process. The main purpose of the study was to emphasize evidence of the disease determination network, seeking new knowledge to improve public policies on leprosy. Data were gathered from a sample of leprosy patients registered in the city's public health system. Although patients' families are characterized by a common social thread, different work/life possibilities allow for a classification of patients into three social groups. The majority belong to groups that are marginalized from social production, living in areas where social exclusion is more extreme, on the outskirts of the city. If the trends in this study persist, incident leprosy cases will result from the social exclusion of migrants from Brazil's Southeast and Northeast. The study also discusses the position of young people and female patients in the determination network of this infectious disease in the city of São Paulo. PMID:11910429

  16. [Art, mental health, and public healthcare: profile of a care culture in the history of São Paulo city].

    PubMed

    Galvanese, Ana Tereza Costa; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Lima, Elizabeth Maria Freire de Araújo; Pereira, Lygia Maria de França; Nascimento, Ana Paula; Nascimento, Andréia de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    By studying the inclusion of artistic and cultural activities in the care provided throughout the history of public mental healthcare in greater São Paulo, Brazil, we can better understand and characterize the practices adopted in the Psychosocial Care Centers in the city today. Experiments carried out between the 1920s and 1990s are investigated, based on bibliographic research. The contemporary data were obtained from research undertaken at 126 workshops at 21 Psychosocial Care Centers in the same city between April 2007 and April 2008. The findings indicate that the current trend in mental healthcare, whose clinical perspective spans the realms of art and mental health and has territorial ramifications, has maintained some of the features encountered in earlier mental healthcare experiments. PMID:27276045

  17. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  18. Conditional factors for untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Raquel Marianna; Domingues, Gabrielle Gonsalli; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Araujo, Maria Ercilia de; Frias, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze what sociodemographic and economic variables were associated with the presence of untreated caries in 12-year-old children in the city of São Paulo. This cross-sectional study had a complex sample design. It was based on secondary data generated by the Levantamento epidemiológico em saúde bucal (Epidemiological Oral Health Survey) in the city of São Paulo, conducted in 2008, whose sample comprised 4,246 12-year-old children from the public and private schools of all the administrative districts of the city. A questionnaire was applied and an epidemiological exam was performed in accordance with the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations. The variables of interest were categorized into a dependent variable of untreated dental caries (carious component of the DMFT index that corresponds to carious, missing and filled teeth) and independent variables related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the children and their families, and to their access to dental services. The EPI-INFO 06 and STATA 10 programs were used for the analysis; the prevalence ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were applied to the population parameters. The Poisson regression model was used, adjusted for sampling of the complex type. Caries was associated with ethnicity (higher rate in black people, p=0.042), attending public school (p=0.000), lower average family income (p=0.002), overcrowded dwellings (p=0.000) and presence of pain (p=0.000). Caries is a multifactorial disease influenced by social health determinants that intensify its risk. PMID:23903864

  19. [Health assistance to homeless people in a health unit in São Paulo city].

    PubMed

    Canônico, Rhavana Pilz; Tanaka, Ana Cristina D'Andretta; Mazza, Márcia Maria Porto Roccetto; de Fátima e Souza, Maria; Bernat, Maria Cristina; Junqueira, Luciana Xavier

    2007-12-01

    Geraldo Honório de Paula Souza health unit is located close to the Public Health College at University de São Paulo and has largely contributed to improve education in the health field. As it registers just population who live in a specific location nearly, it has also provided help to the homeless people in the area of Pinheiros couting on the support of the Program Gente de Rua, a partnership between Social Center Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto and Health Secretary of São Paulo municipality. This program consists of three communitarian agents and a nurse who take care of this population in the health center. The agents first contact homeless people who can be later assisted by a heath team in the unit. Assistance also includes visits by the agents and the nurse from the program, taking into consideration the principle of equity of Brazilian Unified Health System. PMID:20608380

  20. Wheezing conditions in early childhood: prevalence and risk factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Benício, Maria Helena D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Cardoso, Maria Regina A.; Konno, Sílvia C.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for wheezing disorders in early childhood in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest metropolitan area of South America. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1132 children aged 6-59 months was carried out between 1995 and 1996 to obtain information on recent wheezing and on independent variables such as demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal and nutritional variables and immunization status. Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed using standard techniques. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to describe associations between outcome and independent variables. FINDINGS: The prevalence of recent wheezing (one or more reported episodes in the past 12 months) was 12.5%; 93% of children with wheezing were also reported to have a medical diagnosis of asthma. Recent wheezing was associated with low per capita income, poor quality of housing, day-care attendance, low birth weight and infection with intestinal helminths. CONCLUSION: Wheezing in early childhood in São Paulo, although more common than in most developing countries, remains less prevalent than in urban areas of industrialized countries. Low income and conditions associated with poverty (poor housing, low birth weight and parasitic infections) are some of the main risk factors for wheezing disorders among young children in this city. PMID:15508196

  1. Mapping of risk and susceptibility of shallow-landslide in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Listo, Fabrizio de Luiz Rosito; Carvalho Vieira, Bianca

    2012-10-01

    In the city of São Paulo, where about 11 million people live, landslides and flooding occur frequently, especially during the summer. These landslides cause the destruction of houses and urban equipment, economic damage, and the loss of lives. The number of areas threatened by landslides has been increasing each year. The objective of this article is to analyze the probability of risk and susceptibility to shallow landslides in the Limoeiro River basin, which is located at the head of the Aricanduva River basin, one of the main hydrographic basins in the city of São Paulo. To map areas of risk, we created a cadastral survey form to evaluate landslide risk in the field. Risk was categorized into four levels based on natural and anthropogenic factors: R1 (low risk), R2 (average risk), R3 (high risk), and R4 (very high risk). To analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides, we used the SHALSTAB (Shallow Landsliding Stability) mathematical model and calculated the Distribution Frequency (DF) of the susceptibility classes for the entire basin. Finally, we performed a joint analysis of the average Risk Concentration (RC) and Risk Potential (RP). We mapped 14 risk sectors containing approximately 685 at-risk homes, more than half of which presented a high (R3) or very high (R4) probability of risk to the population. In the susceptibility map, 41% of the area was classified as stable and 20% as unconditionally unstable. Although the latter category accounted a smaller proportion of the total area, it contained a concentration (RC) of 41% of the mapped risk areas with a risk potential (RP) of 12%. We found that the locations of areas predicted to be unstable by the model coincided with the risk areas mapped in the field. This combination of methods can be applied to evaluate the risk of shallow landslides in densely populated areas and can assist public managers in defining areas that are unstable and inappropriate for occupation.

  2. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  3. Facial trauma in the largest city in latin america, são paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Tarley Eloy Pessoa; Campolongo, Gabriel Denser; Zanluqui, Talita; Duarte, Dayane

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo. PMID:21120309

  4. First study on anthropogenic Pt, Pd, and Rh levels in soils from major avenues of São Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A P; Figueiredo, A M G; Sarkis, J E S; Hortellani, M A; Markert, B

    2012-12-01

    Over the last years, investigations on the increase of platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) levels in urban environments of big cities all over the world - especially to catalytic converters emissions - have been grown up enormously. São Paulo City is the 6th largest megacity in the world having about 20 million inhabitants and an ever increasing seven million motor vehicle fleet. In spite of this, there has never been an investigation regarding Pt, Pd, and Rh levels in the city. In the present study, Pt, Pd, and Rh concentrations were determined in soils adjacent to seven main high-density traffic avenues in the metropolitan region of São Paulo City. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed - after ultrasound-assisted aqua regia leaching - as analytical technigue. The results showed concentration levels up to 378 ng g(-1) for Pd, 208 ng g(-1) for Pt, and 0.2 to 45 ng g(-1) for Rh. These levels are much higher than those considered for the geochemical background of soils, indicating a catalytic converter source. Due to the different Pt/Pd/Rh ratio in Brazilian automobile catalytic converters, lower levels of Pt/Pd ratios compared with other similar studies were observed. The obtained results are the first data for monitoring Pt, Pd, and Rh pollution in São Paulo City soils. PMID:22322405

  5. Rabies seroprevalence of street dogs from São Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sallum, P C; Almeida, M F; Massad, E

    2000-04-28

    A sample of 602 street dogs captured by the São Paulo zoonosis-control municipal service was analyzed for the presence of serum antibodies against the rabies virus and compared to a control sample of 37 dogs from the kennel of the police of São Paulo. Data were stratified into 4 age intervals and the age from the street-dog sample was estimated by general aspects and dental observation according to standard techniques. We assumed that seropositivity was due to previous vaccination (no sub-clinical infection). From the prevalence data, we estimated the age-dependent incidence-density rate of vaccination by a simple mathematical model, which also allowed the estimation of the period of antibody protection given by the supposed vaccination. Crude seroprevalence in the street-dog sample was 16.5% and in the sample from the police-kennel dogs was 80%. The average age of first vaccination calculated for the street-dog sample was 5 years of age (if we assumed an average period of vaccine protection of 3 years) - but 5 months of age for the police-kennel sample. PMID:10760397

  6. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  7. Reabilitation of degraded area by erosion, using soil bioengineering techniques in Bacanga river basin, Sao Luis City - Maranhao State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Guerra, A. J.; Rodrigues Bezerra, J. F.; da Mota Lima, L. D.; Silva Mendonça, J. K.; Vieira Souza, U. D.; Teixeira Guerra, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the stages of rehabilitation of a degraded site by erosion, in Salina/Sacavém district, São Luís City, considering geomorphologic characteristics and soil bioengineering techniques. This technique has been applied in different situations to rehabilitate degraded areas, with positive results from the use of biodegradable materials (e.g. vegetal fibres, wooden stakes and re-vegetation). These techniques stabilize the soil at low cost and improve the environment. Bioengineering involves the planned and strategic application of selected materials, involving biodegradable materials, often in combination with 'hard engineering' structures constructed from stone, concrete and steel. The settlement of São Luís was established in 1612 and has evolved in distinct phases. Rapid urban growth was associated with industrialization in the second half of the 18th Century. Rapid population and urban growth has intensified problems, compounded by poor planning and improper soil use. São Luís, like many other Brazilian cities, has experienced rapid population growth in recent decades, which has created a series of socio-economic and environmental problems, including accelerated soil erosion. Sacavém is one of these communities where natural and human factors contribute to the severe gully erosion. The local lithology is mainly Tertiary sandstones and, to a lesser extent, shales, argillites and siltstones, all of which belong to the Barreiras Formation. Weathering on these rocks produces erodible soils, including lithosols, latosols, concretionary red/yellow clay soils and concretionary plinthosols. Thus, erodible soils and regolith are subject to high erosion rates, especially on steeper slopes subject to additional human interventions. Furthermore, although regional slopes are quite gentle, there is localized high relative relief. Sacavém vegetation, in the gullied area, consists of brushwood. Secondary mixed forest and brushwood are the

  8. Measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particles from the metropolitan area of São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, Pérola C.; Zacarias, Davi; Pires, Maria A. F.; Pool, Cristina S.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from phenanthrene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene in airborne particles were measured in the winter of 2000 at three different sites within the metropolitan area of São Paulo City (MASP), Brazil. It is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and has an unconventional mixture of vehicle types, in which a variety of gasoline blends, including oxygenated ones, are used. In this study, occurrence of PAH, meteorological conditions and inter and intrasite comparisons are presented. Overall, the results revealed low PAH levels due to rainfall episodes during the sampling period. Samples collected in the urban site presented the highest PAH concentrations (av. 3.10 ng m -3) when compared to those collected in the urban site with dense vegetation (av. 2.73 ng m -3) and in the forest area (av. 1.92 ng m -3). PAH measurements in tunnels with different types of vehicles were performed in order to suggest possible tracers of the vehicular emissions in São Paulo. Pyrene followed by chrysene and fluoranthene were emitted mainly from gasohol vehicular motor exhausts, whereas chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene were emitted mainly from gasohol and diesel vehicular motor exhausts. Some characteristic ratios from the tunnel measurements were used to identify vehicular sources in the atmosphere of the MASP. Although it is known that losses can occur both by evaporation and sublimation during sampling, measurements of higher molecular weight PAH compounds were taken into consideration due to their high recovery efficiency.

  9. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  10. 7Be Measured at Ground Air Level and Rainfall in the City of SÃO Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damatto, S. R.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracers for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. This short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 = 53.3 d) was measured, from March 2011 to July 2012, in samples of air at ground level, every fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that ocurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) which campus (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level) is located in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV for 60Co and associated electronic devices and live counting time varing from 150,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clearly seasonal variations was observed.

  11. Fall in homicides in the city of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants.

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-12-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman's correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed. PMID:22218669

  12. Fall in homicides in the City of São Paulo: an exploratory analysis of possible determinants

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the first decade of the 2000s the homicide mortality rate (HMR) showed a significant reduction in the state and the city of São Paulo (MSP). The aim of this study is to describe the trend of HMR, socio-demographic indicators, and the investment in social and public security, and to analyze the correlation between HMR and independent variables in the MSP between 1996 and 2008. An exploratory time series ecological study was conducted. The following variables were included: HMR per 100,000 inhabitants, socio-demographic indicators, and investments in social and public security. The moving-averages for all variables were calculated and trends were analyzed through Simple Linear Regression models. Annual percentage changes, the average annual change and periodic percentage changes were calculated for all variables, and the associations between annual percentage changes were tested by Spearman’s correlation analysis. Correlations were found for the proportion of youth in the population (r = 0.69), unemployment rate (r = 0.60), State budget for education and culture (r = 0.87) and health and sanitation (r = 0.56), municipal (r = 0.68) and State (r = 0.53) budget for Public Security, firearms seized (r = 0.69) and the incarceration rate (r = 0.71). The results allow us to support the hypothesis that demographic changes, acceleration of the economy, in particular the fall in unemployment, investment in social policies and changes in public security policies act synergistically to reduce HMR in São Paulo. Complex models of analysis, incorporating the joint action of different potential explanatory variables, should be developed. PMID:22218669

  13. Dynamics of cytochrome P450 inducers in polluted sites of São Paulo city reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Thomaz A A; Rantin, Francisco T; Matsumura-Tundisi, Jose E; Matsumura-Tundisi, Takako; Tundisi, Jose G; Degterev, Igor A

    2004-09-01

    The first analysis of water pollutants using biomarkers at the Guarapiranga Reservoir, which supplies water for one-third of the population of the São Paulo megalopolis (Brazil), is reported. Studies were performed before and after the start of water pumping to the Guarapiranga from the highly polluted Billings reservoir. Billings's water was purified by passing through the natural wetland located near Guarapiranga. Liver enzymes of Oreochromis niloticus (tilopias) obtained from both reservoirs served as biomarkers of pollution in a comparison with animals obtained from a reference site. Enhanced levels of total cytochromes P450 (3.4 times) and b5 (2.7 times) and activity of cytochrome c (P450) reductase (2.2 times) were observed in specimens collected near the water influx from the Billings before the pumping started. However, these parameters were significantly decreased 3 months later. This effect is probably due to dilution of pollutants because of the increased level of water in the Guarapiranga. PMID:15261731

  14. Factors affecting vitamin D status in different populations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: the São PAulo vitamin D Evaluation Study (SPADES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. We aimed to evaluate 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and its determining factors, in individuals in the city of São Paulo belonging to different age groups and presenting different sun exposure habits. Methods 591 people were included as follows: 177 were living in institutions (NURSING HOMES, NH, 76.2 ± 9.0 years), 243 were individuals from the community (COMMUNITY DWELLINGS, CD, 79.6 ± 5.3 years), 99 were enrolled in physical activity program designed for the elderly (PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, PA, 67.6 ± 5.4 years) and 72 were young (YOUNG, 23.9 ± 2.8 years). Ionized calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, creatinine and albumin were evaluated. ANOVA, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, Pearson Linear Correlation and Multiple Regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results 25(OH)D mean values during winter for the different groups were 36.1 ± 21.2 nmol/L (NH), 44.1 ± 24.0 nmol/L (CD), 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L (PA) and 69.6 ± 26.2 nmol/L (YOUNG) (p < 0.001) while during summer they were 42.1 ± 25.9 nmol/L, 59.1 ± 29.6 nmol/L, 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L and 103.6 ± 29.3 nmol/L, respectively (p < 0.001). The equation which predicts PTH values based on 25(OH)D concentration is PTH = 10 + 104.24.e-(vitD-12.5)/62.36 and the 25(OH)D value above which correlation with PTH is lost is 75.0 nmol/L. In a multiple regression analysis having 25(OH)D concentration as the depending variable, the determining factors were PTH, ionized calcium and month of the year (p < 0.05). Conclusions Much lower 25(OH)D values were found for the older individuals when compared to younger individuals. This finding is possibly due to

  15. Microbiological quality of salmon (Salmo salar) sold in cities of the state of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Natália Maramarque; Martineli, Thaís Mioto; Rossi Jr., Oswaldo Durival

    2012-01-01

    The present paper evaluated the microbiology of salmon by quantifying mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Aeromonas sp. in the meat. This study can provide technical support for the suggestion of a new regulation of a Brazilian legislation through specific microbiological standards concerning the consumption of raw fish. A number of 31 (16 cooled and 15 frozen) samples of salmon were collected in the retail market network of a few cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results presented populations of mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms ranging from 1.0 × 10 and 3.9 × 106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms in 32.25% and 19.35% of the samples, respectively, and Aeromonas sp. in 41.95% of the samples with a populational variation ranging from 2.0 × 102 to 8.0 × 103 CFU/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in one sample whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were not found. These results demonstrated the presence of potencially pathogenic microorganisms in fresh fish consumed in Brazil, highlighting the necessity of control measures to avoid public health problems related to the consumption of raw fish. PMID:24031968

  16. Comparison of empirical and data driven hydrometeorological hazard models on coastal cities of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Every year thousands of people are affected by floods and landslide hazards caused by rainstorms. The problem is more serious in tropical developing countries because of the susceptibility as a result of the high amount of available energy to form storms, and the high vulnerability due to poor economic and social conditions. Predictive models of hazards are important tools to manage this kind of risk. In this study, a comparison of two different modeling approaches was made for predicting hydrometeorological hazards in 12 cities on the coast of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 to 2003. In the first approach, an empirical multiple linear regression (MLR) model was developed and used; the second approach used a type of unsupervised nonlinear artificial neural network called a self-organized map (SOM). By using twenty three independent variables of susceptibility (precipitation, soil type, slope, elevation, and regional atmospheric system scale) and vulnerability (distribution and total population, income and educational characteristics, poverty intensity, human development index), binary hazard responses were obtained. Model performance by cross-validation indicated that the respective MLR and SOM model accuracy was about 67% and 80%. Prediction accuracy can be improved by the addition of information, but the SOM approach is preferred because of sparse data and highly nonlinear relations among the independent variables.

  17. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: comparisons between polluted and unpolluted periods.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the size and composition of atmospheric aerosols in the downtown area of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, for a polluted and an unpolluted period. Aerosols were sampled with a portable air sampler (PAS), Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI), and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. At the study site, air quality is poor, especially during the winter, high concentrations of pollutants being emitted primarily by the light- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet. We analyzed mass, black carbon (BC), Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sn, Zr, and Pb. During the polluted period, diurnal PM(10) was higher than nocturnal PM(10), whereas the inverse was true during the unpolluted period. The FPM was rich in BC, S, and Pb, whereas CPM was rich in Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Mass balance was performed by category: ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, crustal material, BC, and other. The PAS-determined FPM was mainly BC. The MOUDI-determined FPM crustal material explained more mass than did ammonium sulfate and BC during the polluted period, whereas ammonium sulfate had the largest mass during the unpolluted period. Crustal material was the major CPM component, followed by ammonium sulfate and BC. During the unpolluted period, FPM concentrations were lower, whereas those of ammonium sulfate were relatively higher, especially at night, and particle number was inversely proportional to particle size. Aerosol growth was more intense during the polluted period. PMID:21465132

  18. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the local health system. PMID:27285720

  19. Detection of Culex flavivirus and Aedes flavivirus nucleotide sequences in mosquitoes from parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Licia Natal; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Araújo, Alessandra Bergamo; Gonçalves, Elisabeth Fernandes Bertoletti; Romano, Camila Malta; Natal, Delsio; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo; Levi, José Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The dengue viruses are widespread in Brazil and are a major public health concern. Other flaviviruses also cause diseases in humans, although on a smaller scale. The city of São Paulo is in a highly urbanized area with few green spaces apart from its parks, which are used for recreation and where potential vertebrate hosts and mosquito vectors of pathogenic Flavivirus species can be found. Although this scenario can contribute to the transmission of Flavivirus to humans, little is known about the circulation of members of this genus in these areas. In light of this, the present study sought to identify Flavivirus infection in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in parks in the city of São Paulo. Seven parks in different sectors of the city were selected. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out in each park from March 2011 to February 2012 using aspiration and traps (Shannon and CD C-CO2). Nucleic acids were extracted from the mosquitoes collected and used for reverse-transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reactions with genus-specific primers targeting a 200-nucleotide region in the Flavivirus NS5 gene. Positive samples were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Culex and Aedes were the most frequent genera of Culicidae collected. Culex flavivirus (CxFV)-related and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV)- related nucleotide sequences were detected in 17 pools of Culex and two pools of Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, among the 818 pools of non-engorged females analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CxFV and AEFV in the city of São Paulo and Latin America, respectively. Both viruses are insect- specific flaviviruses, a group known to replicate only in mosquito cells and induce a cytopathic effect in some situations. Hence, our data suggests that CxFV and AEFV are present in Culex and Aedes mosquitoes, respectively, in parks in the city of São Paulo. Even though Flavivirus species of medical importance were not

  20. Mental and Physical Health and Spiritual Healing: An Evaluation of Complementary Religious Therapies Provided by Spiritist Centers in the City of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Leão, Frederico Camelo; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Vallada, Homero

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to describe the characteristics of the complementary religious treatment conducted by Spiritist centers in the city of São Paulo (Brazil), to understand how physical and mental health problems are addressed and how the directors of these centers differentiate between persons with spiritual experiences from those with psychiatric disorders. From 365 Spiritist centers, which received the questionnaire, 55 (15.1 %) were included in the final analysis. There were on average 261 people per week attending spiritual sessions in each center, totalizing approximately 15,000 attendees per week in all 55 centers. The most common treatment performed in these centers was disobsession (Spirit release therapy) (92.7 %); the least common was the 'spiritual surgery', present in only 5.5 %. The most frequent health problems reported by attendees were depression (45.1 %), cancer (43.1 %) and diseases in general (33.3 %). Concerning the directors' awareness to differentiate between spiritual experiences and psychiatric disorders, we found some remarkable divergent opinions. In conclusion, the Spiritist centers are an important health related support system for the city of São Paulo, responsible for a significant share of the city's total health consultations. The most common conditions the patients suffer from were depression and cancer. PMID:26525690

  1. Preliminary studies of the effect of aerosols on nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; Andrade, Maria de Fátima; Fattori, Artemio Plana

    2005-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to perform a first evaluation of the particles and optical parameters influence on photolysis rates in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to achieve this objective an AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork—an inclusive federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks) database and TUV (Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible) model were used to calculate photolysis rates on cloudless days during specific periods (July and August) of the 2002 winter season. The main sources of ozone precursors in MASP (Metropolitam Area of São Paulo) are the burning of fuels—gasoline, ethanol and diesel. This blend of fuels generates a unique photochemical problem. Also in MASP the concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10) usually exceed the national standard of 150 μg m -3 for 24 h. It is described that the concentration of particulate matter affects the ozone formation, by its interaction with incident radiation and consequently affecting the photolysis rates. It is very important to have a good description of the behavior of these compounds, not only in the surface, but also in the whole column. This study presents the first results related to this subject. To characterize the influence of different particles in the photolysis rates, results were correlated to aerosol composition. Particles that are mostly composed of black carbon had a high impact, decreasing photolysis rates when their concentrations were high. Aerosol optical properties analyzed as single-scattering albedos were found to participate significantly in the reduction of photolysis rates. It was observed that urban aerosols in São Paulo reduce both photolysis rates (round 15%) and ozone concentrations. Comparing July and August, photolysis rates were lower in July due to solar position.

