Science.gov

Sample records for citrate dextrose solution

  1. The constituents of fresh frozen plasma stored with citrate phosphate dextrose and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Hauben, D J; Yanai, E; Mahler, D; Neumann, L; Kaplan, H

    1982-02-01

    The authors have investigated the constituents of fresh frozen plasma stored in citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD) at -20 degrees C. The results indicate abnormal characteristics of several of the constituents, whereas some others remain within normal values. This is attributed to preparation procedures with the addition of a CPD solution. Fresh frozen plasma being hyperosmolal, hypernatremic, hyperglycemic, hyperphosphatemic, normokalemic and containing normal values of protein, calcium, magnesium, and water carries a clinical implication for the physician as a guide for the treatment of the critically ill patient when large amounts of plasma are needed. PMID:7064431

  2. Acid-citrate-dextrose compared with heparin in the preparation of in vivo/in vitro technetium-99m red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, W.C.; Dees, S.M.; Freitas, J.E.; Dworkin, H.J.

    1983-05-01

    Red blood cells labeled in vivo/in vitro with Tc-99m (Tc-99m RBC) were prepared in a series of 21 patients and two normal volunteers. In each subject both heparin and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solutions were used to label tandem blood samples. The immediate preinjection binding efficiency (BE) was then determined. In each of the 23 studies, the ACD preparation yielded superior BE. The average BE was 93.47% (+/- 3.78) with ACD and 87.23% (+/- 4.29) with heparin. With the ACD method the effect of carrier Tc-99 may be as great as a 24% reduction in BE observed when initial eluates from long-ingrowth-time generators were used. Improved image quality with minimal renal and urinary-bladder activity results with ACD labeling. It is concluded that the use of ACD results in superior RBC labeling with less nontarget activity relative to heparin and is preferred over heparin for preparing in vivo/in vitro Tc-99m RBC.

  3. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  4. Iron(III) citrate speciation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andre M N; Kong, XiaoLe; Parkin, Mark C; Cammack, Richard; Hider, Robert C

    2009-10-28

    Citrate is an iron chelator and it has been shown to be the major iron ligand in the xylem sap of plants. Furthermore, citrate has been demonstrated to be an important ligand for the non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) pool occurring in the plasma of individuals suffering from iron-overload. However, ferric citrate chemistry is complicated and a definitive description of its aqueous speciation at neutral pH remains elusive. X-Ray crystallography data indicates that the alcohol function of citrate (Cit4-) is involved in Fe(III) coordination and that deprotonation of this functional group occurs upon complex formation. The inability to include this deprotonation in the affinity constant calculations has been a major source of divergence between various reports of iron(III)-citrate affinity constants. However the recent determination of the alcoholic pKa of citric acid (H4Cit) renders the reassessment of the ferric citrate system possible. The aqueous speciation of ferric citrate has been investigated by mass spectrometry and EPR spectroscopy. It was observed that the most relevant species are a monoiron dicitrate species and dinuclear and trinuclear oligomeric complexes, the relative concentration of which depends on the solution pH value and the iron : citric acid molar ratio. Spectrophotometric titration was utilized for affinity constant determination and the formation constant for the biologically relevant [Fe(Cit)2]5- is reported for the first time. PMID:19809738

  5. Struvite crystal growth inhibition by trisodium citrate and the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa; Olszynski, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the crystallization of struvite was studied. To evaluate such an effect an experiment of struvite growth from artificial urine was performed. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation. The crystallization process was induced by the addition of aqueous ammonia solution to mimic the bacterial activity. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to struvite formation and decreases the growth efficiency of struvite. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the nucleation and growth of struvite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds NH4 + and Mg2+ ions in the range of pH from 7 to 9.5 characteristic for struvite precipitation. The most important is the MgCit- complex whose concentration strongly depends on an increase in pH rather than on an increase in citrate concentrations.

  6. Presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ promoted biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex and removal of metals from solutions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun-Wei; Tao, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Jie; He, Xiao-Hong; Gao, Ping; Li, Da-Ping

    2013-12-15

    The promotion to Cd-citrate complex biotransformation via addition of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) was investigated. Single Fe(III)- or Zn-citrate complex was completely degraded by Pseudomonas sp. MBR, Cd-citrate complex was not. In the Cd-citrate media with molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, pH increase obtained from the metabolism of excess citrate slightly promoted the biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex, Cd remained in solutions. The presence of Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) resulted in complete biotransformation of Cd-citrate complex in the 1:1:2 Fe:Cd:citrate and Zn:Cd:citrate and 1:1:1:3 Fe:Zn:Cd:citrate media. Alkaline pH obtained from biotransformation of metal-citrate complexes caused almost complete removal of metals (>98%) through precipitation and co-precipitation. Pseudomonas sp. MBR potentially could be used to treat wastewater containing mixed citrate complexes of Fe(III), Zn and Cd. PMID:23820427

  7. Stabilizing effect of citrate buffer on the photolysis of riboflavin in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Ahmed, Sofia; Kazi, Sadia Hafeez; Mirza, Tania; Aminuddin, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation the photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in the presence of citrate species at pH 4.0–7.0 has been studied. A specific multicomponent spectrophotometric method has been used to assay RF in the presence of photoproducts during the reactions. The overall first-order rate constants (kobs) for the photolysis of RF range from 0.42 to 1.08×10–2 min−1 in the region. The values of kobs have been found to decrease with an increase in citrate concentration indicating an inhibitory effect of these species on the rate of reaction. The second-order rate constants for the interaction of RF with total citrate species causing inhibition range from 1.79 to 5.65×10–3 M−1 min−1 at pH 4.0–7.0. The log k–pH profiles for the reactions at 0.2–1.0 M citrate concentration show a gradual decrease in kobs and the value at 1.0 M is more than half compared to that of k0, i.e., in the absence of buffer, at pH 5.0. Divalent citrate ions cause a decrease in RF fluorescence due to the quenching of the excited singlet state resulting in a decrease in the rate of reaction and consequently leading to the stabilization of RF solutions. The greater quenching of fluorescence at pH 4.0 compared to that of 7.0 is in accordance with the greater concentration of divalent citrate ions (99.6%) at that pH. The trivalent citrate ions exert a greater inhibitory effect on the rate of RF photolysis compared to that of the divalent citrate ions probably as a result of excited triplet state quenching. The values of second-order rate constants for the interaction of divalent and trivalent citrate ions are 0.44×10–2 and 1.06×10–3 M–1 min–1, respectively, indicating that the trivalent ions exert a greater stabilizing effect, compared to the divalent ions, on RF solutions. PMID:25755977

  8. Simplified regional citrate anticoagulation using a calcium-containing replacement solution for continuous venovenous hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Liao, Yujie; Xiang, Jin; Qin, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong; Tang, Yi; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Zhiwen; Fu, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is not widely used because it requires complex therapeutic modalities, a specialized calcium-free replacement solution, and continuous intravenous calcium infusion. We designed a simplified protocol for RCA using a commercial calcium-containing replacement solution for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH). Thirty-six patients were treated with RCA-based pre-dilution CVVH using a calcium-containing replacement solution (ionized calcium 1.50 mmol/L). We pumped a 4 % trisodium citrate solution into the arterial line of extracorporeal circulation at a starting rate of 200 mL/h while adjusting the rate to achieve a post-filter ionized calcium level of between 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/L. The initial blood flow was set at 150 mL/min. The replacement solution was delivered at 35 mL/kg/h. We measured the serum and effluent citrate concentration during CVVH at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. The mean hemofilter survival was 61.3 ± 21.6 h (range 14-122 h). The mean 4 % trisodium citrate solution pumped was 207 (190-230) mL/h, and the mean pre-filter and post-filter ionized calcium levels were 0.96-1.02 and 0.34-0.38 mmol/L, respectively. Ninety-two, 63, and 48 % of the hemofilters were patent at 24, 48, and 72 h. The mean serum citrate concentration was not significantly different at 24, 48, and 72 h. No bleeding episodes were found, and no patient showed the symptoms and signs of hypocalcemia or citrate toxicity. Our simplified RCA protocol using a calcium-containing replacement solution for CVVH is effective and safe, and obviates the need for a separate peripheral or central venous catheter for continuous intravenous calcium infusion. PMID:23271571

  9. Revision of iron(III)-citrate speciation in aqueous solution. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric studies.

    PubMed

    Vukosav, Petra; Mlakar, Marina; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2012-10-01

    A detailed study of iron (III)-citrate speciation in aqueous solution (θ=25°C, I(c)=0.7 mol L(-1)) was carried out by voltammetric and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements and the obtained data were used for reconciled characterization of iron (III)-citrate complexes. Four different redox processes were registered in the voltammograms: at 0.1 V (pH=5.5) which corresponded to the reduction of iron(III)-monocitrate species (Fe:cit=1:1), at about -0.1 V (pH=5.5) that was related to the reduction of FeL(2)(5-), FeL(2)H(4-) and FeL(2)H(2)(3-) complexes, at -0.28 V (pH=5.5) which corresponded to the reduction of polynuclear iron(III)-citrate complex(es), and at -0.4V (pH=7.5) which was probably a consequence of Fe(cit)(2)(OH)(x) species reduction. Reversible redox process at -0.1 V allowed for the determination of iron(III)-citrate species and their stability constants by analyzing E(p) vs. pH and E(p) vs. [L(4-)] dependence. The UV-vis spectra recorded at varied pH revealed four different spectrally active species: FeLH (logβ=25.69), FeL(2)H(2)(3-) (log β=48.06), FeL(2)H(4-) (log β=44.60), and FeL(2)(5-) (log β=38.85). The stability constants obtained by spectrophotometry were in agreement with those determined electrochemically. The UV-vis spectra recorded at various citrate concentrations (pH=2.0) supported the results of spectrophotometric-potentiometric titration. PMID:22938610

  10. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm(-2)), concentration of enhancing agent (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm(-2) did not increase removal and thus using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg(-1) (removals: 78-86%) and 440-590 mg Cr kg(-1) (removals: 35-51%), being within the 500 mg kg(-1) limit for a clean soil only for Cu. While further optimization is still required for Cr, the removal percentages are the highest achieved so far, for a real Cu and Cr-contaminated, calcareous soil. The results highlight EDR potential to remediate metal polluted soils at neutral to alkaline pH by choosing a good enhancement solution. PMID:25240953

  11. Efficacy of mosapride citrate with polyethylene glycol solution for colonoscopy preparation

    PubMed Central

    Tajika, Masahiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Bhatia, Vikram; Kawai, Hiroki; Kondo, Shinya; Sawaki, Akira; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yuji; Saeki, Akira; Akabane, Asana; Komori, Koji; Yamao, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive mosapride citrate for bowel preparation before colonoscopy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with mosapride in addition to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-electrolyte solution. Of 250 patients undergoing colonoscopy, 124 were randomized to receive 2 L PEG plus 15 mg of mosapride citrate (mosapride group), and 126 received 2 L PEG plus placebo (placebo group). Patients completed a questionnaire reporting the acceptability and tolerability of the bowel preparation process. The efficacy of bowel preparation was assessed by colonoscopists using a 5-point scale based on Aronchick’s criteria. The primary end point was optimal bowel preparation rates (scores of excellent/good/fair vs poor/inadequate). RESULTS: A total of 249 patients were included in the analysis. In the mosapride group, optimal bowel preparation rates were significantly higher in the left colon compared with the placebo group (78.2% vs 65.6%, P < 0.05), but not in the right colon (76.5% vs 66.4%, P = 0.08). After excluding patients with severe constipation, there was a significant difference in bowel preparation in both the left and right colon (82.4% vs 66.7%, 80.8% vs 67.5%, P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups. Among the subgroup who had previous colonoscopy experience, a significantly higher number of patients in the mosapride group felt that the current preparation was easier compared with patients in the placebo group (34/72 patients vs 24/74 patients, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Mosapride citrate may be an effective and safe adjunct to PEG-electrolyte solution that leads to improved quality of bowel preparation, especially in patients without severe constipation. PMID:22654449

  12. Citrate-Coated Silver Nanoparticles Interactions with Effluent Organic Matter: Influence of Capping Agent and Solution Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Aubry, Cyril; Cornejo, Mauricio; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-18

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs, and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na(+) solutions. However, Ca(2+) ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na(+) solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca(2+) ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na(+) concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest

  13. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  14. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  15. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  16. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  17. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  18. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.111 Dextrose monohydrate. (a) Dextrose monohydrate is purified and crystallized...

  19. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  20. 21 CFR 168.110 - Dextrose anhydrous.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table Sirups § 168.110 Dextrose anhydrous. (a) Dextrose anhydrous is purified and crystallized...

  1. Chemical controls on uranyl citrate speciation and the self-assembly of nanoscale macrocycles and sandwich complexes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Basile, M; Unruh, D K; Gojdas, K; Flores, E; Streicher, L; Forbes, T Z

    2015-03-28

    Uranyl citrate forms trimeric species at pH > 5.5, but exact structural characteristics of these important oligomers have not previously been reported. Crystallization and structural characterization of the trimers suggests the self-assembly of the 3 : 3 and 3 : 2 U : Cit complexes into larger sandwich and macrocyclic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and ESI-MS have been utilized to investigate the relative abundance of these species in solution under varying pH and citrate concentrations. Additional dynamic light scattering experiments indicate that self-assembly of the larger molecules does occur in aqueous solution. PMID:25469487

  2. Induced Nanocrystallization of Dextrose Monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Irudayaraj; Raj, B. Kanickai; Sivagami, V.; Selvi, Naga Pondy

    2013-06-01

    Modern ultrasound induction is very much useful in crystallization process. It uses piezoelectric transducers or quartz crystals to convert mechanical waves to electrical signals and vice versa. Growth of a crystal is environment dependent. The characteristics of grown crystals depend on impurities, temperature, preparation of the solution and mechanical agitation. The properties and size of a crystal can be tailored by controlling any one or all the above factors. The most interesting fact is that the ultrasound influences the properties and size of a crystal. It is found that the characteristics are improved and tailored for a specific need of the industry when a crystal is grown by radiating ultrasonic wave. In some cases, it produces nanocrystals. We used a device which generates the Ultrasonic wave of 15 MHz, which is applied to the crystal right from the time before nucleation till the crystal formation. The Dextrose monohydrate crystals are grown by conventional slow cool batch method. In the same slow cool batch method, Ultrasonic waves of 15 MHz are allowed to pass, influence the nucleation, crystal formation and growing process. The crystal formation process under the exposure of Ultrasound is allowed to continue for a sufficiently long time to yield the desired nanocrystals. The FTIR, UV, microhardness and SEM analysis are taken for the crystals with and without ultrasound.

  3. Acute Hypotension After 50% Dextrose Injections.

    PubMed

    Saites, Victoria; Laudanski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-15

    The hemodynamic effects of small-volume boluses of hyperosmotic solutions are often deemed negligible in the clinical setting. However, animal studies have reported decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure and bradycardia with the administration of hyperosmotic solutions. This is a report of a 60-year-old woman, intubated and sedated, who developed acute decreases in systemic arterial blood pressure with the administration of ≤50 mL of 50% dextrose. Animal studies suggest that hyperosmolar-induced hypotension may be avoided by administering the hyperosmotic solution slowly. This allows for admixture and therefore a decreased osmotic load at the proposed osmoreceptor involved in the neural reflex. PMID:26934608

  4. A Taurolidine-Citrate-Heparin Lock Solution Effectively Eradicates Pathogens From the Catheter Biofilm in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Zwiech, Rafał; Adelt, Maria; Chrul, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a typical complication of hemodialysis catheter use. Catheter lumen colonization by pathogens is regarded as a direct cause of CRB. Once settled, the catheter biofilm increases the risk of developing infection, thus necessitating insertion replacement and antibiotic treatment. The study assessed the self-sufficient efficacy of taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating catheter biofilm bacteria and keeping it sterile in patients on hemodialysis. Twenty-nine chronic patients on hemodialysis with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with a heparin filling (the mean time of heparin lock use -30.1 ± 2.0 days) and subsequently converted to a taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling were included. Peripheral vein and catheter lumen blood cultures were obtained before the filling change and after taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock use (mean time 33.8 ± 7.6 days). Twenty-four participants with tunneled and nontunneled catheters locked with taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling served as the control group. During the heparin-locking period, CRB was diagnosed in 3 cases (only nontunneled catheters). The catheter blood cultures findings were positive in 23 patients (10 temporary and 13 permanent catheters), whereas both the catheter and peripheral vein blood cultures were sterile in 3 of 29 subjects (only permanent catheters). Irrespective of catheter type (tunneled or nontunneled), repeated culture revealed no pathogens in any of the 23 patients with initial positive catheter blood culture, after the use of taurolidine-citrate-heparin filling. No positive blood culture was noted in the control group. The taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution effectively eradicated pathogens from nontunneled and tunneled catheter biofilms and helped to maintain catheter lumen sterility. PMID:23665885

  5. Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Vermeul, V.; Szecsody, J.; Williams, M. D.; Fritz, B. G.

    2010-12-01

    Sr-90 present in groundwater and the vadose zone at the Hanford 100N area due to past waste disposal practices has reached the nearby Columbia River, as evidenced by Sr-90 concentrations in near river wells and aquifer tubes and near shore sediments. Sr-90 is currently being remediated by adsorption onto apatite (55 times stronger than Sr-90 adsorption to sediment), followed by incorporation of the Sr-90 into the apatite structure. If the Sr-90 can remain immobilized for 300 years (~ten 29.1-yr half-lives of Sr-90 decay), it will have decayed below regulatory limits to Y-90 and to stable Zr-90. Apatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is being precipitated in situ by injection of an aqueous solution of Ca-citrate and Na-phosphate through a series of injection wells spaced 30 ft on center, forming a 300-ft-long permeable reactive barrier. Design criteria for the injection operations were based on 1) amendment volume and mass injected, 2) amendment arrival at adjacent wells, 3) water-level elevation during treatment, and 4) injection rate limitations associated with well plugging. An evaluation of compliance with these injection design criteria was used to assess operational performance and identify candidate wells for supplemental treatment. Injection design criteria were not fully met at 8 of the 16 injection well locations, with the primary deficiency at 4 of 8 locations being the limited vertical extent of Hanford formation treatment due to low-river-stage conditions during the injection. Wells whose extent of treatment did not meet design criteria were recommended for retreatment. Although injection design criteria were not fully met at a significant number of well locations, aqueous performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate good barrier performance. Aqueous Sr-90 monitoring in four compliance monitoring wells over a year following the high concentration injections indicates 84% to 95% decrease in Sr-90 concentrations (relative to the low and high end

  6. Electrodeposition of Sn-Zn and Sn-Zn-Mo layers from citrate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazimierczak, Honorata; Ozga, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics of separate reduction and co-reduction of Zn(II), Sn(II) and Mo(VI) from citrate baths were studied. Cyclic voltammetry experiments and galvanostatic deposition in coulostatic conditions were carried out to determine the optimal conditions for electrodeposition of Sn-Zn-Mo layers. The electrodeposits were characterised by chemical analysis (EDS and WDXRF) and profile chemical analysis (GDOES). The optimal conditions for electrodeposition from the citrate baths studied are in the slightly acid range (about pH 5). It was found that the high concentration of sodium molybdate and the addition of sodium sulphite to the electrolyte are essential to electrodeposit zinc-tin alloy with the addition of molybdenum. The results of voltammetric studies and chemical profile analysis indicate some connections between electrodeposition of Zn and Mo.

  7. Compatibility of esmolol hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and fentanyl citrate during simulated Y-site administration.

    PubMed

    Karnatz, N N; Wong, J; Kesler, H; Baaske, D M; Speicher, E R

    1988-02-01

    The compatibility and stability of esmolol hydrochloride in admixtures during simulated Y-site injection of morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate was studied. One milliliter of either morphine sulfate (15 mg/mL) or fentanyl citrate (0.05 mg/mL) was injected into a running infusion of esmolol hydrochloride (10 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and the solution was visually observed for changes. To determine the stability of the drugs during Y-site injection, esmolol hydrochloride 4 mL (1000 mg) in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was combined with 100 mL of either morphine sulfate 15 mg/mL or fentanyl citrate 0.05 mg/mL to simulate concentrations of the drugs that might be expected during Y-site injection. The admixtures were stored at ambient room temperature under normal light, and drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography at time zero and at two, four, and eight hours. Admixtures were also tested for pH and observed for visual changes. No immediate changes were observed in any of the admixtures, and the concentrations of the drugs varied by less than 4% throughout the study period. No precipitate or color changes were noted during Y-site injection of either drug into the running esmolol infusion. Under all of the conditions studied, esmolol hydrochloride in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection is compatible with morphine sulfate or fentanyl citrate. PMID:2896460

  8. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arne; Ammann, Roland A; Wiszniewsky, Gertrud; Bode, Udo; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Besuden, Mette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™), a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI) due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates) in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type). Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales) and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany). Results In group 1 (heparin), 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47%) BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4) or MRSE (n = 10)' [incidence density (ID); 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™), 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12%) BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45). The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™) significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients. PMID:18664278

  9. Structural characterization of environmentally relevant ternary uranyl citrate complexes present in aqueous solutions and solid state materials.

    PubMed

    Basile, Madeline; Unruh, Daniel K; Flores, Erin; Johns, Adam; Forbes, Tori Z

    2015-02-14

    Organic acids are important metal chelators in environmental systems and tend to form soluble complexes in aqueous solutions, ultimately influencing the transport and bioavailability of contaminants in surface and subsurface waters. This is particularly true for the formation of uranyl citrate complexes, which have been utilized in advanced photo- and bioremediation strategies for soils contaminated with nuclear materials. Given the complexity of environmental systems, the formation of ternary or heterometallic uranyl species in aqueous solutions are also expected, particularly with Al(iii) and Fe(iii) cations. These ternary forms are reported to be more stable in aqueous solutions, potentially enhancing contaminant mobility and uptake by organisms, but the exact coordination geometries of these soluble molecular complexes have not been elucidated. To provide insight into the nature of these species, we have developed a series of geochemical model compounds ([(UO(2))(2)Al(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Al(2)), [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-1) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(2)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)(H(2)O)(2)](6-) (U(2)Fe(2)-2) and [(UO(2))(2)Fe(4)(OH)(4)(C(6)H(4)O(7))(4)](8-) (U(2)Fe(4))) that were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy was then employed to compare the model compounds to species present in aqueous solutions to provide an enhanced understanding of the ternary uranyl citrate complexes that could be relevant in natural systems. PMID:25372632

  10. Inhibition of precipitation of carbonate apatite by trisodium citrate analysed in base of the formation of chemical complexes in growth solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    Effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is studied. The experimental series are performed in the solution of artificial urine. The investigations are related to infectious urinary stones formation as carbonate apatite is one of the main components of this kind of stones. To mimic a real infection in urinary tract the aqueous ammonia solution was added to the solution of artificial urine. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that trisodium citrate increases induction time with respect to carbonate apatite formation and decreases the efficiency of carbonate apatite precipitation. The inhibitory effect of trisodium citrate on the precipitation of carbonate apatite is explained in base of chemical speciation analysis. Such an analysis demonstrates that the inhibitory effect is mainly related with the fact that trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions and causes the formation of CaCit- and Ca10(PO4)6CO3 complexes. Trisodium citrate binds Ca2+ ions in the range of pH from 6 to 9.5 for which carbonate apatite is favored to be formed.

  11. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  12. 21 CFR 168.111 - Dextrose monohydrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization with each molecule of D-glucose. (b) The food.../mass (m/m), and the reducing sugar content (dextrose equivalent), expressed as D-glucose, is not...

  13. Novel chitosan-spotted alginate fibers from wet-spinning of alginate solutions containing emulsified chitosan-citrate complex and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Supaphol, Pitt; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tokura, Seiichi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2009-02-01

    The major problem associated with the production of alginate/chitosan hybridized fibers by wet spinning is the formation of gels due to ionic interactions of the oppositely charged molecules of alginate and chitosan when these two polymers are directly mixed. Here, we proposed a novel method of using chitosan in the form of an emulsion. The emulsion was prepared by adding a primary emulsion of olive oil in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) aqueous solution into a chitosan-citrate complex. The complexation of chitosan with citric acid is the key of this method. The citrate ions neutralize the positive charges of chitosan, rendering the chitosan-citrate complex to readily penetrate into the core of the SDS/olive oil micelles. The obtained emulsified chitosan-citrate complex (hereafter, the chitosan-citrate emulsion) of varying amount was then added into an alginate aqueous solution to prepare the alginate/chitosan spinning dope suspensions. The alginate/chitosan hybridized fibers showed spotty features of the emulsified chitosan-citrate complex particles locating close to the surface and the inside of the hybridized fibers. At the lowest content of incorporated chitosan (i.e., 0.5% w/w chitosan), both the tenacity and the elongation at break of the obtained chitosan-spotted alginate fibers were the greatest. Further increase in the chitosan content resulted in a monotonous decrease in the property values. Lastly, preliminary studies demonstrated that the obtained chitosan-spotted alginate fibers showed great promises as carriers for drug delivery. PMID:19072144

  14. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis. PMID:1339143

  15. Human islet isolation--a prospective randomized comparison of pancreatic vascular perfusion with hyperosmolar citrate or University of Wisconsin solution.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G S; Chadwick, D; Thirdborough, S; Swift, S; Davies, J; James, R; Bell, P R; London, N J

    1993-09-01

    University of Wisconsin solution has become the most commonly used vascular perfusate during multiorgan donation world-wide. In the UK however, hyperosmolar citrate remains in common use. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the effect of systemic perfusion with UW or HOC on subsequent islet yield and purification for pancreata with short cold ischemic times. Seven pancreata were randomized to each group, with the donor age, pancreas weight, and period of cold ischemia being similar in both. Perfusion with UW was shown to inhibit collagenase digestion, and a higher concentration of this enzyme was needed to achieve comparable numbers of islets with good separation of exocrine and islet tissue after a similar period of digestion. There were no differences in the number, size, purity, or viability of islets between the two groups. In conclusion, UW solution offers no benefits over HOC for pancreata with short cold ischemic times, and because of its expense and need to use greater amounts of collagenase enzyme, we continue to use HOC. PMID:8212148

  16. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  17. Is Taurolidine-citrate an effective and cost-effective hemodialysis catheter lock solution? A systematic review and cost- effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Sarikhani Khorrami, Maryam; Keshavarz, Khosro; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Safaei, Hamid Reza; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of catheter-related infection is of prime importance,. However, because of the risks caused by the leakage of circulating antibiotics and development of resistance to antibiotics, they are replaced by lock solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cost- effectiveness of taurolidine-citrate as a hemodialysis catheter lock solution compared to other common alternatives in Iran. Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of taurolidine-citrate, a systematic review was conducted by searching electronic databases. The outcomes of interest for cost-effectiveness analysis were as follows: "Catheter-related bacteremia episodes"; "catheter-related bacteremia-free survival"; "catheter thrombosis rate" for efficacy evaluation and "reduction of catheter-related infection". For evidence synthesis, a meta-analysis was conducted on the extracted efficacy data. To evaluate the cost of treatments, direct medical costs were included, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for each comparison. The payers’ (patients and insurance companies) perspectives were used for cost analysis. Results: After carrying out the systematic process, three articles were included in the analysis. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was -0.16 (-0.25 to -0.07) for catheterrelated bacteremia episode, indicating that the rate of catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 16% less than in those hemodialysis patients who received heparin. Considering 95% confidence interval, the relative difference was 0.13 (-0.06 0.32) for catheter thrombosis, showing that the rate of catheter-related thrombosis in hemodialysis patients who used taurolidine-citrate was 13% more than in hemodialysis patients who received heparin. The results of this analysis indicated that taurolidine-citrate, compared to heparin, was more effective in preventing catheter-related infection; therefore, it could be

  18. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  19. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  20. Nanoscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Zn2+, Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kržišnik, Nina; Mladenovič, Ana; Škapin, Andrijana Sever; Škrlep, Luka; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2014-04-01

    The parameters which influence the removal of different zinc (Zn) species: Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate from aqueous solutions by nanoparticles of zero-valent iron (nZVI) were investigated at environmental relevant pH values. Untreated, surface modified and silica-fume supported nZVI were applied at different iron loads and contact times to Zn solutions, which were buffered to pH 5.3, 6.0 and 7.0. The results revealed that pH, the type of nZVI, the iron load, the contact time, and the Zn species all had a significant influence on the efficiency of removal. Zn(2+), Zn(II)-EDTA and Zn(II)-citrate were the most effectively removed from aqueous solutions by untreated nZVI. Zn(2+) removal was governed mainly by adsorption onto precipitated iron oxides. Complete removal of Zn(2+) and Zn(II)-citrate was obtained at all pH values investigated. The removal of strong Zn(II)-EDTA complex was successful only at acidic pH, which favored degradation of Zn(II)-EDTA. Consequently, the released Zn(2+) was completely removed from the solution by adsorption onto iron oxides. PMID:24463023

  1. Optimization of a Dicarboxylic Series for in Vivo Inhibition of Citrate Transport by the Solute Carrier 13 (SLC13) Family.