  2. Occurrence of cattle Sarcocystis species in raw kibbe from Arabian food establishments in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and experimental transmission to humans.

    PubMed

    Pena, H F; Ogassawara, S; Sinhorini, I L

    2001-12-01

    Fifty samples of raw kibbe from 25 Arabian restaurants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for the presence of bovine Sarcocystis species, using light and electron microscopy, and for infectivity to humans. Sarcocysts were found in all 50 samples. Based on cyst wall structure, S. hominis (94%), S. hirsuta (70%), and S. cruzi (92%) were identified (mostly as mixed infections). Different raw kibbe samples, positive for S. hominis in fresh preparations, were offered as a meal for 7 human volunteers. Six volunteers (85.7%), 2 of whom developed diarrhea, excreted sporocysts in feces. The prepatent period lasted 10-14 (12 +/- 1.8) days and the patent period lasted 5-12 (8.8 +/- 1.1) days. PMID:11780838

  3. Mapping geological at risk areas in the city of São Paulo: issues and results from the largest risk survey in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascarelli, Luciana; Macedo, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    In the City of São Paulo, the first reports of accidents resulting from landslides are directly related to urban expansion that has been recorded since the 30s. Areas of major environmental fragility, such as slopes and stream-banks, have also ended up being occupied without proper planning. The increased number of deaths due to landslides in the 80s already indicated the need for intervention at these sites by the public authorities. It was important to act to prevent these disasters, not only emergency assistance to victimized families. Therefore, in 1989 the first systematic and official survey on the City's at-risk areas was made. At the time, the at-risk sites had been still unknown, except for the occurrence records and press reports. While some areas were evaluated by experts, others appeared or expanded without any control. The surveys pace could not definitely follow the growth and the density of favelas, and some communities started to trigger the first records of accidents in areas hitherto stable. Considering the universe to be studied and the detail level of the work, it was necessary to use specific methodology to enable evaluation of the entire City in a relatively short period of time. For that purpose,mapping activities were carried out in five phases and involved about 80 professionals in the fields of geology, engineering, architecture, geography, civil defense, and housing, who participated directly or indirectly in all stages of work. Thus, the mapping that has recently been completed by the Municipality of São Paulo and by the Institute for Technological Research of São Paulo State is today the largest geological-risk database in the country. Besides technical information, the survey also shows the types of intervention to be implemented according to the degree of risk and the type of verified occupation, vital data to prioritizing the public-authorities actions. Currently, among the 1,602 favelas and informal settlements in the city, 407

  4. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1% (95% confidence interval 4.7, 7.6%) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6% (6.2, 11.1%) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable. PMID:25972308

  5. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  6. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  7. Causes of Death among People Living with AIDS in the Pre- and Post-HAART Eras in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Carmen-Silvia Bruniera; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. Methods Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991–1996); early post-HAART (1997–1999); and late post-HAART (2000–2006). The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991–1995) and ICD-10 (1996–2006). We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. Results We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001): from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001) for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001) for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001) for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%), septicemia (33.46%), cardiovascular diseases (10.11%) and liver diseases (8.0%); and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. Conclusions The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  8. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, São Paulo, México City, and New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Cifuentes, L; Borja-Aburto, V H; Gouveia, N; Thurston, G; Davis, D L

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, we develop scenarios of GHG mitigation for México City, México; Santiago, Chile; São Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. We estimate that the adoption of readily available technologies to lessen fossil fuel emissions over the next two decades in these four cities alone will reduce particulate matter and ozone and avoid approximately 64,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18,000-116,000) premature deaths (including infant deaths), 65,000 (95% CI 22,000-108,000) chronic bronchitis cases, and 46 million (95% CI 35-58 million) person-days of work loss or other restricted activity. These findings illustrate that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion. PMID:11427391

  9. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system. PMID:24127096

  10. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the South American opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yai, L E O; Cañon-Franco, W A; Geraldi, V C; Summa, M E L; Camargo, M C G O; Dubey, J P; Gennari, S M

    2003-08-01

    Antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii were assayed in sera of 396 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Antibodies to N. caninum were assayed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies (IFAT, approximately 1:25) to N. caninum were found in 84 opossums (D. marsupialis) in titers of 1:25 in 46, 1:50 in 20, 1:100 in 17, and 1:400 in 1. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed with the modified agglutination test (MAT) and the IFAT. Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, approximately 1:25) were found in 82 (20.4%) of the 396 opossums, in titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 26, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 13, and 1:800 in 1. The IFAT antibodies to T. gondii were found in 148 of 396 opossums, in titers of 1:16 in 41, 1:32 in 23, 1:64 in 13, 1:128 in 6, 1:256 in 20, 1:512 in 17, 1:1,024 in 10, 1:2,048 in 10, 1:4,096 in 7, and 1:8,192 in 1. This is the first report of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in D. marsupialis. PMID:14533710

  11. [Family Health Support Centers: challenges and opportunities from the perspective of primary care professionals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia da; Aguiar, Márcia Ernani de; Winck, Kelly; Rodrigues, Karen Gonzaga Walter; Sato, Mariana Eri; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Brentani, Alexandra; Rios, Izabel Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Family Health Support Centers (NASF) were created in Brazil to increase the case-resolution capacity of primary healthcare. Prior to their implementation in the West Side of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, a series of workshops were held for primary healthcare professionals to prepare a proposal for such centers. Hermeneutic analysis was used to study the transcribed material. The thematic categories were: role, constitution, and functioning of the NASF, relationship with family health teams, and interdisciplinarity. The participants' expected the NASF to be an empowering device for comprehensiveness of care, intervening in an existing culture of unnecessary referrals while fostering linkage with other levels of care. The participants also expected the NASF to contribute to the discussion on health professionals' training and stimulating reflection with policymakers on health indicators based exclusively on the number of consultations. These indicators fail to reflect the impact on the services' activities and the quality of care offered to the population in the coverage area. PMID:23147949

  12. FUNGEMIA CAUSED BY Candida SPECIES IN A CHILDREN'S PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: STUDY IN THE PERIOD 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Vanessa Kummer Perinazzo; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro Jesus; Moreira, Débora; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment. PMID:25076430

  13. Impact of maternal age on birth outcomes: a population-based study of primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of maternal age at first birth on low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores at one minute and at five minutes among live births delivered to primiparous Brazilian women in the city of São Paulo. Analyses were based on 73,820 birth records from the 1998 birth cohort. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal age and each outcome variable, controlling for the following risk factors: delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Maternal ages below 20 and above 30 years were significantly associated with the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth, but no association was found between maternal ages and Apgar score, with the exception that ages 15-19 reduced the odds of a low one-minute score. Even though this result seems to be inconsistent, low birth weight, preterm birth and low Apgar scores measure different dimensions of newborn well-being, and the association of each measure with maternal age is expected to diverge. PMID:16762088

  14. Assessment of the environmental impact of management measures for the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Mara Regina; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing concern about landfilling of biodegradable wastes. Therefore, biological treatment processes such as composting and biogasification have been considered as alternative strategies for managing those wastes. In this work, life cycle assessment was employed to compare the environmental impacts of landfilling, composting, and biological treatment of municipal solid waste in São Paulo City, Brazil. Energy consumption, recovered resources, and emissions to air and water were quantified and analyzed in terms of their potential contribution to global warming, acidification, and nutrient enrichment impact. The results demonstrated that processes that require high levels of energy consumption, such as wastewater treatment, play an important role in the outcome of environmental impact potentials. It was found that the landfilling of all waste is generally the worst strategy from an environmental point of view. However, significant reductions in the resulting impacts can be accomplished through biogasification and composting of the biodegradable fraction. Regarding composting, the application of a biofilter for gas treatment reduced significantly the gaseous emissions. PMID:12893012

  15. Longitudinal study on occurrence of adenoviruses and hepatitis A virus in raw domestic sewage in the city of Limeira, SÃo Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Barrella, Karina Medici; Garrafa, Patrícia; Monezi, Telma Alves; Hársi, Charlotte Marianna; Salvi, Cleber; Violante, Paula Alessandra B. Costa; Mehnert, Dolores Ursula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the presence and annual distribution of adenoviruses and hepatitis A virus in domestic sewage in the city of Limeira, São Paulo. Fifty samples with a volume of 8 liters each were collected weekly from December 2004 to December 2005. The viruses were concentrated by filtration through positively charged ZP60S filter membranes, followed by ultracentrifugation. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) were detected by PCR followed by nested-PCR and screening for species F was done by restriction of the PCR product with TaqI endonuclease. Virus infectivity assays were performed by inoculation of concentrates onto HEp-2 cell monolayers. RT-PCR was used for the detection of hepatitis A virus. HAdV were detected in all samples, and 64% of samples were positive for infectious virus. Species F was present in 82% of the samples. Hepatitis A virus was detected in 48% of the samples. These results demonstrate that HAdV and HAV were present in the domestic sewage of Limeira throughout the period of study, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. PMID:24031326

  16. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships. PMID:22243915

  17. Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The noted educator, Paulo Friere, who has done literacy work in Brazil and Chile, contends that all teaching methods imply a concept of man; his distinctive literacy approach is aimed chiefly at conscientizacion, an awakening of consciousness involving an accurate awareness of one's place in nature, time, and society. (Editor/LY)

  18. PLATINO, a nine-year follow-up study of COPD in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: the problem of underdiagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Graciane Laender; Manzano, Beatriz Martins; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Jardim, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the underdiagnosis rate in new COPD cases at the end of a nine-year follow-up period-in the study designated "Projeto Latino-Americano de Investigação em Obstrução Pulmonar" (PLATINO, Latin-American Pulmonary Obstruction Investigation Project)-and compare that with the underdiagnosis rate during the initial phase of the study, as well as to identify the clinical features exhibited by the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. METHODS: The study population comprised the 1,000 residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who took part in the PLATINO study. Of those, 613 participated in the follow-up phase, during which the subjects were assessed with the same instruments and equipment employed in the initial phase of the study. We used the chi-square test or the independent sample t-test to analyze the underdiagnosis rate and to identify the characteristics of the subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase. RESULTS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases at the end of the nine-year follow-up period was 70.0%. The underdiagnosis rate during the follow-up phase was 17.5% lower than that reported for the initial phase of the study. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase presented with fewer respiratory symptoms, better pulmonary function, and less severe disease than did those previously diagnosed with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The underdiagnosis rate for new COPD cases was lower in the follow-up phase of the study than in the initial phase. The subjects who were not diagnosed until the end of the follow-up phase of the PLATINO study presented with the same clinical profile as did those who were not diagnosed in the initial phase. These findings underscore the need for spirometry in order to confirm the diagnosis of COPD and provide early intervention. PMID:24626267

  19. [The role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication in Adult Psychosocial Care Centers in the city of São Paulo, Capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanella, Carolina Gomes; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication by conducting cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive research in eight Adult Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in São Paulo. The pharmacists responsible for each of the dispensing units studied filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about the service provided. Two Adult CAPS units were selected from each of the North, South, Eastand West regions of São Paulo. The central region has no Adult CAPS, and was therefore not included in the study. Most of the respondents were aged between 35 and 40 years and were predominantly female. It was found that half of the respondents performed only 25% of dispensations and few conducted an analysis of all prescriptions before dispensing medication. All respondents contacted the prescriber if any medication-related problems a rose. However, few pharmaceutical interventions were commonly performed. Furthermore, one respondent indicated that all his/her functions in the pharmacy could be delegated to another professional. These findings reveal the pressing need for actions that ensure the ongoing training of pharmacists to enable them to be clinically prepared to deal with patients with mental disorders. PMID:25715126

  20. [Homicide and public security indicator trends in the city of São Paulo between 1996 and 2008: a time-series ecological study].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Ruotti, Caren; Nery, Marcelo Batista; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the association between homicides and public security indicators in São Paulo between 1996 and 2008, after monitoring the unemployment rate and the proportion of youths in the population. A time-series ecological study for 1996 and 2008 was conducted with São Paulo as the unit of analysis. Dependent variable: number of deaths by homicide per year. Main independent variables: arrest-incarceration rate, access to firearms, police activity. Data analysis was conducted using Stata.IC 10.0 software. Simple and multivariate negative binomial regression models were created. Deaths by homicide and arrest-incarceration, as well as police activity were significantly associated in simple regression analysis. Access to firearms was not significantly associated to the reduction in the number of deaths by homicide (p>0,05). After adjustment, the associations with both the public security indicators were not significant. In São Paulo the role of public security indicators are less important as explanatory factors for a reduction in homicide rates, after adjustment for unemployment rate and a reduction in the proportion of youths. The results reinforce the importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors for a change in the public security scenario in São Paulo . PMID:23175401

  1. Health, environmental, and economic costs from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2007-01-01

    In Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10, which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considered operational installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs, with an overall positive balance of US$ 2.851 million. Adding the estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits far outweigh the measured costs. Greater Metropolitan São Paulo would benefit from any form of biodiesel use, producing environmental, health and socioeconomic gains, the three pillars of sustainability. PMID:18038037

  2. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  3. [Privatization of health care management through Social Organizations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: description and analysis of regulation].

    PubMed

    Contreiras, Henrique; Matta, Gustavo Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    The article describes and discusses privatization of the municipal health system in São Paulo, Brazil, from an administrative and political perspective. The methodology consisted of a literature review and analysis of legislation and public documents. The study showed that although legislation governing the so-called "Social Organizations" (OS) in Brazil dates to the year 2006, half of the administrative privatization is still regulated by a previous provisional instrument in the form of an "agreement" ("convênio" in Portuguese). In 2011, 61% of services were administered by private organizations, which received 44% of the health budget in 2012. The twenty participating organizations include five of the ten largest health care companies in Brazil. Inspection agencies have detected flaws in the management contracts, but the "agreements" (convênios) are subject to less rigorous control and have proven invisible to inspection. Finally, the legal framework is unstable. The study uses the experience in São Paulo as the basis for discussing the political versus technical nature of private management in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). PMID:25760163

  4. Mammography use among older women of seven Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Freeman, Jean L.; Peláez, Martha; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Goodwin, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence of mammography use, and to estimate its association with sociodemographics. Methods A sample of 6207 women aged 60 and older from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE) in seven cities (Buenos Aires, Bridgetown, Havana, Mexico, Montevideo, Santiago, and Sao Paulo). The outcome was reporting a mammogram within the last 2 years. Results Prevalence of mammography use ranged from 9.8% in Havana to 34.4% in Sao Paulo. Independent predictors of mammography use across cities were older age (lowest odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89–0.95), higher education (highest OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.20), public health insurance (lowest OR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.76), or no insurance (lowest OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.34) compared with private insurance. In a combined sample of six cities, higher education was associated with higher mammography use, but older age and insurance (public: OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.45–0.65; no insurance: OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.23–0.40; compared with private insurance) were associated with lower mammography use. Conclusions Prevalence of mammography use across cities was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the US. In the overall sample, mammography use was increased in highly educated people and decreased in people without insurance. PMID:16563480

  5. How mid-sized cities can avoid strangulation.

    PubMed

    O'meara, M

    1998-01-01

    This article illustrates the success of two cities--Portland, Oregon, and Curitiba, Brazil--in managing urban growth and the problems that accompany growth (traffic congestion, pollution, psychological stress, and chaotic development). The world's 14 megacities are home to 7.6% of the global urban population, while the 195 mid-sized cities are inhabited by 31% of the global urban population. The above two cities (1-2.5 million inhabitants) resisted the destruction of old neighborhoods for new highways. Portland and Curitiba are global models of successful management and livability and demonstrate economic viability, social cohesiveness, and environmental health. These cities used unique approaches to social and economic inequities. In Curitiba, the poor have the same purchasing power as in Sao Paulo, but life is bearable because of its level of services. Portland has avoided a concentration of poor in the central city. Both cities have active streets with a mix of shops, factories, offices, and houses. Cities deteriorate when geographic layouts reduce social interaction between rich and poor, people and services, and internal building viability vs. external building decay. Both cities enhance public space and cut urban sprawl. Transportation and other systems accommodate fringe settlements and restrict growth in environmentally sensitive areas. Parks and trees make each city visually attractive. Portland has laws limiting housing growth. Planning minimizes private car use and maximizes pedestrian welfare. Portland's political system was key to planning. Curitiba suffers from lack of coordination with other cities and is at the mercy of state and federal funding. Curitiba has succeeded by making practical policy decisions. PMID:12294886

  6. Use of geoprocessing in the study of land degradation in urban environments: the case of the city of São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Nívea Adriana Dias; Pejon, Osni José; Zuquette, Lázaro Valentin

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the geological engineering survey of land degradation in urban environments using both remote sensing and geoprocessing tools. The area under study was the city of São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil (urban and expansion area). The data presented here were obtained from earlier studies, photointerpretation and geological engineering mapping. The Envi 4.1 software package was used to prepare the digital orthophotos that served as a reference base for the information. Orthorectification of the Ikonos image (PSM, 1 m) was done and compared with other orthophotos from studies of environmental degradation in urban areas. The evolution of land degradation processes was analyzed based on the photointerpretation of aerial photographs taken on different dates and using Ikonos image. This study allowed to conclude that most of the degradation occurring in the city has been caused by unplanned land occupation, in disregard of environmental conditions, resulting in environmental degradation and thus impacting the quality of life of the urban population.

  7. Contribution of Black Carbon to PM2.5 Concentration in Six Brazilian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.; Miranda, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The data presented here was part of a comprehensive project coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. The objective was to identify the sources to the PM2.5 mass in the following cities: São Paulo (classified as a megacity, with 20 million inhabitants); Rio de Janeiro (the second largest city in Brazil, with ten million inhabitants); Belo Horizonte (2.5 million inhabitants); Curitiba (1.8 million inhabitants); Recife (a coastal city in the northeast of the country, with 1.5 million inhabitants); and Porto Alegre (1.4 million inhabitants). For each city, sampling was performed over a period of approximately 2 years (from winter 2007 to winter 2009). At each location, 24-h samples (8:00 AM to 8:00 AM) were collected on 37-mm polycarbonate filters at 10 Lm -1 using a PM2.5 Harvard Impactor, developed at the Harvard School of Public Health. The sampling stations can all be classified as being urban sites (Chow et al. 2002). They were all near streets with high traffic volumes, where there is significant participation not only by the light-duty fleet (gasohol and ethanol emissions) but also by the heavy-duty fleet (diesel emissions). Two of the cities evaluated, Rio de Janeiro and Recife, are near the Atlantic coast. Before and after sampling, the filters were weighed on a microbalance with 1-μg readability (Mettler-Toledo, Columbus, OH, USA). The BC concentrations were determined by optical reflectance with a smoke stain reflectometer (model 43D; Diffusion Systems Ltd, London, UK). It was shown in Sao Paulo that BC is mainly emitted by heavy-duty fleet. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Recife were 28.0, 17.2, 14.7, 14.4, 13.4, and 7.3 μg/m3, respectively. And mean BC concentrations were 10.2, 3.5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6 and 1.9 in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and Recife, respectively. The BC concentration was used as a

  8. Climatological analysis of wintertime extreme low temperatures in São Paulo City, Brazil: impact of sea-surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Silva Dias, P. L.; Araújo, G. P.

    2002-10-01

    A diagnostic climatological study of winter cold temperature extremes in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is presented. This diagnosis is based on temperature data collected at the Meteorological Station of Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (IAG/USP) from 1950 to 2000. The persistence of synoptic and climatological patterns has been studied through principal component (PC) analysis and the results are compared with monthly anomalies in sea-surface temperature (SST) of the eastern Pacific and South Atlantic. The extreme cold air temperatures, on a monthly basis, have shown no significant change since 1950. On the other hand, the mean monthly air temperatures have shown a slight warming trend, in agreement with the South Atlantic Ocean warming trend. The PC indicates significant loadings of two SST anomaly types: a cold anomaly of the South Atlantic Ocean, and a warm anomaly off the southern Brazilian coast. The latter could also be responsible for some extreme cold events (for daily minimum temperatures) in the MASP, and to a dominant westerly wind direction (southwest to northwest). Both the cold events and the westerly wind direction were evident in such winters as 1953, 1975, 1978, 1981, and 1994. On the other hand, the cold mean monthly temperatures are very well correlated to a broad cold pool anomaly in the South Atlantic at around 25 to 35° S and 15 to 55° W - sometimes narrower (such as in 1979 and 1988), and sometimes broader (such as 1964 and 1990). Where there was a narrowing or a widening, the prevailing wind direction was from the south-southeast. Therefore, the conclusion of these results is that the SST anomalies in the South Atlantic Ocean have a dominant effect on the São Paulo winter temperature climatology.