    PubMed

    Huard, Kim; Gosset, James R; Montgomery, Justin I; Gilbert, Adam; Hayward, Matthew M; Magee, Thomas V; Cabral, Shawn; Uccello, Daniel P; Bahnck, Kevin; Brown, Janice; Purkal, Julie; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E; Aspnes, Gary; Polivkova, Jana; Garcia-Irizarry, Carmen N; Li, Qifang; Canterbury, Daniel; Niosi, Mark; Vera, Nicholas B; Li, Zhenhong; Khunte, Bhagyashree; Siderewicz, Jaclyn; Rolph, Timothy; Erion, Derek M

    2016-02-11

    Inhibition of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5) has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach for prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. In a previous report, we discovered dicarboxylate 1a (PF-06649298) which inhibits the transport of citrate in in vitro and in vivo settings via a specific interaction with NaCT. Herein, we report the optimization of this series leading to 4a (PF-06761281), a more potent inhibitor with suitable in vivo pharmacokinetic profile for assessment of in vivo pharmacodynamics. Compound 4a was used to demonstrate dose-dependent inhibition of radioactive [(14)C]citrate uptake in liver and kidney in vivo, resulting in modest reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. PMID:26734723

  2. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  3. Development and validation of an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in infusion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, Mikołaj; Jelin'ska, Anna; Szymczak, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of a combination of different drugs in postoperative analgesia extends the time of analgesia, makes it more efficient and allows the use of lower drug doses, which leads to less risk of side effects and drug dependence. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an HPLC method to determine the stability of fentanyl citrate and bupivacaine hydrochloride mixtures in standard infusion solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% glucose. Methods After optimisation, the HPLC method parameters were as follows: LiChrospher 100 CN, 250×4 mm (10 µm) column; mobile phase: mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer at pH 2.8 (3:7, V/V) with addition of 0.08 g/l potassium chloride; flow rate: 1.5 ml/min; column temperature: 30°C; spectrophotometric detection at 210 nm. Development of the method involved checking the impact of acetonitrile and KCl concentrations in the mobile phase and choosing the internal standard. Method validation included determining the specificity of the method, its accuracy, linearity, precision, repeatability, limits of detection and quantification. Results The retention times of bupivacaine hydrochloride, fentanyl citrate and procaine hydrochloride, used as an internal standard, were approximately 10 min, 15 min and 5 min, respectively. Method validation confirmed its selectivity, accuracy and precision. The average values of the variation and accuracy coefficients were 0.70% and 99.02% for bupivacaine hydrochloride, and 1.76% and 104.53% for fentanyl citrate. The intermediate precision values were 1.25% for bupivacaine hydrochloride and 1.52% for fentanyl citrate. PMID:23487596

  4. Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, N

    2003-07-31

    Safety and effect intrapulmonary administration (by inhalation) of 60 % honey solution, 10% dextrose or distill water on blood sugar, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate, and peaked expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in normal or diabetic subjects were studied. - Twenty-four healthy subjects, 16 patients with type 11 diabetes mellitus and six patients with hypertension were entered for study. They were underwent complete physical examination and laboratory investigations. Twelve healthy subjects were subjected for distill water inhalation for 10 min, and after one week they received inhalation of honey solution (60% wt/v) for 10 min. Another 12 healthy subjects received inhalation of 10% dextrose for 10 min. Blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure, heart rate and PEFR were estimated before inhalation and during 2-3 hrs after inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Random blood glucose level was estimated in eight patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, and repeated 30 min after honey inhalation. One week later, fasting blood glucose level was estimated in each patient and blood glucose level was re-estimated during three hrs after honey inhalation, at 30 min intervals. Glucose tolerance test was performed in another eight patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, and after one week the procedure was repeated with inhalation of honey, which was started immediately after ingestion of glucose. Six hypertensive patients received honey inhalation for 10 min; supine blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after inhalation. - Results showed that in normal subjects distill water caused mild elevation of blood glucose level, mild lowering of plasma insulin, and significant reduction of plasma C-peptide. 10% dextrose inhalation caused mild reduction of plasma insulin and C-peptide and unremarkable changes in blood glucose level. No significant changes were obtained in blood pressure, heart rate or PEFR after distill

  5. In Vitro Assessment of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Optimized Nitroglycerin-Citrate-Ethanol as a Nonantibiotic, Antimicrobial Catheter Lock Solution for Prevention of Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections.

    PubMed

    Reitzel, Ruth A; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hirsh-Ginsberg, Cheryl; Murray, Kimberly; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam

    2016-09-01

    The rapid, broad-spectrum, biofilm-eradicating activity of the combination of 0.01% nitroglycerin, 7% citrate, and 20% ethanol and its potential as a nonantibiotic, antimicrobial catheter lock solution (ACLS) were previously reported. Here, a nitroglycerin-citrate-ethanol (NiCE) ACLS optimized for clinical assessment was developed by reducing the nitroglycerin and citrate concentrations and increasing the ethanol concentration. Biofilm-eradicating activity was sustained when the ethanol concentration was increased from 20 to 22% which fully compensated for reducing the citrate concentration from 7% to 4% as well as the nitroglycerin concentration from 0.01% to 0.0015% or 0.003%. The optimized formulations demonstrated complete and rapid (2 h) eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR Enterobacter cloacae, MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Escherichia coli, MDR Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida albicans, and Candida glabrata biofilms. The optimized NiCE lock solutions demonstrated anticoagulant activities comparable to those of heparin lock solutions. NiCE lock solution was significantly more effective than taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock solution in eradicating biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida glabrata The optimized, nonantibiotic, heparin-free NiCE lock solution demonstrates rapid broad-spectrum biofilm eradication as well as effective anticoagulant activity, making NiCE a high-quality ACLS candidate for clinical assessment. PMID:27297475

  6. An efficient and ultrasensitive rhodamine B-based reversible colorimetric chemosensor for naked-eye recognition of molybdenum and citrate ions in aqueous solution: sensing behavior and logic operation.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Hasanli, Nahid

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we manifest a novel rhodamine B (RhB) based colorimetric chemosensor for molybdenum and citrate ions (Cit(3-)) in an absolutely aqueous media. It has been identified as highly sensitive probe for Mo(6+) which responds at 4.0 nmol L(-1) concentration levels. RhB while combined with Mo(6+) in aqueous solution displays a color changing from pink to purple which could be quickly dissociated by the addition of citrate in this system so that reversible color changes from purple to pink can be achieved. The comparison of this method with some other methods for citrate indicates that this is the only method which can detect citrate in aqueous solution by color changes. This chemosensor can be applied for quantification of citrate with a linear range covering from 1.67×10(-7) to 1.22×10(-5) M and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8) M. Moreover, the response of the chemosensor toward Mo(6+) and citrate is fast. In addition, based on above sensing mechanism, an IMPLICATION logic operation can be achieved using Mo(6+) ion and Cit(3-) as the inputs, making RhB a promising candidate for further applications in molecular logic devices and also indicates that RhB is suitable for the detection of Mo(6+) and Cit(3-) ions in real samples. PMID:25561304

  7. Influence of the anions on the N-cationic benzethonium salts in the solid state and solution: Chloride, bromide, hydroxide and citrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, Henrich H.; Reichelt, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The crystal structures of the hydrated cationic surfactant benzethonium (Bzth) chloride, bromide, hydroxide, and citrate have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and compared with their structures in solution well above their critical micelle concentration. The differences in the nature of the various anions of the four Bzth-X materials lead to unique anion environments and 3-D molecular arrangements. The water molecule in the monoclinic Bzth-Cl or Bzth-Br forms is hydrogen bonded to the halides and particularly to the hydrogens of the methoxy groups of the Bzth moiety notwithstanding the weak Brønsted acidity of the methoxy hydrogens. The citrate strongly interacts with the hydrogens of the methoxy group forming an embedded anionic spherical cluster of a radius of 2.6 Å. The Bzth-OH crystallizes in a hexagonal lattice with two water molecules and reveals free water molecules forming hydrogen bonded channels through the Bzth-OH crystal along the c-axis. The distances between the cationic nitrogen and the halides are 4.04 Å and 4.20 Å, significantly longer than expected for typical van der Waals distances of 3.30 Å. The structures show weakly interacting, alternating apolar and polar layers, which run parallel to the crystallographic a-b planes or a-c planes. The Bzth-X salts were also examined in aqueous solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol and 1.0 % (v/v) glycerol well above their critical micelle concentration by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The [1,1,1] planes for the Bzth Cl or Br, the [0,0,2] and [1,1,0] planes for the Bzth-citrate, the [2,-1,0] planes and the [0,0,1] planes for the Bzth-OH found in the crystalline phase were also present in the solution phase, accordingly, the preservation of these phases are a strong indication of periodicity in the solution phase.

  8. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  9. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alexandre C; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P; Ramalho, Teodorico C; Mancini, Daiana T; Oliveira, Maria C; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-25

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal=Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH(0)(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results. PMID:25222323

  10. Theoretical spectroscopic studies and identification of metal-citrate (Cd and Pb) complexes by ESI-MS in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoli, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Ruy; Freitas, Matheus P.; Ramalho, Teodorico C.; Mancini, Daiana T.; Oliveira, Maria C.; de Varennes, Amarílis; Dias, Ana

    2015-02-01

    The combined use of ESI-MS, FTIR-ATR and theoretical calculations for the determination of metal-citrate (metal = Cd and Pb) structures are reported. Mass spectrometry allowed to determine the stoichiometry 1:1 and 2:1 of the complexes, corroborating the theoretical calculations. The species found in the ratio 2:1 had their molecular structures readjusted, since the deprotonation of citric acid differed from what was simulated. The calculations of thermodynamic stability (ΔH0(aq.)) for the complexes obtained by B3LYP/LANL2DZ were more exoenergetic than those found by PM6. However, for both methods, the stability of the complexes follows a trend, that is, the lowest-energy isomers in PM6 are also the most stable in B3LYP/LANL2DZ. The infrared analysis suggested that carboxyl groups are complexation sites and hydrogen bonds can help in the stability of the complexes. The vibrational frequencies in B3LYP/LANL2DZ had a good correlation with the experimental infrared results.

  11. [Development of identification method for isopropyl citrate].

    PubMed

    Furusho, Noriko; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Tatebe-Sasaki, Chiye; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan's Specification and Standards for Food Additive, 8th edition, two identification tests involving isopropyl citrate for detecting isopropyl alcohol and citrate are stipulated. However, these identification tests use mercury compound, which is toxic, or require a time-consuming pretreatment process. To solve these problems, an identification test method using GC-FID for detecting isopropyl alcohol was developed. In this test, a good linearity was observed in the range of 0.1-40 mg/mL of isopropyl alcohol. While investigating the pretreatment process, we found that isopropyl alcohol could be detected using GC-FID in the distillation step only, without involving any reflux step. The study also showed that the citrate moiety of isopropyl citrate was identified using the solution remaining after conducting the distillation of isopropyl alcohol. The developed identification tests for isopropyl citrate are simple and use no toxic materials. PMID:25707204

  12. Some aspects of the aqueous solution chemistry of the Na+/Ca2+/OH-/Cit3- system: The structure of a new calcium citrate complex forming under hyperalkaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gácsi, Attila; Kutus, Bence; Buckó, Ákos; Csendes, Zita; Peintler, Gábor; Pálinkó, István; Sipos, Pál

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we show that in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions, Ca2+ forms a new, so far unknown complex species with the citrate ion, the structure of which is different from the well-known CaCit-(aq) species present in solutions of close to neutral pH. The solubility of Ca3Cit2(s) was found to increase significantly under hyperalkaline conditions. The decrease in the electric conductivity and the variations observed in the freezing point depression of such solutions also indicate complexation. From 1H NMR measurements, in this complex, the citrate ion is suggested to be in quadruply deprotonated form. From the variation of the 2JHH geminal proton coupling constant, two neighboring carboxylate groups are coordinated to the calcium ion in a monodentate mode (besides the alcoholate). The optimal structure of the complex with the composition of CaCitH-12-(aq) has also been calculated using DFT calculations, applying the Polarizable Continuum Model. Sodium ion-pairing was found to compete efficiently with this calcium complexation process, and in solutions with high Na-ion content, the equilibria are shifted towards the formation of NaCit2-(aq) and Na2Cit-(aq) ion pairs.

  13. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  14. Facile synthesis of alumina hollow microspheres via trisodium citrate-mediated hydrothermal process and their adsorption performances for p-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiabin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhong; Yu, Jiaguo

    2013-03-15

    Alumina hollow microspheres with high adsorption affinity toward p-nitrophenol in water were prepared by using urea and trisodium citrate as precipitating and mediating agents, respectively, via a simple one-pot hydrothermal synthesis followed by calcination. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. This study shows that the morphology, specific surface area, and the pore structure of the resulting materials can be controlled by varying the concentration of trisodium citrate. The result of adsorption of p-nitrophenol onto the as-prepared samples revealed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation can better describe the adsorption kinetics. Furthermore, adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the resulting alumina microspheres are powerful adsorbents for the removal of p-nitrophenol from water with maximum adsorption capacity of 217.4 mg/g. PMID:23276687

  15. Mechanisms of drug release in citrate buffered HPMC matrices.

    PubMed

    Pygall, Samuel R; Kujawinski, Sarah; Timmins, Peter; Melia, Colin D

    2009-03-31

    Few studies report the effects of alkalizing buffers in HPMC matrices. These agents are incorporated to provide micro-environmental buffering, protection of acid-labile ingredients, or pH-independent release of weak acid drugs. In this study, the influence of sodium citrate on the release kinetics, gel layer formation, internal gel pH and drug release mechanism was investigated in HPMC 2910 and 2208 (Methocel E4M and K4M) matrices containing 10% felbinac 39% HPMC, dextrose and sodium citrate. Matrix dissolution at pH 1.2 and pH 7.5 resulted in complex release profiles. HPMC 2910 matrices exhibited biphasic release, with citrate increasing the immediate release phase (<60min) and reducing the extended release. HPMC 2208 matrices were accelerated, but without the loss of extended release characteristics. Studies of early gel layer formation suggested gel barrier disruption and enhanced liquid penetration. pH modification of the gel layer was transitory (<2h) and corresponded temporally with the immediate release phase. Results suggest that in HPMC 2910 matrices, high initial citrate concentrations within the gel layer suppress particle swelling, interfere with diffusion barrier integrity, but are lost rapidly whereupon drug solubility reduces and the diffusion barrier recovers. These Hofmeister or osmotic-mediated effects are better resisted by the less methoxylated HPMC 2208. PMID:19100822

  16. Expanding the analytical toolbox for identity testing of pharmaceutical ingredients: Spectroscopic screening of dextrose using portable Raman and near infrared spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-03-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used as an active ingredient in parenteral solutions and as an inactive ingredient (excipient) in tablets and capsules. In order to address the need for more sophisticated analytical techniques, we report our efforts to develop enhanced identification methods to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution using field-deployable spectroscopic screening. In this paper, we report our results for a study designed to evaluate the performance of field-deployable Raman and near infrared (NIR) methods to identify dextrose samples. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods against current compendial identification tests that rely largely on a colorimetric assay. Our findings indicate that NIR and Raman spectroscopy are both able to distinguish dextrose by hydration state and from other sugar substitutes with 100% accuracy for all methods tested including spectral correlation based library methods, principal component analysis and classification methods. PMID:26965331

  17. A Systematic Review of Dextrose Prolotherapy for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Ross A.; Lackner, Johanna B.; Steilen-Matias, Danielle; Harris, David K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to systematically review dextrose (d-glucose) prolotherapy efficacy in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES Electronic databases PubMed, Healthline, OmniMedicalSearch, Medscape, and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to January 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospectively designed studies that used dextrose as the sole active prolotherapy constituent were selected. DATA EXTRACTION Two independent reviewers rated studies for quality of evidence using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs, for level of evidence using a modified Sackett scale, and for clinically relevant pain score difference using minimal clinically important change criteria. Study population, methods, and results data were extracted and tabulated. DATA SYNTHESIS Fourteen RCTs, 1 case–control study, and 18 case series studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Pain conditions were clustered into tendinopathies, osteoarthritis (OA), spinal/pelvic, and myofascial pain. The RCTs were high-quality Level 1 evidence (Physiotherapy Evidence Database ≥8) and found dextrose injection superior to controls in Osgood–Schlatter disease, lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, traumatic rotator cuff injury, knee OA, finger OA, and myofascial pain; in biomechanical but not subjective measures in temporal mandibular joint; and comparable in a short-term RCT but superior in a long-term RCT in low back pain. Many observational studies were of high quality and reported consistent positive evidence in multiple studies of tendinopathies, knee OA, sacroiliac pain, and iliac crest pain that received RCT confirmation in separate studies. Eighteen studies combined patient self-rating (subjective) with psychometric, imaging, and/or biomechanical (objective) outcome measurement and found both positive subjective and objective outcomes in 16 studies and positive

  18. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a citrate-radiolytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanžić, Nikolina; Jurkin, Tanja; Maksimović, Aleksandar; Gotić, Marijan

    2015-01-01

    The classical citrate method is based on the reduction of an Au(III) precursor with sodium citrate in an aqueous solution near the boiling point. In this work gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesised via a citrate method using reduction by gamma-irradiation at room temperature. The Au(III)-citrate aqueous precursor solution was gamma-irradiated to doses of up to 30 kGy. The dose rate of gamma-irradiation was ~8 kGy h-1. The GNP size was controlled by the adsorbed dose as well as by different saturated gases (air or nitrogen) present in precursor solutions. The results showed that gamma-irradiation produced smaller GNPs in the presence of precursor solutions saturated with nitrogen compared with the ones saturated with air. By increasing both the gold(III) and citrate concentrations in precursor solutions, stable and highly concentrated colloidal gold/citrate suspensions were synthesised using classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods. Gamma-irradiation thus produced well-dispersed and highly concentrated GNPs in an aqueous citrate solution in the presence of dissolved oxygen and without adding any reducing or stabilising agents. Radiolytically intensified citrate oxidation and decarboxylation to acetone and other products by dissolved oxygen was advantageous for Au(III) reduction and subsequent formation of gold nanoparticles. Since the completely same precursor solutions were used both in the classical and citrate-radiolytical reduction methods, a real comparison of GNP sizes between these two methods was given.

  19. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  20. Recalcitrant hypoglycemia resolved with 2.5% dextrose containing replacement fluid during hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Tibor; Iboaya, Benahili U; Avusula, Ramachandram; Csongrádi, Eva; Juncos, Luis A

    2013-08-01

    A 52-year-old African American male was admitted with acute kidney injury (AKI) four days after renal cryotherapy. He was started on continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) immediately but his subsequent course was complicated by recurrent hypoglycemia, poorly responding to conventional therapy. To address the recalcitrant hypoglycemia, we changed the replacement fluid to 5% dextrose in water with 150 mEq/L of sodium bicarbonate, Y-connected with 0.9% sodium chloride at a global rate of 2000 mL/hr, with resolution of refractory hypoglycemia. A modified CVVHDF employing hyperglycemic solution can be a valuable addition in treatment of AKI complicated by severe refractory hypoglycemia. PMID:23829694

  1. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  2. Hypertonic Dextrose and Morrhuate Sodium Injections (Prolotherapy) for Lateral Epicondylosis (Tennis Elbow)

    PubMed Central

    Rabago, David; Lee, Ken S.; Ryan, Michael; Chourasia, Amrish O.; Sesto, Mary E.; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Kijowski, Rick; Grettie, Jessica; Wilson, John; Miller, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, debilitating and often refractory. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy. The efficacy of two PrT solutions for CLE was evaluated. Design 3-arm randomized controlled trial. 26 adults (32 elbows) with ≥3 months of CLE were randomized to ultrasound-guided PrT with dextrose (PrT-D), PrT with dextrose-morrhuate (PrT-DM) or watchful waiting (Wait-and-see). The primary outcome was the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE; 100-points) at 4, 8 and 16 weeks, (all groups) and 32 weeks (PrT groups). Secondary outcomes included pain-free grip strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score. Results PrT-D and PrT-DM participants reported improved PRTEE composite and subscale scores at 4, 8 and/or 16 weeks compared to Wait-and-see (p<0.05). At 16 weeks, compared to baseline, PrT-D and PrT-DM groups improved composite PRTEE scores by 18.7±9.6 (41.1%) and 17.5±11.6 (53.5%) points, respectively. Grip strength of PrT-D participants exceeded that of PrT-DM and Wait-and-see at 8 and 16 weeks (p<0.05). There were no differences in MRI scores. Satisfaction was high; there were no adverse events. Conclusions Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant improvement of elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and wait-and-see control. This pilot study suggests the need for a definitive trial. PMID:23291605

  3. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  4. Alverine citrate induced acute hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arhan, Mehmet; Köklü, Seyfettin; Köksal, Aydln S; Yolcu, Ömer F; Koruk, Senem; Koruk, Irfan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2004-01-01

    Alverine citrate is a commonly used smooth muscle relaxant agent. A MEDLINE search on January 2004 revealed only 1 report implicating the hepatotoxicity of this agent. A 34-year-old woman was investigated because of the finding of elevated liver function tests on biochemical screening. Other etiologies of hepatitis were appropriately ruled out and elevated enzymes were ascribed to alverine citrate treatment. Although alverine citrate hepatotoxicity was related to an immune mechanism in the first case, several features such as absence of predictable dose-dependent toxicity of alverine citrate in a previous study and absence of hypersensitivity manifestations in our patient are suggestive of a metabolic type of idiosyncratic toxicity. PMID:15259090

  5. Crystal and Solution Studies Reveal That the Transcriptional Regulator AcnR of Corynebacterium glutamicum Is Regulated by Citrate-Mg2+ Binding to a Non-canonical Pocket

    PubMed Central

    García-Nafría, Javier; Baumgart, Meike; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Bott, Michael; Wilson, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial bacterium as well as a model organism for the order Corynebacteriales, whose citric acid cycle occupies a central position in energy and precursor supply. Expression of aconitase, which isomerizes citrate into isocitrate, is controlled by several transcriptional regulators, including the dimeric aconitase repressor AcnR, assigned by sequence identity to the TetR family. We report the structures of AcnR in two crystal forms together with ligand binding experiments and in vivo studies. First, there is a citrate-Mg2+ moiety bound in both forms, not in the canonical TetR ligand binding site but rather in a second pocket more distant from the DNA binding domain. Second, the citrate-Mg2+ binds with a KD of 6 mm, within the range of physiological significance. Third, citrate-Mg2+ lowers the affinity of AcnR for its target DNA in vitro. Fourth, analyses of several AcnR point mutations provide evidence for the possible involvement of the corresponding residues in ligand binding, DNA binding, and signal transfer. AcnR derivatives defective in citrate-Mg2+ binding severely inhibit growth of C. glutamicum on citrate. Finally, the structures do have a pocket corresponding to the canonical tetracycline site, and although we have not identified a ligand that binds there, comparison of the two crystal forms suggests differences in the region of the canonical pocket that may indicate a biological significance. PMID:23589369

  6. Hypertonic Dextrose Injection for The Treatment of a Baker’s Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kibar, Sibel; Balaban, Birol

    2016-01-01

    We present extremely rare and interesting case of a Baker’s cyst treated with hypertonic dextrose injection. A 54-year-old female patient had a Baker’s cyst which was diagnosed by an ultrasonography. After the failure of the two-weekly conservative treatment, we injected hypertonic dextrose (25%) into her right knee joint for the treatment of a Baker’s cyst. Two weeks after the injection, the patient reported improvement in posterior knee pain, and an US showed a resolution of the posterior knee cyst. Certainly hypertonic dextrose injection for the treatment of a Baker’s cyst appears to be a reasonable treatment option. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the efficacy of hypertonic dextrose injection in the treatment of Baker’s cysts. PMID:27042572

  7. Colloid mobilization in the field using citrate to remediate chromium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Hellerich, L A; Nikolaidis, N P; Gschwend, P M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of cleaning aquifer sediments, long contaminated with chromium (Cr) from a metal plating facility, by detaching colloid-sized sorbents from the immobile aquifer solids and then pumping those colloids to the surface for treatment. In laboratory experiments using aquifer solids from the site, several solutions (water at various pHs, phosphate, oxalate, ascorbate, citrate) were examined for their ability to disperse colloids and Cr. Based on these tests, a 5 mM citrate solution at pH 7 was selected. Subsequently, such a citrate solution was used in the field in two single-well injection-withdrawal experiments. Large quantities of colloids were released immediately after injection. The colloidal particles mobilized by citrate in the field had more than 20 times higher Cr concentrations than did the average aquifer sediments, implying success in mobilizing Cr-associated phases. Further, laboratory and field tests showed that anion exchange of citrate for chromate caused some additional release of Cr from these aquifer solids. PMID:11708455

  8. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  9. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  10. Is dextrose prolotherapy superior to placebo for the treatment of temporomandibular joint hypermobility? A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cömert Kiliç, S; Güngörmüş, M

    2016-07-01

    A randomized clinical trial involving adult patients with bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) hypermobility referred for treatment was implemented. The sample comprised 30 consecutive patients, who were divided randomly into two groups. The TMJ hypermobility was treated with either saline (placebo group) or dextrose injections (study group). The solution was injected into five different TMJ areas in three sessions at monthly intervals. The predictor variable was the treatment technique. The outcome variables were visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluations and maximum inter-incisal opening (MIO). Outcome variables were recorded preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and significance was set at a P-value of <0.05. The follow-up sample comprised 26 subjects: 12 in the placebo group and 14 in the study group. Masticatory efficiency increased and general pain complaints and joint sounds decreased significantly in both groups. MIO decreased significantly only in the study group. Insignificant changes in the other parameters were found for both groups. After estimating differences between follow-up and baseline outcomes, the mean change in primary outcome variables showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. These findings suggest that dextrose prolotherapy is no more effective than placebo treatment for any of the outcome variables of TMJ hypermobility assessed. PMID:26846795

  11. Formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles: Capping action of citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Henglein, A.; Giersig, M.

    1999-11-04

    Colloidal silver sols of long-time stability are formed in the {gamma}-irradiation of 1.0 x 10{sup {minus}4} M AgClO{sub 4} solutions, which also contain 0.3 M 2-propanol, 2.5 x 10{sup {minus}2} M N{sub 2}O, and sodium citrate in various concentrations. The reduction of Ag{sup +} in these solutions is brought about by the 1-hydroxyalkyl radical generated in the radiolysis of 2-propanol; citrate does not act as a reductant but solely as a stabilizer of the colloidal particles formed. Its concentration is varied in the range from 5.0 x 10{sup {minus}5} to 1.5 x 10{sup {minus}3} M, and the size and size distribution of the silver particles are studied by electron microscopy. At low citrate concentration, partly agglomerated large particles are formed that have many imperfections. In an intermediate range (a few 10{sup {minus}4} M), well-separated particles with a rather narrow size distribution and little imperfections are formed, the size slightly decreasing with increasing citrate concentration. At high citrate concentrations, large lumps of coalesced silver particles are present, due to destabilization by the high ionic strength of the solution. These findings are explained by two growth mechanisms: condensation of small silver clusters (type-1 growth), and reduction of Ag{sup +} on silver particles via radical-to-particle electron transfer (type-2 growth). The particles formed in the intermediate range of citrate concentration were studied by high-resolution electron microscopy and computer simulations. They constitute icosahedra and cuboctahedra.