  9. Urban Biometeorology: analysis of the air pollution and climate change on cognition and physical abilities of geriatric population of São Paulo City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio Luiz; Jacob, Wilson; Alucci, Marcia; Busse, Alexandre; Duarte, Denise; Monteiro, Leonardo; Trezza, Beatriz; Tribess, Arlindo; Batista, Rafael; Ambrizzi, Tercip

    2013-04-01

    This is a multidisciplinary Project, which emphasizes geriatric population impacts, i. e., over 65 years old, of meteorological variables and air pollutants (such as particulate matter) associated to human health, and concerning to the real climatology and climate change in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. This is a biometeorological study, human subdivision, based on ISB (International Society of Biometeorology). According to the society, the environmental effects are considered meteorotropics where one or more environmental variables (meteorological or climatic even air pollution) affect one or more individuals of a population. Atmospheric pollution will be analyzed using a personal particulate matter multi-collector, concerning the impact of unfavorable meteorological conditions where the impacts will be evaluated comparing the test results during dry season (high air pollutant concentrations) and wet season (low pollutant concentrations). Therefore, the aim of this study will be to evaluate the cognitive and physical performance of a geriatric population in a pre-selected group of aged people which are considered as capable (healthy). This performance is affected by environmental conditions which thermal comfort (where meteorological variables act together) and air pollution are the meteorotropic ones. Consequently, one of the aims of the study is to establish a human thermal comfort index for geriatric populations. Architectural premises (thermal performance and ergonomics) will be also developed. An acclimatized chamber will be used to simulate the extremes of São Paulo climate and to propose a thermal comfort index. Indoors (chamber) and outdoors will be used in order to compare the impact on the selected aged people. Finally, the climate change will be based on GCM's global models which show the meteorological variations in order to calculate their impact on a comfort index. The physical and cognitive performances and architectural premises (thermal

  10. [Epidemiological profile of domestic violence: complaints of aggression filed in a city in São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2001 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Dossi, Ana Paula; Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze complaints of household physical aggression filed in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The study described the social characteristics of aggressors and victims, their family relationship, locale, time of day, day of week, causes of aggression, kind of injuries, and use of alcohol/drugs by aggressor. Of 7,750 complaints of aggression, 1,844 involved domestic violence: 81.1% involved the spouse or partner (group A), 11.6% parents/guardians and children (group B); and 7.3% other family members (group C). In the three groups, the aggressions occurred mainly at home, and the aggressors were mostly males. In group A, aggressions occurred mainly on weekends (38.9%), with jealousy as the most frequently reported cause (21.5%). In group B, children/adolescents constituted 68.1% of the victims, mostly girls, while 5.2% of victims were 60 years old. All three groups involved mostly minor injuries like bruises and excoriations to the head and upper limbs. Aggressors were frequently under the influence of alcohol: 26.8% (group A), 21.6% (group B), 17.1% (group C). Drug use was probably underestimated in the three groups (2.2%, 1.8%, and 4.5%, respectively). PMID:18709234

  11. [Immunization coverage and associated factors of women who have recently given birth in a city in São Paulo state].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara Cristina Casemiro da; Carvalheira, Ana Paula Pinho; Ferrari, Anna Paula; Tonete, Vera Lúcia Pamplona; Duarte, Marli Teresinha Cassamassimo; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima

    2016-06-01

    The importance of immunization among actions recommended in the prenatal period raises the possibility of protecting both the mother and the fetus against certain harmful diseases. The scope of this study was to assess the immunization coverage and associated factors of mothers whose deliveries occurred in the first half of 2012 in Botucatu, state of São Paulo. It is a cross-sectional study and data collection was performed in the two municipal maternity hospitals. Of the total births during the study period, 1318 mothers (90.3%) were included The data for the characterization of participants and their vaccination status (diphtheria, tetanus and hepatitis B) were obtained from the prenatal card, hospital records or interviews. For analysis of associated factors, the Chi-square test was used, with a 95% confidence interval and critical p of <0.05. Most of the study participants were 20 years old or more (84.4%), had seven years of schooling (69%), were monitored in prenatal care (99.2%) with seven or more appointments (88.9%). Miscarriage and infant death of 17.7% and 2.4% was recorded, respectively. Vaccination coverage was 68.4%. There was no association between sociodemographic and obstetric variables relating to prenatal care and vaccination of pregnant women. PMID:27383361

  12. High frequency of deficient consumption and low blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in HIV-1-infected adults from São Paulo city, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Stephanie Hael; Matta, Sandra da; Silva, Daniela Cardeal da; Assone, Tatiane Assone; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M.; Duarte, Alberto J. S.; Casseb, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is common in patients with HIV/AIDS, usually caused by mal-absorption and/or drug interactions. 25-hydroxyvitamin D is of fundamental importance for the homeostasis of musculoskeletal health. The current study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of HIV-infected subjects in order to make their nutritional diagnoses, including their vitamin D blood levels, and to estimate their consumption of vitamin D. The study included 98 HIV-1-infected subjects, followed at University of São Paulo Medical School - HC-FMUSP. We performed a nutritional evaluation, along with the determination of patients’ serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium concentration, biochemical analyses, and an anthropometric assessment. In the medical interview a 24-hour food recall was used (R24) to estimate daily calorie intake, macronutrients, calcium, and vitamin D. A high level of vitamin D deficiency was observed in our patients: 83.4% of them had levels below 30 ng/ml; they also presented an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, along with a high consumption of dietary fat. Factors related to the virus itself and to the use of antiretroviral drugs may have contributed for the low vitamin D levels seen in our HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:26257370

  13. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2001-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  14. A Study of Near-Surface Seismic Methods on Terrain Susceptible to Landslides in the City of Campos do Jordão, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to prove the usefulness of near-surface seismic methods as complementary data to conventional geotechnical and geological data in the characterization of areas of landslide risk. The setting is located in a low income housing neighborhood in the city of Campos do Jordão, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The area was devastated by numerous landslides between December 1999 to January 2000 after heavy rainfall in the area. Currently the area is being monitored by the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN). The landslides in this area are known to be shallow. The survey line passes within a couple feet of the CEMADEN monitoring station which measures soil temperature, soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and rainfall accumulation (Mendes et. al 2015). Refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) surveys were performed. In order to better identify the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave, separate surveys isolating the vertical and radial components of the Rayleigh wave were performed. By comparing the obtained Shear wave (Vs) and Compressional wave (Vp) profiles with the already known geotechnical data provided by CEMADEN and geological data from a previous study (Ahrendt 2005) of the site a better understanding of the geological interfaces that constitute the landslide prone area is obtained.

  15. [Metabolic Syndrome in professional truck drivers who work on Highway BR-116 within the area of São Paulo City - Régis Bittencourt].

    PubMed

    Cavagioni, Luciane Cesira; Bensenõr, Isabela M; Halpern, Alfredo; Pierin, Angela M G

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the Metabolic Syndrome prevalence as well as identify variables related in truck drivers who work on Highway BR-116 (São Paulo, Brazil). A total of 258 truck drivers were assessed and the variables studied were: body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol, glycemia and C reactive protein. Cardiovascular disease risk was evaluated by Framingham's risk score whereas the Metabolic Syndrome based on the First Brazilian Guideline for Diagnosis and Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome. The significance level adopted was p< 0.05 and univariate and multivariate analysis were applied. The average age was of 37.5+/-10.1. According to the anthropometric data, it was observed body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) in 82%, waist circumference > or =94 cm in 58%, total cholesterol >240 mg/dL in 9%, LDL-c >160 mg/dL in 10%; HDL-c <40 mg/dL in 20%, triglycerides >200mg/dL in 22%, glycemia >110 mg/dL in 7%, and C reactive protein >0.5 mg/dL in 19%. Hypertension prevalence was 37%, 9% were identified at the highest/medium Framingham's risk score and 24% showed Metabolic Syndrome. The logistical regression analysis indicated independent association of the Metabolic Syndrome for the following variables (OD odds ratio, CI confidence interval at 95%): body mass index (OR = 1.4007 CI 95% 1.192-1.661), use to check cholesterol (OR = 0.1020 CI 0.017-0.589) and Framingham's risk score (OR = 26.389 CI 2.520-276.374). As a conclusion, it was observed a quite expressive prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors as well as Metabolic Syndrome in truck drivers. PMID:18820813

  16. Low Helicobacter pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin in gastric biopsy specimens from dyspeptic patients of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a pump proton inhibitor are the most common drugs recommended as first-line triple therapy for H.pylori treatment, which results in eradication rates close to 80%, varying regionally, principally due to emergency cases and increases of clarithromycin resistant strains. Nucleotide substitutions at the H. pylori domain V of the 23S rRNA fraction are involved in the macrolide resistance and the A2142G and A2143G mutations are predominant in clinical isolates worldwide including in Brazil. As H. pylori culture is fastidious, we investigated the primary occurrence of H. pylori A2142G and A2143G rDNA 23S mutations using a molecular approach directly on gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients consecutively attended at Hospital das Clinicas of Marilia, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Biopsy specimens obtained from 1137 dyspeptic patients, were subjected to histopathology and H. pylori diagnosis by histology and PCR. PCR/RFLP assay was used to detect A2142G and A2143G point mutations at domain V of the H. pylori 23S rDNA associated with clarithromycin resistance. Through the developed assay, a 768 bp PCR amplicon corresponding to1728 to 2495 bp of the 23S H. pylori rDNA is restricted with MboII for A2142G mutation detection and with BsaI for A2143G mutation detection. Occurrence of 23S rDNA A2142G results in two DNA fragments (418 and 350 bp) and of 23S rDNA A2143G results in three DNA fragments (108, 310 and 350pb), due to a conserved BsaI restriction site. Results The PCR method used to diagnose H. pylori presented sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 77,6%, 79,3% and 78,6%, respectively, compared to histology, the gold standard method for H. pylori diagnosis used in our routine. Prevalence of H.pylori with clarithromycin resistant genotypes was 2,46%, with predominance of A2143G 23S rDNA point mutation. Conclusions The PCR/RFLP assay was a rapid and accurate H.pylori diagnostic and clarithromycin resistance determination

  17. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  18. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. Conclusion São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  19. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  20. DIVERSE AND ATYPICAL GENOTYPES IDENTIFIED IN TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM DOGS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people. The prevalence of T. gondii in 118 unwanted dogs from the São Paulo city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by th...

  1. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  2. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  3. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  4. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. PMID:22765964

  5. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  6. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  7. Contact allergy in male construction workers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marzia Silva; de Avelar Alchorne, Alicede Oliveira; Costa, Enilde Borges; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu

    2007-04-01

    There are no recent data on allergens in the construction industry in Brazil; apparently there were no changes in allergenic substances. The objective of this study was to identify sensitization to allergens in adult males working in the construction industry. A cross-sectional study with adult males submitted to patch tests from May 2000 to December 2005. Out of 169 male patients, 83 were construction workers. The five most frequent allergens among the construction workers were potassium dichromate (57%), carba-mix (34.9%), cobalt chloride (30.2%), thiuram-mix (27.9%) and neomycin (19.8%). There is a significant sensitization to potassium dichromate, cobalt, carba-mix, and thiuram-mix, demonstrating that cement and rubber gloves of personal protection equipment still account for allergic contact dermatitis in construction industry workers. PMID:17343626

  8. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  9. Ten years of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team approach in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Fábio; Augusto Magalhães, Antonio; Gamba, Mônica; Nery, Caio; Cardoso, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating foot problems including loss of protective sensation with subsequent ulcerations and amputations. The natural history and pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is best understood and managed by a multiprofessional team approach. The main factors for prevention and treatment of these devastating diabetic foot conditions are shown, with special attention to education of the patient. This approach decreases the morbidity of the disease, besides its economical and social feasibility. PMID:22396805

  10. [Epidemiological study of tinea pedis in a population studied in Santa Casa de Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Zaitz, C; Proença, N G

    1989-01-01

    The authors make an epidemiologic study of tinea pedis aiming at establishing its minimal frequency in the population studied, as well as recognizing the most frequent fungi and the clinical aspects they determine. We've tried to study the role of the dermatophytes in the normal microbiota of the feet. Finally we analyzed the influence of sex and seasonality factors on the incidence of tinea pedis. PMID:2693864

  11. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO Star Catalog J2000 (SAO Staff 1966; USNO, ADC 1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAO Staff

    1995-10-01

    This machine-readable SAO catalog from the Astronomical Data Center is based on an original binary version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog (SAO, SAO Staff 1966). Subsequent improvements by T. A. Nagy (1979) included the addition of equatorial coordinates in radians and cross-identifications from the Table of Correspondences SAO/HD/DM/GC (Morin 1973). As a prelude to creation of the 1984 version of the SAO, a new version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index was prepared (Roman, Warren, and Schofield 1983). The 1984 version of the SAO contained the corrected and extended cross identifications, all errata published up to January 1984 and known to the ADC, numerous errors forwarded to the ADC by colleagues, and errors discovered at the ADC during the course of this work. Clayton A. Smith of the U. S. Naval Observatory provided J2000.0 positions and proper motions for the SAO stars. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version (1984) have been corrected (up to May 1991). The catalog contains SAO number; the right ascension and declination with a B1950.0 equinox and epoch; annual proper motion and its standard deviation, photographic and visual magnitudes; spectral type; references to sources; the Durchmusterung (DM) identifier if the star is listed in the Bonner DM (BD), Cordoba DM (CD), or Cape Photographic DM (CP); component identification; The Henry Draper (Extension) (HD or HDE) number; and J2000 positions and proper motions. Multiple-star component identifications have been added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same DM number. The Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians have been added. (1 data file).

  13. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  14. Cities in the developing world: agenda for action following Habitat II.

    PubMed

    Annez, P; Friendly, A

    1996-12-01

    This article discusses the issue of priorities in development in urban centers of developing countries. Urbanization is advancing rapidly in the developing world. There are needs for adequate infrastructure, environmental protection, and fiscal reform. Development can result in a reduction in poverty, if properly conducted. By the turn of the century, 8 of the world's 10 megacities will be located in developing countries. There are already the megacities of Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Bombay, Calcutta, and Shanghai. By 2015 there will be 27 megacities, and urban population in developing countries will amount to over 4 billion. By 2020, 50% of total population in developing countries and 80% of total population in Latin America will be urban, of which 25% will live in poverty. Economic progress is at risk if cities cannot develop effective roads and transportation systems, public transportation, communications, sanitation services, and adequate shelters. The City Summit was held in June 1996 in Istanbul. The World Bank announced priorities for funding of urban health initiatives for reducing lead and particulate emissions, for providing sanitation and clean water to slum areas, and for securing sustainable, business-like city finances. The World Bank, the City Summit's Global Plan of Action, and Parliamentarians for Global Action support the reduction of lead emissions from gasoline and air. Cost-effective approaches include refitting public transportation vehicles with cleaner-burning engines or engines relying on natural gas, reducing emissions from industrial and power plants, and shifting domestic fuel sources from coal to natural gas. The World Bank in Slovenia and Beijing is financially supporting this household conversion. Reductions in soot and dust levels reduce public health costs, lost work time due to illness, and mortality. The cost to the poor for basic services is too high. Decentralization, community involvement, and cost sharing are viable options. PMID

  15. The white epidemic and the asepsis of refined earthenware in Belle Époque São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael de Abreu E

    2012-12-01

    The article examines Brazilian refined earthenwares known as faiança fina (fine faience) and relates ideas about its production to the contextual backdrop of hygienist discourses in the city of São Paulo in the early twentieth century. Based on an analysis of glaze components, moisture expansion processes, and technological aspects of the production of earthenware recovered from the Petybon archeological site, it is suggested that the establishment of factories and the production and consumption of white ceramics in the city of São Paulo were partially a consequence of the vigorous hygienization policies and modernity projects then advocated by São Paulo's elites. PMID:23295654

  16. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  17. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  18. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  19. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  20. Centering Love, Hope, and Trust in the Community: Transformative Urban Leadership Informed by Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.; Brown, Tanya; Hopson, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we suggest that communities must explore alternative leadership ideologies, actors, and venues to make meaningful academic and social improvements in our cities. We examine how themes from Paulo Freire's critical ideology can help expand our conceptualizations of educational leadership and facilitate pragmatic responses to complex…

  1. Paulo Freire: Pedagogue of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    This book is an analytic and critical treatment of Paulo Freire's philosophy. Its two central theses are that Freire's thought is best understood as that of an educational practitioner and theorist and that the most fruitful interpretation of Freire comes from understanding him as a Catholic thinker. Chapter 1 situates Freire's lifelong work in…

  2. Paulo Freire, Literacy Through Conscientization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of this review concerning international literacy is the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire and his theories and methods for teaching illiterates to read by teaching them fewer than 20 three syllable words, reflective of their social condition, such as "Shanty-town" and "wages" ("favela" and "salario" in Portuquese), whose syllables can be…

  3. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent. PMID:17669541

  4. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  5. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  6. EFFECTS OF HEAVY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN OF CUBATAO, BRAZIL; A PRELIMINARY REPORT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cubatao is located on the coast of Brazil 44 km from Sao Paulo. ts geography and wind patterns limit dispersion of air pollutants which result from heavy industrial activity within the city. ew York University and EPA in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo are conducti...

  7. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  8. Explaining health differences between men and women in later life: a cross-city comparison in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Alvarado, Beatriz-Eugenia; Béland, François; Vissandjee, Bilkis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes differences in health and functional status among older men and women and attempts to anchor the explanations for these differences within a lifecourse perspective. Seven health outcomes for men and women 60 years and older from seven Latin American and Caribbean cities are examined, using data from the 2000 SABE survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento-n=10,587). Age-adjusted as well as city- and sex-specific prevalence was estimated for poor self-rated health, comorbidity, mobility limitations, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Logistic regressions were fitted to determine if the differences between men and women in each outcome could be explained by differential exposures in childhood (hunger, poverty), adulthood (education, occupation) and old age (income) and/or by differential vulnerability of men and women to these exposures. Sao Paulo, Santiago and Mexico, cities in countries with a high level of income inequalities, presented the highest prevalence of disability, functional limitations and poor physical health for both women and men. Women showed poorer health outcomes as compared with men for all health indicators and in all cities. Controlling for lifecourse exposures in childhood, adulthood and old age did not attenuate these differences. Women's unadjusted and adjusted odds of reporting poor self-rated health, cognitive impairment and basic activities of daily living disability were approximately 50% higher than for men, twice as high for number of comorbidities, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living disability, and almost three times as high for mobility limitations. Higher vulnerability to lifecourse exposures in women as compared with men was not found, meaning that lifecourse exposures have similar odds of poor health outcomes for men and women. A more integrated understanding of how sex and gender act together to influence

  9. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  10. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%). Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively). For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. PMID:27025737

  11. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  12. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... table with two chairs, unlimited Internet access; Complimentary promotion and listing on the official Hospitalar 2013 portal; Listed in Hospitalar 2013 hard copy exhibitor catalog; Advanced promotion to top....gpoaccess.gov/fr ), posting on ITA's trade mission calendar-- http://export.gov/trademissions- -and...

  13. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  14. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and its problems relative to land use and occupation. The macrozoning proposal directed at reorganizing human activities in the regional territory was generated from technical discussions of the body of researchers involved in the project and representatives of the municipalities which comprise the region of the study.

  15. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  16. Ozone phytotoxic potential with regard to fragments of the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest downwind of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara B; Alves, Edenise S; de Souza, Silvia R; Domingos, Marisa; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    In the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), Brazil, high levels of primary pollutants contribute to ozone (O3) formation. However, little is known regarding the O3 effects in the tropics. Objectives in this study were to characterize the present levels of O3 pollution and to evaluate the relevance of current concentration-based indices for assessing the phytotoxic potential of O3. Changes in O3 concentrations and precursors at 5 monitoring stations within towns of MRC were analyzed. The daily O3 profile was typical for urban sites and showed little yearly variation. Given the permanently foliated forest canopy, yearly rather than seasonal O3 indices were thus more appropriate for estimating the effective ozone dose. With yearly SUM00, SUM60 and AOT40 of 156, 16 and 14 ppm h and confirmed by evidence of O3 injury in foliage, oxidative stress in the MRC has reached levels high enough to affect trees from the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest. PMID:24892227

  17. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  18. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  19. Literacy, Libraries and the City University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Renee

    This report describes adult literacy needs, the role of the libraries in meeting those needs, literacy needs and services in New York, and the contributions the City University of New York (CUNY) is making to the literacy effort. Quotations from Paulo Freire and Jonathan Kozol are used to define the nature of illiteracy and its extent in the…

  20. The São Paulo Science and Technology Park (CienTec Park)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, M. S. M.; Bernardelli Massabki, P.; Massambani, O.