  12. Simplified citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Apsner, R; Buchmayer, H; Lang, T; Unver, B; Speiser, W; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Hörl, W H

    2001-11-01

    In a randomized crossover trial, we compared a simple citrate anticoagulation protocol for high-flux hemodialysis with standard anticoagulation by low-molecular-weight heparin (dalteparin). Primary end points were urea reduction rate (URR), Kt/V, and control of electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Secondary end points were bleeding time at vascular puncture sites and markers of activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Solute removal during citrate dialysis was excellent (URR, 0.71 +/- 0.06; Kt/V, 1.55 +/- 0.3) and similar to results of conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis anticoagulation with dalteparin (URR, 0.72 +/- 0.04; Kt/V, 1.56 +/- 0.2). Electrolyte control was effective with both anticoagulation regimens, and total and ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and phosphate concentrations at the end of dialysis did not differ. Alkalemia was less frequent after citrate than conventional dialysis (pH 7.5 in 25% versus 62% of patients; mean pH at end of dialysis, 7.46 +/- 0.06 versus 7.51 +/- 0.07; P < 0.01). Bleeding time at puncture sites was shorter by 30% after citrate compared with dalteparin anticoagulation (5.43 +/- 2.80 versus 7.86 +/- 2.93 minutes; P < 0.001). Activation of platelets, coagulation, and fibrinolysis was modest for both treatments and occurred mainly within the dialyzer during dalteparin treatment and in the vascular-access region during citrate anticoagulation. Citrate-related adverse events were not observed. We conclude that citrate anticoagulation for high-flux hemodialysis is feasible and safe using a simple infusion protocol. PMID:11684550

  13. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate. (a) Product. Manganese citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. Simplified Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT Without Calcium Replacement.

    PubMed

    Broman, Marcus; Klarin, Bengt; Sandin, Karin; Carlsson, Ola; Wieslander, Anders; Sternby, Jan; Godaly, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Since 2012, citrate anticoagulation is the recommended anticoagulation strategy for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). The main drawback using citrate as anticoagulant compared with heparin is the need for calcium replacement and the rigorous control of calcium levels. This study investigated the possibility to achieve anticoagulation while eliminating the need for calcium replacement. This was successfully achieved by including citrate and calcium in all CRRT solutions. Thereby the total calcium concentration was kept constant throughout the extracorporeal circuit, whereas the ionized calcium was kept at low levels enough to avoid clotting. Being a completely new concept, only five patients with acute renal failure were included in a short, prospective, intensely supervised nonrandomized pilot study. Systemic electrolyte levels and acid-base parameters were stable and remained within physiologic levels. Ionized calcium levels declined slightly initially but stabilized at 1.1 mmol/L. Plasma citrate concentrations stabilized at approximately 0.6 mmol/L. All postfilter ionized calcium levels were <0.5 mmol/L, that is, an anticoagulation effect was reached. All filter pressures were normal indicating no clotting problems, and no visible clotting was observed. No calcium replacement was needed. This pilot study suggests that it is possible to perform regional citrate anticoagulation without the need for separate calcium infusion during CRRT. PMID:25851312

  16. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2110 - Bismuth citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bismuth citrate. 73.2110 Section 73.2110 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2110 Bismuth citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive bismuth citrate is the synthetically prepared crystalline salt of bismuth and citric acid,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.6195 Section 582.6195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium citrate. (a) Product. Calcium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  3. Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stable aqueous dispersions of citrate-stabilized gold nanorods (cit-GNRs) have been prepared in scalable fashion by surfactant exchange from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-stabilized GNRs, using polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) as a detergent. The surfactant exchange process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The latter established the quantitative displacement of CTAB (by PSS) and of PSS (by citrate). The Cit-GNRs are indefinitely stable at low ionic strength, and are conducive to further ligand exchange without loss of dispersion stability. The reliability of the surface exchange process supports the systematic analysis of ligand structure on the hydrodynamic size of GNRs, as described in a companion paper. PMID:25254292

  4. DEXTROSE-TEMPLATED MICROWAVE-ASSISTED COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF SPONGY METAL OXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of porous nanocrystalline titania and carbon coated titania is reported using dextrose as template and the product was compared with the one obtained using conventional heating furnace. Out of three compositions viz., 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 (met...

  5. Citrate-release-mediated aluminum resistance is coupled to the inducible expression of mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Paraserianthes falcataria.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroki; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) resistance in some leguminous plants is achieved by enhanced citrate release from roots. Enhancement requires several hours for complete activation and is postulated to involve Al-responsive genes or components. We examined the mechanism of Al-induced citrate release by studying the relationship between citrate release and expression of the mitochondrial citrate synthase (mCS) gene in three leguminous trees. Root elongation in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit was arrested within 24 h by 30 microM Al, whereas root elongation in Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Neilson and Acacia mangium Willd. was inhibited < 50% by a 48-h treatment with 100 microM Al in calcium chloride solution. Roots of P. falcataria and A. mangium maintained enhanced release and accumulation of citrate for at least 28 days in response to Al treatment. Aluminum increased the accumulation of mCS transcripts in P. falcataria roots, but not in L. leucocephala roots, and thus up-regulation decreased following removal of Al. Lanthanum did not alter the expression level of mCS. Aluminum increased mCS activity concomitantly with enhanced mCS gene expression in P. falcataria, whereas it did not affect mCS activity in L. leucocephala. Aluminum content in root apices of P. falcataria was increased by cycloheximide, supporting the idea that de novo synthesis of proteins is a prerequisite for Al resistance. Our findings suggest that Al-inducible expression of mCS coupled with enhanced citrate release mediates Al resistance in P. falcataria. PMID:16452070

  6. Gypsum crystals formed on decomposing calcium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söhnel, O.; Křivánková, I.; Krčmář, S.; Jurčová, M.

    1991-06-01

    Particle size and the specific surface area of gypsum crystals formed on decomposing an aqueous suspension of solid calcium citrate tetrahydrate by diluted 50% sulphuric acid at 25, 40, 60, 80 and 100°C was studied. The size of the gypsum crystals increases with increasing temperature of decomposition. At a constant temperature within the range of 25 to 100°C the median of gypsum crystal size distribution (PSD) increases for approximately 4 h after commencing decomposition and then reaches a virtually constant value. The specific surface area of gypsum crystals decreases after commencement of the reaction for approximately 6 h before reaching a constant value. Gypsum crystal growth by solute deposition from the liquid is responsible for PSD changes for approximately one hour at the commencement of reaction. Then the growth of larger crystals at the expense of smaller crystals, i.e. ripening, is apparently responsible for further changes in the PSD.

  7. Citrate and renal calculi: an update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.

    1994-01-01

    Citrate is an inhibitor of the crystallization of stone-forming calcium salts. Hypocitraturia, frequently encountered in patients with nephrolithiasis, is therefore an important risk factor for stone formation. Potassium citrate provides physiological and physicochemical correction and inhibits new stone formation, not only in hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis but also in uric acid nephrolithiasis. Inhibition of stone recurrence has now been validated by a randomized trial. Ongoing research has disclosed additional causes of hypocitraturia (sodium excess, low intestinal alkali absorption, but not primary citrate malabsorption). Moreover, new insights on potassium citrate action have been shown, notably that some of absorbed citrate escapes oxidation and contributes to the citraturic response, that ingestion with a meal does not sacrifice physiological or physicochemical action, that orange juice mimics but does not completely duplicate its actions, that potassium citrate may have a beneficial bone-sparing effect, that it may reduce stone fragments following ESWL, and that danger of aluminum toxicity is not great in subjects with functioning kidneys. Finally, the research on potassium citrate has led to two promising products, calcium citrate as an optimum calcium supplement and potassium-magnesium citrate which may be superior to potassium citrate in the management of stone disease.

  8. Treatment of norovirus particles with citrate.

    PubMed

    Koromyslova, Anna D; White, Peter A; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-11-01

    Human norovirus is a dominant cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. Several norovirus disinfectants label citric acid as an active ingredient. In this study, we showed that norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) treated with citrate buffer caused the particles to alter their morphology, including increased diameters associated with a new ring-like structure. We also found that epitopes on the protruding (P) domain on these particles were more readily accessible to antibodies after the citrate treatment. These results suggested that citrate had a direct effect on the norovirus particles. Using X-ray crystallography, we showed that the P domain bound citrate from lemon juice and a disinfectant containing citric acid. Importantly, citrate binds at the histo-blood group antigen binding pocket, which are attachment factors for norovirus infections. Taken together, these new findings suggested that it might be possible to treat/reduce norovirus infections with citrate, although further studies are needed. PMID:26295280

  9. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68-0904-092) is the sodium...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  18. Dissolution kinetics and biodurability of tremolite particles in mimicked lung fluids: Effect of citrate and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozalen, Marisa; Ramos, M. Elena; Huertas, F. Javier; Fiore, Saverio; Gervilla, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    The effect of citrate and oxalate on tremolite dissolution rate was measured at 37 °C in non-stirred flow-through reactors, using modified Gamble's solutions at pH 4 (macrophages), 7.4 (interstitial fluids) and 5.5 (intermediate check point) containing 0, 0.15, 1.5 and 15 mmol L-1 of citrate or oxalate. The dissolution rates calculated from Si concentration in the output solutions without organic ligands depend on pH, decreasing when the pH increases from -13.00 (pH 4) to -13.35 (pH 7.4) mol g-1 s-1 and following a proton-promoted mechanism. The presence of both ligands enhances dissolution rates at every pH, increasing this effect when the ligand concentration increases. Citrate produces a stronger effect as a catalyst than oxalate, mainly at more acidic pHs and enhances dissolution rates until 20 times for solutions with 15 mmol L-1 citrate. However, at pH 7.4 the effect is lighter and oxalate solutions (15 mmol L-1) only enhances dissolution rates eight times respect to free organic ligand solutions. Dissolution is promoted by the attack to protons and organic ligands to the tremolite surface. Magnesium speciation in oxalate and citrate solutions shows that Mg citrate complexes are more effective than oxalate ones during the alteration of tremolite in magrophages, but this tendency is the opposite for interstitial fluids, being oxalate magnesium complexes stronger. The biodurability estimations show that the destruction of the fibers is faster in acidic conditions (macrophages) than in the neutral solutions (interstitial fluid). At pH 4, both ligands oxalate and citrate reduce the residence time of the fibers with respect to that calculated in absence of ligands. Nevertheless, at pH 7.4 the presence of ligands does not reduce significantly the lifetime of the fibers.

  19. The Effects of Prolotherapy With Hypertonic Dextrose Versus Prolozone (Intraarticular Ozone) in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Masoud; Jalili, Parviz; Mennati, Shirin; Koosha, Alireza; Rohanifar, Ramin; Madadi, Firouz; Razavi, Seyed Sajad; Taheri, Farinaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disabling disease. Limited studies have demonstrated that prolotherapy with dextrose or with prolozone can be helpful in the treatment of patients with KOA. Objectives: In the current study, we compared the results between these two treatment methods. Patients and Methods: In the current randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with mild to moderate KOA were randomly assigned equally into two groups (ozone group and dextrose group). In each group, injections were repeated three times with 10-day intervals. Before the treatment and 3 months after the injections, the pain intensity was measured by using a visual analogue scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster university arthritis index scores. Finally, the results were compared between the two groups. Results: In the two groups, the pain intensity and WOMAC scores significantly decreased and increased, respectively (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Prolotherapy with dextrose and with prolozone result in the same pain relief or functional improvement in patients with mild to moderate KOA. PMID:26587401

  20. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  1. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5449 Manganese citrate....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5195 Calcium citrate. (a)...

  3. Plasma-depleted platelet concentrates prepared with a new washing solution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Shibata, K; Kora, S

    1993-01-01

    In certain clinical situations, complete removal of the plasma proteins from the platelet concentrates (PCs) is necessary by washing prior to transfusion. A simple electrolyte solution with a pH of 6.5 was developed for washing PCs. The platelet-rich plasma collected with acid-citrate-dextrose solution by apheresis in a 0.6-liter polyolefin bag was centrifuged. After removal of the supernatant plasma from pelleted platelet buttons, 200 ml of a washing solution consisting of 90 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 17 mM NaH2PO4, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 23 mM Na acetate, 17 mM Na3 citrate, 23.5 mM glucose, 2 mM adenine, 0.1% dextran, and 28.8 mM maltose (pH 6.5) was added to the pelleted platelet button. Steam sterilization of the solution was carried out under nitrogen to avoid caramelization of glucose. After resuspension of the pelleted platelet button with a washing solution and a second centrifugation, Seto additive solution (Seto sol, pH 7.4) was introduced into the bag to resuspend the platelet buttons for storage for 3 days at 22 degrees C. All of these procedures were completed within 3 h using a sterile docking device. In washed PCs, 99.1% of the plasma was removed and platelet recovery was 96%. The washed PCs were compared for 3 days with plasma-poor PCs consisting of 11% plasma and 89% Seto solution. There were no significant differences in percent hypotonic shock response, aggregation, energy metabolism, and morphology of platelets between the two groups during 3 days, except for significant swelling of 3-day-old platelets in washed PCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8447117

  4. A second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, NaH2C6H5O7: structure solution from powder diffraction data and DFT comparison

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of a second polymorph of sodium di­hydrogen citrate, Na+·H2C6H5O7 −, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The powder pattern of the commercial sample used in this study did not match that corresponding to the known crystal structure [Glusker et al. (1965). Acta Cryst. 19, 561–572; refcode NAHCIT]. In this polymorph, the [NaO7] coordination polyhedra form edge-sharing chains propagating along the a axis, while in NAHCIT the octa­hedral [NaO6] groups form edge-sharing pairs bridged by two hy­droxy groups. The most notable difference is that in this polymorph one of the terminal carboxyl groups is deprotonated, while in NAHCIT the central carboxyl­ate group is deprotonated, as is more typical. PMID:27308058

  5. Effect of Eu-citrate complex composition on its cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.M.; Kornilov, A.S.; Yadovin, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    The dependence of Eu cementation by sodium amalgam in a semicountercurrent regime from citrate solutions on the Eu complex composition is studied. The purity of the {sup 153}Gd product from radioactive Eu can be increased during cementation by introducing correcting solutions of citric acid and stable Eu. The selected conditions are verified by processing irradiated targets. The content of radioactive Eu in the {sup 153}Gd product is reduced from 0.01 to 0.0005% with respect to {gamma}-activity.

  6. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  7. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  8. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  9. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5–6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5–6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development. PMID:26338058

  10. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  11. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  12. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  13. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  15. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  16. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  17. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  18. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mole of calcium citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), pp. 49 and 50, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  20. The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R; Cho, Herman M; Dixon, David A; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J; Wang, Zheming

    2006-04-20

    The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the -carboxylate and -alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated α-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the α-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

  1. Mean platelet volume measurement, EDTA or citrate?

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mansour Siavash; Emami, Tajolmolouk; Najafian, Alireza; Amini, Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Most laboratories use EDTA for anticoagulation of whole blood prior to automated cell counting but due to platelet swelling, mean platelet volume (MPV) values may increase with its use. MPV changes may be less with acid citrate based anticoagulation. As MPV is a marker of platelet function and its precise measurement is important in a number of clinical situations, this study was performed to assess if EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples can be used interchangeably for MPV measurement. In this cross sectional descriptive study, EDTA and citrate based anticoagulated blood samples of the same patients were assessed by auto-analyzer within 1 h of sampling. In the 61 evaluated patients, there was a close correlation between MPV as measured by EDTA and citrate, but mean MPV measured from EDTA samples was 0.66 fL (9%) more than citrate. There was also a significant negative correlation between platelets count and MPV by both methods. The results of our study reveal that MPV can be measured accurately by both methods of anticoagulation; EDTA and citrate if analysis be performed within 1 h of sampling. PMID:17607580

  2. Sensitive and selective SERS probe for trivalent chromium detection using citrate attached gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yingjie; Liu, Honglin; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions.In this article, we have demonstrated a sensitive and selective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe, based on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), for trivalent chromium (Cr3+) detection. After introducing Tween 20 to a solution of citrate-capped AuNPs, the as-prepared Tween 20/citrate-AuNP probe could recognize Cr3+ at a 50 × 10-9 M level in an aqueous medium at a pH of 6.0. Tween 20 can stabilize the citrate-capped AuNPs against conditions of high ionic strength. Due to the chelation between Cr3+ and citrate ions, AuNPs undergo aggregation. As a result, it formed several hot spots and provided a significant enhancement of the Raman signal intensity through electromagnetic (EM) field enhancements. A detailed mechanism for tremendous SERS intensity change had been discussed. The selectivity of this system toward Cr3+ was 400-fold, remarkably greater than other metal ions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31985c

  3. Forsterite Carbonation in Wet Supercritical CO2 and Sodium Citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L.; Schaef, T.; Wang, Z.; Miller, Q.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Lin Qiu1*, Herbert T. Schaef2, Zhengrong Wang1, Quin R.S. Miller3, BP McGrail2 1. Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA 2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA 3. University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA Geologic reservoirs for managing carbon emissions (mostly CO2) have expanded over the last 5 years to include unconventional formations including basalts and fractured shales. Recently, ~1000 metric tons of CO2 was injected into the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) in Eastern Washington as part of the Wallula Pilot Project, Big Sky Regional Carbon Partnership. Based on reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is present as a supercritical fluid that dissolves into the formation water over time, and reacts with basalt components to form carbonate minerals. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring when the forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is exposed to wet scCO2 in equilibrium with pure water and sodium citrate solutions. Forsterite was selected as it is an important olivine group mineral present in igneous and mafic rocks. Citrate was selected as it has been shown to enhance mineral dissolution and organic ligands are possible degradation products of the microbial communities present in the formational waters of the CRB. For the supercritical phase, transformation reactions were examined by in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) in contact with water and sodium citrate solutions at conditions relevant to carbon sequestration. Experimental results show close-to-complete dissolution of forsterite in contact with scCO2 equilibrated with pure water for 90 hours (90 bar and 50°C). Under these conditions, thin films of water coated the mineral surface, providing a mechanism for silicate dissolution and transport of cations necessary for carbonate formation. The primary crystalline component initially detected with in situ HXRD was the hydrated magnesium carbonate, nesquehonite [Mg

  4. Tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery system: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sarwa, Khomendra Kumar; Suresh, Preeti K; Debnath, Manabendra; Ahmad, Mohammad Zaki

    2013-08-01

    Long term tamoxifen citrate therapy is imperative to treat several dermatological and hormonal sensitive disorders. Successful oral and parenteral administration of tamoxifen citrate has been challenging since it undergoes enzymatic degradation and has poor aqueous solubility issues. In the present work, tamoxifen citrate loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for transdermal applications. The prepared formulations were characterized for morphological features, particle size distribution, calorimetric attributes, zeta potential and drug entrapment. Permeation profile of prepared ethosomes was compared with liposomes and hydroethonalic solution across cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Results of the permeation studies indicate that ethosomes were able to deliver >90% drug within 24 hours of application, while liposomes and hydroethanolic solution delivered only 39.04% and 36.55% respectively. Skin deposition and stability studies are also reported. PMID:23656399

  5. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes. PMID:23500418

  6. Potentiometric, spectroscopic, electrochemical and DFT characterization of oxovanadium(IV) complexes formed by citrate and tartrates in aqueous solution at high ligand to metal molar ratios: the effects of the trigonal bipyramidal distortion in bis-chelated species and biological implications.

    PubMed

    Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Sanna, Daniele; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni

    2008-09-28

    The complexation of VO(IV) ion with citrate (L3-), D-, L- and DL-tartrate (L2-) at high ligand to metal molar ratios was studied in aqueous solution through the combined application of potentiometric, spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. Unlike in equimolar solution, mononuclear and not dinuclear species are formed with the binding of carboxylate-COO- and alcoholate-O- donors yielding mono- and bis-chelated species with VOLH, VOL, VOLH(-1) and VOL2H(-2) composition; for tartrates also the "sugar-like" (O-, O-) coordination is involved in the vanadium binding at basic pH values giving rise to the formation of VOL2H(-3) and VOL2H(-4) complexes. Among the species formed, VOL2H(-2) is characterised by a strong distortion towards the trigonal bipyramid with the two V-O(alcoholate) bonds in the equatorial and the two V-O(carboxylate) bonds in the axial positions. The geometry and electronic absorption spectra of such complexes were simulated by DFT methods and it was found that in aqueous solution the distortion follows the steric hindrance of the substituents on the alpha-carbon atom and the hydrophobicity of the ligands. The results were compared with those displayed by simple alpha-hydroxycarboxylates (glycolate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, 2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutyrate and benzilate). The trigonal bipyramidal distortion was correlated with the values of: i) Deltalambda = lambda2-lambda3, where lambda2 and lambda3 are the central bands in the electronic absorption spectrum; ii) |A(x)-A(y)|, where A(x) and A(y) are the 51V hyperfine coupling constants along the x and y axes in the anisotropic EPR spectrum; iii) the half-wave potential E(1/2) of oxidation of VO(IV) to the corresponding VO2(V) species in the cyclic voltammogram. Finally, a discussion on the possible form of VO(IV)-citrate complexes in blood serum is presented, where it is found that the most relevant species under physiological conditions should be [VO(citrH(-1

  7. Citrate, a specific substrate for the isolation of Clostridium sphenoides.

    PubMed Central

    Walther, R; Hippe, H; Gottschalk, G

    1977-01-01

    With a medium containing citrate as the carbon and energy source, 10 clostridial strains were isolated from various mud samples. Characterization of these strains revealed that they all belonged to the same species, Clostridium sphenoides. Strains of this organism obtained from culture collections were also able to grow citrate, whereas 15 other clostridial species tested were not. Citrate was fermented by C. sphenoides to acetate, ethanol, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Experiments with stereospecifically 14C-labeled citrate indicated that citrate lyase was involved in citrate degradation. Images PMID:869540

  8. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  9. Secondary transporters for citrate and the Mg(2+)-citrate complex in Bacillus subtilis are homologous proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Boorsma, A; van der Rest, M E; Lolkema, J S; Konings, W N

    1996-01-01

    Citrate uptake in Bacillus subtilis is mediated by a secondary transporter that transports the complex of citrate and divalent metal ions. The gene coding for the transporter termed CitM was cloned, sequenced, and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Translation of the base sequence to the primary sequence revealed a transporter that is not homologous to any known secondary transporter. However, CitM shares 60% sequence identity with the gene product of open reading frame N15CR that is on the genome of B. subtilis and for which no function is known. The hydropathy profiles of the primary sequences of CitM and the unknown gene product are very similar, and secondary structure prediction algorithms predict 12 transmembrane-spanning segments for both proteins. Open reading frame N15CR was cloned and expressed in E. coli and was shown to be a citrate transporter as well. The transporter is termed CitH. A remarkable difference between the two transporters is that citrate uptake by CitM is stimulated by the presence of Mg2+ ions, while citrate uptake by CitH is inhibited by Mg2+. It is concluded that the substrate of CitM is the Mg(2+)-citrate complex and that CitH transports the free citrate anion. Uptake experiments in right-side-out membrane vesicles derived from E. coli cells expressing either CitM or CitH showed that both transporters catalyze electrogenic proton/substrate symport. PMID:8892821

  10. Localization of the calcium-regulated citrate transport process in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M; Hamm, L Lee

    2014-06-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium-stone formation. Most of the citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical >basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However, by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles. PMID:24652587

  11. Vibrational study of tamoxifen citrate polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamberini, M. C.; Baraldi, C.; Tinti, A.; Palazzoli, F.; Ferioli, V.

    2007-09-01

    The trans isomer of ( Z)-2-[ p-(1,2-diphenyl-butenyl)phenoxy]- N, N-dimethyletylamine (tamoxifen) is well known for its endocrine activity as an antiestrogenic agent. Its citrate salt, a widely used pharmaceutical agent, appears in three main polymorphic forms, two of which are well known (I and II) and another form not yet well evidenced. A vibrational study has been conducted for identifying the two known polymorphic forms of tamoxifen citrate (I and II) and for characterising the other form (form III) examined in this study. Other techniques for the characterization of the different polymorphs, such as XRDP, have been used.

  12. Elevated citrate levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: the potential of citrate to promote radical production.

    PubMed

    van de Wier, Bregje; Balk, Jiska M; Haenen, Guido R M M; Giamouridis, Dimosthenis; Bakker, Jaap A; Bast, Bertine C; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Koek, Ger H; Bast, Aalt

    2013-08-01

    Plasma citrate levels were found to be elevated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Cellular experiments indicated that increased citrate levels might originate from an excess of fatty acids. The impact of elevated citrate levels on oxidative stress was examined. It was found that citrate stimulated hydrogen peroxide induced intracellular oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. This was related to the promotion of iron mediated hydroxyl radical formation from hydrogen peroxide by citrate. The stimulating effect of citrate on the reactivity of iron promotes oxidative stress, a crucial process in the progression of NAFLD. PMID:23792160

  13. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  14. Inhibition of Unfolding and Aggregation of Lens Protein Human Gamma D Crystallin by Sodium Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, Daniel R.; Knee, Kelly M.; King, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cataract affects 1 in 6 Americans over the age of 40, and is considered a global health problem. Cataract is caused by the aggregation of unfolded or damaged proteins in the lens, which accumulate as an individual ages. Currently, surgery is the only available treatment for cataract, however, small molecules have been suggested as potential preventative therapies. In this work, we study the effect of sodium citrate on the stability of Human γD Crystallin (HγD-Crys), a structural protein of the eye lens, and two cataract-related mutants, L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. In equilibrium unfolding-refolding studies, the presence of 250 mM sodium citrate increased the transition midpoint of the N-td of WT HγD-Crys and L5S HγD-Crys by 0.3 M GuHCl, the C-td by 0.6M GuHCl, and the single transition of I90F HγD-Crys by 0.4M GuHCl. In kinetic unfolding reactions, sodium citrate demonstrates a measurable stabilization effect only for the mutant I90F HγD-Crys. In the presence of citrate, a kinetic unfolding intermediate of I90F HγD-Crys can be observed, which was not observed in the absence of citrate. Rate of aggregation was measured using solution turbidity, and sodium citrate demonstrates negligible effect on rate of aggregation of WT HγD-Crys, but considerably slows the rate of aggregation of both L5S HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys. The presence of sodium citrate dramatically slows refolding of WT HγD-Crys and I90F HγD-Crys, but has a significantly smaller effect on the refolding of L5S HγD-Crys. The differential stabilizing effect of sodium citrate suggests that the ion is binding to a partially unfolded conformation of the C-td, but a solution-based Hofmeister effect cannot be eliminated as a possible explanation for the effects observed. These results suggest that sodium citrate may be a potential preventative agent for cataract. PMID:21600897

  15. FO-SPR based dextrose sensor using Ag/ZnO nanorods/GOx for insulinoma detection.

    PubMed

    Usha, Sruthi P; Shrivastav, Anand M; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-11-15

    In this piece of work, a fiber optic sensor has been fabricated and characterized using surface plasmon resonance for dextrose sensing. The concentration range used in this study is for diagnosing the cases of hypoglycaemia especially in suppression tests of insulinoma. Insulinoma is a medical case in which the person is recognized being hypoglycaemic with the blood dextrose level falling down to 2.2mM or less. Thus, the sensor has been characterized for the dextrose concentration range of 0 mM-10mM including the cases of normal blood dextrose range. Coatings of silver layer and zinc oxide nanorods have been carried out on the bare core fiber with a dual role of zinc oxide followed by immobilization of glucose oxidase. A three stage optimization procedure has been adopted for the best performance of the sensor. Absorbance spectra have been plotted and peak absorbance wavelengths have been extracted for each concentration chosen along with the sensitivities. The results have been made conclusive with control experiments. The probe has also been tested on sample having blood serum to check the reliability of the sensor. The sensor shows better selectivity and response time along with its real time applications, online monitoring, remote sensing and reusability. PMID:27268014

  16. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ammonium citrate, CAS Reg. No. 1332-98-5) is a complex salt of undetermined structure composed of 16.5 to... (iron (III) ammonium citrate, CAS Reg. No. 1333-00-2) is a complex salt of undetermined...