    2003-04-01

    The State Park of Ipiranga Springs (PEFI), a native forest of 543 ha enclosed in one of the world largest Metropolis, represents more than 10% of the total of the green areas in the city of São Paulo. This space has been preserved through the efforts of three main institutions: the Botanic Garden, the Zoo Foundation and the University of São Paulo (USP). The districts surrounding the Park, with c.a. 2 millions of inhabitants, are mostly low-income families, with limited opportunities of leisure and cultural activity. There, violence and crime present the highest index for the whole Metropolitan Region, and recent statistics indicate a growing demographic pressure to occupy these areas. The proposal of the University of São Paulo, to promote in its property within PEFI a Science and Technology Park, represents a rare opportunity and valuable contribution to the social promotion in these districts and to the maintenance of that portion of green area: a residue of the Serra do Mar (Atlantic) Forest. This space of 141 ha of which 20 ha were occupied by the Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmosphere Science Institute of USP, encloses an exceptionally interesting inheritage for the City of São Paulo. A set of historical buildings of the fourth decade of last century, was recognized by the Council for the Preservation of Historical, Archeological, Artistic and Tourist Heritage of the State of São Paulo, and the City Council for the Preservation of Historical, Cultural and Natural Heritage of the City of São Paulo. The USP proposal resulted into an agreement with the Science and Technology Secretary of the São Paulo State Government, that supported financially the basic architectural project. This project was elaborated by seven of the most gifted Brazilian Architects, taking into account the restoration of the historical buildings and their integration with a new architectural set where the exhibits, interactive activities and cultural programs will take place. While the

  1. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  2. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  3. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  4. Selfie and the city: a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database reveals a two-pronged side bias in naïve self-portraits.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist's right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a "standard" (photograph of selfie-taker) and a "mirror" (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits. PMID:25915767

  5. Selfie and the City: A World-Wide, Large, and Ecologically Valid Database Reveals a Two-Pronged Side Bias in Naïve Self-Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist’s right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a “standard” (photograph of selfie-taker) and a “mirror” (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits. PMID:25915767

  6. Uranus occults SAO158687. [stellar occultation and planetary parametric observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Veverka, J.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in obtaining atmospheric parameters, oblatenesses, and diameters of Jupiter and Mars from recent stellar occultations by these planets is used to predict what can be learned from the March 1977 occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus. The spectra of this star and Uranus are compared to indicate the relative instrument intensities of the two objects, the four passbands where the relative intensities are most nearly equal are listed, and expected photon fluxes from the star are computed on the assumption that it has UBVRI colors appropriate for a K5 main-sequence object. It is shown that low photon noise errors can be achieved by choosing appropriate passbands for observation, and the rms error expected for the Uranus temperature profiles obtained from the occultation light curves is calculated. It is suggested that observers of this occultation should record their data digitally for optimum time resolution.

  7. Early experience of the SAO Satellite-Tracking Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    When Fred L. Whipple of Harvard University assumed the directorship of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in mid-1955, he proposed to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation that the observatory be given responsibility for optical tracking of satellites during the IGY of 1957-1958. Several countries had expressed their intentions to launch satellites during the 18-month period to support research in ionospheric and upper atmospheric physics, including the effects of solar flares and solar radiation, and in geodesy and geophysics. On the basis of his experience at the Harvard College observatory with the Super-Schmidt cameras for meteor photography, Whipple was confident that optical tracking could provide a powerful means of monitoring satellite positions. The proposal was accepted in late 1955, and it was assumed that the total observing program would last only 18 months and would involve only a few satellites.

  8. Validation of the Updated SAO OMI Formaldehyde Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Fried, A.; Janz, S. J.; Kanaya, Y.; Puentedura, O.

    2014-12-01

    The new SAO OMI formaldehyde retrieval, version v3.0.2 publicly released in June 2014, introduces major changes with respect to the previous version of the product. These changes include optimization of fitting window and fitting parameters, update of reference cross sections, reference sector normalization to the Pacific Ocean and a new air mass factor calculation. In this context it is necessary to assess the accuracy of the new product and perform a validation exercise. We compare the new data with other satellite retrievals from OMI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY performed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, with in situ airborne measurements recorded using a Difference Frequency Generation Absorption Spectrometer (DFGAS) instrument, with aircraft passive remote sensing retrievals from the ACAM and GeoTASO instruments recorded during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Maryland and Texas and with ground-based DOAS measurements.

  9. Performance evaluation of the SAO VLG-11 atomic hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. W.; Vessot, R. F.; Mattison, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    A new generation of frequency standards, the VLG-11 hydrogen maser, has been designed and built at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). A comprehensive series of environmental and short-term stability tests on three VLG-11 masers has been completed and evaluated. The test results reported here show substantial improvements over previous hydrogen masers in measured sensitivity to variations in ambient temperature, barometric pressure, and magnetic fields. The maser frequency stability, as represented by the two-sample (Allan) variance, has been measured for averaging times ranging from 1 to 100,00 seconds. The variance is lower than 1 x 10 to the -15th for averaging intervals between 1400 and 20,000 seconds. For times shorter than 4000 seconds, the measured stability data agree remarkably well with theoretical values calculated from thermal noise mechanisms and the 'noise within the linewidth' regime is clearly discernable in the data.

  10. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  11. Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination from age 60 in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Joao Tonolio; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo have not been vaccinated. PMID:21941088

  13. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  14. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  15. Dynamics and Sources of Atmospheric Lead in São Paulo, Brazil:Preliminary Insights from High Temporal Resolution Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D.; Gioia, S. M. C. L.; Babinski, M.; Kerr, A. A. F. S.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a pilot study investigating the major processes that control concentrations and sources of lead (Pb) in the atmosphere of São Paulo City, Brazil. Aerosols were collected with high temporal resolution during a four-day period in July of 2005. The highest Pb concentrations measured coincided with large celebrations due to a soccer game final and the associated high traffic occurrence and large fireworks. This highlights the impact that a singular transient event can have on air quality even in a megacity like São Paulo. Under meteorological conditions nonconducive to pollutant dispersion (i.e., dry weather), Pb and particulate matter concentrations accumulated during the night, leading to the highest concentrations in aerosols collected early in the morning of the following day. The stable isotopes of Pb suggest that emissions from traffic remain the main source of Pb in São Paulo City due to the large traffic fleet, despite low Pb concentrations in gasoline and alcohol. Changes in wind directions result in different sources being dominant, such as industrial emissions from areas within the greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  16. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  17. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  18. Closed-loop control of SaO2 in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Morozoff, P E; Evans, R W

    1992-01-01

    A microprocessor-based device has been designed to control oxygen saturation (SaO2) in neonates by adjusting the inspired air-oxygen mixture (FiO2) delivered by a mechanical blender. The user sets a target SaO2, which the controller attempts to maintain. Alarms are actuated if the neonate's SaO2 is outside predefined limits. SaO2 levels are extracted from a commercial pulse oximeter and analyzed by an eight-bit microprocessing unit (MPU). Delivered percentages of FiO2 are adjusted by a motorized air-oxygen blender. The controller has a menu-driven user interface and can graphically present four-hour trends of the SaO2, FiO2, or blender setting. Sixteen hours of collected data can be stored and later downloaded to a personal computer. A real-time multitasking operating system forms the nucleus of the controller's software. Major tasks that share MPU time are control, filtering, user display, data collection, data archiving, alarm monitoring, and user input. Analog SaO2 levels are read and converted to digital values, which are then filtered to extract noise. A differential control algorithm is used to determine the required FiO2 blender setting. The blender is then adjusted to the new setting, after which the controller waits to repeat the process of sampling SaO2 and adjusting FiO2. System response time and blender increments are adjustable to allow a user to tune the controller to the patient's needs. Alarm conditions of concern within the device are SaO2 and FiO2 sensor disconnection, blender disconnection, and SaO2 limiting errors. In preliminary trials, for a target of 92.0% SaO2, a prototype controller maintained an average of 91.6% with a standard deviation of 5.0% over a one-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562825

  19. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  20. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Postcolonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Paulo Freire's work has been appropriated in ways that denudes it of some of its important political insights. Argues that Freire's work must be read as a postcolonial text and that North Americans must engage in a radical form of border crossing to reconstruct Freire's work in the specificity of its historical and political…

  1. A Pedagogy of Hope after Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In my review of the articles published in this issue of "SAJHE" I use the notion of "after" in two senses: "in imitation of" and "following in time" (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a "pedagogy of hope"--how their work imitates that of…

  2. The Critical Spirituality of Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…

  3. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  4. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  5. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs in sediments using geochemical markers. II. Sao Sebastião, SP--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2004-12-01

    The São Sebastião Channel, NE São Paulo State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest of that state not only because of the tourism, but also because of the presence of the most important oil terminal of Brazil, the PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS). Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in the channel, extracted and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS for composition and levels of the following organic geochemical markers: aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes), petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 0.04 to 8.53 micorg g(-1) for aliphatics, from 51.1 to 422.0 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 12.6 to 27.7 ng g(-1) for LABs and from 20.4 to 200.3 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS), Sao Sebastião Harbor and sewage outfalls along the area had clear influences on the geochemical marker concentrations, especially at locales in the central and north parts of the channel. PMID:15556173

  6. The driving of the SAO by gravity waves derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics in the tropical stratosphere and lower mesosphere is strongly influenced by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The tropical dynamics has significant influence on atmospheric dynamics over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on the surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO and SAO. One of the main reasons are uncertainties in the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs) that are too small-scale to be resolved by the global models. Direct estimates of the GW driving of the QBO and SAO from global observations are still missing. We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data. These observations are compared with the zonal wind tendencies and the drag that is still missing in the tropical momentum budget of the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) reanalysis after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global-scale waves. In the stratopause region ERAI is no longer well-constrained by data assimilation. Nevertheless, the missing drag and its relative variations can be used as a proxy for GW drag. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between satellite observations and ERAI, however the missing drag in ERAI is likely too high by about a factor of two. Both HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to the pre-filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. During SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated

  7. Astronomical Perception of the Secondary School's Students in São Paulo's State School in Suzano City. (Spanish Title: Percepción Astronómica de Alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de San Pablo en la Ciudad de Suzano.) Percepção Astronômica de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo da Cidade de Suzano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França de Oliveira, Edilene; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Amaral, Luis Henrique

    2007-12-01

    Although Astronomy is one of the oldest Sciences in the world and many of its concepts are popular, it is possible to observe that a major part of the students do not know about them. This work aims to analyse the basic knowledge of the secondary school's students of a state school in the city of Suzano, related to the astronomical phenomena, which surround them. It was carried out a questionnaire of multiple choice to 34 students from the first grade, night classes, of the state school Batista Renzi. From the sample, 34 students, only 29.4% of them could understand the succession of the days; 20.6% could explain the seasons of the year and 20.6% had some idea about celestial objects nearer to the Earth. In turn, 67.6% correctly classified the Sun as a star; 55.9% related the Big Bang to the origin of Universe; only 20.6% identified the light-year as an unit of distance and 32.4% recognized a falling star as a meteor. The actual analysis was expanded to more 310 students of other classes, grades and periods of the same school. In this first stage, it can be noted the students' little discernment of the astronomical events and mainly the great confusion about the appropriate meaning of popular astronomical terms. Aunque la Astronomía es una de las ciencias más antiguas de la humanidad y muchos de los conceptos astronómicos son populares, se observa que una parcela significativa de los estudiantes se encuentra al margen de estas informaciones. El presente trabajo pretende analizar el nivel de conocimiento básico de los alumnos de la Enseñanza Media de la Red Estatal de la ciudad de Suzano con relación a los fenómenos astronómicos que los rodean. Con este objetivo fue elaborado un formulario constando de preguntas de selección múltipla, aplicado en el primer año nocturno de la Escuela Estatal Batista Renzi. En un universo de 34 alumnos se constató que solamente 29,4% comprendían la sucesión de los días; 20,6% explicaron correctamente las estaciones del

  8. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. PMID:22446073

  9. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  10. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  11. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (3) "Elegy to Paulo…

  12. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  13. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  14. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study.

    PubMed

    Scazufca, Marcia; P de Paula Couto, Maria Clara; Huang, Hsiang; Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T P; Blay, Sérgio L; R Menezes, Paulo; E Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  15. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T. P.; Blay, Sérgio L.; R. Menezes, Paulo; E. Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  16. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  18. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has suffered environmental impact due to domestic sewer releasing and the presence of marina in the region.

  19. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-02-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  20. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  1. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the northeast region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Parasitological and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Moraes, J R; Andrade, P M; Schalch, S H; Moraes, F R

    2001-11-01

    The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 microm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997. PMID:12071320

  2. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  3. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  4. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  5. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  6. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  7. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  8. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  9. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  10. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo. PMID:20725824

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index (ADC 1983) (Roman+ 1983)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N. J., Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The catalog is an updated, corrected, and extended version of a table of correspondences originally prepared by Morin (1973). The individual data corrections, additions, and changes included in the new version number 11398, with 8600 data records having at least one change. In addition to the correction of all errors found since preparation of the original catalog, most of which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple-star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog, component identifications from the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars (IDS) have been appended to all multiple SAO stars having the same DM numbers, and lowercase identifications for supplemental (footnoted) BD stars have been added. Stars deleted (duplicate entries) in the SAO Catalog have been appended with a "D" and their data removed, although the records have been kept (with SAO number only) in order not to change the number of SAO stars. The data include SAO number, HD number, HD multiplicity code, GC number, DM identification code (BD, CD, CP), and number. There are fewer objects than records because of the deleted entries appended with a "D" as described above (35 stars deleted). (1 data file).

  12. Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Rodger, Craig J.

    2016-03-01

    Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large-scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequency (VLF) narrowband (NB) subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D region (at altitudes of ˜ 65 and ˜ 85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D region is NOx molecule transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.

  13. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  14. Population data of 16 autosomal STR loci of the Powerplex ESX 17 System in a Brazilian Population from the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Almeida Prado Oliveira e Sousa, Maria Luiza; de Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Tuena; Auler-Bittencout, Eloisa A; Soares-Vieira, Jose Arnaldo; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2014-07-01

    The State of São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, including approximately one fifth of the population of the country. In addition to a strong economy, the state has relatively good social indicators when compared with the rest of the country. The capital city, also called São Paulo, is the sixth largest city in the world. Its population is considered the most multicultural and racially mixed in Brazil. Currently, the largest populations in São Paulo are of Italian, Lebanese, Spanish and Japanese origin, and the state has the largest number of Northeasterners outside of the Northeast region. This population structure may lead to a particular genotype frequency. In this context, the formation of a new database containing the allele frequencies of five new genetic markers (D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391) in a sample population is relevant. The allele frequencies of 16 STR loci, including the five new European Standard Set (ESS) loci, were calculated in a sample of 1088-1098 unrelated individuals, who geographically represent the Capital city. PMID:24794041

  15. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds. PMID:26677094

  16. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sam; Razzouk, Denise; Mari, Jair Jesus de; Shirakawa, Itiro

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%); mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs) use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants. PMID:19347208

  17. Two summers of São Paulo drought: Origins in the western tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Anji; Fernandes, Kátia; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2015-12-01

    Two years of drought in Southeast Brazil have led to water shortages in São Paulo, the country's most populous city. We examine the observed drought during austral summers of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 and the related large-scale dynamics. The 2013-2014 precipitation deficits were more concentrated in the state of São Paulo, while in 2014-2015 moderate deficits were seen throughout the region. We find that a persistent warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was an important driver of drought via atmospheric teleconnection in the two December-February seasons. The warm SST and associated convective heating initiated a wave train across the South Pacific. The resulting anticyclonic geopotential height anomaly over the southwest Atlantic expanded the westward margin of the South Atlantic high and prevented low-pressure systems from entering southeast Brazil from midlatitudes. This mechanism suggests a hemispheric symmetry to that proposed for the recent California drought.

  18. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Renato Lopes; Abreu Carvalhaes, João Tomás; Sanae Nishimura, Lucilia; de Andrade, Maria Cristina; Cabilio Guth, Beatriz Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most frequent causes of pediatric acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to report the clinic and microbiologic features associated with 13 post-diarrheal HUS cases identified in pediatric intensive care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2001 to August 2005. Epidemiologic, clinic, and laboratorial information, along with fecal and serum samples, were collected for identifying the genetic sequences of Stx and for studying antibodies directed against LPS O26, O111 and O157. STEC was isolated from three patients, and serotypes O26:H11, O157:H7 and O165:H- were identified. In nine patients, high levels of IgM against LPS O111 (n=2) and O157 (n=7) were detected. Dialysis was required in 76.9% of the patients; arterial hypertension was present in 61.5%, neurological complications were observed in 30.7%, and only one patient died. During a 5–year follow-up period, one patient developed chronic kidney disease. The combined use of microbiologic and serologic techniques provided evidence of STEC infection in 92.3% of the HUS cases studied, and the importance of O157 STEC as agents of HUS in São Paulo has not been previously highlighted. PMID:21804902

  19. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  20. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  1. The impact of simple donor education on donor behavioral deferral and infectious disease rates in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci Alves; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Mendrone-Jr, Alfredo; Dorlhiac-Laccer, Pedro E.; Liu, Jing; Murphy, Edward L.; Schreiber, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that HIV residual risk is higher in Brazilian than in US and European blood donors; probably due to failure to defer at risk individuals in Brazil. This study assessed the impact of an educational brochure in enhancing blood donor's knowledge about screening test window phase and reducing at risk individuals from donating. Study design and Methods This trial compared an educational intervention with blood center's usual practice. The brochure was distributed in alternating months to all donors. After donating, sampled participants completed 2 questions about their HIV window period knowledge. The impact on HIV risk deferral, leaving without donation, CUE use and test positivity was also analysed. Results From August-November 2007 we evaluated 33,940 donations in the main collection center of FPS/HSP at Sao Paulo, Brazil. A significant (p <.001) pamphlet effect was found on correct responses to both questions assessing HIV window phase knowledge (68.1% vs. 52.9%) and transfusion risk (91.1% vs. 87.2%). After adjusting for gender and age, the pamphlet effect was strongest for people with more than eight years of education. There was no significant pamphlet effect on HIV risk deferral rate, leaving without donation, use of CUE, or infectious disease rates. Conclusion While the educational pamphlet increased window period knowledge, contrary to expectations this information alone was not enough to make donors self-defer or acknowledge their behavioral risk. PMID:20003056

  2. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m-3]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16°C and above 25°C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m-3) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  3. [Governance and regulation in health: challenges for health management in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Junqueira, Virginia; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Kayano, Jorge; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barboza, Renato; Telesi, Emilio

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the public and private sectors in the Unified National Health System (SUS), based on research whose objective was to identify governance strategies and mechanisms for public/private relations in the health sector, considering the search for equity in Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil. Governance was used as an analytical category, with health system regulation as the issue. Municipal and State health secretaries, members of health councils, and SUS staff were interviewed, and the empirical material was classified as: (a) regulatory mechanisms and instruments; (b) power loci; and (c) actors' positions concerning the SUS and its relationship to the private sector. Mechanisms and instruments have been created and used in the municipalities for regulation of their own services. Regulatory measures for the complementary and supplementary healthcare sector are practically nonexistent. There are numerous institutional power loci, seen more as places for submitting demands than as forums for negotiation. Despite some progress, governance appears to be more of a formal issue. Discussion is needed on the relationship between the public and private sectors and its regulation by municipalities in order to improve the health system. PMID:17334572

  4. [Professional profile analysis of dentists graduated at Bauru dental School - University of São Paulo between 1996 and 2000].

    PubMed

    Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Almeida, Beatriz Simões de; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bijella, Vitoriano Truvijo

    2003-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the professional profile of the 248 dentists graduated at Bauru Dental School - University of Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2000, verify if they accomplish educational and collective measures and determine the level of professional satisfaction. The material was a self-applicable questionnaire containing both multiple choice and open questions. The return rate was 39.5%. Analysis of data showed that the dentists, who were predominantly males, chose Dentistry as a profession because they felt comfortable with it, and evaluate the graduate course as good. Results showed that the practitioners still do not focus on the need of education and prevention in oral health, especially at the collective level. It was concluded that the predominant professional profile was to work at their dental office (38.8%) or at a peer's dental office, receiving an amount of the total profile (25.5%); 26.5% work with health mutual support and 12.2% work at public service. Although 63.3% are professionally realized, only 12.2% are economically realized. The great difficult is the increase in the competition between dentists and saturation of the dental work market. PMID:21394402

  5. Relation between aerosol particles and their optical properties: a case study for São Paulo-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Regina; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2013-04-01

    Brazil has a territory of 8.5 million km2 and a population of more than 160 million inhabitants, distributed throughout 26 states. Brazillian capital-cities with millions inhabitants and vehicles have several problems concerning air pollution. São Paulo, capital of São Paulo State, with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Air pollution, high building density, and a lack of green areas, combined with the proliferation of asphalt and concrete surfaces, have resulted in a greater number of urban heat island effects, fewer drizzle events, and rainfall events of greater intensity. São Paulo has an extensive air quality monitoring network, which has shown that ozone levels often exceed the NAAQS limit during spring and summer, and that concentrations of inhalable particles exceed the NAAQS limit mainly during the winter, from June to August. Aerosols are produced by a variety of processes, creating differences in their physicochemical properties and hence in their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. For most urban areas in Brazil, vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Particles have been monitored in the winter of 2012 in São Paulo using a MOUDI (Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor), in order to have the mass distribution of the aerosol. The concentrations of coarse particles can still be larger than those of fine particles, although the difference between both has become smaller than in the past. The samples collected were analyzed by gravimetry for mass concentration, optical reflectance for Black Carbon concentration and X-ray Fluorescence for elementar characterization. Optical properties were obtained from Aeronet (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for São Paulo city. It was found that a high fraction of elements was derived

  6. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  7. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia According to the Nutritional Status in a Representative Sample of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Garcez, Marcela Riccioppo; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fontanelli, Mariane de Mello; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight is one of the major public health problems in Brazil; it is associated with dyslipidemia, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the lipid profile of residents of the municipality of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, according to the nutritional status. Methods Data from the population-based cross-sectional study ISA-Capital 2008 on a sample of residents of São Paulo were used. Participants were categorized into groups according to body mass index and age range. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL cholesterol were measured. The association between lipid profile, nutricional status, and waist circumference was investigated. The data were processed using the survey mode of the Stata 11.0 software. Results The prevalence of any type of dyslipidemia in the population was 59.74%, with low HDL-cholesterol dyslipidemia being the most common type. Not overweight individuals had higher mean levels of HDL-cholesterol and lower levels of LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL cholesterol when compared with the overweight group. The rate of inadequacy of these variables was higher in the overweight individuals, regardless of the age group, to the exception of LDL-cholesterol in the adults and elderly. A higher prevalence of isolated hypertriglyceridemia was observed in individuals with higher waist circumference among the adults and the total population. Conclusion The results indicate an association between dyslipidemia and overweight in the population of the city of São Paulo. The most prevalent dyslipidemia in this population was low HDL-cholesterol. PMID:25590927

  8. Identification of Plasmodium relictum causing mortality in penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Lopez, Rodrigo Pinho Gomez; de Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Araújo, Radamés Abrantes de Sousa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2010-10-11

    This study reports avian malaria caused by Plasmodium relictum in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo. The disease was highly infective among the birds and was clinically characterized by its acute course and high mortality. The penguins of São Paulo Zoo were housed for at least 2 years without malaria; however, they had always been maintained in an enclosure protected from mosquito exposure during the night period. When they presented pododermatitis, they were freed at night for a short period. São Paulo Zoo is located in one of the last forest remnants of the city, an area of original Atlantic forest. In the winter, the space destined for Zoo birds is shared with migratory species. Hence the possibility exists that the disease was transmitted to the penguins by mosquitoes that had previously bitten infected wild birds. Avian malaria parasites are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex, common vectors in the Atlantic forest. In this study, one Culex (Cux.) sp. was found, infected with P. relictum. There are diverse problems in housing distinct species of animals in captivity, principally when occupying the same enclosure, since it facilitates the transmission of diseases with indirect cycles, as is the case of Plasmodium spp., because certain species that cause discrete infections in some bird species can become a serious danger for others, especially penguins, which do not possess natural resistance. Thus, serious implications exist for periodically testing and administrating malaria therapy in captive penguins potentially exposed to mosquitoes during the night period, as well as other captive birds from São Paulo Zoo. PMID:20638795

  9. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  10. São Paulo aerosol characterization study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C D; Martins, M H; Romano, J; Godinho, R

    1997-12-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan area (SPMA) is characterized as having one of the worst air pollution problems in Brazil, with frequent violations of air quality standards for particulate matter. This paper presents the results of a receptor model source apportionment study carried out to develop a quantitative database on which a control strategy could be developed. The study was conducted in four sites with distinct land uses. Fine, coarse (CP), and total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected on Teflon and glass filters and analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography, and thermal evolution. The sources were characterized by similar methodology. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling indicated that carbonaceous material plays an important role in the aerosol composition; that the three major source categories contributing to the fine particles are vehicles, secondary carbon, and sulfates; and that the main contributors to CP and TSP are road dust and vehicles. All sampling sites presented the same general pattern in terms of source contribution, although this contribution varied from site to site. PMID:9448518

  11. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  12. Knowledge about epilepsy among health professionals: a cross-sectional survey in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sergio; Souza-Vancini, Maria Iones; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Lima, Cristiano; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epilepsy knowledge among health professionals in São Paulo, Brazil. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge of health professionals about epilepsy. Methods Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. The subjects (n=624) answered a questionnaire composed of 25 simple closed-ended questions from three areas: personal, educational and knowledge. Results Out of all subjects, 88.5% (n=552) had a postgraduate education, while 11.5% (n=72) had only an undergraduate degree. The authors found that physical educators, nutritionists and physiotherapists received lower scores on their epilepsy knowledge than other health professionals. Conclusions Health professionals are considered better-educated group inside the society, especially with regards to healthcare issues. Thus, it is important they also have an accurate and correct knowledge about epilepsy. The findings of the present study indicate an imperative improvement in education about epilepsy, as well as an inclusion of formal programmes for epilepsy education especially for non-medical professionals. An improvement in epilepsy education might contribute to an improvement in epilepsy care and management. PMID:22517981

  13. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a bioassay-fractionated extract of PM 10 collected in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martinis, Bruno S.; Okamoto, Robert A.; Kado, Norman Y.; Gundel, Lara A.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM 10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m -3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m -3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m -3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH sources in the urban atmosphere of São Paulo City.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hamburg/SAO Survey for ELGs. III. (Hopp+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Engels, D.; Green, R. F.; Ugryumov, A. V.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hagen, H.-J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Lipovetsky, V. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Brosch, N.; Masegosa, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Marquez, I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the third list with results of the Hamburg/SAO Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies (HSS therein, SAO - Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia). This survey is based on the digitized objective-prism photoplate database of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS). Here, we present new spectroscopic results of candidates which were obtained in 1998 with the 2.1m KPNO and the 2.2m Calar Alto telescopes. All candidates are selected in the declination band +35{deg} to +40{deg}. The follow-up spectroscopy with the 2m class telescopes confirmed 85 emission-line objects out of 113 observed candidates and allowed their quantitative spectral classification. For 80 of them, the redshifts are determined for the first time. For 5 previously known Emission-Line Galaxies (ELGs), line ratios are presented for the first time. We could classify 55 out of the 85 emission-line objects as BCG/HII galaxies or probable BCGs (Blue Compact Galaxies) , 4 - as QSOs, 6 - as Seyfert galaxies, 1 - as super-association in a subluminous spiral galaxy, and 11 are low-excitation objects - either starburst nuclei (SBN), or dwarf amorphous nuclei starburst galaxies (DANS). We could not classify 8 ELGs. Further, for 8 more galaxies we did not detect any significant emission lines. (5 data files).

  16. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  17. Planetary Signatures in the SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) Disk: A Spiral Arm Passing through Vortex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee

    2016-03-01

    The disk surrounding SAO 206462, an 8 Myr old Herbig Ae star, has recently been reported to exhibit spiral arms, an asymmetric dust continuum, and a dust-depleted inner cavity. By carrying out two-dimensional, two-fluid hydrodynamic calculations, we find that a planetary-mass companion located at the outer disk could be responsible for these observed structures. In this model, the planet excites primary and secondary arms interior to its orbit. It also carves a gap and generates a local pressure bump at the inner gap edge where a vortex forms through Rossby wave instability. The vortex traps radially drifting dust particles, forming a dust-depleted cavity in the inner disk. We propose that the vortex is responsible for the brightest southwestern peak seen in infrared scattered light and sub-millimeter dust continuum emission. In particular, it is possible that the scattered light is boosted as one of the spiral arms passes through the high density vortex region, although the vortex alone may be able to explain the peak. We suggest that a planetary companion with a mass of 10-15 {M}J is orbiting SAO 206462 at 100-120 au. Monitoring of the brightest peak over the next few years will help reveal its origin because the spiral arms and vortex will show distinguishable displacement.

  18. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  19. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  20. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  1. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  2. [Spatial distribution of endemic diseases in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Hino, Paula; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; da Cunha, Tarcísio Neves; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2011-01-01

    The perception that some diseases happen in certain places is old. The concern in studying the relation between the human being and the environment resulted in several studies of medical geography, directed to the analysis of diseases spatial distribution. This sectional study was carried out in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, and aimed to illustrate, through health problems (dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis), how a Geographic Information System tool allows the identification of heterogeneous areas, providing support for the choice of strategies and specific interventions according to the need of residents, as well as, priority of resources to more vulnerable groups. The population comprised cases of dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis notified in Ribeirão Preto in 2000. Data were collected in the Health Secretary Epidemiological Surveillance of the city. In order to obtain the thematic maps, data were geo-codified with the software MapInfo 7.8 e Spring 4.3. The thematic maps showed the density distribution of dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis cases in the city as a way to complement the analysis of health information, pointing priority areas for the control of these diseases. PMID:21503478

  3. [Health promotion in primary care: study based on the Paulo Freire method].

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schülter Buss; Wosny, Antonio de Miranda; Boehs, Astrid Eggert

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study is to analyze the implementation of health promotion actions in the working process of the Family Health Teams of a city in the state of Santa Catarina. It involves research adopting a qualitative approach linked to the methodological benchmark of Paulo Freire, consisting of three dialectic moments: thematic investigation; encoding and decoding; critical revelation. Fifteen Culture Circles were conducted, covering five district health units, with the participation of 70 professionals. Each meeting was scheduled to last two hours with an average attendance of thirteen participants of the Family Health teams. The research revealed that there are limitations to the implementation of health promotion as a key element of participatory action together with the community. It also highlighted the importance of interdisciplinarity and intersectorality between workers and the city, state and federal manager. The commitment to the principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and health promotion also presents itself as a challenge to improve the quality of life of the population. PMID:25119094

  4. Measurement of tropospheric aerosol in São Paulo area using a new upgraded Raman LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Patrícia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Bourayou, Riad

    2012-11-01

    Elastic backscatter LIDAR systems have been used to determine aerosol profile concentration in several areas such as weather, pollution and air quality monitoring. In order to determine the aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles, the Klett inversion method is largely used, but this method suffers from lack of information since there are two unknown variables to be determined using only one measured LIDAR signal, and assumption of the LIDAR ratio (the relation between the extinction and backscattering coefficients) is needed. When a Raman LIDAR system is used, the inelastic backscattering signal is affected by aerosol extinction but not by aerosol backscatter, which allows this LIDAR to uniquely determine extinction and backscattering coefficients without any assumptions or any collocated instruments. The MSP-LIDAR system, set-up in a highly dense suburban area in the city of São Paulo, has been upgraded to a Raman LIDAR, and in its actual 6-channel configuration allows it to monitor elastic backscatter at 355 and 532 nm together with nitrogen and water vapor Raman backscatters at 387nm and 608 nm and 408nm and 660 nm, respectively. Thus, the measurements of aerosol backscattering, extinction coefficients and water vapor mixing ratio in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) are becoming available. The system will provide the important meteorological parameters such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and will be used for the study of aerosol variations in lower troposphere over the city of São Paulo, air quality monitoring and for estimation of humidity impact on the aerosol optical properties, without any a priori assumption. This study will present the first results obtained with this upgraded LIDAR system, demonstrating the high quality of obtained aerosol and water vapor data. For that purpose, we compared the data obtained with the new MSP-Raman LIDAR with a mobile Raman LIDAR collocated at the Center for Lasers and Applications, Nuclear and Energy Research

  5. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  6. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  7. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an intercomparison of four tropospheric-stratospheric climate models, the Unified Model (UM) of the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), the model of the Free University in Berlin (FUB). the ARPEGE-climat model of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM), and the Extended UGAMP GCM (EUGCM) of the Center for Global Atmospheric Modelling (CGAM), against the UKMO analyses. This comparison has been made in the framework of the "GSM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC" (GRIPS). SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) aims are to investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate and the GRIPS purpose is to organized a comprehensive assessment of current Middle Atmosphere-Climate Models (MACMs). The models integrations were made without identical contraints e.g. boundary conditions, incoming solar radiation). All models are able to represent the dominant features of the extratropical circulation. In this paper, the structure of the tropical winds and the strengths of the Kelvin waves are examined. Explanations for the differences exhibited. between the models. as well as between models and analyses, are also proposed. In the analyses a rich spectrum of waves (eastward and westward) is present and contributes to drive the SAO (SemiAnnual Oscillation) and the QBO (Quasi-Biennal Oscillation). The amplitude of the Kelvin waves is close to the one observed in UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) data. In agreement with observations, the Kelvin waves generated in the models propagate into the middle atmosphere as wave packets which underlines convective forcing origin. In most models, slow Kelvin waves propagate too high and are hence overestimated in the upper stratosphere and in the mesosphere, except for the UM which is more diffusive. These waves are not sufficient to force realistic westerlies of the QBO or SAO westerly phases. If the SAO is represented by all models only two of them are able to generate

  8. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on-board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a consistent set of long term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ~ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column densities (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products with our OMPS product using one year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 21 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 38

  9. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27109498

  10. Untested Feasibility: Imagining the Pragmatic Possibility of Paulo Freire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Kate; Roskelly, Hephzibah

    2001-01-01

    Considers how teachers might re-create, rather than import, Paulo Freire into North American contexts--and so not lose the power of his ideas. Takes the method of pragmatism and connects it to Freire's concept of praxis to argue for pragmatic theory and practice in the work of teaching literacy. (SG)

  11. The Meaning of Conscientizacao: The Goal of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.

    Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes…

  12. Paulo Freire's Relevance to Online Instruction and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Sheri; Dessinger, Joan Conway

    2010-01-01

    Paulo Freire argued that learning should be conversational, accessible, and centered on the experience of the participants. Freirean theory remains strong in adult education and has implications for human performance technology applications in such areas as online learning in terms of design, accessibility, and content, as well as performance…

  13. Paulo Freire and His Contribution to Multiethnic Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushiken, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Paulo Freire's educational philosophy encourages conscientization in individuals as a means to overcoming oppression. This approach includes dialogue that leads to critical thinking and problem-posed learning that fosters self-discovery. This article applies this process to a multi-ethnic congregation as it nurtures ethnic equality. In addition,…

  14. Power-Filled Lessons for Leadership Educators from Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to introduce readers to teacher-philosopher-practitioner, Paulo Freire and to illustrate the power of his educational ideals for the task of teaching leadership. Readers will encounter Freire, understand how one's definition of leadership needs to match one's approach to teaching leadership, review a proposed Freirean…

  15. Commentary: Paulo Freire and the Future of the Radical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula; Wallis, John

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of Paulo Freire and considers whether his philosophy and approach can be applied in adult and community education today. Suggests that so-called radical education has not addressed epistemological questions, leaving the nature of knowledge unquestioned. (SK)

  16. Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms 3 with Brewer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Juseon; Kim, Jae H.; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The optimal estimation (OE) based ozone profile algorithm developed at Smithsonian 3 Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is assessed as to its accuracy to extract total ozone amount from 4 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements through the validation using Brewer ground 5 based measurements between January 2005 and December 2008. We compare it against the quality of 6 three OMI operational ozone products, derived from NASA TOMS, KNMI DOAS, and KNMI OE 7 algorithms, respectively. The validation demonstrates that the SAO ozone profile algorithm generally 8 has the best total ozone retrieval performance compared to the three OMI operational ozone products. 9 The individual station comparisons show an agreement between SAO and Brewer within ± 1% except 10 at polar stations (~ -2 %), with a high correlation coefficient of ~ 0.99 at most stations. The KNMI OE 11 algorithm systematically overestimates the true total ozone value at all stations with a bias from 2 % 12 at low/mid latitude stations to 5 % at high latitude stations. On the other hand, TOMS/DOAS 13 algorithm underestimates total ozone by ~ -1.7 % on average. The standard deviations of differences 14 are ~ 1.8 % for SAO and TOMS while DOAS and KNMI show the standard deviation values of 2.2 15 and 2.5 %, respectively. The remarkable stability of SAO OE algorithm is found with no significant 16 dependency on algorithmic variables such as viewing geometries, cloud parameters, and time. In 17 comparison, the severe dependency on both solar and viewing zenith angles is found in KNMI OE 18 algorithm, which is characterized with a negative (positive) correlation with smaller (larger) solar 19 zenith angles and the strong cross-track dependent biases ranging from 4% at nadir and 1% at off-20 nadir positions. The dependence of DOAS and TOMS algorithms on the algorithmic variables is 21 marginal compared to KNMI OE algorithm, but distinct compared to SAO OE algorithm. Relative 22 differences between SAO/DOAS and

  17. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  18. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  19. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  20. Thirty Years, One Million Spectra: Public Access to the SAO Spectral Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, J.; Moran, S.

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30 years, the SAO Telescope Data Center has reduced and archived over 1,000,000 spectra, consisting of 287,000 spectra from five high dispersion Echelle spectrographs and 717,000 spectra from four low dispersion spectrographs, across three telescopes. 151,000 spectra from six instruments are currently online and publicly available, covering many interesting objects in the northern sky, including most of the galaxies in the Updated Zwicky Catalog which are reachable through NED or Simbad. A majority of the high dispersion spectra will soon be made public, as will more data from the MMT multi-fiber spectrographs. Many objects in the archive have multiple spectra over time, which make them a valuable resource for archival time-domain studies. We are now developing a system to make all of the public spectra more easily searchable and viewable through the Virtual Observatory.

  1. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nash, Leslie A; Peters, Sandra J; Sullivan, Philip J; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  2. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  3. Keck Observations of HD 169142 and SAO 26804: Results from a Survey of Vega-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. S.; Telesco, C. M.; Pina, R. K.; Knacke, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    We present new mid-IR (10 and 18 μm ) observations of two Vega-like sources, HD 169142 and HD 233517 (SAO 26804). Using OSCIR on Keck II, we have detected extended emission around HD 169142 in what appears to be a nearly face-on disk. The mid-IR-emitting region of the disk has a diameter of ~175 AU, comparable to HD 141569 and the Vega-like archetype β Pictoris. The position of HD 169142 in the H-R diagram implies that it is close to, but not yet on, the ZAMS. Comparison with PMS evolutionary tracks indicates that it is 3 - 10 Myr old, in transition between the Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-like classes. Assuming that the mid-IR-emitting dust particles are Mie spheres implies that their diameter is < 3 μm . We also present new 10 and 18 μm images of HD 233517 (SAO 26804) that show this source is unresolved at the highest resolution currently attainable in the mid-IR. Our imaging with OSCIR on Keck II places full-width at half maximum (FWHM) limits on the source size of 0\\farcs31 at 10.8 μm and 0\\farcs inconsistent with previously published values. The fact that SAO 26804 is unresolved in the mid-IR has implications for the evolutionary status. We propose that the unresolved nature of SAO 26804 is strong circumstantial evidence that the source is not a main sequence (luminosity class V dwarf) Vega-like source, but a lithium-rich giant (luminosity class III). The giant classification for SAO 26804 is supported by its position in the H-R diagram. This research was supported in part by NSF and NASA grants to the University of Florida and Pennsylvania State University at Erie.

  4. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric and not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.

  5. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. PMID:26453899

  6. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  7. Effectiveness of influenza vaccination of schoolchildren in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Gattás, Vera L; Cardoso, Maria Regina A; Mondini, Gabriela; Machado, Clarisse M; Luna, Expedito J A

    2015-01-01

    Background Children play an important role in maintaining the transmission of influenza. Evidence suggests that vaccination of school-age children can reduce transmission to unvaccinated household contacts. We evaluated the direct and indirect effectiveness of the 2009 inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in vaccinated schoolchildren and their unvaccinated household contacts. Methods This was a double-blind cluster randomized trial involving 10 schools and 1742 schoolchildren as well as 5406 household contacts. The schools were randomly assigned to receive the influenza vaccine or the control vaccine. After vaccination, the schoolchildren and household contacts were followed for 6 months to identify cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI). Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed for the diagnosis of influenza. Results A total of 632 ARI cases were detected. Of those, 103 tested positive for influenza virus (influenza virus A[H1N1]pdm09 virus in 55 and seasonal influenza viruses in 48). The effectiveness of the vaccine in protecting against seasonal influenza virus infection was 65·0% for the household contacts (95% CI, 19·6–84·3) and 65·0% for the schoolchildren (95% CI, 20·9–84·5). Conclusion Vaccination of schoolchildren significantly protected them and their household contacts against seasonal influenza. PMID:26018131

  8. Urban influence on litterfall trace metals fluxes in the Atlantic forest of São Paulo (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fostier, A.-H.; Cecon, K.; Forti, M. C.

    2003-05-01

    A monitoring project for two forest catchments was establisbed in 2001 in Sâo Paulo State, Brazil. The chosen catchments differed significantly with respect to human occupation. One catchment area, PEFI (23°39'S and 46°37'W), is inside the largest metropolis of South America, the city of São Paulo, within a Park of 549.3 ha, located about 50 km away from the ocean. The other catchment area, CUNHA (between parallels 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10''South and meridians 45°02'53'' and 45°02'53'' West), is within a State Reserve of the Atlantic Forest, with 2850 ha, located about 15 km from the ocean, surrounded by rural areas and small villages. PEFI is about 798 m above sea level, while CUNHA is about 1050 m. In this work we examined the monthly litterfall trace metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg) fluxes for both catchments during the 2001 dry season (may to September). Trace element concentrations were also determined in soils. CUNHA is characterized by low fluxes and low concentrations in soil, compared with PEFI. The same tendency was also observed for rainfall and throughfall Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu fluxes.

  9. Serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filoni, Claudia; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2003-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a Lentivirus, are members of the family Retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. Morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. Infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. To investigate the prevalence of FeLV and feline lentiviruses in neotropic small felids kept in captivity in São Paulo state. Brazil, serum samples from 104 animals belonging to the species Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, and Oncifelis geoffroyi were tested for FeLV and feline lentiviruses by commercially available immunoassays. All results were negative, suggesting that retrovirus infection is not an important clinical problem in these populations. Because domestic cats in São Paulo city are naturally infected with these pathogens, and feral cats are commonly found in zoologic facilities in Brazil, preventive measures should be taken to avoid transmission of retroviruses to naive populations of wild and captive neotropic felids in Brazil. PMID:12723802

  10. The City as Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    The author gives a rationale for utilizing the city as a place to learn. The city has many problems and although logistics require that we conduct most education in the school building, the author argues for putting out best brains to the task of bringing the city to the classroom and to exploiting the city as a classroom when appropriate.…

  11. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    PubMed

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing. PMID:24313076

  12. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors. PMID:26958819

  13. [Inequalities in distribution of dental caries in teenagers of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, 2004].