  17. Evidence that Osteoblasts are Specialized Citrate-producing Cells that Provide the Citrate for Incorporation into the Structure of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Renty B.; Chellaiah, Meena; Zou, Jing; Reynolds, Mark A.; Costello, Leslie C.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a major component of bone in all vertebrates, but its implications in bone have remained largely unknown. Recent studies identified that citrate is incorporated into the structure of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystal/collagen complex; and is essential for the important biomechanical properties of bone. This raises the important question, “What is the source of citrate for incorporation into bone?”; A question that heretofore had remained unresolved. Studies in this report were designed to determine the plausibility of our concept that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells, which provide the citrate that is incorporated into the structure of bone; and that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchyme cells leads to the development of the citrate-producing osteoblasts. The results demonstrated that primary human osteoblasts exhibit the capability of citrate-production. Undifferentiated mesenchyme cells do not exhibit the capability of citrate production; and osteogenic differentiation results in citrate-producing osteoblasts. The up-regulation of zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 is essential for the manifestation of the citrate-producing capability of the osteoblasts. We determined that osteoblast transport of citrate from plasma is not a likely source of citrate in bone. Thus, this study establishes for the first time that the osteoblasts are specialized citrate-producing cells that provide the citrate for incorporation into the structure of bone; and that mesenchyme cell osteogenesis leads to differentiated citrate-producing osteoblasts. This is a new understanding; which must include the osteogenic development of citrate-producing osteoblasts, and the process of “citration” in concert with mineralization during bone formation. It also provides a new understanding of the role of bone in the homeostatic maintenance of plasma citrate concentration. PMID:25745519

  18. Regional citrate anticoagulation for RRTs in critically ill patients with AKI.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Santo; Pistolesi, Valentina; Tritapepe, Luigi; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic complications have been reported in up to 30% of critically ill patients with AKI undergoing RRT with systemic anticoagulation. Because bleeding is associated with significantly increased mortality risk, strategies aimed at reducing hemorrhagic complications while maintaining extracorporeal circulation should be implemented. Among the alternatives to systemic anticoagulation, regional citrate anticoagulation has been shown to prolong circuit life while reducing the incidence of hemorrhagic complications and lowering transfusion needs. For these reasons, the recently published Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Kidney Injury have recommended regional citrate anticoagulation as the preferred anticoagulation modality for continuous RRT in critically ill patients in whom it is not contraindicated. However, the use of regional citrate anticoagulation is still limited because of concerns related to the risk of metabolic complications, the complexity of the proposed protocols, and the need for customized solutions. The introduction of simplified anticoagulation protocols based on citrate and the development of dialysis monitors with integrated infusion systems and dedicated software could lead to the wider use of regional citrate anticoagulation in upcoming years. PMID:24993448

  19. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. 21 CFR 582.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.1195 Section 582.1195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 582.5195 Section 582.5195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  5. Aluminum citrate inhibits cytotoxicity and aggregation of oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chungang; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2007-02-12

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), which represents a major component of kidney stones, is an end metabolite of ethylene glycol. COM accumulation has been linked with acute renal toxicity in ethylene glycol poisoning. COM injures the kidney either by directly producing cytotoxicity to the kidney cells or by aggregating in the kidney lumen leading to the blockage of urine flow. The present studies were designed to examine whether aluminum citrate could reduce the toxicity of COM. Toxicity was determined in human proximal tubule cells by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase or uptake of ethidium homodimer and in erythrocytes by degree of hemolysis. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from human proximal tubule cells and protected against cell death from COM. The inhibitory effect of aluminum citrate was greater than that of other citrate or aluminum salts such as sodium citrate, aluminum chloride, calcium citrate, ammonium citrate or potassium citrate. Aluminum citrate significantly inhibited the aggregation of COM crystals in vitro and decreased red cell membrane damage from COM. Aluminum citrate appeared to directly interact with COM, but not with the cell membrane. As such, aluminum citrate reduced the cytotoxicity by a physico-chemical interaction with the COM surface, and not by dissolving the COM crystals. These studies suggest that aluminum citrate may protect against tissue damage that occurs with high levels of oxalate accumulation, especially in ethylene glycol poisoning and possibly in hyperoxaluric states. PMID:17161516

  6. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  9. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  10. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by reacting... source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  11. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  12. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  13. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  14. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  15. 21 CFR 573.580 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 573.580 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.580 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline citrate complex made by... used as a source of iron in animal feed....

  16. Diameter and location control of ZnO nanowires using electrodeposition and sodium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifson, Max L.; Levey, Christopher G.; Gibson, Ursula J.

    2013-10-01

    We report single-step growth of spatially localized ZnO nanowires of controlled diameter to enable improved performance of piezoelectric devices such as nanogenerators. This study is the first to demonstrate the combination of electrodeposition with zinc nitrate and sodium citrate in the growth solution. Electrodeposition through a thermally-grown silicon oxide mask results in localization, while the growth voltage and solution chemistry are tuned to control the nanowire geometry. We observe a competition between lateral (relative to the (0001) axis) citrate-related morphology and voltage-driven vertical growth which enables this control. High aspect ratios result with either pure nitrate or nitrate-citrate mixtures if large voltages are used, but low growth voltages permit the growth of large diameter nanowires in solution with citrate. Measurements of the current density suggest a two-step growth process. An oxide mask blocks the electrodeposition, and suppresses nucleation of thermally driven growth, permitting single-step lithography on low cost p-type silicon substrates.

  17. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management.

    PubMed

    Maquivar, M G; Barragan, A A; Velez, J S; Bothe, H; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess responses to treatments (clinical cure and resumption of estrous cycles) of cows with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) that received intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) or untreated control (CON) cows and the subsequent pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) in cows with and without PVD. Cows (n=2,852) from 2 dairy herds were screened for PVD using the gloved hand technique at exam 1 [26±3 d in milk (DIM)]. Cows with vaginal discharge scores of 2 or 3 (0-3 scale) were stratified by parity and randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatment groups: (1) intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of 50% DEX solution (n=456), or (2) untreated control animals (CON, n=491). Fourteen days posttherapy (40±3 DIM), cows with PVD were re-examined at exam 2 (40±3 DIM) to assess the response to treatments. All cows were subjected to the same reproductive program, which consisted of estrus detection twice daily (using tail chalking and visual observation) for the first 5 artificial inseminations; then, open lactating cows were turned out with bulls. Cows displaying signs of standing estrus underwent AI and no reproductive hormones were used. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was performed via transrectal palpation at 40±3 d post-AI. The risk of culling within 14 d posttherapy was not different among treatment groups. Cows with PVD had greater cervical diameter at exam 1 and decreased PAI compared with cows without PVD. Treatment with DEX increased the proportion of cows with clear vaginal discharge (clinical cure) and cyclicity 14 d posttherapy compared with CON cows. Pregnancy per AI for DEX (29.2±2%) cows was significantly greater than that for CON (22.5±2%) cows. Cows without PVD had a greater proportion of cycling cows (65.6%) and PAI (37%) with reduced pregnancy losses (5.7%) compared with DEX or CON cows. The use of intrauterine DEX alone improved reproductive performance of cows with PVD. PMID:25828665

  18. Methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. Richard

    Biomaterials play central roles in modern strategies of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Attempts to find tissue-engineered solutions to cure various injuries or diseases have led to an enormous increase in the number of polymeric biomaterials over the past decade. The breadth of new materials arises from the multiplicity of anatomical locations, cell types, and mode of application, which all place application-specific requirements on the biomaterial. Unfortunately, many of the currently available biodegradable polymers are limited in their versatility to meet the wide range of requirements for tissue engineering. Therefore, a methodology of biomaterial development, which is able to address a broad spectrum of requirements, would be beneficial to the biomaterial field. This work presents a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial design and application to meet the multifaceted needs of tissue engineering. We hypothesize that (1) citric acid, a non-toxic metabolic product of the body (Krebs Cycle), can be exploited as a universal multifunctional monomer and reacted with various diols to produce a new class of soft biodegradable elastomers with the flexibility to tune the material properties of the resulting material to meet a wide range of requirements; (2) the newly developed citrate-based polymers can be used as platform biomaterials for the design of novel tissue engineering scaffolding; and (3) microengineering approaches in the form thin scaffold sheets, microchannels, and a new porogen design can be used to generate complex cell-cell and cell-microenvironment interactions to mimic tissue complexity and architecture. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a methodology of citrate-based biomaterial development through the synthesis and characterization of a family of in situ crosslinkable and urethane-doped elastomers, which are synthesized using simple, cost-effective strategies and offer a variety methods to tailor the material properties to

  19. Citrate anticoagulation for CRRT in children: comparison with heparin.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sara Nicole; Santiago, Maria José; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Miriam; Del Castillo, Jimena; Alcaraz, Andrés José; Bellón, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P = 0.028). 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I) of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin. PMID:25157369

  20. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Sara Nicole; Santiago, Maria José; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Miriam; Del Castillo, Jimena; Alcaraz, Andrés José; Bellón, Jose María

    2014-01-01

    Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P = 0.028). 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I) of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin. PMID:25157369

  1. Fungistatic activity of flaxseed in potato dextrose agar and a fresh noodle system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Hall, Clifford; Wolf-Hall, Charlene; Manthey, Frank

    2008-02-10

    Although numerous researchers have studied flaxseed as a food ingredient for its health benefits, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) has never been considered as a food preservative. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of flaxseed flour (FF) concentration (0, 6, 9, 12, and 15% wt/wt), cultivar ('Omega' and brown) and source (four seed companies located in Minnesota and North Dakota) on flaxseed fungistatic activity. Fungal radial growth was used to assess the fungistatic activity of FF in both potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and a fresh noodle system. Strains of Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium graminearum, and a Penicillium sp. isolated from molded noodles were used as the test microorganisms. Results showed that growth of F. graminearum was completely inhibited at all FF concentrations in PDA, and the inhibition of the other three test microorganisms increased with increasing FF concentrations. In the model noodle system, FF concentration at 9% or higher significantly reduced the mold count of fresh noodle during storage. In the inoculated noodle system, 6% FF addition was sufficient to significantly inhibit the growth of F. graminearum and A. flavus, whereas 9% FF concentrations showed fungistatic activity against P. chrysogenum and the Penicillium sp. isolate. Differences in the degree of mold inhibition were found among FFs obtained from different sources and cultivars. Results suggested that flaxseed possesses fungistatic activity and could be used as a multifunctional food ingredient. PMID:18077042

  2. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2014-05-01

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:24800792

  3. Effect of citrate on the local Fe coordination in ferrihydrite, arsenate binding, and ternary arsenate complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Christian; Frommer, Jakob; Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-10-01

    In oxic environments contaminated with arsenate (As(V)), small polyhydroxycarboxylates such as citrate may impact the structure of precipitating ferrihydrite (Fh) and thus the surface speciation of As(V). In this study, '2-line' Fh was precipitated from ferric nitrate solutions that were neutralized to pH 6.5 in the presence of increasing citrate concentrations and in the absence or presence of As(V). The initial citrate/Fe and As/Fe ratios were 0-50 mol% and 5 mol%, respectively. The reaction products, enriched with up to 0.32 mol citrate per mole Fe, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Citrate decreased the particle size of Fh by impairing the polymerization of Fe(O,OH) 6 octahedra via edge and corner linkages. In the presence of citrate and As(V), coordination numbers of Fe decreased by up to 28% relative to pure Fh. Citrate significantly reduced the static disorder of Fe-O bonds, implying a decreased octahedral distortion in Fh. Mean bond distances in Fh were not affected by citrate and remained constant within error at 1.98 Å for Fe-O, 3.03 Å for Fe-Fe1, and 3.45 Å for Fe-Fe2. Likewise, citrate had no effect on the As-Fe (3.31 Å) bond distance in As(V) coprecipitated with Fh. The As K-edge EXAFS data comply with the formation of (i) only monodentate binuclear ( 2C) As(V) surface complexes and (ii) combinations of 2C, monodentate mononuclear ( 1V), and outersphere As(V) surface complexes. Our results suggest that increasing citrate concentrations led to a decreasing 1V/ 2C ratio and/or that citrate increasingly impaired the formation of outersphere As(V) complexes. Moreover, citrate stabilized colloidal suspensions of Fh (pH 4.3-6.6, I ˜0.45 M) and reduced Fh formation at the expense of soluble Fe(III)-citrate complexes. At initial citrate/Fe ratios ⩾25 mol%, between 8% and 41% of total Fe was bound in Fe(III)-citrate complexes after Fh formation. Polynuclear Fe(III)-citrate

  4. Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M R; Samadi, A R; Ahmed, S M; Bardhan, P K; Ali, A

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of correction of acidosis during a period of 48 hours. Seventy five per cent (21 cases) in the citrate group and 83% (19 cases) in the bicarbonate group were successfully rehydrated (p greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences in intake, output, gain in body weight, fall in haematocrit and plasma specific gravity, and correction of acidosis between the two groups of patients within 48 hours after initiation of therapy. The solution with sodium citrate base was as effective as WHO-oral rehydration solution for management of diarrhoea. This study shows the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of citrate containing oral rehydration solution for rehydration and correction of acidosis in diarrhoea. PMID:6086466

  5. On-chip recalcification of citrated whole blood using a microfluidic herringbone mixer.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marcus; Wallbank, Alison M; Dennis, Kimberly A; Wufsus, Adam R; Davis, Kara M; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-11-01

    In vitro assays of platelet function and coagulation are typically performed in the presence of an anticoagulant. The divalent cation chelator sodium citrate is among the most common because its effect on coagulation is reversible upon reintroduction of divalent cations. Adding divalent cations into citrated blood by batch mixing leads to platelet activation and initiation of coagulation after several minutes, thus limiting the time blood can be used before spontaneously clotting. In this work, we describe a herringbone microfluidic mixer to continuously introduce divalent cations into citrated blood. The mixing ratio, defined as the ratio of the volumetric flow rates of citrated blood and recalcification buffer, can be adjusted by changing the relative inlet pressures of these two solutions. This feature is useful in whole blood assays in order to account for differences in hematocrit, and thus viscosity. The recalcification process in the herringbone mixer does not activate platelets. The advantage of this continuous mixing approach is demonstrated in microfluidic vascular injury model in which platelets and fibrin accumulate on a collagen-tissue factor surface under flow. Continuous recalcification with the herringbone mixer allowed for flow assay times of up to 30 min, more than three times longer than the time achieved by batch recalcification. This continuous mixer allows for measurements of thrombus formation, remodeling, and fibrinolysis in vitro over time scales that are relevant to these physiological processes. PMID:26634014

  6. Promotion of Ni2+ Removal by Masking Toxicity to Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Addition of Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Junwei; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

    2015-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bioprocess is a promising technology for the treatment of heavy metal-containing wastewater. This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of promoting heavy metal removal by the addition of citrate to mask Ni2+ toxicity to sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in batch reactors. SRB growth was completely inhibited in Ni2+-containing medium (1 mM) when lactate served as the sole carbon resource, leading to no sulfate reduction and Ni2+ removal. However, after the addition of citrate, SRB grew well, and sulfate was quickly reduced to sulfide. Simultaneously, the Ni-citrate complex was biodegraded to Ni2+ and acetate. The NiS precipitate was then formed, and Ni2+ was completely removed from the solution. It was suggested that the addition of citrate greatly alleviates Ni2+ toxicity to SRB and improves the removal of Ni2+, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. Analysis of the carbon metabolism indicated that lactate instead of acetate served as the electron donor for sulfate reduction. This study offers a potential approach to increase the removal of heavy metals from wastewater in the single stage SRB-based bioprocess. PMID:25860948

  7. Reaction of aqueous Cu-Citrate with MnO2 birnessite: characterization of Mn dissolution, oxidation products and surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, William A; Hu, Chengzhi; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Citric acid, a widespread soil rhizosphere plant/microbe carboxylic acid exudate can easily form chelates with heavy metals, increasing their availability in the environment. When Cu(II) from algal control in water bodies or reservoirs and fungicides, such as the Bordeaux mixture, and citrate interact, solubilization through chelation is a possible outcome. Manganese (hydr)oxides represent a significant portion of the subsurface environment and can affect the fate and transport of chemical species through adsorption and oxidation. This study explores the possible interaction between MnO2 and Cu-Citrate under ambient oxic conditions. The calculated Mn(II) dissolution rates during the initial 1h of reaction followed the series Cu(II)>Cu-Citrate 1:0.5>Cu-Citrate 1:1(oxic)>Citrate>Cu-Citrate 1:1(Anoxic), reinforcing the central role of (complexed or un-complexed) Cu(II) during the initial surface-coordination instead of following the s-shaped auto-catalytic curves of Mn(II) dissolution in citrate solution. The use of capillary electrophoresis allowed the detection of an intermediate Cu(II)Acetonedicarboxylate complex and the oxidation products acetonedicarboxylate, acetoacetate, acetone and acetic acid. The mass balance analysis of Cu-Citrate 1:1 suggests the partial adsorption of Cu-Citrate(ads) and catalytic degradation of acetonedicarboxylate through a MnO2-Cu surface sorbed complex. Lastly, XPS analysis confirmed the MnO2 surface Cu(II) reduction along with an outer-hydration layer at the MnO2 interface, where electron transfer and aquo ligand exchange may lead to the oxidation of Cu-Citrate. PMID:25460741

  8. TRANSFUSIONS—Hazardous Acid-Base Changes with Citrated Blood

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Jovita M. San; Iwai, Seizo; Hattori, Mitsuo; Leigh, M. Digby

    1962-01-01

    In a study of the acid-base changes in the blood of rabbits during and following transfusions of citrated blood and of heparinized blood, it was observed that, with citrated blood, pH decreased and carbon dioxide tensions rose. With heparinized blood, the acid-base balance was maintained within normal limits following transfusions. The potential hazards of rapid massive citrated blood transfusions in the anesthetized patient during operation must be kept in mind. PMID:14496706

  9. Low temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline lithium ferrite by a modified citrate gel precursor method

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Seema; Joy, P.A.

    2008-12-01

    Single phase nanocrystalline lithium ferrite is synthesized by a modified citrate gel precursor technique. Ferrite nanoparticles of average size of 8 nm, obtained after calcination of the citrate gel made by the usual method at 450 deg. C, show superparamagnetic behavior. However, small amounts of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed as an impurity phase due to the initial formation of some {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. On the other hand, when the pH of the mixed solution is increased to 7 after the addition of ammonia solution, a lower calcination temperature of 200 deg. C is sufficient for the formation of single phase lithium ferrite nanoparticles of size 30 nm. No impurity phases are detected when the nanocrystalline powders are calcined at higher temperatures. The magnetic properties of the ferrite nanoparticles of different sizes obtained by calcining the powders at different temperatures are studied.

  10. Variation of stability constants of thorium citrate complexes and of thorium hydrolysis constants with ionic strength

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.; Erten, H.N.; Xia, Y.X.

    1995-09-01

    Citrate is among the organic anions that are expected to be present in the wastes planned for deposition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. In this study, a solvent extraction method has been used to measure the stability constants of Thorium(IV)[Th(IV)] with citrate anions in aqueous solutions with (a) NaClO{sub 4} and (b) NaCl as the background electrolytes. The ionic strengths were varied up to 5 m (NaCl) and 14 m (NaClO{sub 4}). The data from the NaClO{sub 4} solutions at varying pH values were used to calculate the hydrolysis constants for formation of Th(OH){sup 3+} at the different ionic strengths.

  11. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  12. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  13. Synthesis and spectroscopic and structural studies of a new cadmium(II)-citrate aqueous complex. Potential relevance to cadmium(II)-citrate speciation and links to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dakanali, M; Kefalas, E T; Raptopoulou, C P; Terzis, A; Mavromoustakos, T; Salifoglou, A

    2003-04-21

    The presence of cadmium in the environment undoubtedly contributes to an increased risk of exposure and ultimate toxic influence on humans. In an effort to comprehend the chemical and biological interactions of Cd(II) with physiological ligands, like citric acid, we explored the requisite aqueous chemistry, which afforded the first aqueous Cd(II)-citrate complex [Cd(C(6)H(6)O(7))(H(2)O)](n)() (1). Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, and spectroscopically by FT-IR and (113)Cd MAS NMR. Compound 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 6.166(2) A, b = 10.508(3) A, c = 13.599(5) A, V = 881.2(5) A(3), and Z = 4. The X-ray structure of 1 reveals the presence of octahedral Cd(II) ions bound to citrate ligands in a molecular crystal lattice. Citrate acts as a tridentate binder promoting coordination to one Cd(II) through the central alcoholic moiety, one terminal carboxylate group, and the central carboxylate group. In addition, the central carboxylate binds to three Cd(II) ions. Specifically, one of the oxygens of the central carboxylate serves as a bridge to two neighboring Cd(II) ions, while the other oxygen binds to a third Cd(II). A bound water molecule completes the coordination requirements of Cd(II). (113)Cd MAS NMR studies project the spectroscopic signature of the nature of the coordination environment around Cd(II) in 1, thus corroborating the X-ray findings. Collectively, the data at hand are in line with past solution studies. The latter predict that other similar low molecular mass Cd(II)-citrate complexes may exist in the acidic pH region, thus influencing the uptake of cadmium by living (micro)organisms, their ability to metabolize organic substrates, and possibly Cd(II) toxicity. PMID:12691558

  14. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM. PMID:23673944

  15. Aluminum citrate prevents renal injury from calcium oxalate crystal deposition.

    PubMed

    Besenhofer, Lauren M; Cain, Marie C; Dunning, Cody; McMartin, Kenneth E

    2012-12-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol-treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate's interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  16. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferric ammonium...

  17. 21 CFR 522.300 - Carfentanil citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carfentanil citrate injection. 522.300 Section 522.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.300 Carfentanil citrate injection....

  18. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  19. Aluminum Citrate Prevents Renal Injury from Calcium Oxalate Crystal Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Besenhofer, Lauren M.; Cain, Marie C.; Dunning, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are responsible for the kidney injury associated with exposure to ethylene glycol or severe hyperoxaluria. Current treatment strategies target the formation of calcium oxalate but not its interaction with kidney tissue. Because aluminum citrate blocks calcium oxalate binding and toxicity in human kidney cells, it may provide a different therapeutic approach to calcium oxalate-induced injury. Here, we tested the effects of aluminum citrate and sodium citrate in a Wistar rat model of acute high-dose ethylene glycol exposure. Aluminum citrate, but not sodium citrate, attenuated increases in urea nitrogen, creatinine, and the ratio of kidney to body weight in ethylene glycol–treated rats. Compared with ethylene glycol alone, the addition of aluminum citrate significantly increased the urinary excretion of both crystalline calcium and crystalline oxalate and decreased the deposition of crystals in renal tissue. In vitro, aluminum citrate interacted directly with oxalate crystals to inhibit their uptake by proximal tubule cells. These results suggest that treating with aluminum citrate attenuates renal injury in rats with severe ethylene glycol toxicity, apparently by inhibiting calcium oxalate’s interaction with, and retention by, the kidney epithelium. PMID:23138489

  20. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  1. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b) (c)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  2. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  3. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....622b, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams...

  4. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b) (c)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  5. 21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.622c, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520... Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120,...

  6. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... veterinarian. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 520.622a, see the List of CFR Sections... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a... Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors. (1) (2) See 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of...

  7. 21 CFR 520.622c - Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... citations affecting § 520.622c, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. 520... Diethylcarbamazine citrate chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each chewable tablet contains 30, 45, 60, 120,...

  8. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a... Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. (a) Sponsors. (1) (2) See 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter for use of 100, 200, and 300 milligram tablets for prevention of heartworm disease in dogs and as an aid in...

  9. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  10. 21 CFR 520.623 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. 520.623 Section 520.623 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 520.623 Diethylcarbamazine citrate, oxibendazole chewable tablets. (a) Specifications. Each...

  11. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  12. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  13. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  14. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron-choline citrate complex. 172.370 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline... citric acid may be safely used as a source of iron in foods for special dietary use....

  15. Synthesis and characterization of biomimetic citrate-based biodegradable composites.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester and poly (octanediol citrate), which can be composited with up to 65 wt % hydroxyapatite. CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100-230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix gene and alkaline phosphatase gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6 weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic Citrate-Based Biodegradable Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Minjun; Tang, Wanjin; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Zhongmin; Jin, Dadi; Banik, Brittany; Brown, Justin L.; Xie, Zhiwei; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Natural bone apatite crystals, which mediate the development and regulate the load-bearing function of bone, have recently been associated with strongly bound citrate molecules. However, such understanding has not been translated into bone biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture. In this work, we have developed a new class of biodegradable, mechanically strong, and biocompatible citrate-based polymer blends (CBPBs), which offer enhanced hydroxyapatite binding to produce more biomimetic composites (CBPBHAs) for orthopedic applications. CBPBHAs consist of the newly developed osteoconductive citrate-presenting biodegradable polymers, crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) and poly (octanediol citrate) (POC), which can be composited with up to 65 wt.-% hydroxyapatite (HA). CBPBHA networks produced materials with a compressive strength of 116.23 ± 5.37 MPa comparable to human cortical bone (100 – 230 MPa), and increased C2C12 osterix (OSX) gene and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression in vitro. The promising results above prompted an investigation on the role of citrate supplementation in culture medium for osteoblast culture, which showed that exogenous citrate supplemented into media accelerated the in vitro phenotype progression of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 6-weeks of implantation in a rabbit lateral femoral condyle defect model, CBPBHA composites elicited minimal fibrous tissue encapsulation and were well integrated with the surrounding bone tissues. The development of citrate-presenting CBPBHA biomaterials and preliminary studies revealing the effects of free exogenous citrate on osteoblast culture shows the potential of citrate biomaterials to bridge the gap in orthopedic biomaterial design and osteoblast cell culture in that the role of citrate molecules has previously been overlooked. PMID:23996976

  17. Stability of esmolol hydrochloride in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Baaske, D M; Dykstra, S D; Wagenknecht, D M; Karnatz, N N

    1994-11-01

    The stability of esmolol hydrochloride in a variety of i.v. solutions was studied. Solutions of esmolol hydrochloride 10 mg/mL were prepared separately in 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose with lactated Ringer's injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% sodium bicarbonate injection, and 5% dextrose injection with potassium chloride 40 meq/L. One glass and one polyvinyl chloride container of each solution (except glass only in the case of the solution in 5% sodium bicarbonate injection) were stored in the dark at 5 degrees C, under ambient room light at 23-27 degrees C, in the dark at 40 degrees C, and under intense light at 25-30 degrees C. At storage intervals up to 168 hours, samples were tested for esmolol hydrochloride concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography. Optical density and pH were also measured. Esmolol hydrochloride was stable in the various i.v. fluids for at least 168 hours when stored at 5 degrees C or 23-27 degrees C, for at least 24 hours when stored under intense light, and, with one exception, for at least 48 hours when stored at 40 degrees C. When mixed with 5% sodium bicarbonate injection, the drug was stable for only about 24 hours at 40 degrees C. There were no substantial changes in optical density or pH. The type of container had no effect on stability. With one exception, esmolol hydrochloride was stable in all the i.v. solutions under all the conditions tested. PMID:7856582

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  19. Permeability of Plant Young Root Endodermis to Cu Ions and Cu-Citrate Complexes in Corn and Soybean.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yanzhao; Lei, Wenrui; Shen, Zhenguo; Luo, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    The non-selective apoplastic passage of Cu and Cu-citrate complexes into the root stele of monocotyledonous corn and dicotyledonous soybean was investigated using an inorganic-salt-precipitation technique. Either Cu ions or Cu-citrate complexes were drawn into root through the apoplast from the root growth medium, and K4[Fe(CN)6] was subsequently perfused through xylem vessels or the entire root cross section. Based on microscopic identification of the reddish-brown precipitates of copper ferrocyanide in the cell walls of the xylem of corn and soybean roots, Cu(2+) passed through the endodermal barrier into the xylem of both species. When the solution containing 200 μM CuSO4 and 400 μM sodium citrate (containing 199.98 μM Cu-citrate, 0.02 μM Cu(2+)) was drawn via differential pressure gradients into the root xylem while being perfused with K4[Fe(CN)6] through the entire root cross-section, reddish-brown precipitates were observed in the walls of the stele of soybean, but not corn root. However, when a CuSO4 solution containing 0.02 or 0.2 μM free Cu(2+) was used, no reddish-brown precipitates were detected in the stele of either of the two plants. Results indicated that endodermis was permeable to Cu-citrate complexes in primary roots of soybean, but not corn. The permeability of the endodermal barrier to the Cu-citrate complex may vary between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which has considerable implications for chelant-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:26091247

  20. Organically modified porous hydroxyapatites: A comparison between alkylphosphonate grafting and citrate chelation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hammari, L.; Marroun, H.; Laghzizil, A.; Saoiabi, A.; Roux, C.; Livage, J.; Coradin, T.

    2008-04-15

    Two alternative methods to prepare organically modified porous hydroxyapatites following a 'one pot' approach were compared. The partial substitution of inorganic phosphates by alkylphosphonates leads to mesoporous materials with high specific surface area (>200 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The incorporation of the organic moieties within the hydroxyapatite structure is confirmed by Infra-red and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and depends on the nature of the alkyl chain. However, it induces a significant loss of the material crystallinity. In contrast, the introduction of citrate, a calcium-chelating agent, to the precursor solution does not improve the material specific surface area but allows a better control of the hydroxyapatite structure, both in terms of crystallinity and pore size distribution. - Graphical abstract: Evolution of pore size distribution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) after alkylphosphonate grafting (20% TPOH) or citrate addition (c-HAp) demonstrates the formation of organically modified mesoporous materials.