    PubMed

    Rihs, Lilian Berta; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Cypriano, Silvia; Abdalla, Nádja Moscoso

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this work was to know the dental caries prevalence and treatment need, besides the distribution of the dental caries in a population of 12 year-old teenagers with high incidence of dental caries. 309 adolescents of public schools of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, in 2004, were examined. They were selected by process systematic random and the exams followed the World Health Organization criteria. The percentile of school caries free was of 38.8%. Among the adolescents examined, 36.6% (n=113) presented dental caries. DMFT was of 2.50 (IC95%=2.07-2.93). The decayed component was the highest (61.0%). The coefficient of Gini was 0.602 and SiC value was of 5.97 (IC95%=5.32-6.62); in this group especially, 74.7% (n=74) presented dental caries activity in the moment of the exam. Thus, it can be concluded that the adolescents of this city presented low dental caries experience; however, their needs were not assisted, once most of DMFT was formed of the decayed component at 12 years old. In the group SiC, it was verified that this came quite high, being recommended actions addressed to this specific group of adolescents. PMID:20694339

  14. Spatial distribution of low birthweight infants in Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.; Costa, Thais Moreira; Zöllner, Maria Stella A. da C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the spatial pattern of low birth weight infants in the city of Taubaté, São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Ecological and exploratory study, developed with the data acquired from the Health Department of Taubaté, regarding the period from January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2010. Birth certificates were used to obtain the data from infants weighing less than 2500g. A digital basis of census tracts was applied and the Global Moran index (IM) was estimated. Thematic maps were built for the distribution of low birth weight, health centers and tracts, according to the priority care (Moran map). The adopted statistical significance was α=5% and TerraView software conducted the spatial analysis. RESULTS: There were 18,915 live births during the study period, with 1,817 low birth weight infants (9.6%). The low birth weight infants' prevalence during the period ranged from 9.3 to 9.8%. A total of 1,185 infants with known addresses, compatible with the digital base (65.2% of low birth weight infants), were included. The IM for low birth weight was 0.12, with p<0.01; regarding the health centers distribution, IM was -0.07, with p=0.01. The Moran map identified 11 census tracts with high priority for intervention by health managers, located in the outskirts of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis identified the low birth weight distribution by census tracts and the sectors with a high priority for intervention. PMID:24473951

  15. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:27189526

  16. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  17. Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Glòria; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100,000 male inhabitants) than in Spain and Europe as a whole; rates were on decrease. São Paulo presented a poorer profile, with higher magnitude (11.86) and stationary trend. The appraisal of ecologic correlations indicated an unequal and inequitably distributed burden of disease in both cities, with poorer areas tending to present higher mortality. Barcelona had a larger gradient of mortality than São Paulo, indicating a higher inequality of cancer deaths across its neighbourhoods. Conclusion The quantitative monitoring of inequalities in health may contribute to the formulation of redistributive policies aimed at the concurrent promotion of wellbeing and social

  18. [Spatial analysis of counting data with excess zeros applied to the study of dengue incidence in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, José Vilton; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2016-08-01

    Dengue incidence occurs predominantly within city limits. Identifying spatial distribution of the disease at the local level helps formulate strategies to control and prevent the disease. Spatial analysis of counting data for small areas commonly violates the assumptions of traditional Poisson models due to the excessive amount of zeros. This study compared the performance of four counting models used in mapping diseases: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial. The methods were compared in a simulation study. The models analyzed in the simulation were applied to a spatial ecological study of dengue data aggregated by census tracts in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007. Spatial analysis was conducted with Bayesian hierarchical models. The zero-inflated Poisson model showed the best performance for estimating relative risk of dengue incidence in the census tracts. PMID:27509547

  19. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions. PMID:27101765

  20. Follow-up of the air pollution and the human male-to-female ratio analysis in São Paulo, Brazil: a times series study

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Veras, Mariana Matera; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In order to assess if ambient air pollution in urban areas could be related to alterations in male/female ratio this study objectives to evaluate changes in ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations after implementation of pollution control programmes in São Paulo city and the secondary sex ratio (SRR). Design and methods A time series study was conducted. São Paulo’s districts were stratified according to the PM10 concentrations levels and were used as a marker of overall air pollution. The male ratio was chosen to represent the secondary sex ratio (SSR=total male birth/total births). The SSR data from each area was analysed according to the time variation and PM10 concentration areas using descriptive statistics. The strength association between annual average of PM10 concentration and SSR was performed through exponential regression, and it was adopted as a statistical significance level of p<0.05. Results The exponential regression showed a negative and significant association between PM10 and SSR. SSR varied from 51.4% to 50.7% in São Paulo in the analysed period (2000–2007). Considering the PM10 average concentration in São Paulo city of 44.72 μg/m3 in the study period, the SSR decline reached almost 4.37%, equivalent to 30 934 less male births. Conclusions Ambient levels of PM10 are negatively associated with changes in the SSR. Therefore, we can speculate that higher levels of particulate pollution could be related to increased rates of female births. PMID:23892420

  1. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  2. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  3. NAA For Human Serum Analysis: Comparison With Conventional Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A. G.; Azevedo, Maria R.

    2010-08-04

    Instrumental and Comparator methods of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) were applied to determine elements of clinical relevancy in serum samples of adult population (Sao Paulo city, Brazil). A comparison with the conventional analyses, Colorimetric for calcium, Titrymetric for chlorine and Ion Specific Electrode for sodium and potassium determination were also performed permitting a discussion about the performance of NAA methods for clinical chemistry research.

  4. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  5. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  6. IFLA General Conference, 1990. IFLA Presession Seminar on Public Library Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Five of the six papers in this collection focus on public library services, collection development problems, and involvement in literacy campaigns in developing countries; the sixth paper is concerned with public library services in Norway. (1) In "Big Cities, Its Inhabitants and Public Libraries Systems," May Brooking Negrao examines Sao Paulo's…

  7. Teaching Children about Aspects of Comfort in the Built Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaltowski, Doris C. C. K.; Filho, Francisco Borges; Labaki, Lucila C.; Pina, Silvia A. Mikami G.; Bernardi, Nubia

    2004-01-01

    This article presents specific teaching material for the primary school level that introduces basic concepts of environmental comfort. The authors developed 2 booklets to make children aware of the built environment. Following a postoccupancy evaluation of state schools in the city of Campinas, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the research team…

  8. Promoting Ethical and Environmental Awareness in Vulnerable Communities: A Research Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Ulisses

    2012-01-01

    Urban populations that live in the outskirts of major Latin American cities usually face conditions of vulnerability attached to complex environmental issues, such as the lack of sewerage, floods, pollution and soil and water contamination. This article reports an intervention research programme in Sao Paulo, Brazil that combines a moral education…

  9. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  10. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  11. Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

  12. Atmospheric impacts of vehicular emissions in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P. P.; Brito, J. F.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; Alves, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    São Paulo is a large megacity (18 million people) with 7 million vehicles, with a peculiar vehicle fleet with significant ethanol emissions. A mixture of 24% of ethanol in the gasoline and a large fraction of vehicles running pure ethanol in flex fuel vehicles makes the city particularly interesting from the point of view of aerosol formation. A long term experiment was designed to analyze the physico-chemical properties of aerosols in São Paulo, as well as to apportion aerosol sources, with emphasis on vehicular emissions. Aerosol size distribution in the size range of 10 to 600 nm were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Optical properties are being measured with a TSI Nephelometer and a Thermo MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). The composition of fine and coarse mode aerosols are being measured with XRF analysis and a Sunset instrument measure organic and elemental carbon in quartz filters. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) is used to characterize organic aerosols, in parallel with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) to determine VOC concentrations. The measured total particle concentration typically varies between 10,000 and 50,000 per cm-3 being the lowest late in the night and highest around noon after peak vehicle emissions. Clear diurnal patterns in aerosol optical properties were observed. Scattering and absorption coefficients typically range between 20 and 100 Mm-1 at 450 nm, and between 10 to 40 Mm-1 at 637 nm, respectively, both of them peaking at 7:00 local time, the morning rush hour. The corresponding single scattering albedo varies between 0.50 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution of primary absorbing particles to the aerosol population. During the first month a total of seven new particle formation events were observed with growth rates ranging from 9 to 25 nm h-1. Interestingly enough there were also events where condensed vapors were evaporating from the condensed phase thus

  13. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; Fátima Andrade, María.; Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  14. How much urban population matters? Exploring the drivers of carbon emissions in 84 cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Lankao, P.

    2010-12-01

    Just as urban centers register different levels and paths of development, cities do not contribute at the same level to global warming. Carbon emissions per capita in cities from high-income countries such as Texas and the District of Columbia are 19-20 fold as high compared with those in Sao Paolo, Delhi and Kolkata. Yet, other wealthy cities such as Stockholm and Barcelona also have low levels of emissions per capita. This presentation will draw on results from a quantitative research effort covering 84 cities to show that population dynamics are not the only determinant of urban emissions. Many different factors account for the diverse levels and sources of urban carbon emissions: (a) differences both in their national/regional energy systems and in how energy generation, transportation and other emitters operate; (b) levels of economic development and affluence as measured by gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; (c) technology and technological innovations and acquisition; (d) climatic situation, altitude and location in relation to energy sources; (e) demographic structure and dynamics of a city; (f) urban function and city’s economic base; (g) urban form (spatial structure) and related to this, the lay out and structure of a city’s transportation system; and (h) the wider institutional setting of the city.

  15. CITY III Director's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game which allows the participants to make decisions affecting various aspects of the economic, governmental, and social sectors of a simulated urban area. The game director selects one of five possible starting city configurations, may set a number of conditions in the city before the start of play, and…

  16. Evolution models from the AGB to the PNe and the rapid evolution of SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.; Sebzda, Steven; Peterson, Zach

    2015-08-01

    We present evolution calculations from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the Planetary Nebula (PNe) phase for models of mass 1 M⊙ over a range of metallicities from primordial, Z = 10-14, through near solar, Z = 0.02. Using our grid of models, we determine a central star mass dependence on initial metallicity. We also present a range of low masses for our low to very low metal models. The understanding of these objects is an important part of galactic evolution and the evolution of the composition of the universe over a broad range of red shits. For our low Z models, we find key differences in how they cross the HR diagram to the PNe phase, compared with models with higher initial Z. Some of our models experience the so called AGB Final Thermal Pulse (AFTP), which is a helium pulse that occurs while leaving the AGB and causes a rapid looping evolution while evolving between the AGB and PN phase. We use these models to make comparisons to the central star of the Stingray Nebula, SAO 244567. This object has been observed to be rapidly evolving (heating) over more than the last 50 years and is the central star of the youngest known planetary nebula. These two characteristics are similar to what is expected for AFTP models. It is a short lived phase that is related to, but different than, very late thermal pulse objects such as Sakurai’s Object, FG Sge, and V605 Aql. These objects experienced a similar thermal pulse, but later on the white dwarf cooling track.

  17. Home Runs and Humbugs: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, C. F. Bond Jr. and B. M. DePaulo provided a meta-analysis of means and concluded that average lie detection accuracy was significantly greater than chance for most people. Now, they have presented an analysis of standard deviations (C. F. Bond Jr. & B. M. DePaulo, 2008), claiming that there are no reliable individual differences in lie…

  18. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27309350

  19. Use of high-scale traffic modeling to estimate road vehicle emissions of CO2 and impact on the atmospheric concentration in São Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Adequate estimations of motor vehicle CO2 emission inventories at high spatial and temporal urban scales are needed to establish transport policy measures aim to reduce climate change impacts from global cities. The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles (97% light-duty gasoline vehicles LDVs and 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles HDVs) and several environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions. Inventories match site measurements and remote sensing and help to assess the real impact of road vehicle emissions on city's air quality. In this paper we presented a high-resolution vehicle-based inventory of motor CO2 emissions mapped at a scale of 100 m and 1 hour. We used origin and destination (O/D) transport area zone trips from the mobility survey of the São Paulo Transport Metropolitan Company (Metro), a road network of the region and traffic datasets from the São Paulo Transport Engineering Company (CET). The inventory was done individually for LDVs and HDVs for the years 2008 and 2013 and was complemented with air quality datasets from the State Environmental Company (CETESB), together with census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Our inventory showed partial disagreement with the São Paulo State's GHG inventory, caused by the different approach used - bottom vs. top down - and characteristic spatial and temporal biases of the population inputs used (different emission factors). Higher concentrations became apparent near the road-network at the spatial scale used. The total emissions were estimated in 20,781 million tons per year of CO2eq (83.7% by LDVs and 16.3% HDVs). Temporal profiles - diurnal, weekly and monthly - in vehicle emission distributions were calculated using CET's traffic counts and surrogates of congestion. These profiles were compared with average road-site measurements of CO2 for the year 2013. Measurements showed two peaks associated to the

  20. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  1. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Angilletta, Michael J.; Wilson, Robbie S.; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Sears, Michael W.; Navas, Carlos A.; Ribeiro, Pedro L.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12°C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42°C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change. PMID:17327918

  2. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C; Sears, Michael W; Navas, Carlos A; Ribeiro, Pedro L

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change. PMID:17327918

  3. Referred speech-language and hearing complaints in the western region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Rondon, Silmara; Oliver, Fátima Correa; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiological profile of the population attending primary health care units in the western region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, highlighting referred speech-language and hearing complaints. METHOD: This investigation was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in primary health care units. Household surveys were conducted and information was obtained from approximately 2602 individuals, including (but not limited to) data related to education, family income, health issues, access to public services and access to health services. The speech-language and hearing complaints were identified from specific questions. RESULTS: Our results revealed that the populations participating in the survey were heterogeneous in terms of their demographic and economic characteristics. The prevalence of referred speech-language and hearing complaints in this population was 10%, and only half the users of the public health system in the studied region who had complaints were monitored or received specific treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the importance of using population surveys to identify speech-language and hearing complaints at the level of primary health care. Moreover, these findings highlight the need to reorganize the speech-language pathology and audiology service in the western region of São Paulo, as well as the need to improve the Family Health Strategy in areas that do not have a complete coverage, in order to expand and improve the territorial diagnostics and the speech-language pathology and audiology actions related to the prevention, identification, and rehabilitation of human communication disorders. PMID:24964306

  4. Exposure to MTV's global HIV prevention campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-02-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789 million households in over 166 countries had access to some or all of the campaign. To understand the level of actual exposure and the types of young people exposed, data were analyzed from population-based household surveys in three diverse urban areas where a campaign evaluation was conducted: Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil and Dakar, Senegal. Exposure rates ranged from 12% in Kathmandu, 23% in São Paulo, and 82% in Dakar, reaching an estimated 32,000, 400,000, 220,000 16- to 25-year-olds in each city, respectively. A number of personal, social and economic characteristics found to predict campaign exposure were identified in each site; in general, these were related to economic status and use of "new" media technologies. Though this skew toward more exposure by those with greater resources existed, we found that the campaign audience was in no way composed only of "elite" young people. (For example, although more of those exposed to the campaign had used the Internet compared with those not exposed, this was not the majority of those exposed in most countries.) The possibility of reaching millions of young people through global networks with minimal marginal costs after production, creates a new paradigm for reaching an important segment of young people. PMID:17411388

  5. Seasonal and diurnal variation of NOx-O3 in the troposphere of São Paulo State (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, C. D.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    attributed to the higher emission of NOx and volatile organic compounds during biomass burning. These values are similar to the concentrations observed in huge urban cities such as São Paulo, and are close to the national standard of air quality of São Paulo State (Brazil). However, the reduction of O3 precursors emission in the region is expected with the minimization and elimination of burn procedure in the sugar cane plantations up to the year 2021.

  6. Mexico City Aerosol Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, P. A.; Eichinger, W. E.; Prueger, J.; Holder, H. L.

    2007-12-01

    A radiative impact study was conducted in Mexico City during MILAGRO/MIRAGE campaign in March of 2006. On a day when the predominant wind was from the north to the south, authors measured radiative properties of the atmosphere in six locations across the city ranging from the city center, through the city south limits and the pass leading out of the city (causing pollutants to funnel through the area). A large change in aerosol optical properties has been noticed. The aerosol optical depth has generally increased outside of the city and angstrom coefficient has changed significantly towards smaller values. Aerosol size distribution was calculated using SkyRadPack. The total optical depths allowed coincidental lidar data to calculate total extinction profiles for all the locations for 1064nm.

  7. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M. . E-mail: txh5@case.edu

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 {mu}g/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and lowering of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-{alpha} and IKK-{beta}, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate I{kappa}B-{alpha}. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  8. Alcoholism in a geriatric outpatient clinic of São Paulo-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hirata, E S; Almeida, O P; Funari, R R; Klein, E L

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are an increasing health problem among the elderly, but there is only scanty information about their prevalence and associated risk factors in developing countries. The authors set out to evaluate the prevalence and associated clinical/demographic features of alcoholism in a sample of male elderly subjects attending a Geriatric Primary Health Outpatient Clinic in a State University Hospital in the City of São Paulo-Brazil. Three hundred four patients were assessed with the Brazilian version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and a semistructured questionnaire designed to investigate associated features. Lifetime alcoholism was present in 15.1% of the sample, although only 4.3% were active drinkers. Patients classified as "cases" were younger than their nonalcoholic counterparts (70.61 vs. 73.31), and there was a mild, though not significant, excess of Blacks and Mulattos among the former (32.6% vs. 15.9%). Cases were also more likely to rely on their family for financial support (59.0% vs. 43.5%) and to acknowledge a positive family history of alcoholism (51.4% vs. 31.2%). Alcohol abuse or dependence was further associated with heavy smoking (58.7% vs. 44.0%). The authors concluded that alcoholism in this Brazilian elderly sample was likely to be associated with an earlier age at onset of medical problems, financial dependence, Black/Mulatto race, smoking, and positive family history of alcohol abuse/dependence. The authors suggest that the use of standardized methods of assessment of alcoholism in general medical settings may increase the detection of cases and contribute to improved health measures for the management of these patients. PMID:9195283

  9. [Correlation between homicide rates and economic indicators in São Paulo, Brazil, 1996].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C

    2000-02-01

    Around 30% of the deaths due to violent causes in Brazil result from homicides. Violence has traditionally been related to larger social problems, such as poverty. Recently, however, a positive correlation has been observed between higher incomes and an increase in the homicide rate, so that some researchers have begun to consider inequality, rather than poverty, as an explanation for the epidemic of violence. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between urbanization, poverty, and economic inequality and homicide rates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1996. Information regarding population size, average monthly income of household heads, income distribution, and Gini index was obtained for each municipality, based on the demographic census. Homicide rates were calculated based on official data. Data were analyzed in terms of correlation and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Homicide rates rose in direct proportion to city population and ranged from 6.96 (per 100,000 inhabitants) in municipalities with a population smaller than 10,000 inhabitants, to 55.54 in municipalities with more than 1 million inhabitants. Relative risk ranged from 1.35 to 7.98. A significant correlation with population size was found only for incomes above 3.11 times the minimum wage and a Gini index greater than 0.50. There was a strong, direct, and significant correlation between homicide rates and the income ratio between the ninetieth and the twentieth percentiles of the population. It is necessary to probe more deeply into the macrosocial determinants of homicide rates in order to identify indicators of inequality that can generate meaningful data for developing public health strategies. PMID:10748663

  10. SAO 244567 - A post-AGB star which has turned into a planetary nebula within the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Pottasch, S. R.; Manchado, A.; Clavel, J.; de Martino, D.; van de Steene, G. C. M.; Sahu, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    SAO 244567 (Hen 1357 = CPD -59 deg 6926 = IRAS 17119-5926) is an IRAS source with far infrared colors and flux distribution similar to those of planetary nebulae. The IUE ultraviolet spectra obtained in July 1988 and April 1992 show nebular emission lines, and also the changes in the spectra suggest the formation of the planetary nebula and the rapid evolution of the central star. The optical spectrum of this star obtained by Henize around 1950 shows only the H-alpha line in emission, while the most recent one, obtained in 1990 shows strong forbidden emission lines corresponding to a low excitation and young planetary nebula. The IUE ultraviolet spectra show evidence for the presence of stellar wind and mass loss. The stellar lines show P-Cygni type profiles and the terminal velocity of the stellar wind is about - 3000 km/s. The spectral type of the central star is O8 V. The presence of a detached cold dust shell (125 K), high galactic latitude and abundances suggest that SAO 244567 has recently evolved from a low or intermediate mass progenitor star which has ejected its outer envelope during the AGB stage of evolution and is rapidly evolving towards hotter spectral types.

  11. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  12. Rapid photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the young planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Rajoelimanana, Andry

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for the young compact planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567. High-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the expansion velocity of the nebula, V exp = 8.4 ± 1.5 km s-1, and the heliocentric velocity of the object, V r = +12.6 ± 1.7 km s-1, to be determined. The gas shell parameters ( N e , T e ), the extinction in the H β line, and the O, N, Ne, Ar, S, Cl, He, and C abundances have been determined from low-resolution spectra taken in 1992 and 2011. We have found significant changes in the relative intensities of forbidden lines in the spectrum of Hen 3-1357 within the last 20 years: the low-excitation [O I], [O II], and [N II] lines became stronger relative to H β by a factor of ˜2, while the [O III] lines weakened by a factor of ˜ 2, suggesting a decrease in the excitation class of the nebula. The V-band photometry performed under the ASAS-3 program revealed a decline in the yearly mean brightness of SAO 244 567 from 2001 to 2009 by 0_.^m 5 and rapid variability with an amplitude of a few tenths of a magnitude. Published observational data in a wide spectral range, from the near ultraviolet to the radio band, suggest an appreciable weakening of the flux from the star and the nebula.