  1. Preparation of xylan citrate--a potential adsorbent for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shuaiyang, Wang; Huiling, Li; Junli, Ren; Chuanfu, Liu; Feng, Peng; Runcang, Sun

    2013-02-15

    The novel and degradable xylan citrate was prepared by the environmental-friendly semi-dry oven method. Xylan reacted with citric acid (CA) to yield xylan citrate at high temperature. The influence of the different weight ratios of CA and xylan on the product yield, the carboxyl group content and degree of esterification were comparatively discussed. The results showed that there were higher carboxyl group content and degree of esterification in modified xylan than native xylan. The product yield of 128.2%, the carboxyl group content of 1174.3 meq/100 g and degree of esterification of 33.1% were achieved at the CA/xylan weight ratio of 2.4 in the absence of catalyst. Furthermore, the adsorption capacity of xylan after modification was improved greatly. These materials with better properties can enhance their water affinity, and improve their adsorption of copper ions and methyl orange in aqueous solution due to carboxyl groups. PMID:23399244

  2. Modulation of Citrate Metabolism Alters Aluminum Tolerance in Yeast and Transgenic Canola Overexpressing a Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase1

    PubMed Central

    Anoop, Valar M.; Basu, Urmila; McCammon, Mark T.; McAlister-Henn, Lee; Taylor, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production in acid soils, although crop cultivars vary in their tolerance to Al. We have investigated the potential role of citrate in mediating Al tolerance in Al-sensitive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; MMYO11) and canola (Brassica napus cv Westar). Yeast disruption mutants defective in genes encoding tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, both upstream (citrate synthase [CS]) and downstream (aconitase [ACO] and isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH]) of citrate, showed altered levels of Al tolerance. A triple mutant of CS (Δcit123) showed lower levels of citrate accumulation and reduced Al tolerance, whereas Δaco1- and Δidh12-deficient mutants showed higher accumulation of citrate and increased levels of Al tolerance. Overexpression of a mitochondrial CS (CIT1) in MMYO11 resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increase in citrate levels, and the transformants showed enhanced Al tolerance. A gene for Arabidopsis mitochondrial CS was overexpressed in canola using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated system. Increased levels of CS gene expression and enhanced CS activity were observed in transgenic lines compared with the wild type. Root growth experiments revealed that transgenic lines have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic lines showed enhanced levels of cellular shoot citrate and a 2-fold increase in citrate exudation when exposed to 150 μm Al. Our work with yeast and transgenic canola clearly suggest that modulation of different enzymes involved in citrate synthesis and turnover (malate dehydrogenase, CS, ACO, and IDH) could be considered as potential targets of gene manipulation to understand the role of citrate metabolism in mediating Al tolerance. PMID:12913175

  3. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  4. Role of Ga-67 citrate imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Kakuma, K.; Ichiyanagi, K.

    1988-11-01

    Two patients with pancreatitis in whom an area of predominant uptake of Ga-67 citrate was demonstrated involving the entire pancreas are presented. Ultrasound and x-ray CT did not reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas, whereas Ga-67 citrate imaging indicated the presence of active inflammatory change. Ga-67 citrate imaging may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis or acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis based on clinical and laboratory data, especially when ultrasound and/or x-ray CT cannot reveal any morphologic abnormalities in the pancreas.

  5. Effect of citrate on Aspergillus niger phytase adsorption and catalytic activity in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeli, Malika; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charlie; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Stutter, Marc; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Current developments in cropping systems that promote mobilisation of phytate in agricultural soils, by exploiting plant-root exudation of phytase and organic acids, offer potential for developments in sustainable phosphorus use. However, phytase adsorption to soil particles and phytate complexion has been shown to inhibit phytate dephosphorylation, thereby inhibiting plant P uptake, increasing the risk of this pool contributing to diffuse pollution and reducing the potential benefits of biotechnologies and management strategies aimed to utilise this abundant reserve of 'legacy' phosphorus. Citrate has been seen to increase phytase catalytic efficiency towards complexed forms of phytate, but the mechanisms by which citrate promotes phytase remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated phytase (from Aspergillus niger) inactivation, and change in catalytic properties upon addition to soil and the effect citrate had on adsorption of phytase and hydrolysis towards free, precipitated and adsorbed phytate. A Langmuir model was fitted to phytase adsorption isotherms showing a maximum adsorption of 0.23 nKat g-1 (19 mg protein g-1) and affinity constant of 435 nKat gˉ1 (8.5 mg protein g-1 ), demonstrating that phytase from A.niger showed a relatively low affinity for our test soil (Tayport). Phytases were partially inhibited upon adsorption and the specific activity was of 40.44 nKat mgˉ1 protein for the free enzyme and 25.35 nKat mgˉ1 protein when immobilised. The kinetics of adsorption detailed that most of the adsorption occurred within the first 20 min upon addition to soil. Citrate had no effect on the rate or total amount of phytase adsorption or loss of activity, within the studied citrate concentrations (0-4mM). Free phytases in soil solution and phytase immobilised on soil particles showed optimum activity (>80%) at pH 4.5-5.5. Immobilised phytase showed greater loss of activity at pH levels over 5.5 and lower activities at the secondary peak at pH 2

  6. Polyethylene glycol-induced heteroassociation of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, J.M.; Webster, T.A.; Appleman, J.R.; Manley, E.R.; Yu, H.A.; Datta, A.; Ackerson, B.J.; Spivey, H.O.

    1987-10-01

    Studies by dynamic and total intensity light scattering, ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy, and chemical crosslinking on solutions of the pig heart mitochondrial enzymes, malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase (separately and together) demonstrate that polyethylene glycol induces very large homoassociations of each enzyme, and still larger heteroenzyme complexes between these two enzymes in the solution phase. Specificity of this heteroassociation is indicated by the facts that heteroassociations with bovine serum albumin were not observed for either the mitochondrial dehydrogenase or the synthase or between cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. The weight fraction of the enzymes in the mitochondrial dehydrogenase-synthase associated particles in the solution phase was less than 0.03% with the dilute conditions used in the dynamic light scattering measurements. Neither palmitoyl-CoA nor other solution conditions tested significantly increased this weight fraction of associated enzymes in the solution phase. Because of the extremely low solubility of the associated species, however, the majority of the enzymes can be precipitated as the heteroenzyme complex. This precipitation is a classical first-order transition in spite of the large particle sizes and broad size distribution. Ionic effects on the solubility of the heteroenzyme complex appear to be of general electrostatic nature. Polyethylene glycol was found to be more potent in precipitating this complex than dextrans, polyvinylpyrrolidones, ficoll, and beta-lactoglobulin.

  7. Performance of 18 polymers in aluminum citrate colloidal dispersion gels

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal dispersion gels are made up of low concentrations of polymer and aluminum citrate in water. These gels, which are mixed as a homogeneous solution at the surface, provide a valuable tool for in-depth blockage of high permeability regions of rock in heterogeneous reservoirs. Performance of colloidal dispersion gels depends strongly on the type and quality of polymer used. This paper provides an overview of the performance of 18 different polymers in colloidal dispersion gels. 14 of the polymers were partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides or AMPS polymers in dry crystalline form with varying degrees of hydrolysis and molecular weight. The group also includes one cationic polyacrylamide, one carboxymethyl cellulose, one partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide in emulsion form and one polysaccharide in dry form. Gels were mixed with the polymers at two polymer concentrations, three polymer:aluminum ratios and in different concentrations of potassium chloride. The gels were quantitatively tested at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after crosslinking using the transition pressure test, which is a screen flow resistance test. Of the six polymer types tested, only the dry partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides and AMPS polymers formed colloidal dispersion gels. Gel strength generally increased with increasing anionic charge and molecular weight; however, the manner in which the polymer is manufactured and the impurities present in the polymer also play roles which are more significant than originally expected.

  8. Pseudohypernatremia secondary to trisodium citrate (Citra-LockTM)

    PubMed Central

    Milliere, Janice; Corriveau, Daryl; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypernatremia is common among hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units and presents an independent risk factor for mortality. Mild hypernatremia is often asymptomatic but severe hypernatremia causes central nervous system dysfunction with initial non-specific symptoms of encephalopathy that may progress to seizures, coma and death, if left untreated. Severe hypernatremia is a medical emergency and requires emergent medical attention. Materials and methods A haemodialysis patient who arrived for his scheduled haemodialysis treatment had monthly blood work drawn and was reported to have severe hypernatremia with serum sodium concentration of 183 mmol/L. The possibility of technique or laboratory error was considered and systematically evaluated. Results The serum sodium measurement using another analyser showed similar value of 182 mmolL. A repeat serum sodium level on a sample drawn 2 h later showed normal value of 139–140 mmol/L. A step-wise evaluation of the complete procedure from blood collection to analysis of the sample revealed this to be spuriously elevated serum sodium concentration secondary to contamination of the sample during sample collection with trisodium citrate, a catheter-lock solution, commonly used in dialysis units to maintain patency of dialysis catheters. Conclusions Spuriously elevated plasma sodium concentration (pseudohypernatremia) of mild degree is common but severe pseudohypernatremia is rare and the possibility of sample contaminations or laboratory error should be considered. Vigilance is required by both the medical and the laboratory staff to resolve such issues in a timely fashion to avoid unintended consequences. PMID:27346973

  9. The impact of particle size on the adsorption of citrate to hematite.

    PubMed

    Noerpel, Matthew R; Lenhart, John J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the adsorption of citric acid on the surface of two different sized hematite nanoparticles using batch adsorption experiments, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling and computational molecular modeling. Citrate adsorption reached a maximum between pH approximately 2.5 and 5.5 and declined as the pH was increased or decreased from that range. At high surface loading conditions, the dominant adsorbed citrate structure was outer-sphere in nature with a protonation state that varied with pH. At low pH, there was also evidence of an inner-sphere complex consistent with a binuclear, bidentate structure where the hydroxyl group was deprotonated and played an active role in the adsorption. An inner-sphere complex was also detected at low citrate surface loading conditions. Surface-area normalized surface coverages were similar for both sizes of hematite, however, the inner sphere complex appeared to be slightly more prevalent on the smaller hematite. Based on these structures, a triple layer surface complexation model comprised of two outer-sphere complexes and one inner-sphere complex was used to describe the adsorption data for both hematite sizes across a range of solution conditions with a single set of surface area dependent equilibrium constants. PMID:26313711

  10. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  11. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  12. Citrate-Based Biomaterials and Their Applications in Regenerative Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Yang, Jian; Ameer, Guillermo A.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in biomaterials science and engineering are crucial to translating regenerative engineering, an emerging field that aims to recreate complex tissues, into clinical practice. In this regard, citrate-based biomaterials have become an important tool owing to their versatile material and biological characteristics including unique antioxidant, antimicrobial, adhesive, and fluorescent properties. This review discusses fundamental design considerations, strategies to incorporate unique functionality, and examples of how citrate-based biomaterials can be an enabling technology for regenerative engineering. PMID:27004046

  13. The transport of citrate and other tricarboxylic acids in two species of Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Lawford, H. G.; Williams, G. R.

    1971-01-01

    When cells of Pseudomonas are grown on citrate as the sole carbon source they oxidize citrate and isocitrate rapidly. Fluorocitrate inhibits the oxidation of citrate. Fluorocitrate-treated cells accumulate [6-14C]citrate, as shown by a rapid Millipore-filtration technique. In the absence of fluorocitrate most of the [6-14C]-citrate is lost in the form of 14CO2. The isolation of a pseudomonad characterized by its ability to grow on tricarballylate as a sole carbon source has facilitated the study of the tricarboxylate-carrier specificity. Cells grown on citrate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate or isocitrate but not for cis-aconitate, trans-aconitate or tricarballylate. Cells grown on tricarballylate will exchange radioactive citrate for unlabelled citrate, cis-aconitate or tricarballylate, but not for isocitrate or trans-aconitate. The properties of the exchange system involved are compared with those of the related system in mitochondria. PMID:5126909

  14. Aroma compounds generation in citrate metabolism of Enterococcus faecium: Genetic characterization of type I citrate gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Martino, Gabriela P; Quintana, Ingrid M; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Magni, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcus is one of the most controversial genera belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research involving this microorganism reflects its dual behavior as regards its safety. Although it has also been associated to nosocomial infections, natural occurrence of Enterococcus faecium in food contributes to the final quality of cheese. This bacterium is capable of fermenting citrate, which is metabolized to pyruvate and finally derives in the production of the aroma compounds diacetyl, acetoin and 2,3 butanediol. Citrate metabolism was studied in E. faecium but no data about genes related to these pathways have been described. A bioinformatic approach allowed us to differentiate cit(-) (no citrate metabolism genes) from cit(+) strains in E. faecium. Furthermore, we could classify them according to genes encoding for the transcriptional regulator, the oxaloacetate decarboxylase and the citrate transporter. Thus we defined type I organization having CitI regulator (DeoR family), CitM cytoplasmic soluble oxaloacetate decarboxylase (Malic Enzyme family) and CitP citrate transporter (2-hydroxy-carboxylate transporter family) and type II organization with CitO regulator (GntR family), OAD membrane oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex (Na(+)-transport decarboxylase enzyme family) and CitH citrate transporter (CitMHS family). We isolated and identified 17 E. faecium strains from regional cheeses. PCR analyses allowed us to classify them as cit(-) or cit(+). Within the latter classification we could differentiate type I but no type II organization. Remarkably, we came upon E. faecium GM75 strain which carries the insertion sequence IS256, involved in adaptative and evolution processes of bacteria related to Staphylococcus and Enterococcus genera. In this work we describe the differential behavior in citrate transport, metabolism and aroma generation of three strains and we present results that link citrate metabolism and genetic organizations in E. faecium for the first time

  15. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  16. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes. PMID:27429526

  17. An oral sodium citrate-citric acid non-particulate buffer in humans.

    PubMed

    Hauptfleisch, J J; Payne, K A

    1996-11-01

    We have investigated the effect on the pH of the gastric fluid of a single dose of sodium citrate 0.3 mol litre-1 (antacid) and a solution containing sodium citrate dehydrate (100 mg ml-1) with citric acid monohydrate (66 mg ml-1) (buffer). The dose for both solutions was 0.4 ml kg-1 via a nasogastric tube. Each group comprised 10 patients undergoing neurosurgical operations of 5-7 h duration. A control group of 10 patients received no gastric solution. The pH of the gastric aspirate was measured hourly using a Metrohm 632 digital pH meter (Synectics Medical, Sweden). Mean baseline gastric pH was 2.64 (SD 1.71). In the control group, pH increased to 4.4 (1.51) at 5 h, returning to baseline at 7 h. In the antacid group, pH increased to 6.11 (0.47) at 15 min and decreased to 3.70 (1.94) at 7 h (P < 0.01). In the buffer group, pH was stable at 3.80-3.95 (0.22) over 7 h (P > 0.01). Total mean gastric aspirate was 0.5 ml kg-1. PMID:8957982

  18. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g-1. The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres.

  19. Facile fabrication of various zinc-nickel citrate microspheres and their transformation to ZnO-NiO hybrid microspheres with excellent lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingshui; Ma, Yating; Zeng, Deqian; Wang, Laisen; Yue, Guanghui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Zinc-nickel citrate microspheres are prepared by a simple aging process of zinc citrate solid microspheres in nickel nitrate solution. As the concentration of nickel nitrate solution increases, the morphology of the produced zinc-nickel citrate evolves from solid, yolk-shell to hollow microspheres. The formation mechanism of different zinc-nickel citrate microspheres is discussed. After annealing treatment of the corresponding zinc-nickel citrate microspheres in air, three different ZnO-NiO hybrid architectures including solid, yolk-shell and hollow microspheres can be successfully fabricated. When applied as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres demonstrate the best electrochemical properties than solid and hollow counterparts. After 200th cycles, ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres deliver a high reversible capacity of 1176 mA h g(-1). The unique yolk-shell configuration, the synergetic effect between ZnO and NiO and the catalytic effect of metal Ni generated by the reduction of NiO during discharging process are responsible for the excellent lithium storage properties of ZnO-NiO hybrid yolk-shell microspheres. PMID:25684436

  20. Mechanisms of biodegradation of metal-citrate complexes by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi-Tope, G; Francis, A J

    1995-01-01

    Biodegradation of metal-citrate complexes by Pseudomonas fluorescens depends on the nature of the complex formed between the metal and citric acid. Bidentate Fe(III)-, Ni-, and Zn-citrate complexes were readily biodegraded, but the tridentate Cd- and Cu-citrate, and U-citrate complexes were not. The biodegradation of Ni- and Zn-citrate commenced after an initial lag period; the former showed only partial (70%) degradation, whereas the latter was completely degraded. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled citric acid and metal-citrate complexes showed that cells grown in medium containing citric acid transported free citric acid at the rate of 28 nmol min-1 and Fe(III)-citrate at the rate of 12.6 nmol min-1 but not Cd-, Cu-, Ni-, U-, and Zn-citrate complexes. However, cells grown in medium containing Ni- or Zn-citrate transported both Ni- and Zn-citrate, suggesting the involvement of a common, inducible transport factor. Cell extracts degraded Fe(III)-, Ni-, U-, and Zn-citrate complexes in the following order: The cell extract did not degrade Cd- or Cu-citrate complexes. These results show that the biodegradation of the U-citrate complex was limited by the lack of transport inside the cell and that the tridentate Cd- and Cu-citrate complexes were neither transported inside the cell nor metabolized by the bacterium. PMID:7721690

  1. Phospho-oligosaccharide dependent phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase.

    PubMed

    Puerta, J; Mato, J M; Alemany, S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of insulin on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation has been shown to be mimicked by a phospho-oligosaccharide in intact adipocytes. We demonstrate that the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to intact adipocytes enhances the phosphorylation of ATP citrate lyase in the same tryptic peptide as insulin does. The addition of phospho-oligosaccharide to an adipocyte extract also results in an increase in ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation but in a different site than that observed in intact cells. The phospho-oligosaccharide-dependent incorporation of phosphate into ATP citrate lyase in intact cells is resistant to isopropanol and acetic acid, but the phosphoenzyme phosphorylated in cell extracts is acid labile. In cell extracts, the addition of phospho-oligosaccharide markedly inhibits ATP hydrolysis, which may explain the effect of this molecule on ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation in broken cells. These results support the hypothesis that this phospho-oligosaccharide mediates some of the effects of insulin on protein phosphorylation. They also indicate that caution should be exercised in interpreting the results obtained by adding phospho-oligosaccharide to broken cell preparations. PMID:2119547

  2. Transport of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles in unsaturated sand.

    PubMed

    Kumahor, Samuel K; Hron, Pavel; Metreveli, George; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Chemical factors and physical constraints lead to coupled effects during particle transport in unsaturated porous media. Studies on unsaturated transport as typical for soils are currently scarce. In unsaturated porous media, particle mobility is determined by the existence of an air-water interface in addition to a solid-water interface. To this end, we measured breakthrough curves and retention profiles of citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles in unsaturated sand at two pH values (5 and 9) and three different flow rates corresponding to different water contents with 1 mM KNO3 as background electrolyte. The classical DLVO theory suggests unfavorable deposition conditions at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The breakthrough curves indicate modification in curve shapes and retardation of nanoparticles compared to inert solute. Retention profiles show sensitivity to flow rate and pH and this ranged from almost no retention for the highest flow rate at pH=9 to almost complete retention for the lowest flow rate at pH=5. Modeling of the breakthrough curves, thus, required coupling two parallel processes: a kinetically controlled attachment process far from equilibrium, responsible for the shape modification, and an equilibrium sorption, responsible for particle retardation. The non-equilibrium process and equilibrium sorption are suggested to relate to the solid-water and air-water interfaces, respectively. This is supported by the DLVO model extended for hydrophobic interactions which suggests reversible attachment, characterized by a secondary minimum (depth 3-5 kT) and a repulsive barrier at the air-water interface. In contrast, the solid-water interface is characterized by a significant repulsive barrier and the absence of a secondary minimum suggesting kinetically controlled and non-equilibrium interaction. This study provides new insights into particle transport in unsaturated porous media and offers a model concept representing the relevant processes. PMID

  3. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  4. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    PubMed

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team. PMID:27615524

  5. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sit, Regina Ws; Chung, Vincent Ch; Reeves, Kenneth D; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith Kw; Chan, Dicken Cc; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin St; Wong, Samuel Ys

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi-randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  6. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  7. Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Regina WS; Chung, Vincent CH; Reeves, Kenneth D.; Rabago, David; Chan, Keith KW; Chan, Dicken CC; Wu, Xinyin; Ho, Robin ST; Wong, Samuel YS

    2016-01-01

    Hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) is an emerging treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) but its efficacy is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to synthesize clinical evidence on the effect of prolotherapy for knee OA. Fifteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to September 2015. The primary outcome of interest was score change on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moderate risk of bias and one quasi–randomized trial were included, with data from a total of 258 patients. In the meta-analysis of two eligible studies, prolotherapy is superior to exercise alone by a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.18 to 1.45, p = 0.012), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.25 to 1.30, p = 0.001) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.04 to 1.20, p = 0.035) on the WOMAC composite scale; and WOMAC function and pain subscale scores respectively. Moderate heterogeneity exists in all cases. Overall, prolotherapy conferred a positive and significant beneficial effect in the treatment of knee OA. Adequately powered, longer-term trials with uniform end points are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy. PMID:27146849

  8. Efficacy of preventing hemodialysis catheter infections with citrate lock.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jorge; Antunes, Jorge; Carvalho, Telmo; Ponce, Pedro

    2012-10-01

    Prevalent use of tunneled dialysis catheters can reach 30%. Infection remains the most serious catheter-related problem. Catheter locks are increasingly used for prevention, but are not yet recommended either by the Food and Drug Association or European Medicines Agency, on the basis of increasing bacterial resistance or lock toxicity. The aim was to test safety and effectiveness of citrate. A prospective, interventional study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of a 30% citrate lock in preventing catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). A total of 157 prevalent tunneled catheters were locked with citrate and prospectively followed during a 1-year period. The primary endpoint was first CRB diagnosed according to two of the diagnostic criteria for Catheter Infection of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), namely definite and probable infection. The CDC criterion of possible but not proved infection was not considered. This citrate lock cohort (n = 157) had 10 episodes of CRB. We observed 0.49 CRB episodes/1000 patient-days and the mean infection-free catheter day was 130.6 ± 100.9. No clinically relevant adverse events were observed. No proved tunnel or exit site infection was observed and no patients died because of CRB. Catheter obstruction episodes were reported on 69 occasions out of 14 catheters. These results were compared with an historical cohort from a previous study of catheter locking with low-dose gentamicin and did not show significant difference in efficacy. Citrate lock is effective in preventing CRB. No toxicity was observed. The use of citrate lock may have advantages over antibiotic locks: no reported bacterial resistance, lower industrial cost, and less manipulation. PMID:22515732

  9. Gastric fluid pH in patients receiving sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O J; Ravindran, R S; Shumacker, C A

    1981-07-01

    Gastric fluid pH was measured following induction of anesthesia and placement of an endotracheal tube in 30 surgical patients undergoing elective operations. None of the patients received an anticholinergic drug before surgery. Fifteen patients who had been given 15 ml of sodium citrate 15 to 20 minutes before induction of anesthesia had a mean pH of 6.2 +/- 0.8. The control group, which also consisted of 15 patients, had a mean pH of 2.1 +/- 1.4. The increase in gastric pH noted following sodium citrate would result in reduced pulmonary reaction should aspiration occur. PMID:7195668

  10. Comparison of the metabolic responses to ingestion of hydrothermally processed high-amylopectin content maize, uncooked maize starch or dextrose in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Richard M; Gray, Benjamin J; Turner, Daniel

    2014-04-14

    Optimal carbohydrate ingestion strategies as nutritional therapy for glycogen storage diseases have not been fully realised, in part, due to difficulties in accessing patient cohorts, alongside limited details on metabolic effects and insight into working mechanisms. The present pilot study compared glycaemic and fuel oxidation responses following the ingestion of a hydrothermally processed maize starch (HPMS), an uncooked maize starch (UCMS) and maize-derived dextrose (DEX) at rest and during and after exercise in healthy individuals. A total of eight participants (seven males and one female; body mass (BM) 76.9 (SEM 5.2) kg) visited the laboratory on three occasions. During each visit, the participants ingested 1 g/kg BM of HPMS (Glycosade™), UCMS (Argo™) or DEX as a 10% solution. Blood samples were collected over a 2 h rest period and for 2 h after a 60 min treadmill run at 65 (SEM 1) % VO(2max). Mean values with their standard errors were analysed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations under the HPMS condition were significantly elevated from resting values at 90 min (P=0.02) after ingestion compared with those under the UCMS (60 min; P=0.02) and DEX (30 min; P=0.001) conditions. The rate of carbohydrate use during exercise after the ingestion of HPMS was 7-9% lower compared with that after the ingestion of either DEX or UCMS (P<0.05). The total amount of lipids oxidised during exercise was greater under the HPMS condition (26.2 (SEM 2.8) g) compared with that oxidised under the UCMS (19.6 (SEM 2.7) g; P=0.04) or DEX (20.6 (SEM 3.6) g; P=0.07) condition. The results demonstrated a glycaemic advantage to the ingestion of HPMS over that of UCMS or DEX. Carbohydrate oxidation was reduced after the ingestion of HPMS compared with that after the ingestion of UCMS or DEX, with a corresponding higher rate of endogenous lipid use during exercise. PMID:24229467

  11. An evaluation of the New Roche Diagnostics Kit for the rapid identification of clinically important non-dextrose, non-fastidious gram-negative rods.

    PubMed

    Elegbe, I A

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the new Roche Diagnostics Commercial kit (Roche Diagnostics, 1975) for the identification of non-dextrose fermenting, non-fastidious gram-negative rods has been compared with conventional methods in the recognition and identification of these non-dextrose, non-fastidious gram-negative bacteria. This new kit has definite advantages over and above the conventional methods in a number of ways. It is cheaper to run, and above all it is less cumbersome, less time consuming and it is accurate. Apart from all these, the new method makes use of the odour test (Roche Diagnostics, 1975) and other additional conventional tests recommended by the Oxi/ferm manufacturer. PMID:6283862

  12. Estimating conformation content of a protein using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Jashmini; Paul, Anumita; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2010-08-01

    Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for different fractional content of the conformations. Also, the total area under the extinction spectrum varied linearly with the change in the mole fraction content of a state and for a constant total protein concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements revealed different levels of agglomeration for different fractional contents of the native or denatured state of a protein. In addition, time-dependent denaturation of a protein could be followed using the present method. The rate constants calculated for denaturation indicated a possible fast change in conformation of a protein before complete thermal denaturation. The observations have been explained based on the changes in extinction coefficient (thereby oscillator strength) upon interaction of citrate-stabilized NPs with proteins being in different states and levels of agglomeration.Herein we report the use of the optical properties of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for estimation of native or denatured conformation content in a mixture of a protein in solution. The UV-vis extinction spectrum of citrate-stabilized Au NPs is known to broaden differently in the presence of native and denatured states of α-amylase, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or amyloglucosidase (AMG). On the other hand, herein we show that when a mixture of native and denatured protein was present in the medium, the broadening of the spectrum differed for

  13. Bacillus subtilis YxkJ is a secondary transporter of the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family that transports L-malate and citrate.

    PubMed

    Krom, B P; Aardema, R; Lolkema, J S

    2001-10-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis contains two genes that code for membrane proteins that belong to the 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family. Here we report the functional characterization of one of the two, yxkJ, which codes for a transporter protein named CimHbs. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and complemented the citrate-negative phenotype of wild-type E. coli and the malate-negative phenotype of the E. coli strain JRG4008, which is defective in malate uptake. Subsequent uptake studies in whole cells expressing CimHbs clearly demonstrated the citrate and malate transport activity of the protein. Immunoblot analysis showed that CimHbs is a 48-kDa protein that is well expressed in E. coli. Studies with right-side-out membrane vesicles demonstrated that CimHbs is an electroneutral proton-solute symporter. No indications were found for the involvement of Na(+) ions in the transport process. Inhibition of the uptake catalyzed by CimHbs by divalent metal ions, together with the lack of effect on transport by the chelator EDTA, showed that CimHbs translocates the free citrate and malate anions. Among a large set of substrates tested, only malate, citramalate, and citrate competitively inhibited citrate transport catalyzed by CimHbs. The transporter is strictly stereoselective, recognizing only the S enantiomers of malate and citramalate. Remarkably, though citramalate binds to the transporter, it is not translocated. PMID:11566984

  14. The pH-dependent binding of zinc citrate to bipy/phen (bipy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dagui; Wang, Yongjing; Lin, Zhang; Huang, Feng

    2010-03-01

    The crystallizations of citrate-metal complexes with diverse structures are greatly affected by the deprotonated states of the citrate ion, counter cations and chemical nature of the metal ions. Herein we studied the ternary system Zn-cit- L 2 (cit = citrate acid, L 2 = 2,2-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)) and obtained four novel compounds Zn 2(H 2cit) 2(bipy) 2·H 2O ( 1), Zn 2(H 2cit) 2(phen) 2·1.5H 2O ( 2), Zn 2(Hcit)(bipy)Cl ( 3), and Zn 2(Hcit)(phen)Cl·H 2O ( 4). All the four compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Complexes 1 and 2 with the citrate ion doubly deprotonated are dinuclear species isolated in the Zn-cit system. Complexes 3 and 4 exhibit 1D chains in which the metal ions are connected by the triply deprotonated citrate. It shows that the final solid-state species is much dependent on the pH value of the solution. That is the dinuclear compounds of 1 and 2 are precipitated at pH 3-4 whereas the 1D chain of 3 and 4 at a lower acidity of pH 5-6.