  13. Investigation Route of the Coronary Patient in the Public Health System in Curitiba, São Paulo and in Incor - IMPACT Study

    PubMed Central

    Cerci, Juliano J.; Trindade, Evelinda; Preto, Daniel; Cerci, Rodrigo Julio; Lemos, Pedro A.; Cesar, Luiz Antonio Machado; Preto, Luís; Stinghen, Luiz; Martinez, Cátia; Meneghetti, José Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The investigation of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and its treatment depend on risk stratification for decision-making on the need for cardiac catheterization and revascularization. Objective: To analyze the procedures used in the diagnosis and invasive treatment of patients with CAD, at the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in the cities of Curitiba, São Paulo and at InCor-FMUSP. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of the diagnostic and therapeutic itineraries of the Brazilian public health care system patient, between groups submitted or not to prior noninvasive tests to invasive cardiac catheterization. Stress testing, stress echocardiography, perfusion scintigraphy, catheterization and percutaneous or surgical revascularization treatment procedures were quantified and the economic impact of the used strategies. Results: There are significant differences in the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD in the metropolitan region in the three scenarios. Although functional testing procedures are most often used the direct costs of these procedures differ significantly (6.1% in Curitiba, 20% in São Paulo and 27% in InCor-FMUSP). Costs related to the procedures and invasive treatments represent 59.7% of the direct costs of SUS in São Paulo and 87.2% in Curitiba. In InCor-FMUSP, only 24.3% of patients with stable CAD submitted to CABG underwent a noninvasive test before the procedure. Conclusion: Although noninvasive functional tests are the ones most often requested for the assessment of patients with suspected or known CAD most of the costs are related to invasive procedures/treatments. In most revascularized patients, the documentation of ischemic burden was not performed by SUS. PMID:25076179

  14. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  15. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  16. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  17. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  18. CITY III Player's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game in which participants make decisions affecting the economic, governmental, and social conditions of a simulated urban area. In CITY III, the computer stores all the relevant statistics for the area, updates data when changes are made, and prints out yearly reports. The computer also simulates…

  19. CITY III Operator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CITY III is a computer-assisted simulation game of an urban system involving player operation of and interaction with economic, social, and government components. The role of operator in the game is to take the handwritten inputs (decisions) from the CITY III participants, process them, and return output which initiates the next round of…

  20. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  1. Prevalence of precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer in Japanese-Brazilians in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Priscila; Marques, Sílvio Alencar; Hirai, Amélia Toyomi; Marques, Mariangela E A; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; Yamada, Sérgio

    2009-05-01

    Precancerous lesions and skin cancer are infrequent in Asians, and have received little documentation in the literature. Brazil has the world's largest contingent of Japanese immigrants and their descendants, and 70% live in the State of São Paulo. The prevalence of such skin lesions in Japanese-Brazilians is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancer in first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians over 30 years of age, without miscegenation, living in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, in 2006. Of the 567 Japanese-Brazilians that underwent dermatological examination, actinic keratosis was diagnosed in 76, with a mean age of 68.9 years, and a single case of basal cell carcinoma was detected in a 39-year-old female patient. In Japan, prevalence of actinic keratosis varies from 0.76% to 5%, and the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is 1.2 to 5.4/100 thousand. Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru showed a 13.4% prevalence of actinic keratoses and earlier age at onset. Proximity to the Equator and a history of farming contribute to these higher rates. Presence of solar melanosis was associated with a 1.9-fold risk of developing actinic keratosis. PMID:19488481

  2. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25388442

  3. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25606733

  4. Characterization of vehicle emissions in São Paulo and the impacts on atmospheric chemistry and secondary aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Godoy, M.; Godoy, J.; Varanda Rizzo, L.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-12-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an important role. São Paulo, located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in São Paulo is considered one of the worst worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission pattern, we are running a source apportionment study in São Paulo. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles) and diesel (heavy-duty vehicles). Whereas the latter shows usually much higher emission factors compared with ethanol or gasohol, heavy-duty vehicles have increasingly limited access within the São Paulo city limits, thus increasing the importance of light duty vehicles on air quality degradation. This study comprises four sampling sites, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, ozone, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to real-time VOC analysis and aerosol composition, respectively. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10^4 and 3.10^4 cm-3, mostly

  5. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In our recently published article "Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector" by Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu et al. a sentence located in paragraph 8 in the Discussion section had its meaning altered due to the improper insertion of three words. PMID:18834535

  6. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  7. The Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide, rhodostomin, inhibits in vitro cell adhesion to extracellular matrices and platelet aggregation caused by saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H. S.; Yang, R. S.; Huang, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    Saos-2 cells, derived from a primary human osteosarcoma, caused dose-dependent platelet aggregation in heparinised human platelet-rich plasma. Saos-2 tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) was completely inhibited by hirudin but unaffected by apyrase. The cell suspension shortened the plasma recalcification times of normal, factor VIII-deficient and factor IX-deficient human plasmas in a dose-dependent manner. However, the cell suspension did not affect the recalcification time of factor VII-deficient plasma. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human tissue factor completely abolished TCIPA. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-integrin MAbs as the primary binding ligands demonstrated that the integrin receptors alpha v beta 3, alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 were present of Saos-2 cells, which might mediate tumour cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. Rhodostomin, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing snake venom peptide which antagonises the binding of fibrinogen to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, prevented Saos-2 TCIPA as well as tumour cell adhesion to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen type I. Likewise, the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) showed a similar effect. On a molar basis, rhodostomin was about 18,000 and 1000 times, respectively, more potent than GRGDS in inhibiting TCIPA and tumour cell adhesion. PMID:7841039

  8. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. PMID:27287114

  9. [Formation of regional relations in a global context: football rivalry between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo during the First Republic].

    PubMed

    Peters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The internationalization of football and the ongoing creation of a transnational sports community in the early twentieth century interacted with processes of national and regional differentiation. The article shows that, in Brazil, football served as a means for the elite of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro to forge and express their regional identities. Adopting a global and regional perspective, an attempt is made to understand these processes of differentiation between the two cities based on the analysis of given sporting events. The text starts from the assumption that regional and national identities and spaces are constructed from transnational interaction and negotiations. In the specific case of football, the aim is to ascertain the standardizing and differentiating effects that the process of its globalization implied. PMID:24554132

  10. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  11. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  12. Verification of LANDSAT imagery for morphametric and topological studies of drainage basins in a section of the western plateau of Sao Paulo State: Tiete-Aguapei watershed. M.S. Thesis; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camargo, J. C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT MSS imagery for morphometric and topological studies of drainage basins was verified. Using Tiete and Aguapei watershed (Western Plateau) as the test site because of its homogeneous landscape. Morphometric variables collected for ten drainage basins include: circularity index; river density; drainage density; topographic texture; areal and index length; basin parameter; and main river length 1st order and 2nd order channel length. The topographical variables determined were: order; magnitude; bifuraction ratio; weighted bifuraction ratio; number of segments; number of linking; trajectory length; and topological diameter. Data were collected on topographical maps at the scale of 1:250,000 and 1:59,000 and on LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000. The results which were summarized on tables for further analysis, show that LANDSAT imagery can supply the lack of topographic charts for drainage studies.

  13. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  14. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  15. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p < 0.05(. Both AH Plus and 2Seal demonstrated significant cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. In contrast to 2Seal, the cytotoxicity of AH Plus in the MG-63 cell line increased with extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  16. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  17. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  18. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) optimal estimation (OE) ozone profile algorithm (SOE) applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also compare the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, and KNMI's Optimal Estimation (KOE) algorithm. The best agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of within 1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low and mid-latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are calculated for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have higher values of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, or total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE-Brewer differences are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles and show significant deviations depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but has stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on observational geometry and geophysical conditions is marginal compared to KOE, but is distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of all four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift, but seasonal features are evident, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE) and the use of

  19. [Care and (non)-vaccination in the context of high-income and well-schooled families in São Paulo in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Couto, Marcia Thereza; Barbieri, Carolina Luisa Alves

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the parental care dimension and the relationship with the decisions on (non)-vaccination of their children in the context of high-income and well-schooled families in São Paulo city/state. The research adopts the qualitative approach, using in-depth interviews conducted with 15 couples that were divided into three groups: vaccinators, selective vaccinators and non-vaccinators. The analytic-interpretative study of the data was performed by means of content analysis and in line with the benchmarks of care of health and family. For all the couples analyzed, the option of (non)-vaccination of their children is perceived as parental care and protection of the child. However, for the vaccinators, protection is to vaccinate their children; for the selective vaccinators, protection is to study case by case; and for the non-vaccinators, protection is not to vaccinate their children, but to protect them against the risks of vaccination. The study also revealed that the reasons for non-vaccination, selection and/or postponement of the vaccination schedule were similar to those found in the international literature. The study highlights the importance of socio-cultural comprehension of (non)-acceptance of vaccination in the context of parental care. PMID:25650603

  20. Precipitation variability in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, A. S.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2008-08-01

    The State of São Paulo is the richest in Brazil, responsible for over 30% of the Brazilian gross rate. It has a population of around 30 million and its economy is based on agriculture and industrial products. Any change in climate can have a profound influence on the socio-economics of the State. In order to determine changes in total and extreme rainfall over São Paulo State, climate change indices derived from daily precipitation data were calculated using specially designed software. Maps of trends for a subset of 59 rain gauge stations were analysed for the period 1950-1999 and also for a subset of this period, 1990-1999, representing more recent climate. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to the time series. Maps of trends for six annual precipitation indices (annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), very heavy precipitation days (R20 mm), events greater than the 95th percentile (R95p), maximum five days precipitation total (RX5day), the length of the largest wet spell (CWD) and the length of the largest dry spell (CDD)) were analysed for the entire period. These exhibited statistically significant trends associated with a wetter climate. A significant increase in PRCPTOT, associated with very heavy precipitation days, were observed at more than 45% of the rain gauge stations. The Mann-Kendall test identified that the positive trend in PRCPTOT is possibly related to the increase in the R95p and R20 mm indices. Therefore, the results suggest that there has been a change in precipitation intensity. In contrast, the indices for the more recent shorter time series are significantly different to the longer term indices. The results indicate that intense precipitation is becoming concentrated in a few days and spread over the period when the CDD and R20 mm indices show positive trends, while negative ones are seen in the RX5day index. The trends found could be related to many anthropogenic aspects such as biomass burning aerosols and land use.

  1. City College of New York CITY FACTS, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. City Coll.

    CITY FACTS is an annual publication of the City College of New York's (CCNY's) Institutional Research Office. It contains four main sections: Executive Summary and Commentary on CITY FACTS Tables, Student Data over the Past Decade, Employee and Financial Data, and Reference Sources. A brief commentary on each of the City Facts tables is included…

  2. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  3. The sustainable city

    SciTech Connect

    Gangloff, D.

    1995-05-01

    Natural marshes are replacing expensive man-made sewage treatment plants. Leaves that once wound up in landfills are now enhancing soils. Ecological landscaping is cooling entire communities and reducing energy use. In coming to view our cities as ecosystems, we are learning to apply the concepts and principles that have sustained rural forests and farms for generations. The question now is, how can those concepts be applied to cities, and how can individual citizens - as well as community leaders - act to improve the sustainability of the places they call home. This article discusses the following topics in reference to developing cities which can sustain themselves: energy efficiency; pollution and waste reduction; capturing natural processes (taking advantage of species that thrive in and benefit the city); merging ecological, economic, and social factors. 6 figs.

  4. Cincinnati; Our Convention City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchin, Anna

    1970-01-01

    During Easter week, 1971, Cincinnati will be the hostess of the 50th anniversary convention of the Catholic Library Association. Items of historical interest concerning the city are briefly described. (NH)

  5. Noise in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

  6. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  7. [Dietary factors and oral cancer: a case-control study in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Góis Filho, José Francisco de; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Abrahão, Márcio; Latorre, Maria do Rosario Dias de Oliveira; Eluf Neto, José; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2007-03-01

    Dietary factors associated with oral cancer were investigated in a case-control hospital-based study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2002. A total of 835 subjects, 366 with histologically confirmed incident cases of oral-cavity or pharyngeal cancer and 469 controls participated in the study. Dietary data were collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained from unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Inverse associations with risk of oral cancer were found for the highest intake of beans, OR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.22-0.64), raw vegetables, OR = 0.51 (95%CI: 0.29-0.93) and the intermediate tertile of rice and pasta intake, OR = 0.56 (95%CI: 0.38-0.83). Positive associations were observed for the highest intake of eggs, OR = 1.84 (95%CI: 1.23-2.75), potatoes, OR = 2.22 (95%CI: 1.53-3.25), and milk, OR= 1.80 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98). Some traditional Brazilian foods like rice and beans emerged as protective factors against oral cancer, independently of other risk factors. PMID:17334570

  8. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions. PMID:21667231

  9. Management of fishing of the broadband anchovy (Anchoviella lepidentostole) (Fowler, 1911), in south São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, J T; Sobrinho, R P

    2013-11-01

    The broadband anchovy (Anchoviella lepidentostole) is one of the most important fishery resources for economic and social development of Iguape City and for the whole of the south coast of São Paulo state. Nowadays this activity involves over 2,500 fishermen. This paper aims to evaluate its fishing, and discuss how the activity is managed. In order to conduct this study, production data and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data from the 1998-2000 period have been collected, and the characterisation of the activity has also been done. A decline in broadband anchovy abundance had been observed in the region up until 2004, when a new regulation was implemented, in an attempt to recover the resource, with the establishment of closed season fishing (defeso) during the catch season, and adjustments in the employed fishing gear. The results have shown a recovery of the abundance of broadband anchovy throughout the 2005-2010 period, showing thus far that the measures taken for the maintenance of the resource have been successful. The activity has been managed through discussions involving people from the fishing sector in order to determine the controversial actions to be taken, that are hard to enforce. In order to achieve a more satisfactory resource management, it is necessary to keep the participatory process, with adaptive co-management, based on discussion among all the sectors involved (from government and society), and constant monitoring of the activity. PMID:24789383

  10. Matrix support strategies: the experience of two Family Health Support Centers (NASFs) in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Rita Maria de Abreu; Kaltner, Ronaldo Pires; Lancman, Selma

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Family Health Support Centers (NASFs) is to expand and qualify primary health care initiatives. Working together with Family Health Teams (EqSFs) they use matrix support strategies. This paper discusses how NASF professionals develop their work, emphasizing how matrix support approaches are appropriated and incorporated into daily working practices. The results that are presented are based on a case study of the work process of NASFs in a region of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In order to investigate this issue, specific questions were introduced at different stages of the ergonomic work analysis. The implementation of the NASF, without a review of the guidance documents provided by the EqSF, created the following paradoxes: the different requirements of productivity and the working strategies between the NASF and the EqSF; the different demands of care for the population and different priorities for action, which were reflected in the division of tasks and the time allocated to each of them, etc. The practices that have been accumulated since the creation of the NASF suggests a review of these documents in order to transform the organization of planned work of these organizations in order to create better conditions for shared working practices. PMID:26331516

  11. Preliminary fog chemistry analysis at two different sites: Castello Branco and Raposo Tavares roads in São Paulo St., Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bauer, H.; Vasconcellos, P. C.; Censon, V. K.; Avila, S. G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is characterize the fog composition at two sites nearby the important roads, at surrounding São Paulo City, in the São Paulo State, Brazil. Both sites (CB and RT) present high number of fog events and they cause traffic problems, mainly due to radiative fogs. Castello Branco (CB) site also presents a great number of chemical industries, opposite of Raposo Tavares (RT) site. Those industries may produce CCN (sulfates, nitrates and ammonia, mainly) and due to these fog events are observed. Five events were collected from May to August 2009 at both sites. The overall results show elevated values of ammonium particularly (96 mg.L-1) at CB site as expected due to the fertilizer industries in surroundings. Additionally, it presents a high standard deviation (131 mg.L-1), perhaps due to the industry exhaustion time schedule. High values of chlorine were evaluated as well (860 mg.L-1), suggesting industrial sources, and landfill waste burning often observed in Brazilian cities. Sodium concentrations, were the highest at CB site (av. 352 mg.L-1) on June 22nd event, which may be it is from Atlantic Ocean source, despite that it is more than 100 km far. CB site also presents high values of sulfate, potassium and nitrates. Compared to RT site, all these chemical species present higher values at CB site, except nitrates, with similar concentrations. Oxalate (0.1 mg.L-1 at RT and 0.6 mg.L-1 at CB) and levoglucosan (0.3 mg.L-1 at RT and 0.2 mg.L-1 at CB) were found in fog water which indicates biomass burning (sugar cane) which are common during that period (May to November) of the year. It must be notified as well that the weather conditions during last winter were atypical, particularly from July to August. They were influenced by El Niño phenomena, which increased rain amount and higher temperatures at Southeastern Brazil where São Paulo site is located. The increase of rain events affected the number of radiative fogs. Advective fog events were

  12. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  13. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  14. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  15. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  16. Universities Scale Like Cities

    PubMed Central

    van Raan, Anthony F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the ‘gross university income’ in terms of total number of citations over ‘size’ in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities -the top-100 European universities- we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment. PMID:23544062

  17. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  18. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage. PMID:27199420

  19. Reproducing in cities.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  20. Finding the Lost City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Nicholas Clapp, a filmmaker and archeology enthusiast, had accumulated extensive information concerning Ubar, the fabled lost city of ancient Arabia. When he was unable to identify its exact location, however, he turned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for assistance in applying orbital remote sensing techniques. JPL scientists searched NASA's shuttle imaging radar, as well as Landsat and SPOT images and discovered ancient caravan tracks. This enabled them to prepare a map of the trails, which converged at a place known as Ash Shisr. An expedition was formed, which found structures and artifacts from a city that predates previous area civilization by a thousand years. Although it will take time to validate the city as Ubar, the discovery is a monumental archeological triumph.

  1. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and in situ sea level data at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc; Park, Young-Hyang

    1995-12-01

    In situ sea level data from a shallow pressure tide gauge (mean depth 3.21 m) at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea, and altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) were analyzed and compared. The Texas model, a T/P-derived tide model, is used for the tidal correction of altimeter data. Sea level anomaly time series from both data sets were low-pass filtered by using a Gaussian recurrent interpolation scheme, suppressing high-frequency fluctuations of periods much less than 2 months. According to the 1992-1993 Sao Tome tide gauge data, a clear seasonal signal was observed both in 1992 and in 1993, presenting two sea level maxima in February and October and two minima in June and December. These sea level variations are consistent with the known seasonal mean sea level cycle of the area, most of which can be explained by steric sea level changes due to the seasonal cycle of upper 500-m water column properties in the Gulf of Guinea. On the basis of the 60-day low-passed tide gauge time series, significant year to year variations were observed as well, with a 6.3-cm sea level difference in February (+8.1 cm in 1992 versus +1.8 cm in 1993) and a 4.4-cm difference in October (+4.6 cm in 1992 versus +9.0 cm in 1993). Minimum sea levels, occurring just prior to the upwelling season (July-August), were almost the same for both years (-9 to -10 cm) but lasted much longer in 1992 (2 months) than in 1993 (2 weeks). During the 15-month period of concomitant observations, from October 1992 to December 1993, these seasonal and year to year sea level variations are remarkably well reproduced by the T/P sea level time series, with an rms difference of 2.2 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.88. This result in the equatorial Atlantic is consistent with other intercomparisons in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This excellent recovery of the oceanic signal is undoubtedly the result of unprecedented high precision of T/P measurements and the reliable T/P-derived tide model that is used in

  2. Inner City Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Togias, Alkis

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. This article will review these facets and discuss successful and unsuccessful interventions in order to understand what is needed to solve this problem. PMID:25459579

  3. Contourite systems in the region of the southern São Paulo Plateau escarpment, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. G.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Ivanova, E. V.; Levchenko, O. V.; Yutsis, V. V.; Frantseva, T. N.

    2013-07-01

    Seismoacoustic investigations with a high-resolution parametric echo-sounder "SES 2000 deep" carried out on cruises 33, 35, and 37 of the R/V Akademik Ioffe revealed several erosional-depositional contourite systems on the São Paulo Plateau escarpment and its toe in the South Atlantic. Two contourite terraces related to interfaces between different water masses are observable on the escarpment. These terraces presumably reflect the activity of internal waves and turbulent eddies. The São Paulo contourite channel and genetically related drift are traceable along the escarpment toe. Changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in Core AI-2563 retrieved from the summit of the São Paulo contourite drift suggest a shallowing of the Weddell Sea Deep Water mass during glacial times. It is established that the contour current of the Weddell Sea Deep Water and Lower Circumpolar Water considerably affect the formation of contourite depositional systems on the escarpment and its toe.

  4. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing. PMID:23585362

  5. Determinación de la orientación global SAO-Hipparcos mediante una expansión en armónicos vectoriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Vucetich, H.; Orellana, R.; Arias, E. F.

    En base a las diferencias de posición y movimientos propios de 101352 estrellas con posición SAO observadas por HIPPARCOS y utilizando la naturaleza vectorial de esas diferencias, determinamos 6 parámetros de orientación global (3 de rotación y 3 de desplazamiento axial), para los sistemas de referencia asociados a los marcos mencionados, mediante una descomposición en serie de armónicos vectoriales ortogonales.

  6. Public green areas and urban environmental quality of the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertini, M A; Rufino, R R; Fushita, A T; Lima, M I S

    2016-04-19

    Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs), using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990) and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos. The results show that public green areas comprise 6.55% of the municipality, with a public green areas index (PGAI) of 18.85 m2/inhabitant, indicating good urban environmental quality when compared to rates of 15 m2/capita for public green areas for recreation, suggested by the Brazilian Society of Urban Forestry. The differences between the administrative regions are concern with situations from 4.16 to 36.30 m2/inhabitant. In this context, it is recommend specific public policies and popular participation in the process of continuous improvement for increasing public green areas in the less favored regions. The Genebrino method applied to indicators of public green areas (GPGA - amount of public green areas divided by population density), showed a commendable goal above 40% for urban environmental quality. PMID:27097087

  7. [The perception of domestic violence of pregnant and not pregnant women in the city of Campinas, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women. PMID:19197433

  8. Expression of extracellular calcium (Ca2 + o)-sensing receptor in the clonal osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kifor, O.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2 + o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. More recent data have suggested the presence of this receptor in additional tissues, such as brain, intestine and skin. In this study, we examined the expression of the CaR in the rat and human osteosarcoma cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, respectively, which possess osteoblast-like characteristics. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using a polyclonal antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in UMR-106 and SAOS-2 cells. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products, also identified CaR transcripts in each cell line. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, possess both CaR protein and mRNA very similar if not identical to those in parathyroid and kidney.

  9. Public-private partnerships and public hospital performance in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    La Forgia, Gerard M; Harding, April

    2009-01-01

    Public hospitals that are directly managed by government perform poorly in many developing countries. Approaches to improving them through internal managerial reforms have failed, and effective alternatives are much needed. Policymakers are considering reforms through public-private partnerships (PPPs)--a promising but so far unevaluated approach. We present results of a successful reform in São Paulo, Brazil. The PPP model gave facility managers latitude to manage human resources--a factor critical to success. Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance. PMID:19597211

  10. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  11. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  12. Model Cities Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga.

    The Model Cities Training Program, the first in the country, is a 10-session course to be conducted in seminar form under the direction of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. The objective is to enable the 50 members of the Community Development Administration Board of Directors to: acquire knowledge of the structure of the Model Cities…

  13. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  14. Summer in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the different experiences of the participants in an Outward Bound-sponsored "urban expedition" to New York City that was designed to make them better teachers by examining their beliefs and biases. The participants in this "urban expedition" came from schools that work with Outward Bound USA, the Garrison, New York,…

  15. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  16. America's Most Literate Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack

    This study assessed factors related to literacy and literate behavior, rating the most and least literate U.S. cities. Data came from the U.S. Census Bureau, Audit Bureau of Circulations, American Booksellers Association, Yellow Pages, American Library Directory, and National Directory of Magazines. Thirteen measures were combined to form five…

  17. City Kids Go Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  18. City Forms, Country Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadadiello, Anthony S.

    1983-01-01

    The program for artistically talented in the Jersey City Public Schools primarily serves a disadvantaged population. Among its activities are field trips to the countryside and to local neighborhoods. Students get new visual experiences which they can compare to familiar ones and are encouraged to use in their artwork. (CS)

  19. Making Cities Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil B.; Engel, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Describes several examples of urban parks and the renewal of city open spaces. Community groups interested in getting funding from government or private sources must cope with budget restrictions by making effective, innovative use of available money. Government agencies with funds allocated for urban improvements are mentioned. (AM)

  20. City model enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Philip D.; Quinn, Jonathan A.; Jones, Christopher B.

    The combination of mobile communication technology with location and orientation aware digital cameras has introduced increasing interest in the exploitation of 3D city models for applications such as augmented reality and automated image captioning. The effectiveness of such applications is, at present, severely limited by the often poor quality of semantic annotation of the 3D models. In this paper, we show how freely available sources of georeferenced Web 2.0 information can be used for automated enrichment of 3D city models. Point referenced names of prominent buildings and landmarks mined from Wikipedia articles and from the OpenStreetMaps digital map and Geonames gazetteer have been matched to the 2D ground plan geometry of a 3D city model. In order to address the ambiguities that arise in the associations between these sources and the city model, we present procedures to merge potentially related buildings and implement fuzzy matching between reference points and building polygons. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented methods.

  1. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  2. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  3. New City, New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2010-01-01

    After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

  4. Atlantic City memories.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Franklin H

    2008-04-01

    Fifty years ago, the Atlantic City meetings, held the first week in May of every year, were attended by all the elite of American academic medicine and all who wanted to join that group. Part of the magic of those meetings was that professors and neophytes took each other seriously and talked to each other. PMID:18382726

  5. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general categories: (1) case or…

  6. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  7. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  8. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  9. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  10. CITIES ARE CHANGING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAVITZ, MEL

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL CHANGES IN LARGE CITIES ARE DISCUSSED. POPULATION GROWTH IN THE LAST FEW YEARS HAS OCCURRED PRIMARILY IN THE SUBURBS. URBAN RENEWAL HAS REALIGNED AND RELOCATED THE RACES AND THE SOCIAL CLASSES, AND FREEWAY CONSTRUCTION HAS CREATED INTERURBAN STRIPS. CASUALTIES OF THESE CHANGES ARE CROWDING THE MIDDLE NEIGHBORHOODS…

  11. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects. PMID:24374859

  12. Response of SAOS-2 cells to simulated microgravity and effect of biocompatible sol-gel hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.

    2016-05-01

    The health of astronauts, during space flight, is threatened by bone loss induced by microgravity, mainly attributed to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process. In the present work, the response to the microgravity of bone cells has been studied using the SAOS-2 cell line grown under the condition of weightlessness, simulated by means of a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Cell viability after 72 h of rotation has been evaluated by means of WST-8 assay and compared to that of control cells. Although no significant difference between the two cell groups has been observed in terms of viability, F-actin staining showed that microgravity environment induces cell apoptosis and altered F-actin organization. To investigate the possibility of hindering the trend of the cells towards the death, after 72 h of rotation the cells have been seeded onto biocompatible ZrO2/PCL hybrid coatings, previously obtained using a sol-gel dip coating procedure. WST-8 assay, carried out after 24 h, showed that the materials are able to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effect of microgravity on cells.

  13. Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsai-Ying; Trovoada dos Santos, Maria de Jesus; Tseng, Lien-Feng; Chang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Chien-Fu; Carvalho, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lien, Jih-Ching; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for dengue E IgG, and 38 samples (48.72%) were positive for NS1 IgG. A prevalence of 35.90% was therefore determined for dengue IgG by considering samples that yielded positive results by all three tests. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses were examined by indirect ELISA against Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Only one sample exhibited stronger absorbance against Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Moreover, one sample was positive for dengue IgM. These results agreed with the previous researches in neighboring countries and suggested DENV exposure. The study contributes to raising public awareness of dengue and supporting future control strategies. PMID:26739653

  14. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  15. Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Estimative of CO2 and CO Vehicular Emission Contribution from the Megacity of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Nogueira, T.; Martínez, P. J.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R. M.; Ynoue, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is composed by 39 municipalities with a population of 20 million inhabitants in an area of 8,511 km2. The main source of pollutants to the air is the vehicular emission: exhaust and evaporative fuel. The climate is influenced by the sea breeze from the Southeast direction - MASP is approximately 40 km far from the sea; and by the valley- mountain circulation, due to the presence of the Serra do Mar Mountains in the Northwest part of the city. This wind circulation suffers the influence of the heat island due to the high degree of urbanization. The MASP fleet is composed by approximately 7 million passenger cars and freight vehicles, with 85% light duty vehicles (LDVs), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs, diesel + 5% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 2% use diesel (CETESB, 2013a). The use of gasohol or hydrous ethanol by the flex-fuel is determined by the price of the fuel. Vehicle traffic is the main source of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC), and contributes to the formation of inhalable particulate matter emissions (PM10) as well as being the principal source of carbon dioxide (CO2). 97% of all CO emissions, 85% of HC, 82% of NOx, 36% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and 36% of all PM10 emissions come from mobile sources (CETESB, 2013b). The official inventory is calculated with the botton-up methodology: calculation of the emission factors in dynamometer, estimation of the average distance each kind of vehicles drives per day and the total number of vehicles in circulation. The values considered a deterioration factor due to the vehicle aging. The top-down methodology was performed from measurements performed in experiments in traffic roads and tunnels. The

  16. New York City's Education Battles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When Bloomberg gave his first State of the City address, in January, 2002, he announced his intention to seek mayoral control of the schools and abolish the infamous New York City Board of Education, which he called "a rinky-dink candy store." He joined a long list of New York mayors, educators, and business leaders who believed that the city's…

  17. Relationship between leaf antioxidants and ozone injury in Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' under environmental conditions in São Paulo, SE - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Marisia P.; Ferreira, Mauricio L.; Sant'Anna, Silvia M. R.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    Previous studies have reported that the extent of leaf injury in Nicotiana tabacum "Bel-W3" exposed to environmental conditions in the city of São Paulo is influenced by weather conditions. This influence may occur by means of antioxidant responses. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate whether daily antioxidant responses to environmental variations interfere on the progression of leaf injury on plants of this cultivar during their exposure in a state park of São Paulo and to determine a linear combination of variables, among antioxidants and environmental factors, which mostly explain this visible response. Plants were exposed at the mentioned site for 14 days in four different experiments. During each experiment, three plants were daily sampled to determine the accumulated percentage of leaf area affected by necrosis and antioxidant responses (concentrations of total ascorbic acid (AA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidases (POD)). Ozone concentrations and weather conditions were also daily measured. Pearson correlations and multivariate analyses assessed the relationship between biological and environmental variables. Leaf injury appeared between the 3rd and 6th days of exposure and increased over the exposure periods. The daily concentrations of AA tended to decrease with time of exposure in all experiments, but the activity of SOD and POD oscillated during plant exposure. Positive correlations were observed between AA or SOD and O 3 concentrations, as well as negative correlations between AA and air temperature. The increasing percentage of leaf necrosis across the whole period was explained by decreasing levels of AA 2 days before injury estimation and by higher O 3 concentrations 5 days before ( R2 = 0.36; p < 0.001). The use of N. tabacum Bel-W3 as a bioindicator can be restricted by leaf antioxidant responses to both atmospheric contamination and weather conditions.

  18. LANDSAT (MSS): Image demographic estimations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Foresti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two sets of urban test sites, one with 35 cities and one with 70 cities, were selected in the State, Sao Paulo. A high degree of colinearity (0.96) was found between urban and areal measurements taken from aerial photographs and LANDSAT MSS imagery. High coefficients were observed when census data were regressed against aerial information (0.95) and LANDSAT data (0.92). The validity of population estimations was tested by regressing three urban variables, against three classes of cities. Results supported the effectiveness of LANDSAT to estimate large city populations with diminishing effectiveness as urban areas decrease in size.

  19. Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich: Technology, Politics and the Reconstruction of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Richard; Kellner, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the theories of education and technology held by two of the most important philosophers of education during the last few decades, Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich. These two related thinkers each charted a unique approach to the questions surrounding modern education and technology, and despite their widely acknowledged…

  20. Education in the Realm of the Senses: Understanding Paulo Freire's Aesthetic Unconscious through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article I re-examine the role that aesthetics play in Paulo Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed. As opposed to the vast majority of scholarship in this area, I suggest that aesthetics play a more centralised role in pedagogy above and beyond arts-based curricula. To help clarify Freire's position, I will argue that underlying the linguistic…

  1. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 385

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The unfolding of Paulo Freire's philosophy, uniqueness, and the lens through which he viewed the world, which ultimately brought this gentle spirit of a man onto the world stage, began at a young age in his hometown of Recife, Brazil. Remarkably grounded in the wisdom of humility, yet gifted with a determined strength, deep insight, and perceptive…

  2. Paulo Freire's Last Laugh: Rethinking Critical Pedagogy's Funny Bone through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2010-01-01

    In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a "pedagogy of laughter". The inclusion of laughter alongside problem-posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of…

  3. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  4. [Habermas and Paulo Freire: theoretical referrals for the study on communication in nursing].

    PubMed

    Larocca, Liliana Muller; Mazza, Verônica de Azevedo

    2003-08-01

    The present work has the objective of introducing the ideas of Jürgen Habermas and Paulo Freire about the dialogue as a fundamental human phenomenon, data on their trajectories of life, ideological approaches when locating the human being through history and their relevance as theoretical referrals for the study on communication in the process of the nurse's work. PMID:15058821

  5. Cutaneous melanoma in the State of São Paulo: a spatial approach*

    PubMed Central

    Amancio, Camila Trolez; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. Several factors are associated with increased risk of melanoma, such as excessive sun exposure, fair skin, and family history, among others. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this cancer in Brazil. OBJECTIVE To identify, through the use of geostatistical tools, spatial clusters of municipalities in the state of São Paulo based on their incidence of cutaneous melanoma. METHODS This was an ecological and exploratory study of data on new cases obtained from Fundação Oncocentro for the period 1 January 2006-31 December 2011. Cases were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and kernel maps, using TerraView software. RESULTS There were 3,172 new cases of cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the North, Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast regions of São Paulo state. Global Moran's I values were statistically significant (p<0.05) at 0.12, 0.08, and 0.16, respectively, for males, females, and all cases. Areas such as the Southeast, North, and Northwest of São Paulo were identified as being of high priority for intervention. CONCLUSION Spatial clusters of municipalities with high incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma in the state of São Paulo were identified. These data can serve as an important input for public health agencies. PMID:24937818

  6. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Education: A Response to Neumann

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Jacob Neumann provides a thoughtful reading of "Paulo Freire in the 21st century: Education, dialogue, and transformation" [v48 n6 p634-644 2016]. His comments on the importance of contextualising Freire's work and the value of openness in engaging Freirean ideas are insightful and helpful. His use of the term "apolitical" is,…

  7. Epistemology of the Oppressed: The Dialectics of Paulo Freire's Theory of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    As part of a critical analysis of Paulo Freire's work, this paper argues that, Freire's critical, liberatory pedagogy as conceived in "Education as the Practice of Freedom" (P. Freire, 1982a), coherently systematized in "Extension or Communication" (P. Freire, 1982b) and carried out through "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (P. Freire, 1974) into his…

  8. Transforming Faith: H. Richard Niebuhr and Paulo Freire on Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Joshua Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Through a contextual comparison of the theological ethics of H. Richard Niebuhr and the educational theory of Paulo Freire, I argue that socialization, while an essential task of moral education, is an insufficient aim. The proper aim of moral education is individual development. The intention of my argument is address tendencies towards…

  9. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  10. SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM SHEEP FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection but little is known of ovine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in sera of 495 sheep from 36 counties of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25) and found in 120...

  11. Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of Hope: An Autoethnography in a Social Justice Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    This autoethnographic study provides a critical analysis of the implementation of ideas and theories derived from Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1970) and "Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1994) in a social justice oriented classroom; in particular, themes of critical thinking,…

  12. Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, "Pedagogy of the Oppressed", in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late…

  13. Paulo Freire and "The Need for a Kind of Education in Hope"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores Paulo Freire's philosophy of hope. This is significant because, for Freire, it was human hope that rendered education possible, necessary and necessarily political. Like other areas of his thought, however, his reading of hope contained ambiguities and contradictions, and the paper explores these by locating Freire's thought in…

  14. Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the Oppressed",…

  15. The Liberating Teaching Methods of the Brazilian Paulo Freire and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2003-01-01

    Exemplifies, through the pedagogical theories put forth by Paulo Freire in his book "Pedagogia del oprimado" (teaching the oppressed) and along with the potentials of hypertext, the intimate relationship between socio-cultural forces and the technical responses emerging from the dialectic process between them. (AS)

  16. Looking Up to Paulo Freire: Education and Political Culture during the Spanish Transition to Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Paulo Freire's pedagogy was developed in reaction to the state of "periphery" of illiterate farmers in Brazil and Chile. However, his thinking, which illuminated capitalism's oppressive nature in the classrooms, was enthusiastically accepted in the "centre" and he became a global point of reference for social action. In this article I trace his…

  17. Reconsidering Emancipatory Education: Staging a Conversation between Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Sarah Galloway considers emancipation as a purpose for education through examining the theories of Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere. Both theorists are concerned with the prospect of distinguishing between education that might socialize people into what is taken to be an inherently oppressive society and education with emancipation…

  18. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  19. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution using growth tree rings of Tipuana tipu: Quantification by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, S. M.; Canteras, F. B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-02-01

    Currently, many studies use the bioindicators to qualitatively and/or quantitatively measure pollution. The analyses of tree growth rings represent one such bioindicator as changes in the environment are often recorded as impressions in the wood. The main objective of the present study is to examine the growth rings of Tipuana tipu - a member of the Leguminosae family that is native to Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant - for potentially toxic elements. T. tipu is one of the most common trees in the urban landscape of Sao Paulo city and would provide an accurate reflection of environment changes. Tree ring samples previously dated using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence were collected from strategic locations in Sao Paulo. These locations include Piracicaba (SP) that has little access and small flow traffic and the campus of the University of São Paulo. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In São Paulo city, samples collected from the campus of University of São Paulo (Butantã), showed the highest toxicity, with concentrations above the tolerable limit for the elements: Cr, Cu, and Pb. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city, one sample presented highest concentrations for the majority of the elements when compared to the other four samples collected at the same place, exceeding the toxicity limits for: Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb.

  20. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  1. Prevalence of Family Violence and Associated Factors Among In-School Adolescents in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ralo, Janaina Maria; Schor, Neia; Tavares, Carlos Mendes; Silva, Valter

    2016-05-01

    Family violence is a social and public health issue across the world for many populations and affects many different types of people, for example, children, women, and vulnerable adults. Adolescents are one of the main victims of this important phenomenon. This article estimates the prevalence of family violence in adolescents and associated factors. The study was carried out in 2012 with a probability and representative sample of 656 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years who were enrolled at public schools located in the extreme South of the city of São Paulo. The association was tested by the proportion test, Pearson's chi-square or Fischer's exact test, and Poisson regression adjusted by robust variance estimation, considering a level of significance of 5%. Among adolescents, 38.9% reported having been victims of family violence. Women were victimized with higher frequency (44.1%). The factors associated with prevalence of family violence were being of the female sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.20, 1.80]) and living only with the father (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.08]). The prevalence of adolescents who were victims of family violence is high; however, special attention must be paid to women and adolescents who live only with their father-they were established, in this study, as a risk group. Epidemiological studies of this nature are important to reveal the reality of family violence and to aid the construction of intersectoral public policies to promote health, prevent violence, and foster a peaceful culture. PMID:25670744

  2. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  3. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  4. Combined magnetic fabrics and microstructures: evidence of an early magmatic event in the Paleoproterozoic Teofilandia granitoids (Sao Francisco craton, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, H. S.; Bouchez, J. L.; Nedelec, A.; Sabate, P.

    2003-04-01

    The study area concerns the southern part of the Paleoproterozoic (2.2--2.0 Ga) Itapicuru Greenstone Belt (Serrinha Block), eastern border of the Sao Francisco craton (Brazil). This is a problematic area, occupied by the Teofilandia granitoids (granites, granodiorites, tonalites, gneisses), where the overall N-S map structures rotate to E-W toward the south of the Serrinha Block. A set of 160 sampling stations covering ˜220 km^2 have been subjected to a detailed structural study combining magnetic fabrics AND microstructural characters. Three types of microstructures, corresponding to three successive events, helped to sort the different magnetic fabrics. (1) Purely magmatic microstructures, sometimes slightly overprinted by the following events, characterize preserved sectors that carry N-S trending magnetic lineations. Around these relictual sectors (2) the granitoids display typical high-T orthogneissic microstructures, attesting for their pervasive deformation in the solid-state parallel to E-W (±30^o), as observed in the field and attested by the E-W trending magnetic lineations. Finally (3) low-T/high-stress, sub-mylonitic microstructures under greenschist facies conditions, affect the area with various intensities, and are associated with E-W trending magnetic lineations. We conclude that the Teofilandia granitoids reveal their N-S-directed emplacement at ˜2.1 Ga, probably coeval with the N-S stretch of the whole Rio Itapicuru belt, within the relictual cores of kilometer-thick lenses that were preserved from the following events. The pervasive high-T structures, with foliations dipping to the south and E-W stretching directions, are ascribed to a lateral ramp of the shear event that accompanied the convergence of the Serrinha block with the Salvador Curaca mobile belt. The final, low-T/high stress event is likely coeval with the hydrothermal episode responsible for the gold mineralizations of the Teofilandia area at 2.08 Ga.

  5. Comparative analysis between the floods and the rate of urbanization in the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, B. C.; Valverde, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the occurrence of floods facing the rate of urbanization in the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira Valley is located on the basin of Ribeira de Iguape River in eastern Paraná and southeastern São Paulo state in Brazil. The region has been considered one of the most important international conservation priorities by agencies such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the UNESCO/MAB Program. This region has a history of recurrent floods, causing huge financial losses particularly to the poorest people, including casualties as well as material losses. This study analyzed three flood events that occurred in January 1995, January 1997 and February-March 1998, reaching the towns of Eldorado, Ribeira and Sete Barras. To determine the affected areas, the researchers used the shapes (digital data) obtained from the Geographic Information System of Ribeira de Iguape River Basin which is maintained by the Ribeira de Iguape River Basin and South Seashore Committee. The SPRING was the processing tool used for data manipulation. Additionally we used rainfall data, flow and water level elevation for the years 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998 and 2011. The results show that in January 1997 there happened the largest flood area across the three cities and this effect coincides with the highest levels of rainfall and flow. The second largest flood happened in January 1995 and the smallest one was in February-March 1998. Another important aspect to be noted is that all floods affected a large floodplain in both rural and urban areas. It was also found a direct relationship between the rate of urbanization and the area affected by the floods. The results show that the larger the area of urbanization, the larger the flooded area. It was also verified in the precipitation climatology that most extreme events occurred in 1983 and 2011. Specifically the 2011 event occurred during dry season bringing the whole region to a state of

  6. Large cities are less green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  7. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  8. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management. PMID:12287008

  9. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  10. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10 degrees S parallel: north of 10 degrees S (<10 degrees S); and south of 10 degrees S (>10 degrees S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

  11. Effect of nicotine in matrix mineralization by human bone marrow and Saos-2 cells cultured on the surface of plasma-sprayed titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M L; Carvalho, J C; Peres, F; Fernandes, M H

    2009-01-01

    Smoking has an established negative impact in the clinical outcome of dental implants. This work analyses the response of human osteoblastic cells to nicotine, at the surface of plasma-sprayed commercial titanium implants. Human bone marrow (HBM) and Saos-2 cells, seeded on the surface of titanium implants and cultured in experimental conditions favoring osteoblastic differentiation, were exposed continuously to nicotine (0.0001 to 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and characterized for cell proliferation and function. Exposure of HBM cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and earlier onset of matrix mineralization at levels up to 0.2 mg mL(-1), an initial inhibitory effect in cell growth and functional activity followed by a recovery in the presence of 0.3 mg mL(-1) and a dose-dependent deleterious effect at higher levels. By contrast, exposure to nicotine did not affect cell proliferation of Saos-2 cells at levels up to 0.2 mg mL(-1), and caused only a small positive effect in ALP activity in the presence of 0.05 and 0.1 mg mL(-1); however, matrix mineralization by Saos-2 cells also occurred earlier in the cultures exposed to levels of nicotine up to 0.1 mg mL(-1). Higher concentrations caused dose-dependent inhibitory effects. Considering the high diffusion potential of nicotine, results suggest a local role of nicotine in modulating bone formation events at the implant surface. PMID:18260147

  12. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  13. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  14. Digging the city

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, S.L.

    1996-02-01

    For city dwellers and commuters, major construction and repair projects by underground utilities have traditionally meant torn-up streets, detours, snarled traffic, flaring tempers and other urban headaches. For store and business owners, utility projects also have frequently been harmful to the bottom line. Customer parking often is curtailed and deliveries are missed because of street excavations, and business hours may even have to be cut because of interruptions in utility service. But natural gas utilities in major cities across the country are working hard to change that reality. Their effort has two major focuses: community-relations programs that anticipate problems and ease tensions between the utility and local residents and business owners, and new technologies that drastically limit the amount of excavation that needs to be done in repairing or replacing gas distribution lines. The paper describes a case study in the community-relations side of the equation which involved a recent project by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) in the congested streets of San Francisco`s famed Chinatown.

  15. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  16. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  17. Kid-Friendly Cities Report Card, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polansky, Lee S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the health and wellbeing of children in the United States' largest cities, covering every city with a population of 100,000 or more, as well as the largest cities in states without any cities of this size. Research shows that many cities are becoming more child-friendly, with better access to good education, jobs, and health…

  18. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  19. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  20. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a