  15. Effect of a high-dextrose diet on sucrase and lactase activity in jejunum of obese mice (C57BL/6J obob).

    PubMed

    Flores, C A; Bezerra, J; Goda, T; Bustamante, S; MacDonald, M P; Kaplan, M; Koldovský, O

    1986-01-01

    The activities of intestinal disaccharidases are known to be responsive to changes in the dietary intake of carbohydrates in the adult rat. Little is known, however, regarding the activities of these enzymes in obese subjects and how they are affected by differing carbohydrate intakes. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate intake on the activity of intestinal disaccharidases in obesity, we used the genetically obese mouse C57BL/6J obob as an experimental model. Representing an example of early-onset obesity and mature-onset diabetes, this animal is characteristically hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic. Groups of obese mice and lean littermates were fed for 7 weeks equal amounts of either high-dextrose or low-dextrose isoenergetic diets. Sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities were measured on intestinal homogenates from the proximal and middle portions of the jejunoileum (upper and lower jejunum). Results were expressed as activity per tissue protein as well as total activity. Obese mice were found to have consistently greater total activity of both sucrase and maltase than their lean littermates, mostly as a result of increased intestinal size. Total lactase activity, however, was similar in the upper jejunum in both obese and lean mice, largely related to a decreased specific activity in obese mice. All mice fed the high-dextrose diet had significantly increased total activity of all disaccharidases studied when compared to the low-dextrose-fed animals, except for the lactase activity in the lower jejunum, where no differences were found in either group. Increases in activity related to high carbohydrate intake were a result of increases in specific activity. PMID:3097106

  16. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-endemic areas, administration of the drug should start at the beginning of mosquito activity and...

  17. 21 CFR 520.622a - Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate tablets. 520.622a Section 520.622a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-endemic areas, administration of the drug should start at the beginning of mosquito activity and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates (PMN P-93-881; CAS No. 189120-62-5) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (PMN P-93-880; CAS No. 189120-63-6) is subject to reporting under this section for the....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and processors...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7285 - Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7285 Amines, N-cocoalkyltrimethylenedi-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7286 - Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7286 Amines, N-tallowalkyltripropylenetetra-, citrates. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines,...

  8. Development of Injectable Citrate-Based Bioadhesive Bone Implants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Denghui; Guo, Jinshan; Mehdizadeh, Mohammadreza; Tran, Richard T.; Chen, Ruisong; Sun, Dawei; Qian, Guoying; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Injectable bone implants have been widely used in bone tissue repairs including the treatment of comminuted bone fractures (CBF). However, most injectable bone implants are not suitable for the treatment of CBF due to their weak tissue adhesion strengths and minimal osteoinduction. Citrate has been recently reported to promote bone formation through enhanced bioceramic integration and osteoinductivity. Herein, a novel injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesive hydroxyapatite (iCMBA/HA) bone substitute was developed for CBF treatment. iCMBA/HA can be set within 2–4 minutes and the as-prepared (wet) iCMBA/HA possess low swelling ratios, compressive mechanical strengths of up to 3.2±0.27 MPa, complete degradation in 30 days, suitable biocompatibility, and osteoinductivity. This is also the first time to demonstrate that citrate supplementation in osteogenic medium and citrate released from iCMBA/HA degradation can promote the mineralization of osteoblastic committed human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In vivo evaluation of iCMBA/HA in a rabbit comminuted radial fracture model showed significantly increased bone formation with markedly enhanced three-point bending strength compared to the negative control. Neovascularization and bone ingrowth as well as highly organized bone formation were also observed showing the potential of iCMBA/HA in treating CBF. PMID:25580247

  9. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine citrate capsules. 520.1803 Section 520.1803 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1803 Piperazine...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1025 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Identity. The... green forms, are deliquescent in air, and are reducible by light. (b) Specifications. Ferric ammonium... from certification. Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  1. Parathyroid adenoma imaged by gallium-67 citrate. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Kawano, R.; Okamura, Y.; Miyake, K.; Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.

    1987-10-01

    A parathyroid adenoma imaged by Ga-67 citrate in a 17-year-old man with primary hyperparathyroidism and a palpable solid tumor in the neck is presented. Although preoperative examination and intraoperative findings suggested a parathyroid carcinoma, histologic studies showed a parathyroid adenoma with predominant chief cell type.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  3. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMOSOME-ENCODED CITRATE SYNTHASE GENE FROM SINORHIZOBIUM FREDII USDA257

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrate synthase, a key metabolic enzyme that condenses acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to citrate, plays an important role in nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have isolated a citrate synthase gene by screening a Sinorhizobium fredii USDA257 cosmid library with a heterologous probe from S. meliloti....

  4. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  5. Ileal Endogenous Amino Acid Flow Response to Nitrogen-free Diets with Differing Ratios of Corn Starch to Dextrose in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kong, C.; Ragland, D.; Adeola, O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses in the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and amino acid (AA) composition of ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of pigs (initial body weight, 69.1±6.46 kg) fed N-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. Fifteen pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets according to a triplicated 5×2 incomplete Latin-square design. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 12 h on each of d 6 and 7 and between each period, there was a 5-d recovery period to avoid abnormal weight loss. The ratios of corn starch to dextrose investigated were 0:879, 293:586, 586:293, 779:100, and 879:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) was used as an indigestible index. Ileal DM digestibility was greater in Diet 1 than that in Diet 4 (89.5% vs 87.3%, p<0.01) but they were not different from Diet 2, 3, or 5. The IEF for most of indispensable AA were not different among diets with the exception of Met, in which a lack of corn starch or dextrose gave lower (p = 0.028) IEF of Met than diets containing corn starch and dextrose. Likewise, the dispensable AA and total AA in the IEF did not differ among diets. The respective IEF of AA (mg/kg of dry matter intake) in pigs fed Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 were 301, 434, 377, 477,or 365 for Lys, 61, 89, 71, 87, or 61 for Met, and 477, 590, 472, 520, or 436 for Thr. Proline was the most abundant AA in the IEF followed by Gly, Glu, and Asp and together accounted for approximately 50% of the total ileal AA flows of pigs fed NFD. In conclusion, the variation in proportion of corn starch and dextrose in a NFD does not largely affect estimates of IEF of N and AA for growing-finishing pigs. PMID:25083106

  6. Modification by food of the calcium absorbability and physicochemical effects of calcium citrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The food-calcium (Ca) interaction was examined in 12 healthy women (mean age 38 years) maintained on a constant metabolic diet. They underwent three phases of study, comprised of control (no Ca), Ca citrate (1 g Ca/day) during meals, and Ca citrate separately from meals. Each phase was 7 days in length and two 24-hour urine samples were collected on days 6 and 7. The rise from the control phase in urinary Ca was slightly more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals than without (68 and 62%, respectively). The fall in urinary phosphorus was equivalent at about 25% between Ca citrate phases. The rise in urinary citrate and pH and the decline in urinary ammonium were more prominent when Ca citrate was given with meals; however, the changes were small or nonsignificant. The urinary saturation of Ca oxalate, brushite or monosodium urate did not differ between the two Ca citrate phases. There was a nonsignificant rise in serum iron during Ca citrate phases. The results suggest that: 1) dissolution and absorption of Ca citrate might be slightly greater when given with food than without; 2) that the ability of Ca citrate to attenuate crystallization of stone-forming Ca salts in urine is not modified by food; and 3) that Ca citrate may not impair iron absorption from food.

  7. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment. PMID:25016342

  8. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Lunina, Julia N; Zelenkova, Nina F; Morgunov, Igor G

    2015-10-01

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%. PMID:26141285

  9. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Ca2+-Citrate Uptake and Metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    PubMed Central

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca2+ and not as free citrate or the Mg2+-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca2+-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca2+ and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca2+-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca2+-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca2+-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca2+-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  11. Ca2+-citrate uptake and metabolism in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    PubMed

    Mortera, Pablo; Pudlik, Agata; Magni, Christian; Alarcón, Sergio; Lolkema, Juke S

    2013-08-01

    The putative citrate metabolic pathway in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 consists of the transporter CitH, a proton symporter of the citrate-divalent metal ion family of transporters CitMHS, citrate lyase, and the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Resting cells of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 metabolized citrate in complex with Ca(2+) and not as free citrate or the Mg(2+)-citrate complex, thereby identifying Ca(2+)-citrate as the substrate of the transporter CitH. The pathway was induced in the presence of Ca(2+) and citrate during growth and repressed by the presence of glucose and of galactose, most likely by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism. The end products of Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism by resting cells of Lb. casei were pyruvate, acetate, and acetoin, demonstrating the activity of the membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex OAD-ABDH. Following pyruvate, the pathway splits into two branches. One branch is the classical citrate fermentation pathway producing acetoin by α-acetolactate synthase and α-acetolactate decarboxylase. The other branch yields acetate, for which the route is still obscure. Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism in a modified MRS medium lacking a carbohydrate did not significantly affect the growth characteristics, and generation of metabolic energy in the form of proton motive force (PMF) was not observed in resting cells. In contrast, carbohydrate/Ca(2+)-citrate cometabolism resulted in a higher biomass yield in batch culture. However, also with these cells, no generation of PMF was associated with Ca(2+)-citrate metabolism. It is concluded that citrate metabolism in Lb. casei is beneficial when it counteracts acidification by carbohydrate metabolism in later growth stages. PMID:23709502

  12. Trisodium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7)

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Alagappa; Kaduk, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of anhydrous tris­odium citrate, Na3(C6H5O7), has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional theory (DFT). There are two independent five-coordinate Na+ and one six-coordinate Na+ cations in the asymmetric unit. The [NaO5] and [NaO6] polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework. There are channels parallel to the a and b axes in which the remainder of the citrate anions reside. The only hydrogen bonds are an intra­molecular one between the hy­droxy group and one of the terminal carboxyl­ate O atoms and an intermolecular one between a methylene group and the hydroxyl O atom. PMID:27308044

  13. ATP citrate lyase improves mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman; Morvan, Frederic; Jourde, Benjamin; Meier, Viktor; Kahle, Peter; Brebbia, Pascale; Toussaint, Gauthier; Glass, David J; Fornaro, Mara

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with skeletal muscle pathology, including cachexia, sarcopenia, and the muscular dystrophies. ATP citrate lyase (ACL) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes mitochondria-derived citrate into oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. Here we report that activation of ACL in skeletal muscle results in improved mitochondrial function. IGF1 induces activation of ACL in an AKT-dependent fashion. This results in an increase in cardiolipin, thus increasing critical mitochondrial complexes and supercomplex activity, and a resultant increase in oxygen consumption and cellular ATP levels. Conversely, knockdown of ACL in myotubes not only reduces mitochondrial complex I, IV, and V activity but also blocks IGF1-induced increases in oxygen consumption. In vivo, ACL activity is associated with increased ATP. Activation of this IGF1/ACL/cardiolipin pathway combines anabolic signaling with induction of mechanisms needed to provide required ATP. PMID:26039450

  14. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  15. Calcium citrate and vitamin D in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Quesada Gómez, José Manuel; Blanch Rubió, Josep; Díaz Curiel, Manuel; Díez Pérez, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    The combination of calcium with vitamin D (vitamin D(3) [colecalciferol]) forms the basis of preventive and therapeutic regimens for osteoporosis. A number of studies have suggested that the combination of calcium and vitamin D is effective when administered at respective dosages of at least 1200 mg and 800 IU per day, although efficacy is, as expected, affected by patient compliance. Overall, treatment with this combination appears to be effective in reducing the incidence of non-vertebral and hip fractures. Also, in all drug studies (of antiresorptive and anabolic agents and strontium ranelate) that demonstrated a reduction in risk of osteoporotic fractures, patients also took calcium and vitamin D supplements. An important finding in this regard is that vitamin D levels have been demonstrated to be inadequate in more than half of women treated for osteoporosis in the US and Europe. The capacity of the small intestine to absorb calcium salts depends on the solubility and ionization of the salts. These properties vary for different salts, with fasting calcium citrate absorption being greater than that of calcium lactogluconate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate formulations taken between meals may help to prevent abdominal distension and flatulence, as well as minimize the risk of renal calculus formation, thus helping to optimize patient compliance. Therefore, calcium citrate combined with vitamin D is the combination of choice for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:21405146

  16. Multiple chromatographic forms of ATP citrate lyase from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, A P; Rider, C C

    1983-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase is shown to exist as multiple forms in extracts of rat liver. DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography of liver supernatants reveals two peaks of activity. A minor, basic, component, comprising 14% of the recovered activity, is eluted without retention, whereas the major, acidic, form is eluted by a KCl gradient. Gel filtration of similar extracts shows the presence of a high-Mr form of ATP citrate lyase (Mr around 10(7) in addition to the tetrameric enzyme (Mr 4.1 X 10(5). This associated state, which represents 10% of the total activity, is unstable, breaking down to the tetramer, and appears to be disrupted by Mg2+. The basic form changes in the partially purified state to give the acidic form. Most of the high-Mr enzyme is acidic in nature. No evidence could be found for an association of the enzyme with mitochondrial or microsomal membranes. ATP citrate lyase from rat brain also shows two peaks of activity on DEAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography, but the activity is distributed between the peaks in almost equal proportions. However, only the tetrameric enzyme was observed on gel filtration. PMID:6615476

  17. Comparison of Citrated Human Blood, Citrated Sheep Blood, and Defibrinated Sheep Blood Mueller-Hinton Agar Preparations for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Satzke, Catherine; Seduadua, Anna; Chandra, Reginald; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Mulholland, E. Kim; Russell, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with citrated human or citrated sheep blood was compared with the use of routinely used Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The alternate supplements were found to be unsatisfactory, particularly for testing resistant isolates, and therefore are not recommended. PMID:20668133

  18. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    SciTech Connect

    Porcar, L.; Hamilton, William A; Butler, Paul D; Warr, G. G.

    2003-01-01

    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  19. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (α = 0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2 = 0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2 = 0.405, p = 0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no

  20. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy S; Asplin, John R; Frick, Kevin K; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-12-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  1. Ferric citrate controls phosphorus and delivers iron in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julia B; Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T; Whittier, Frederick C; Linfert, Douglas R; Galphin, Claude M; Athreya, Balaji P; Nossuli, A Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J; Blumenthal, Samuel S; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P

    2015-02-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of -2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  2. Ferric Citrate Controls Phosphorus and Delivers Iron in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sika, Mohammed; Koury, Mark J.; Chuang, Peale; Schulman, Gerald; Smith, Mark T.; Whittier, Frederick C.; Linfert, Douglas R.; Galphin, Claude M.; Athreya, Balaji P.; Nossuli, A. Kaldun Kaldun; Chang, Ingrid J.; Blumenthal, Samuel S.; Manley, John; Zeig, Steven; Kant, Kotagal S.; Olivero, Juan Jose; Greene, Tom; Dwyer, Jamie P.

    2015-01-01

    Patients on dialysis require phosphorus binders to prevent hyperphosphatemia and are iron deficient. We studied ferric citrate as a phosphorus binder and iron source. In this sequential, randomized trial, 441 subjects on dialysis were randomized to ferric citrate or active control in a 52-week active control period followed by a 4-week placebo control period, in which subjects on ferric citrate who completed the active control period were rerandomized to ferric citrate or placebo. The primary analysis compared the mean change in phosphorus between ferric citrate and placebo during the placebo control period. A sequential gatekeeping strategy controlled study-wise type 1 error for serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, and intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent usage as prespecified secondary outcomes in the active control period. Ferric citrate controlled phosphorus compared with placebo, with a mean treatment difference of −2.2±0.2 mg/dl (mean±SEM) (P<0.001). Active control period phosphorus was similar between ferric citrate and active control, with comparable safety profiles. Subjects on ferric citrate achieved higher mean iron parameters (ferritin=899±488 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=39%±17%) versus subjects on active control (ferritin=628±367 ng/ml [mean±SD]; transferrin saturation=30%±12%; P<0.001 for both). Subjects on ferric citrate received less intravenous elemental iron (median=12.95 mg/wk ferric citrate; 26.88 mg/wk active control; P<0.001) and less erythropoietin-stimulating agent (median epoetin-equivalent units per week: 5306 units/wk ferric citrate; 6951 units/wk active control; P=0.04). Hemoglobin levels were statistically higher on ferric citrate. Thus, ferric citrate is an efficacious and safe phosphate binder that increases iron stores and reduces intravenous iron and erythropoietin-stimulating agent use while maintaining hemoglobin. PMID:25060056

  3. Exogenous citrate impairs glucose tolerance and promotes visceral adipose tissue inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leandro, João G B; Espindola-Netto, Jair M; Vianna, Maria Carolina F; Gomez, Lilian S; DeMaria, Thaina M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Zancan, Patricia; Paula Neto, Heitor A; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2016-03-28

    Overweight and obesity have become epidemic worldwide and are linked to sedentary lifestyle and the consumption of processed foods and drinks. Citrate is a metabolite that plays central roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, citrate is the additive most commonly used by the food industry, and therefore is highly consumed. Extracellular citrate can freely enter the cells via the constitutively expressed plasma membrane citrate transporter. Within the cytosol, citrate is readily metabolised by ATP-citrate lyase into acetyl-CoA - the metabolic precursor of endogenously produced lipids and cholesterol. We therefore hypothesised that the citrate ingested from processed foods and drinks could contribute to increased postprandial fat production and weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we administered citrate to mice through their drinking water with or without sucrose and monitored their weight gain and other metabolic parameters. Our results showed that mice receiving citrate or citrate+sucrose did not show increased weight gain or an increase in the weight of the liver, skeletal muscles or adipose tissues (AT). Moreover, the plasma lipid profiles (TAG, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) were similar across all groups. However, the group receiving citrate+sucrose showed augmented fasting glycaemia, glucose intolerance and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in their AT. Therefore, our results suggest that citrate consumption contributes to increased AT inflammation and altered glucose metabolism, which is indicative of initial insulin resistance. Thus, citrate consumption could be a previously unknown causative agent for the complications associated with obesity. PMID:26863933

  4. Citrate complexing sol-gel process of lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Linlin; Zhu, Kongjun

    2016-05-01

    The citrate complexing sol-gel process to fabricate lead-free (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric thin films was studied. Soluble niobium source of niobium-citric acid (Nb-CA) solution was utilized as a raw material to synthesize (K,Na)NbO3 thin films, by pyrolyzing at 450-550∘C and annealing at 650∘C. The film pyrolyzed at 450∘C shows poor crystallization with porous morphology, whereas the film pyrolyzed at 550∘C appear to be well-crystallized and denser, and the ferroelectricity was also proved by the P-E hysteresis loop measurement.

  5. Evaluation of ferric oxide and ferric citrate for their effects on fermentation, production of sulfide and methane, and abundance of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-07-01

    This study systematically evaluated the effect of ferric iron on sulfate reduction to sulfide, feed digestion and fermentation, methane production, and populations of select ruminal microbes using in vitro rumen cultures. Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and ferric citrate (C6H5FeO7) at six concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200mg/L as Fe(3+)) were tested. Ferric iron decreased production of both H2S gas in culture headspace (up to 71.9%) and aqueous sulfide (up to 80.8%), without adversely affecting other fermentation parameters, with ferric citrate being more effective than ferric oxide. Total archaeal population was increased by ferric citrate, but methane production was not affected significantly. The population of sulfate reducing bacteria was affected differently by ferric oxide than by ferric citrate. The results of this study could guide future in vivo studies to develop effective solutions to abate sulfur-associated polioencephalomalacia in cattle fed high-sulfur diet such as dried distiller's grains with solubles. PMID:27043055

  6. Engineering genetically encoded nanosensors for real-time in vivo measurements of citrate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Jennifer C; Reich, Sabrina; Baumann, Stephan; Frommer, Wolf B; Zamboni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Citrate is an intermediate in catabolic as well as biosynthetic pathways and is an important regulatory molecule in the control of glycolysis and lipid metabolism. Mass spectrometric and NMR based metabolomics allow measuring citrate concentrations, but only with limited spatial and temporal resolution. Methods are so far lacking to monitor citrate levels in real-time in-vivo. Here, we present a series of genetically encoded citrate sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We screened databases for citrate-binding proteins and tested three candidates in vitro. The citrate binding domain of the Klebsiella pneumoniae histidine sensor kinase CitA, inserted between the FRET pair Venus/CFP, yielded a sensor highly specific for citrate. We optimized the peptide linkers to achieve maximal FRET change upon citrate binding. By modifying residues in the citrate binding pocket, we were able to construct seven sensors with different affinities spanning a concentration range of three orders of magnitude without losing specificity. In a first in vivo application we show that E. coli maintains the capacity to take up glucose or acetate within seconds even after long-term starvation. PMID:22164251

  7. Effects of cadmium, copper, magnesium, and zinc on the decomposition of citrate by a Klebsiella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Brynhildsen, L; Rosswall, T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of Cd2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ on the decomposition of citric acid by a Klebsiella sp. were studied by monitoring the degradation of [14C]citrate. The carbon concentration used was 10 micrograms of C liter-1, and the media were designed to provide at least 95% of the citrate complexed to the metal studied. After 72 h of incubation, 80% of the uncomplexed citric acid and 76% of the magnesium citrate had been decomposed. A marked inhibition was observed when Cd2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+ was bound to the organic anion; only 23% of the cadmium citrate, 14% of the zinc citrate, and 5% of the cuprous citrate had been decomposed. The effects were not the result of toxicity, since experiments run with [14C]glucose (nonchelating compound) instead of citrate resulted in similar decomposition rates regardless of the presence of the metal. To examine whether the binding of a metal to citrate enhanced its uptake by the Klebsiella sp., we studied the relative uptake of 65Zn in citrate- and in glucose-containing media. No such effect could be observed, with the uptake of Zn2+ being higher in the glucose-containing media. The study shows that metals may render low-molecular-weight organic acids, such as citric acid, resistant to bacterial degradation. This stresses the importance of metals in influencing microbial decomposition of organic compounds, not only as a result of toxicity. PMID:2764560

  8. 78 FR 63228 - Determination That Potassium Citrate, 10 Milliequivalents/Packet and 20 Milliequivalents/Packet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... management of renal tubular acidosis with calcium stones, hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis of any etiology, and uric acid lithiasis with or without calcium stones. Potassium Citrate, 10...

  9. Fast degradable citrate-based bone scaffold promotes spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jiajun; Guo, Jinshan; Li, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; Xie, Denghui; Chen, Jian; Li, Shengfa; Li, Shaolin; Kim, Gloria B.; Bai, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhongmin; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that high rates of fusion failure and pseudoarthrosis development (5~35%) are concomitant in spinal fusion surgery, which was ascribed to the shortage of suitable materials for bone regeneration. Citrate was recently recognized to play an indispensable role in enhancing osteconductivity and osteoinductivity, and promoting bone formation. To address the material challenges in spinal fusion surgery, we have synthesized mechanically robust and fast degrading citrate-based polymers by incorporating N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) into clickable poly(1, 8-octanediol citrates) (POC-click), referred to as POC-M-click. The obtained POC-M-click were fabricated into POC-M-click-HA matchstick scaffolds by compositing with hydroxyapatite (HA) for interbody spinal fusion in a rabbit model. Spinal fusion was analyzed by radiography, manual palpation, biomechanical testing, and histological evaluation. At 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, POC-M-click-HA scaffolds presented optimal degradation rates that facilitated faster new bone formation and higher spinal fusion rates (11.2±3.7, 80±4.5 at week 4 and 8, respectively) than the poly(L-lactic acid)-HA (PLLA-HA) control group (9.3±2.4 and 71.1±4.4) (p<0.05). The POC-M-click-HA scaffold-fused vertebrates possessed a maximum load and stiffness of 880.8±14.5 N and 843.2±22.4 N/mm, respectively, which were also much higher than those of the PLLA-HA group (maximum: 712.0±37.5 N, stiffness: 622.5±28.4 N/mm, p<0.05). Overall, the results suggest that POC-M-click-HA scaffolds could potentially serve as promising bone grafts for spinal fusion applications. PMID:26213625

  10. Antitumor effect and toxicity of free rhodium (II) citrate and rhodium (II) citrate-loaded maghemite nanoparticles in mice bearing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic fluids containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles represent an attractive platform as nanocarriers in chemotherapy. Recently, we developed a formulation of maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate, which resulted in in vitro cytotoxicity enhanced up to 4.6 times when compared to free rhodium (II) citrate formulation on breast carcinoma cells. In this work, we evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity induced by these formulations in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast carcinoma. Methods Mice were evaluated with regard to the treatments’ toxicity through analyses of hemogram, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, iron, and creatinine; DNA fragmentation and cell cycle of bone marrow cells; and liver, kidney and lung histology. In addition, the antitumor activity of rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate was verified by tumor volume reduction, histology and immunohistochemistry. Results Regarding the treatments’ toxicity, no experimental groups had alterations in levels of serum ALT or creatinine, and this suggestion was corroborated by the histopathologic examination of liver and kidney of mice. Moreover, DNA fragmentation frequency of bone marrow cells was lower than 15% in all experimental groups. On the other hand, the complexes rhodium (II) citrate-functionalized maghemite and free rhodium (II) citrate led to a marked growth inhibition of tumor and decrease in CD31 and Ki-67 staining. Conclusions In summary, we demonstrated that both rhodium (II) citrate and maghemite nanoparticles coated with rhodium (II) citrate formulations exhibited antitumor effects against 4T1 metastatic breast cancer cell line following intratumoral administration. This antitumor effect was followed by inhibition of both cell proliferation and microvascularization and by tumor tissue injury characterized as necrosis and fibrosis. Remarkably, this is the first published report

  11. Study of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared From Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, V. D.; Vinesh, A.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-01

    Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 prepared using citrate precursor method and calcined at different temperatures is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Magnetization study shows that critical size of the sample is around 50 nm. Mössbauer studies confirm that there is no change in the cation distribution with calcining and also that a particle size distribution exists in samples calcined at higher temperatures. Thus the change in magnetic properties can be entirely attributed to structural parameters due to variation in size leading to different core-spin ratio, grain boundary effects etc.

  12. Ferrous iron oxidation by molecular oxygen under acidic conditions: The effect of citrate, EDTA and fulvic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Adele M.; Griffin, Philippa J.; Waite, T. David

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the rates of Fe(II) oxidation by molecular oxygen in the presence of citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) were determined over the pH range 4.0-5.5 and, for all of the ligands investigated, found to be substantially faster than oxidation rates in the absence of any ligand. EDTA was found to be particularly effective in enhancing the rate of Fe(II) oxidation when sufficient EDTA was available to complex all Fe(II) present in solution, with a kinetic model of the process found to adequately describe all results obtained. When Fe(II) was only partially complexed by EDTA, reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heterogeneous Fe(II) oxidation were found to contribute significantly to the removal rate of iron from solution at different stages of oxidation. This was possible due to the rapid rate at which EDTA enhanced Fe(II) oxidation and formed ROS and Fe(III). The rapid rate of Fe(III) generation facilitated the formation of free ferric ion activities in excess of those required for ferric oxyhydroxide precipitation following Fe(III)-EDTA dissociation. In comparison, the rate of Fe(II) oxidation was slower in the presence of citrate, and therefore the concentrations of free Fe(III) able to form in the initial stages of Fe(II) oxidation were much lower than those formed in the presence of EDTA, despite the resultant Fe(III)-citrate complex being less stable than that of Fe(III)-EDTA. The slower rate of citrate enhanced oxidation also resulted in slower rates of ROS generation, and, as such, oxidation of the remaining inorganic Fe(II) species by ROS was negligible. Overall, this study demonstrates that organic ligands may substantially enhance the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Even under circumstances where the ligand is not present at sufficient concentrations to complex all of the Fe(II) in solution, ensuing oxidative processes may sustain an enhanced rate of Fe(II) oxidation relative to that of

  13. Inhibition of citric acid accumulation by manganese ions in Aspergillus niger mutants with reduced citrate control of phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Schreferl, G.; Kubicek, C.P.; Roehr, M.

    1986-03-01

    Mutant strains of Aspergillus niger with reduced citrate control of carbohydrate catabolism (cic mutants) grow faster than the parent strain on media containing 5% (wt/vol) citrate. The mutants tolerated a higher intracellular citrate concentration than the parent strain. One mutant (cic-7/3) contained phosphofructokinase activity significantly less sensitive towards citrate than the enzyme from the parent strain. When this mutant was grown under citrate accumulating conditions, acidogenesis was far less sensitive to inhibition by Mn/sup 2 +/ than in the parent strain. Some of the cic mutants also showed altered citrate inhibition of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

  14. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  15. Formation of BaTiO 3 from Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, M.; Rao, M. Subba

    1994-12-01

    On thermal decomposition barium bis(citrato)oxotitanate (IV) citrate heptahydrate produces stoichiometric BaTiO3 fine powders at about 650°C. Thermal decomposition of the precursor proceeds through three major stages, viz. (i) dehydration, (ii) decomposition of the citrate to form an oxycarbonate intermediate Ba2Ti2O5CO3, and (iii) decomposition of the intermediate carbonate to form BaTiO3. Spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques are presently employed to characterize the precursor and the intermediates isolated at various stages. As-prepared BaTiO3 is a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases. The primary particle size of the powder is on the order of 100 nm, as revealed by the TEM technique. Calcining the powders above 800°C results in the formation of complete tetragonal phase with improved crystallinity. The resultant powders are sinter active to give dense monophasic ceramic compacts having densities in the range 95-99% of the theoretical value. Depending on the processing conditions, the dielectric constant (εr) varies from 1600 to 3000 at 1 kHz, while the dielectric loss, tan δ, ranges from 0.003 to 0.009 at 300 K.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S; Sonenshein, A L

    1994-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes citA and citZ were repressed during early exponential growth phase in nutrient broth medium and were induced as cells reached the end of exponential phase. Both genes were also induced by treatment of cells with the drug decoyinine. After induction, the steady-state level of citZ mRNA was about five times higher than that of citA mRNA. At least some of the citZ transcripts read through into the isocitrate dehydrogenase (citC) gene. Transcription from an apparent promoter site located near the 3' end of the citZ gene also contributed to expression of citC. In minimal medium, citA transcription was about 6-fold lower when glucose was the sole carbon source than it was when succinate was the carbon source. Expression of the citZ gene was repressed 2-fold by glucose and 10-fold when glucose and glutamate were present simultaneously. This latter synergistic repression is similar to the effect of glucose and glutamate on steady-state citrate synthase enzyme activity. CitR, a protein of the LysR family, appeared to be a repressor of citA but not of citZ. Images PMID:8045899

  17. Stability of revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, in injectable solutions.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S S; Brittain, H G

    1996-11-01

    The short-term stability of Revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, was determined in a number of diluents commonly employed for intravenous use. An HPLC method was used to follow the potency of the diluted solutions, and was fully validated for its intended concentration range prior to its use. Dilutions of Revex were prepared separately in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate injection. Each admixture was stored at 4 degrees C, room temperature (21 degrees C) and 40 degrees C, with samples being tested after storage at each temperature for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Defining stability as the retention of at least 95% of the initial drug concentration at the end of the storage period, it was concluded that the diluted solutions of Revex were uniformly stable for up to 72 h in all of the injectable solutions maintained at either 4, 21 or 40 degrees C. PMID:8933423

  18. Derivation of Pitzer Interaction Parameters for an Aqueous Species Pair of FeCitrate- and Mg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.; Olivas, T.; Nemer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP is located within the bedded salts of the Permian Salado Formation, which consists of interbedded halite and anhydrite layers overlaying the Castile Formation. The waste includes, but is not limited to, the salts of citric acid and iron. To calculate the solution chemistry for brines of WIPP-relevance, WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) employs the Pitzer formulation to determine the activity coefficients of aqueous species in brine. The current WIPP thermodynamic database, however, does not include iron species and their Pitzer parameters, in spite of the fact that there will be a large amount of iron in the WIPP. Iron would be emplaced as part of the waste, as well as the containers for the waste. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the pair of Mg2+ and FeCitrate-. Briefly, an aqueous model for dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in MgNa2Citrate solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer binary interaction parameters for the Mg2+ and FeCitrate- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (less than 6 ppm) throughout the experiments. Aging time was more than 800 days to ensure equilibrium. EQ3NR packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each

  19. CRRT Regional Anticoagulation Using Citrate in the Liver Failure and Liver Transplant Population.

    PubMed

    Wonnacott, Rob; Josephs, Brandi; Jamieson, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Regional citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) use in patients with liver failure or post-liver transplant has been considered a contraindication because of the risk of citrate toxicity development. Regional citrate has the benefit of decreased bleeding risks over systemic anticoagulation; therefore, it is of great benefit to the coagulopathic and surgical populations. This article analyzes current empiric data and compares with a case study specifically related to liver failure, liver transplant, and CRRT use. We found that the use of a total serum to ionized calcium ratio was much more reliable in measuring liver function than liver enzyme figures. This when paired with a citrate-reduction guideline based on serum to ionized calcium ratios provided effective, early management of citrate toxicity. Using new measurements to calculate liver metabolism of citrate and using a new citrate-reducing guideline allow the bedside practitioner to use regional citrate anticoagulation in patients with liver failure and liver transplant who require CRRT. PMID:27254640

  20. Addition of senna improves quality of colonoscopy preparation with magnesium citrate

    PubMed Central

    Vradelis, Stergios; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sharifi, Yalda; Buchel, Otto; Keshav, Satish; Chapman, Roger W; Braden, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively investigate the effectiveness and patient’s tolerance of two low-cost bowel cleansing preparation protocols based on magnesium citrate only or the combination of magnesium citrate and senna. METHODS: A total of 342 patients who were referred for colonoscopy underwent a colon cleansing protocol with magnesium citrate alone (n = 160) or magnesium citrate and senna granules (n = 182). The colonoscopist rated the overall efficacy of colon cleansing using an established score on a 4-point scale. Patients were questioned before undergoing colonoscopy for side effects and symptoms during bowel preparation. RESULTS: The percentage of procedures rescheduled because of insufficient colon cleansing was 7% in the magnesium citrate group and 4% in the magnesium citrate/senna group (P = 0.44). Adequate visualization of the colonic mucosa was rated superior under the citramag/senna regimen (P = 0.004). Both regimens were well tolerated, and did not significantly differ in the occurrence of nausea, bloating or headache. However, abdominal cramps were observed more often under the senna protocol (29.2%) compared to the magnesium citrate only protocol (9.9%, P < 0.0003). CONCLUSION: The addition of senna to the bowel preparation protocol with magnesium citrate significantly improves the cleansing outcome. PMID:19360920

  1. Characterization of citrate utilization in Corynebacterium glutamicum by transcriptome and proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar; Bott, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows aerobically on a variety of carbohydrates and organic acids as single or combined sources of carbon and energy. To characterize the citrate utilization in C. glutamicum on a genomewide scale, a comparative analysis was carried out by combining transcriptome and proteome analysis. In cells grown on citrate, transcriptome analysis revealed highest expression changes for two different citrate-uptake systems encoded by citM and tctCBA, whereas genes encoding uptake systems for the glucose- (ptsG), sucrose- (ptsS) and fructose- (ptsF) specific PTS components and permeases for gluconate (gntP) and glutamate (gluC) displayed decreased mRNA levels in citrate-grown cells. This pattern was also observed when cells grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium plus citrate were compared with cells grown in LB medium, indicating some kind of catabolite repression. Genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (aconitase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase), malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase, gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase displayed increased expression in cells grown on citrate. Accordingly, proteome analysis revealed elevated protein levels of these enzymes and showed a good correlation with the mRNA levels. In conclusion, this study revealed the citrate stimulon in C. glutamicum and the regulated central metabolic genes when grown on citrate. PMID:17559405

  2. In vivo detection of citrate in brain tumors by 1H MRS at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Changho; Ganji, Sandeep K.; Madan, Akshay; Hulsey, Keith M.; An, Zhongxu; Zhang, Song; Pinho, Marco C.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Bachoo, Robert M.; Maher, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test whether the citrate is elevated in adult patients with gliomas using 1H MRS at 3T in vivo. Methods Thirty-four adult patients were enrolled in the study, including 6 subjects with glioblastomas, 8 subjects with astrocytomas (5 WHO grade-3 and 3 grade-2), and 20 subjects with oligodendrogliomas (5 grade-3 and 15 grade-2). Five healthy volunteers were studied for baseline citrate data. Single-voxel localized spectra were collected with PRESS TE = 35 and 97 ms and analyzed with LCModel using numerically calculated basis spectra that include the effects of the PRESS radio-frequency and gradient pulses. Results Citrate was not measurable by MRS in healthy brain, but was detected in tumor patients at both echo times. The citrate concentration was estimated to be as high as 1.8 mM with reference to water at 42 M, with CRLB as low as 5%. The mean citrate level was 0.7±0.4 mM (mean±SD, n=32) with median CRLB of ~12%. No correlation was identified between citrate concentration and tumor grade or histological type. Conclusion Citrate was increased in the majority of gliomas in adult patients. The elevated citrate in our data indicates an altered metabolic state of tumor relative to healthy brain. PMID:24123337

  3. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Countervailing Duty Order, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009), remains dispositive. A full description of the scope of... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's...

  4. PREPARATION OF SORBITOL CITRATE POLYESTERS BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION AND APPLICATION AS INHIBITIORS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorbitol citrates were prepared using a vented ZSK-30-twin-screw extruder as part of a program to develop bio-based, water soluble polycarboxylates. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and included the variables sorbitol, citric acid, sodium citrate, temperature and feed rate. Extent of est...

  5. Gallium-67 citrate localization in osteoclast nuclei of Paget's disease of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, B.G.; Masuoka, L.S.; Graham, C.C. Jr.; Singer, F.R.; Waxman, A.D.

    1988-06-01

    Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy has been used to indicate the extent of bone involvement in patients with Paget's disease of bone and is an excellent marker in monitoring the effects of specific therapy. Since gallium uptake is dependent on cellular function, autoradiographic techniques can be applied to cells of Paget's lesions to understand better the mechanism of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate uptake. Bone biopsies were obtained from sites of increased uptake using (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scintigraphy in two patients with Paget's disease. In both patients electron microscopic autoradiographs demonstrated a high concentration of silver grains over the nuclei of osteoclasts. The cellular mechanism is unknown but may be related to the known inhibitory effect of calcitonin on osteoclast activity. The association of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate with the nucleus of the osteoclasts is unique and different from tumor cells in which there is a high association of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate with the lysosome fraction within the cytoplasm.

  6. A novel citrate selective electrode based on surfactant modified nano-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Mahdieh; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2015-04-01

    A citrate-selective sensor was prepared by modification of a PVC membrane with modified nano-clinoptilolite particles by hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium surfactant (SMZ). A Nernstian slope of 29.9 ± 0.2 mV per decade of citrate concentration was obtained over the concentration range of 5.0 × 10(-5)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) of citrate. The electrode showed a fast response time (⩽ 10 s) and a detection limit of 1.3 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) of citrate. The linear range and detection limit were respectively changed to 1.0 × 10(-4)-5.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of citrate when the micronized clinoptilolite particles were used. PMID:25442622

  7. Model-Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Erion, D M; Maurer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  8. Model‐Based Assessment of Plasma Citrate Flux Into the Liver: Implications for NaCT as a Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Erion, DM; Maurer, TS

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic citrate serves as an important regulator of gluconeogenesis and carbon source for de novo lipogenesis in the liver. For this reason, the sodium‐coupled citrate transporter (NaCT), a plasma membrane transporter that governs hepatic influx of plasma citrate in human, is being explored as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. As cytoplasmic citrate also originates from intracellular mitochondria, the relative contribution of these two pathways represents critical information necessary to underwrite confidence in this target. In this work, hepatic influx of plasma citrate was quantified via pharmacokinetic modeling of published clinical data. The influx was then compared to independent literature estimates of intracellular citrate flux in human liver. The results indicate that, under normal conditions, <10% of hepatic citrate originates from plasma. Similar estimates were determined experimentally in mice and rats. This suggests that NaCT inhibition will have a limited impact on hepatic citrate concentrations across species. PMID:27069776

  9. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence. PMID:24115661

  10. Usefulness of gallium-67 citrate scanning in testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Willan, B.D.; Penney, H.; Castor, W.R.; McGowan, D.G.

    1987-10-01

    An analysis of 77 consecutive patients with a histologic diagnosis of seminoma testis, assessed and treated at the Cross Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1982, is presented. Ga-67 citrate was first used in the assessment of patients with malignant testicular tumors in 1973. Following three years of study that supported the observation of the gallium-avid nature of seminoma, gallium scans became routine in the initial staging assessment and were used also when recurrence was suspected. From 1977 through 1982, 72 patients with biopsy-proven seminoma testis were assessed initially for extent of disease by Ga-67 scanning. Comparison with intravenous pyelography and bipedal lymphography was possible for accuracy of tumor assessment. The scan sensitivity was 83%, and the specificity was 95%. During the same period, gallium was studied in nonseminomatous testicular tumors but the results were disappointing and its use was discontinued. The gallium-avid nature of seminoma testis may be useful in determining the extent of disease.

  11. Response of patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis to tamoxifen citrate.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Chen, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether tamoxifen citrate at 20mg/day for 1 year had a beneficial effect on laboratory findings, bone marrow mastocytosis, common clinical symptoms, or quality-of-life assessment for 5 women and 2 men with indolent systemic mastocytosis. Tamoxifen was well tolerated. We found significant reductions in the platelet count, serum alkaline phosphatase, and 24-h urinary excretion of N-methylhistamine and significant increases in serum lactate dehydrogenase and (excluding 2 patients taking aspirin) in 24-h urinary excretion of 11β-prostaglandin F2α. Overall, no change occurred in percent involvement of bone marrow by mastocytosis. Symptom scores were mild and did not change during the treatment. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores for quality of life physical and mental components showed no marked changes. Tamoxifen, an older, nonhematotoxic medication, has limited activity in systemic mastocytosis at the dosage used in this study. PMID:26612479

  12. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 Fine Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method Using Citrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Han, Yang-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Suh, Kyung-Soo

    1993-03-01

    Sodium superionic conductor (NASICON) powders have been prepared by sol-gel technique using citrates. The optimum pH condition ({\\cong}6) for sol-gel process was predicted by theoretical consideration of thermodynamic equilibrium constants for corresponding metal salts in aqueous solution. The pure NASICON phase with rhombohedral unit cell could be obtained by thermal decomposition of citrate precursors at a relatively low temperature (850°C). When the calcining temperature was raised to 1100°C, however, slight monoclinic distortion with formation of a trace of monoclinic ZrO2 was observed. Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 31P static and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR have been used to characterize the calcined powders.

  13. Genome-wide identification of citrus ATP-citrate lyase genes and their transcript analysis in fruits reveals their possible role in citrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Cai-Yun; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2015-02-01

    ATP-citrate lyase (ACL, EC4.1.3.8) catalyzes citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the cell cytosol, and has important roles in normal plant growth and in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites. We identified three ACL genes, CitACLα1, CitACLα2, and CitACLβ1, in the citrus genome database. Both CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 encode putative ACL α subunits with 82.5 % amino acid identity, whereas CitACLβ1 encodes a putative ACL β subunit. Gene structure analysis showed that CitACLα1 and CitACLα2 had 12 exons and 11 introns, and CitACLβ1 had 16 exons and 15 introns. CitACLα1 and CitACLβ1 were predominantly expressed in flower, and CitACLα2 was predominantly expressed in stem and fibrous roots. As fruits ripen, the transcript levels of CitACLα1, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα2 in cultivars 'Niuher' and 'Owari' increased, accompanied by significant decreases in citrate content, while their transcript levels decreased significantly in 'Egan No. 1' and 'Iyokan', although citrate content also decreased. In 'HB pummelo', in which acid content increased as fruit ripened, and in acid-free pummelo, transcript levels of CitACLα2, CitACLβ1, and/or CitACLα1 increased. Moreover, mild drought stress and ABA treatment significantly increased citrate contents in fruits. Transcript levels of the three genes were significantly reduced by mild drought stress, and the transcript level of only CitACLβ1 was significantly reduced by ABA treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the effects of ACL on citrate use during fruit ripening depends on the cultivar, and the reduction in ACL gene expression may be attributed to citrate increases under mild drought stress or ABA treatment. PMID:25120169

  14. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    PubMed Central

    Aghanejad, Ayuob; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Ardaneh, Khosro; Bolourinovin, Fatemeh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Samani, Ali Bahrami

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (8Ga) citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC), chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS), radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe), and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC), specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM), chemical purity (Sn, Fe<0.3 ppm and Zn<0.2 ppm) within 15 min at 500C. The biodistribution of 68Ga-citrate was consistent with former reports up to 120 minutes. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country. PMID:27408889

  15. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Giudetti, Anna M; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  16. Nutritional and Hormonal Regulation of Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters: Two Mitochondrial Carriers Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Giudetti, Anna M.; Stanca, Eleonora; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele V.; Damiano, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    The transport of solutes across the inner mitochondrial membrane is catalyzed by a family of nuclear-encoded membrane-embedded proteins called mitochondrial carriers (MCs). The citrate carrier (CiC) and the carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) are two members of the MCs family involved in fatty acid metabolism. By conveying acetyl-coenzyme A, in the form of citrate, from the mitochondria to the cytosol, CiC contributes to fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis; CACT allows fatty acid oxidation, transporting cytosolic fatty acids, in the form of acylcarnitines, into the mitochondrial matrix. Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are inversely regulated so that when fatty acid synthesis is activated, the catabolism of fatty acids is turned-off. Malonyl-CoA, produced by acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a key enzyme of cytosolic fatty acid synthesis, represents a regulator of both metabolic pathways. CiC and CACT activity and expression are regulated by different nutritional and hormonal conditions. Defects in the corresponding genes have been directly linked to various human diseases. This review will assess the current understanding of CiC and CACT regulation; underlining their roles in physio-pathological conditions. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular basis of the regulation of CiC and CACT associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:27231907

  17. Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:26258559

  18. Reductive glutamine metabolism is a function of the α-ketoglutarate to citrate ratio in cells

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Bell, Eric L.; Keibler, Mark A.; Olenchock, Benjamin A.; Mayers, Jared R.; Wasylenko, Thomas M.; Vokes, Natalie I.; Guarente, Leonard; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Reductively metabolized glutamine is a major cellular carbon source for fatty acid synthesis during hypoxia or when mitochondrial respiration is impaired. Yet, a mechanistic understanding of what determines reductive metabolism is missing. Here we identify several cellular conditions where the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio is changed due to altered acetyl-CoA to citrate conversion, and demonstrate that reductive glutamine metabolism is initiated in response to perturbations that results in an increase in the α-ketoglutarate/citrate ratio. Thus, targeting reductive glutamine conversion for a therapeutic benefit might require distinct modulations of metabolite concentrations rather than targeting the upstream signaling, which only indirectly affects the process. PMID:23900562

  19. Citrate-Induced Nanocubes: A Re-Examination of the Role of Citrate as a Shape-Directing Capping Agent for Ag-Based Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hajfathalian, Maryam; Gilroy, Kyle D; Hughes, Robert A; Neretina, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Seed-mediated syntheses utilizing facet-selective surface passivation provide the necessary chemical controls to direct noble metal nanostructure formation to a predetermined geometry. The foremost protocol for the synthesis of (111)-faceted Ag octahedra involves the reduction of metal ions onto pre-existing seeds in the presence of citrate and ascorbic acid. It is generally accepted that the capping of (111) facets with citrate dictates the shape while ascorbic acid acts solely as the reducing agent. Herein, a citrate-based synthesis is demonstrated in which the presence or absence of ascorbic acid is the shape-determining factor. Reactions are carried out in which Ag(+) ions are reduced onto substrate-immobilized Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt seeds. Syntheses lacking ascorbic acid, in which citrate acts as both the capping and the reducing agent, result in a robust nanocube growth mode able to withstand wide variations in the concentration of reactants, reaction rates, seed material, seed orientation and faceting, pH, and substrate material. If, however, ascorbic acid is included in these syntheses, then the growth mode reverts to one that advances the octahedral geometry. The implication of these results is that citrate, or one of its oxidation products, selectively caps (100) facets, but where this capability is compromised by ascorbic acid. PMID:27174815

  20. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  1. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  2. Citrate mediated synthesis and tuning of luminescence in Eu3+ incorporated Gd2O3 nanophosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash Kumar, R. G.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2015-02-01

    Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphors were prepared successfully by a large-scale facile solution based citrate-metal complex controlled combustion method and was systematically studied by varying the citric acid to metal cation ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and radiative properties were done to evaluate the crystal structure, phase formation, phase composition, surface morphology, radiative and luminescent properties of the prepared nanophosphors. Photoluminescent emission intensity of the samples can be correlated with the amount of citric acid, improved crystallinity, uniform morphology, particle size, reduced defects, and proper diffusion of Eu3+ in to the crystal structure of Gd2O3. Higher asymmetricity results in intense red emission (612 nm) due to 5D0-7F2 forced electric dipole transition and found that photoluminescence intensity is highest for the sample prepared with citric acid to metal cation ratio of 2:1. The existence of strong red emission from Gd1.9Eu0.1O3 nanophosphor corresponding to 5D0-7F2 transition (612 nm) of Eu3+ under UV light excitation make it a promising candidate for applications in bio assays, magnetic resonance imaging, deep uv LED's, solid state lighting, fluorescent lamps and flat panel displays.

  3. Changes in the pharmacokinetic of sildenafil citrate in rats with Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim The present investigates deals with the change in the pharmacokinetic of Sildenafil citrate (SIL) in disease condition like diabetic nephropathy (DN). Method Diabetes was induced in rats by administering Streptozotocin i.e. STZ (60 mg/kg, IP) saline solution. Assessment of diabetes was done by GOD-POD method and conformation of DN was done by assessing the level of Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Albuminurea. After the conformation of DN single dose of drug SIL (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) were given orally and Pharmacokinetic Parameters like [AUC o-t (ug.h/ml), AUC 0-∞, Cmax, Tmax, Kel, Clast] were estimated in the plasma by the help of HPLC-UV. Result There was significant increase (p < 0.01) in the Pharmacokinetic parameters of SIL in DN rat (AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax and T1/2) compare to normal control rat and significant increase Kel in the DN rat compare to control rat. Conclusion The study concluded that there was significant (p < 0.01) increase in the bioavailability of SIL in DN. PMID:24398037

  4. Low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K in double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} synthesized by a citrate route

    SciTech Connect

    Harnagea, L.; Jurca, B.; Berthet, P.

    2014-03-15

    A wet-chemistry technique, namely the citrate route, has been used to prepare high-quality polycrystalline samples of double perovskite Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}. We report on the evolution of magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of the synthesized samples as a function of three parameters (i) the pH of the starting solution, (ii) the decomposition temperature of the citrate precursors and (iii) the sintering conditions. The low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) value of our best samples is as high as 5% at room temperature for an applied magnetic field of 1 kOe. Additionally, the distinguishing feature of these samples is the persistence of LFMR, with a reasonably large value, up to 400 K which is a crucial parameter for any practical application. Our study indicates that the enhancement of LFMR observed is due to a good compromise between the grain size distribution and their magnetic polarization. -- Graphical abstract: The microstructure (left panel) and corresponding low-field magnetoresistance of one of the Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} samples synthesized in the course of this work. Highlights: • Samples of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} are prepared using a citrate route under varying conditions. • Magnetoresistive properties are improved and optimized. • Low-field magnetoresitence values as large as 5% at 300 K/1 kOe are reported. • Persistence of low-field magnetoresistance up to 400 K.

  5. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  6. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferric citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, A.J.M.; Ratledge, C.

    1982-01-01

    In mycobacterial growth medium 40 to 400 ..mu..M citrate was required to solubilize 2 ..mu..M /sup 55/Fe. This solubilized /sup 55/Fe was taken up into both iron-deficient and iron-sufficient washed cell suspensions of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Although the /sup 55/Fe was taken up into the cell, the citrate was not. The uptake system with M. smegmatis was not inhibited by electron transport inhibitors, uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, or thiol reagents and was saturable with iron at approximately 35 ..mu..M. The system was independent of the iron transport systems already known to exist in M. smegmatis: i.e., the two exochelin routes of assimilation as well as the mycobactin-salicylate system. It was not induced by the presence of 400 ..mu..M citrate in the growth medium, nor did the presence of citrate in the medium affect the production of either exochelin or mycobactin.

  7. DEFINITIVE SOX CONTROL PROCESS EVALUATIONS: LIMESTONE, DOUBLE ALKALI, AND CITRATE FGD PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a detailed comparative technical and economic evaluation of limestone slurry, generic double alkali, and citrate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, assuming proven technology and using representative power plant, process design, and economic pre...

  8. Coupled enzyme reactions performed in heterogeneous reaction media: experiments and modeling for glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase in a PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Aumiller, William M; Davis, Bradley W; Hashemian, Negar; Maranas, Costas; Armaou, Antonios; Keating, Christine D

    2014-03-01

    The intracellular environment in which biological reactions occur is crowded with macromolecules and subdivided into microenvironments that differ in both physical properties and chemical composition. The work described here combines experimental and computational model systems to help understand the consequences of this heterogeneous reaction media on the outcome of coupled enzyme reactions. Our experimental model system for solution heterogeneity is a biphasic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sodium citrate aqueous mixture that provides coexisting PEG-rich and citrate-rich phases. Reaction kinetics for the coupled enzyme reaction between glucose oxidase (GOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were measured in the PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Enzyme kinetics differed between the two phases, particularly for the HRP. Both enzymes, as well as the substrates glucose and H2O2, partitioned to the citrate-rich phase; however, the Amplex Red substrate necessary to complete the sequential reaction partitioned strongly to the PEG-rich phase. Reactions in ATPS were quantitatively described by a mathematical model that incorporated measured partitioning and kinetic parameters. The model was then extended to new reaction conditions, i.e., higher enzyme concentration. Both experimental and computational results suggest mass transfer across the interface is vital to maintain the observed rate of product formation, which may be a means of metabolic regulation in vivo. Although outcomes for a specific system will depend on the particulars of the enzyme reactions and the microenvironments, this work demonstrates how coupled enzymatic reactions in complex, heterogeneous media can be understood in terms of a mathematical model. PMID:24517887

  9. Citrate influences microbial Fe hydroxide reduction via a dissolution-disaggregation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Juliane; Klier, Christine; Schröder, Christian; Händel, Matthias; Bosch, Julian; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-08-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is partly dependent on Fe hydroxide particle size: nanosized Fe hydroxides greatly exceed the bioavailability of their counterparts larger than 1 μm. Citrate as a low molecular weight organic acid can likewise stabilize colloidal suspensions against aggregation by electrostatic repulsion but also increase Fe bioavailability by enhancing Fe hydroxide solubility. The aim of this study was to see whether adsorption of citrate onto surfaces of large ferrihydrite aggregates results in the formation of a stable colloidal suspension by electrostatic repulsion and how this effect influences microbial Fe reduction. Furthermore, we wanted to discriminate between citrate-mediated colloid stabilization out of larger aggregates and ferrihydrite dissolution and their influence on microbial Fe hydroxide reduction. Dissolution kinetics of ferrihydrite aggregates induced by different concentrations of citrate and humic acids were compared to microbial reduction kinetics with Geobacter sulfurreducens. Dynamic light scattering results showed the formation of a stable colloidal suspension and colloids with hydrodynamic diameters of 69 (±37) to 165 (± 65) nm for molar citrate:Fe ratios of 0.1 to 0.5 and partial dissolution of ferrihydrite at citrate:Fe ratios ⩾ 0.1. No dissolution or colloid stabilization was detected in the presence of humic acids. Adsorption of citrate, necessary for dissolution, reversed the surface charge and led to electrostatic repulsion between sub-aggregates of ferrihydrite and colloid stabilization when the citrate:Fe ratio was above a critical value (⩽ 0.1). Lower ratios resulted in stronger ferrihydrite aggregation instead of formation of a stable colloidal suspension, owing to neutralization of the positive surface charge. At the same time, microbial ferrihydrite reduction increased from 0.029 to 0.184 mM h-1 indicating that colloids stabilized by citrate addition enhanced microbial Fe reduction. Modelling of

  10. Inhibition of β-amyloid1-40 Peptide Aggregation and Neurotoxicity by Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Hoon; Kim, Young-Jin; Son, Il Hong

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, these aggregates have neurotoxic effects on cells, and thus, molecules that inhibit Aβ aggregate formation could be valuable therapeutics for AD. It is well known that aggregation of Aβ depends on its hydrophobicity, and thus, in order to increase the hydrophilicity of Aβ, we considered using citrate, an anionic surfactant with three carboxylic acid groups. We hypothesized that citrate could reduce hydrophobicity and increase hydrophilicity of Aβ1-40 molecules via hydrophilic/electrostatic interactions. We found that citrate significantly inhibited Aβ1-40 aggregation and significantly protected SH-SY5Y cell line against Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced neurotoxicity. In details, we examined the effects of citrate on Aβ1-40 aggregation and on Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced cytotoxicity, cell viability, and apoptosis. Th-T assays showed that citrate significantly inhibited Aβ1-40 aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner (Th-T intensity: from 91.3% in 0.01 mM citrate to 82.1% in 1.0 mM citrate vs. 100.0% in Aβ1-40 alone). In cytotoxicity and viability assays, citrate reduced the toxicity of Aβ1-40 in a concentration-dependent manner, in which the cytotoxicity decreased from 107.5 to 102.3% as compared with Aβ1-40 aggregates alone treated cells (127.3%) and the cell viability increased from 84.6 to 93.8% as compared with the Aβ1-40 aggregates alone treated cells (65.3%). Furthermore, Hoechst 33342 staining showed that citrate (1.0 mM) suppressed Aβ1-40 aggregates-induced apoptosis in the cells. This study suggests that citrate can inhibit Aβ1-40 aggregation and protect neurons from the apoptotic effects of Aβ1-40 aggregates. Accordingly, our findings suggest that citrate administration should be viewed as a novel neuroprotective strategy for AD. PMID:19885010

  11. Gallium-67 citrate imaging in underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, R.E.; Barkman, H.W. Jr.; Rom, W.N.; Taylor, A.T. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two underground coal workers with 27 or more years of coal dust exposure were studied with gallium-67 citrate (Ga-67) imaging. Radiographic evidence of coal workers indicates that pneumoconiosis (CWP) was present in 12 subjects. The Ga-67 scan was abnormal in 11 of 12 with, and 9 of 10 without, CWP. The Ga-67 uptake index was significantly correlated with total dust exposure (p less than 0.01) and approached significant correlation with the radiographic profusion of the nodules (0.10 greater than p greater than 0.05). There was no correlation between Ga-67 uptake and spirometric function, which was normal in this group of patients; furthermore, increased lung uptake of gallium did not indicate a poor prognosis in subjects no longer exposed to coal dust. While coal dust exposure may be associated with positive Ga-67 lung scan in coal miners with many years of coal dust exposure, the scan provided no information not already available from a careful exposure history and a chest radiograph. Since Ga-67 scanning is a relatively expensive procedure the authors would recommend that its use in subjects with asymptomatic CWP be limited to an investigative role and not be made part of a routine evaluation.

  12. Assembly of citrate gold nanoparticles on hydrophilic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Rosqvist, Emil; Ihalainen, Petri; Munter, Tony; Honkimaa, Anni; Marjomäki, Varpu; Albers, Willem M.; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as model surfaces were linked onto planar gold films thorough lipoic acid or disulfide groups. The molecules used were polyethylene glycol (EG-S-S), N-[tris-(hydroxymethyl)methyl]acrylamide polymers with and without lipoic acid (Lipa-pTHMMAA and pTHMMAA) and a lipoic acid triazine derivative (Lipa-MF). All the layers, but Lipa-MF with a primary amino group were hydroxyl terminated. The layers were characterized by contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy, AFM. Citrate stabilized nanoparticles, AuNPs in water and phosphate buffer were allowed to assemble on the layers for 10 min and the binding was followed in real-time with surface plasmon resonance, SPR. The SPR resonance curves were observed to shift to higher angles and become increasingly damped, while also the peaks strongly broaden when large nanoparticles assembled on the surface. Both the angular shift and the damping of the curve was largest for nanoparticles assembling on the EG-S-S monolayer. High amounts of particles were also assembled on the pTHMMAA layer without the lipoic acid group, but the damping of the curve was considerably lower with a more even distribution of the particles. Topographical images confirmed that the highest number of particles were assembled on the polyethylene glycol monolayer. By increasing the interaction time more particles could be assembled on the surface.

  13. Is sildenafil citrate affect endometrial receptivity? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Biyiksiz, Pelin Costur; Filiz, Serdar; Vural, Birol

    2011-10-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Sc) on expressions of β(3) integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is taking part in endometrium receptivity in implantation window period in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) performed rats. In this study, Wistar albino female rats were used and were divided into four groups as control, COH, Sc, and COH + Sc groups. They were sacrificed on the third, fourth, and fifth day of pregnancy, uteruses were resected, and uteri sections were stained with immunohistochemical method and evaluated. β(3) integrin immunoreactivity was most intensely observed in the endometrial glandular epithelium (GE) and stromal cells in the Sc group on the third day, whereas immunoreactivity was most intensely detected in the luminal epithelium (LE), GE, and stromal cells in the Sc group on the fourth day. VEGF immunoreactivity was most intensely observed in the endometrial LE in the Sc group on the third day, in the Sc and COH + Sc groups on the fourth day, and in the COH + Sc group on the fifth day. Our results indicated that Sc plays a role in both implantation and decidualization by affecting β(3) integrin and VEGF expressions in implantation window period in rats. PMID:21190420

  14. AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Schmelz, Stefan; Kadi, Nadia; McMahon, Stephen A; Song, Lijiang; Oves-Costales, Daniel; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; Johnson, Kenneth A; Carter, Lester G; Botting, Catherine H; White, Malcolm F; Challis, Gregory L; Naismith, James H

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial pathogens need to scavenge iron from their host for growth and proliferation during infection. They have evolved several strategies to do this, one being the biosynthesis and excretion of small, high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The biosynthesis of siderophores is an important area of study, not only for potential therapeutic intervention but also to illuminate new enzyme chemistries. Two general pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist: the well-characterized nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-dependent pathway and the NRPS-independent siderophore (NIS) pathway, which relies on a different family of sparsely investigated synthetases. Here we report structural and biochemical studies of AcsD from Pectobacterium (formerly Erwinia) chrysanthemi, an NIS synthetase involved in achromobactin biosynthesis. The structures of ATP and citrate complexes provide a mechanistic rationale for stereospecific formation of an enzyme-bound (3R)-citryladenylate, which reacts with L-serine to form a likely achromobactin precursor. AcsD is a unique acyladenylate-forming enzyme with a new fold and chemical catalysis strategy. PMID:19182782

  15. Self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate of tamoxifen citrate for enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kapse, Sonali V; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2012-06-15

    We disclose a self nanoprecipitating preconcentrate (SNP) of tamoxifen citrate (TMX), which forms TMX loaded polymeric nanoparticles, on dilution with aqueous media. SNP comprised TMX, polymer (Kollidon SR) and surfactant/s dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle. Binary surfactant mixtures of Aerosol OT (AOT) with Tween 80 revealed synergistic reduction in surface tension to enable both high entrapment efficiency (EE) and low particle size (PS). Synergism of the surfactants was confirmed by molecular interaction parameter(β(σ)). Combination of AOT and Tween 80 resulted in EE (∼85%) and PS (<250nm). Formation of TMX-KSR nanoparticles in situ was reproducible under most experimental conditions and exhibited pH independent behavior. Dilution volume (>80mL) influenced both PS and EE while dilution temperature influenced only PS. Marginal increase in size was evident at the end of 1h nevertheless was not of concern as TMX SNP exhibited near complete release in 1h. DSC and XRD studies revealed amorphous nature of TMX in nanoparticles. FTIR imaging confirmed uniform distribution of TMX in nanoparticles. ESEM and TEM revealed spherical nanoparticles. Biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc labeled TMX SNP in rats revealed no significant absorption however oral pharmacokinetics revealed enhanced oral bioavailability of TMX (165%) compared to TMX suspension. SNP presents a new in situ approach, for design of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:22414426

  16. Feline transfusion practice in South Africa: current status and practical solutions.

    PubMed

    Dippenaar, T

    1999-09-01

    Blood transfusion therapy is often under-utilised in feline practice in South Africa. However, it is a technique that can be safely and effectively introduced in practice. Cats have naturally occurring allo-antibodies against the blood type that they lack, which makes blood typing, or alternatively cross-matching, essential before transfusions. Feline blood donors must be carefully selected, be disease free and should be sedated before blood collection. The preferred anticoagulant for feline blood collection is citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine. Blood can either be administered intravenously or into the medullary cavity, with the transfusion rate depending on the cat's hydration status and cardiac function. Transfusion reactions can be immediate or delayed and they are classified as immunological or non-immunological. Indications, methods and techniques to do feline blood transfusions in a safe and economical way are highlighted. PMID:10852686

  17. Silicon Injection Granulomata: 67Ga Citrate Findings in Free Silicon Buttock Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Sara; Chun, Kwang; Benchekroun, Mohammed Taoudi; Akamnonu, Olisaemeka; Freeman, Leonard

    2016-06-01

    Ga citrate is frequently used in the workup of fever of unknown origin. Here, we report a case of avid Ga-citrate in bilateral gluteal regions of a patient with a history of free silicon injection buttock augmentation referred for suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis. CT findings were equivocal for inflammation/infection in the buttock region, and nuclear scintigraphy allowed for more definitive diagnosis. PMID:26953658

  18. Assessment of Multiplate platelet aggregometry using citrate, heparin or hirudin in Rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Greg; O'Donnell, Lisa; Hanbury, David B; Cline, J Mark; Caudell, David L

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance aggregometry (EIA) has gained popularity in clinical and research applications. Nonhuman primates are used to study disease and drug-related mechanisms that affect hemostasis, therefore establishing normal EIA parameters are necessary. The anticoagulants sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate and three agonists, ADP, ASPI, and collagen were evaluated. Whole blood from 12 adult male rhesus macaques was collected to evaluate anticoagulants, sodium heparin, hirudin and sodium citrate using three agonists (ADP, ASPI and collagen), on the Multiplate® 5.0 Analyzer. Platelet function was reported for three parameters: Area under the curve (AUC), aggregation, and aggregation velocity. There was a significant difference in mean AUC between citrate and heparin samples, and citrate and hirudin samples regardless of the agonist used. There was no difference in AUC between heparin and hirudin. ADP-activated samples showed an increase in impedance with hirudin samples compared to citrate. Furthermore, heparin and hirudin out-perform citrate as the anticoagulant for EIA in the macaque. Finally, this study demonstrates the utility of the Multiplate® system in this model and provides important insight into anticoagulant choice when using EIA. PMID:25549285

  19. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  20. Redox properties and activity of iron-citrate complexes: evidence for redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Adam, Fatima I; Bounds, Patricia L; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-04-20

    Iron in iron overload disease is present as non-transferrin-bound iron, consisting of iron, citrate, and albumin. We investigated the redox properties of iron citrate by electrochemistry, by the kinetics of its reaction with ascorbate, by ESR, and by analyzing the products of reactions of ascorbate with iron citrate complexes in the presence of H2O2 with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid as a reporter molecule for hydroxylation. We report -0.03 V < E°' > +0.01 V for the (Fe(3+)-cit/Fe(2+)-cit) couple. The first step in the reaction of iron citrate with ascorbate is the rapid formation of mixed complexes of iron with citrate and ascorbate, followed by slow reduction to Fe(2+)-citrate with k = ca. 3 M(-1) s(-1). The ascorbyl radical is formed by iron citrate oxidation of Hasc(-) with k = ca. 0.02 M(-1) s(-1); the majority of the ascorbyl radical formed is sequestered by complexation with iron and remains EPR silent. The hydroxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid driven by the Fenton reduction of iron citrate by ascorbate in the presence of H2O2 proceeds in three phases: the first phase, which is independent of the presence of O2, is revealed as a nonzero intercept that reflects the rapid reaction of accumulated Fe(2+) with H2O2; the intermediate oxygen-dependent phase fits a first-order accumulation of product with k = 5 M(-1) s(-1) under aerobic and k = 13 M(-1) s(-1) under anaerobic conditions; the slope of the final linear phase is ca. k = 5 × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Product yields under aerobic conditions are greater than predicted from the initial concentration of iron, but they are less than predicted for continuous redox cycling in the presence of excess ascorbate. The ongoing formation of hydroxylated product supports slow redox cycling by iron citrate. Thus, when H2O2 is available, iron-citrate complexes may contribute to pathophysiological manifestations of iron overload diseases. PMID:25654270

  1. Identification and Characterization of Re-Citrate Synthase in Syntrophus aciditrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh; McInerney, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate is usually synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via citrate, isocitrate, and 2-oxoglutarate. Genome analysis revealed that in Syntrophus aciditrophicus, the gene for Si-citrate synthase is lacking. An alternative pathway starting from the catabolic intermediate glutaconyl-CoA via 2-hydroxyglutarate could be excluded by genomic analysis. On the other hand, a putative gene (SYN_02536; NCBI gene accession no. CP000252.1) annotated as coding for isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthase has been shown to share 49% deduced amino acid sequence identity with the gene encoding Re-citrate synthase of Clostridium kluyveri. We cloned and overexpressed this gene in Escherichia coli together with the genes encoding the chaperone GroEL. The recombinant homotetrameric enzyme with a C-terminal Strep-tag (4 × 72,892 Da) was separated from GroEL on a Strep-Tactin column by incubation with ATP, K+, and Mg2+. The pure Re-citrate synthase used only acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate as the substrates. As isolated, the enzyme contained stoichiometric amounts of Ca2+ (0.9 Ca/73 kDa) but achieved higher specific activities in the presence of Mn2+ (1.2 U/mg) or Co2+ (2.0 U/mg). To determine the stereospecificity of the enzyme, [14C]citrate was enzymatically synthesized from oxaloacetate and [1-14C]acetyl-CoA; the subsequent cleavage by Si-citrate lyase yielded unlabeled acetate and labeled oxaloacetate, demonstrating that the enzyme is a Re-citrate synthase. The production of Re-citrate synthase by S. aciditrophicus grown axenically on crotonate was revealed by synthesis of [14C]citrate in a cell extract followed by stereochemical analysis. This result was supported by detection of transcripts of the Re-citrate synthase gene in axenic as well as in syntrophic cultures using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). PMID:23378508

  2. Identification and characterization of re-citrate synthase in Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh; McInerney, Michael J; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Glutamate is usually synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) via citrate, isocitrate, and 2-oxoglutarate. Genome analysis revealed that in Syntrophus aciditrophicus, the gene for Si-citrate synthase is lacking. An alternative pathway starting from the catabolic intermediate glutaconyl-CoA via 2-hydroxyglutarate could be excluded by genomic analysis. On the other hand, a putative gene (SYN_02536; NCBI gene accession no. CP000252.1) annotated as coding for isopropylmalate/citramalate/homocitrate synthase has been shown to share 49% deduced amino acid sequence identity with the gene encoding Re-citrate synthase of Clostridium kluyveri. We cloned and overexpressed this gene in Escherichia coli together with the genes encoding the chaperone GroEL. The recombinant homotetrameric enzyme with a C-terminal Strep-tag (4 × 72,892 Da) was separated from GroEL on a Strep-Tactin column by incubation with ATP, K(+), and Mg(2+). The pure Re-citrate synthase used only acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate as the substrates. As isolated, the enzyme contained stoichiometric amounts of Ca(2+) (0.9 Ca/73 kDa) but achieved higher specific activities in the presence of Mn(2+) (1.2 U/mg) or Co(2+) (2.0 U/mg). To determine the stereospecificity of the enzyme, [(14)C]citrate was enzymatically synthesized from oxaloacetate and [1-(14)C]acetyl-CoA; the subsequent cleavage by Si-citrate lyase yielded unlabeled acetate and labeled oxaloacetate, demonstrating that the enzyme is a Re-citrate synthase. The production of Re-citrate synthase by S. aciditrophicus grown axenically on crotonate was revealed by synthesis of [(14)C]citrate in a cell extract followed by stereochemical analysis. This result was supported by detection of transcripts of the Re-citrate synthase gene in axenic as well as in syntrophic cultures using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). PMID:23378508

  3. Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate

    PubMed Central

    DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. Results The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

  4. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, J-i; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  5. ATP citrate lyase knockdown impacts cancer stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hanai, J-I; Doro, N; Seth, P; Sukhatme, V P

    2013-01-01

    ATP citrate lyase (ACL) knockdown (KD) causes tumor suppression and induces differentiation. We have previously reported that ACL KD reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells. Because EMT is often associated with processes that induce stemness, we hypothesized that ACL KD impacts cancer stem cells. By assessing tumorsphere formation and expression of stem cell markers, we showed this to be the case in A549 cells, which harbor a Ras mutation, and in two other non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, H1975 and H1650, driven by activating EGFR mutations. Inducible ACL KD had the same effect as stable ACL KD. Similar effects were noted in another well-characterized Ras-induced mammary model system (HMLER). Moreover, treatment with hydroxycitrate phenocopied the effects of ACL KD, suggesting that the enzymatic activity of ACL was critical. Indeed, acetate treatment reversed the ACL KD phenotype. Having previously established that ACL KD impacts signaling through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, not the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and that EMT can be reversed by PI3K inhibitors, we were surprised to find that stemness in these systems was maintained through Ras-MAPK signaling, and not via PI3K signaling. Snail is a downstream transcription factor impacted by Ras-MAPK signaling and known to promote EMT and stemness. We found that snail expression was reduced by ACL KD. In tumorigenic HMLER cells, ACL overexpression increased snail expression and stemness, both of which were reduced by ACL KD. Furthermore, ACL could not initiate either tumorigenesis or stemness by itself. ACL and snail proteins interacted and ACL expression regulated the transcriptional activity of snail. Finally, ACL KD counteracted stem cell characteristics induced in diverse cell systems driven by activation of pathways outside of Ras-MAPK signaling. Our findings unveil a novel aspect of ACL function, namely its impact on cancer

  6. Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Leached stopper components found in parenteral solutions produced by several manufacturers were identified and quantitated. Their toxicity potential was determined by comparing the types and quantities of the leached components with known toxicity levels and/or harmful effects. Toxicity potentials for benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, cyclohexanone, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and tetrachloroethylene are listed. Breakdown products of dextrose (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), which may also have harmful effects, were quantitated.

  7. Structural basis for the extended substrate spectrum of AmpC BER and structure-guided discovery of the inhibition activity of citrate against the class C β-lactamases AmpC BER and CMY-10.

    PubMed

    Na, Jung Hyun; Cha, Sun Shin

    2016-08-01

    AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C β-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C β-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C β-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C β-lactamases, and also suggest that the citrate scaffold is recognized by the active sites of class C β-lactamases. PMID:27487828

  8. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    PubMed

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P < 0.01) in litters with 16 TB piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and

  9. Establishment of simultaneous treatment model with citrate for preventing nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashizawa, Naoki; Shimo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Koji; Taniguchi, Tetsuya; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Nagata, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    As a precedent study for elucidating the mechanism of possible urinary bladder carcinogenesis due to xanthine crystals induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, we have determined the experimental conditions suitable for the 52-week simultaneous treatment with citrate in F344 rats. Simultaneous treatment with citrate and FYX-051 produced both increased urinary citrate excretion and suppression of urinary xanthine deposition at around 4 hours after a single dosing, but these effects disappeared 2 hours later, indicating a lack of the durability of citrate effects. Next, we carried out a 7-day simultaneous treatment study by two daily treatments, that is, FYX-051 (6 mg/kg) and citrate (2,000 mg/kg), followed by citrate-alone treatment, under the conditions of selected dosing intervals, the second dose of citrate, and dosing volume. As a result, the dosing interval of citrate was found to be optimal at 4 hours, but not at 3 or 5 hours, because this treatment completely inhibited intrarenal xanthine deposition. The dose of citrate for the second treatment and the dosing volume were found to be sufficient at 1,500 mg/kg and 10 mL/kg, respectively. Subsequently, a 4-week study by simultaneous treatment at 3 mg/kg of FYX-051 and citrate (2,000 mg/kg) + citrate (1,500 mg/kg), under the improved conditions, revealed that renal lesions could be drastically inhibited. Thus, the present study demonstrated that the interval of two citrate treatments is pivotal and indicated that the improved model would be useful for the mechanistic study of FYX-051-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis because of an easier treatment method than our previous model. PMID:21105859

  10. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Broncová, Gabriela; Shishkanova, Tatiana V.; Krondak, Martin; Volf, Radko; Král, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements with citrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal background electrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodes described here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with a low detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid and acetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification of citrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes are presented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillary electrophoresis.

  11. In vitro evaluation of biodegradable epsilon-caprolactone-co-D, L-lactide/silica xerogel composites containing toremifene citrate.

    PubMed

    Ahola, M; Rich, J; Kortesuo, P; Kiesvaara, J; Seppälä, J; Yli-Urpo, A

    1999-04-30

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) polymers were blended with toremifene citrate or with toremifene citrate impregnated silica xerogel in order to develop a controlled release formulation. The copolymers were synthesized by bulk polymerization and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, size exclusion chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The in vitro release of toremifene citrate, an antiestrogenic compound, and silica was carried out in simulated body fluid (pH 7.4) containing 0.5 wt% sodium dodecylsulphate at 34 degrees C. The in vitro release studies indicate that the release flux of toremifene citrate increases with increasing weight fraction of caprolactone in the copolymer. Silica xerogel had a minor enhancing effect on the release rate of toremifene citrate. Copolymers containing larger amounts of D,L-lactide (PLA-CL20 and PLA-CL40 copolymers) were not suitable matrices for the delivery of toremifene citrate in a controlled manner because of the burst effect. The fraction of toremifene citrate released from PLA-CL80 matrix increased with the increasing loading of toremifene citrate. The results of the study indicate that the in vitro release of toremifene citrate can be adjusted by varying the polymer composition and also the initial drug loading. PMID:10370214

  12. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  13. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. PMID:27287105

  14. Efficacy of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate in the treatment of oral paraquat intoxication.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, P; Friedman, P A; Lovejoy, F H

    1985-02-01

    The binding capacity of activated charcoal for paraquat was evaluated in vitro and in vivo and compared with Fuller's earth. In vitro activated charcoal absorbs paraquat and is as effective as Fuller's earth. Activated charcoal's absorbing capacity for paraquat is increased when it is suspended in magnesium citrate and is maximal at pH 7.8. Paraquat (200 mg/kg) administered orally to male mice, followed 30 minutes later by activated charcoal, Fuller's earth (4 gm/kg), and magnesium citrate (0.01 cc/gm) resulted in a survival rate of 31% in the controls, 63% in the activated charcoal and Fuller's earth groups, and 69% in the magnesium citrate group (P values not significant). When activated charcoal was administered concomitantly with magnesium citrate, the survival rate was improved significantly to 94% (P less than 0.01). The efficacy and greater availability of activated charcoal and magnesium citrate make these materials the treatment of choice for gastrointestinal decontamination in oral paraquat poisoning. PMID:3970396

  15. Artificial citrate operon confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to diverse fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B; Macwan, Silviya R; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200-1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  16. The FRD3 citrate effluxer promotes iron nutrition between symplastically disconnected tissues throughout Arabidopsis development.

    PubMed

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  17. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  18. Radiolabeled porphyrin versus gallium-67 citrate for the detection of human melanoma in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Maric, N.; Chan, S. Ming; Hoffer, P.B.; Duray, P.

    1987-01-01

    We performed the biodistribution and imaging studies of /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl) porphine, (T4NMPYP), and compared it to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate in athymic mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft. The biodistribution results of both /sup 111/In and /sup 67/Ga labeled T4NMPYP (3, 6, 24, and 48 hours) were similar but differed from that of /sup 67/Ga citrate (48 hours). The optimum tumor uptake of both radiolabeled porphyrins was at 6 hours postinjection and was lower than the tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga citrate at 48 hours postinjection. Kidney was the only organ showing higher uptake of radiolabeled porphyrin compared to that of /sup 67/Ga citrate. The imaging studies performed with /sup 111/In T4NMPYP and /sup 67/Ga citrate correspond to the biodistribution results. Osteomyelitis present in one mouse showed good localization of /sup 111/In T4NMPYP. 15 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Ferric Citrate Hydrate as a Phosphate Binder and Risk of Aluminum Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals drinking tap water, oral citrate administration increased aluminum absorption and, over a 4-week period, increased aluminum deposition in brain and bone by about 2- and 20-fold, respectively. Renal excretion of aluminum is impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby increasing the risk of toxicity. Based on human and animal studies it can be surmised that patients with CKD who are treated with ferric citrate hydrate to control hyperphosphatemia are likely to experience enhanced absorption of aluminum from food and drinking water, thereby increasing the risk of aluminum overload and toxicity. PMID:25341358

  20. Study on the Antimicrobial Properties of Citrate-Based Biodegradable Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lee-Chun; Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Nguyen, Kytai Truong; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Citrate-based polymers possess unique advantages for various biomedical applications since citric acid is a natural metabolism product, which is biocompatible and antimicrobial. In polymer synthesis, citric acid also provides multiple functional groups to control the crosslinking of polymers and active binding sites for further conjugation of biomolecules. Our group recently developed a number of citrate-based polymers for various biomedical applications by taking advantage of their controllable chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics. In this study, various citric acid derived biodegradable polymers were synthesized and investigated for their physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Results indicate that citric acid derived polymers reduced bacterial proliferation to different degrees based on their chemical composition. Among the studied polymers, poly(octamethylene citrate) showed ~70–80% suppression to microbe proliferation, owing to its relatively higher ratio of citric acid contents. Crosslinked urethane-doped polyester elastomers and biodegradable photoluminescent polymers also exhibited significant bacteria reduction of ~20 and ~50% for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Thus, the intrinsic antibacterial properties in citrate-based polymers enable them to inhibit bacteria growth without incorporation of antibiotics, silver nanoparticles, and other traditional bacteria-killing agents suggesting that the citrate-based polymers are unique beneficial materials for wound dressing, tissue engineering, and other potential medical applications where antimicrobial property is desired. PMID:25023605

  1. Clomiphene Citrate Effectively Increases Testosterone in Obese, Young, Hypogonadal Men

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level <350 ng/dl were given 25 mg CC on alternate days. Out of 18 patients found to have low T, 11 were analyzed. Baseline serum T, LH, FSH, weight and BMI were compared at baseline and after 3 months of CC treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (p<0.0001) after 3 months of CC treatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed. PMID:26844009

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of mineralization on BSA coated citrate capped gold nanoparticles used as a model surface for membrane scaling in RO wastewater desalination.

    PubMed

    Dahdal, Y N; Pipich, V; Rapaport, H; Oren, Y; Kasher, R; Schwahn, D

    2014-12-23

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) coated on citrate capped gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) was exposed to a simulated wastewater effluent (SSE) in order to study the mineralization and thereby mimic scaling at biofouled membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) wastewater desalination plants. RO is a leading technology of achieving freshwater quality as it has the capability of removing both dissolved inorganic salts and organic contaminants from tertiary wastewater effluents. The aim was to better understand one of the major problems facing this technology which is fouling of the membranes, mainly biofouling and scaling by calcium phosphate. The experiments were performed using the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique. The nanoparticles, GNPs, stabilized by the citrate groups showed 30 Å large particles having a homogeneous distribution of gold and citrate with a gold volume fraction of the order of 1%. On the average two BSA monomers are grafted at 2.4 GNPs. The exposed BSA-GNPs to SSE solution led to immediate mineralization of stable composite particles of the order of 0.2 μm diameter and a mineral volume fraction between 50% and 80%. The volume fraction of the mineral was of the order of 10(-5), which is roughly 3 times larger but an order of magnitude smaller than the maximum possible contents of respectively calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate in the SSE solution. Considering the extreme low solubility product of calcium phosphate, we suggest total calcium phosphate and partially (5-10%) calcium carbonate formation in the presence of BSA-GNPs. PMID:25458085

  3. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-09-23

    Citrate synthase from the thermophilic euryarchaeon T. acidophilum fused to a hexahistidine tag was purified and biochemically characterized. The structure of the unliganded enzyme at 2.2 Å resolution contains tail–active site contacts in half of the active sites. Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS.

  4. The optimum Ga-67-citrate gamma camera imaging quality factors as first calculated and shown by the Taguchi's analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da Ming; Chang, Pai Jung; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2013-01-01

    In this work gallium-67 ((67)Ga) gamma camera imaging quality was optimized using the Taguchi's analysis and a planar phantom. The acrylic planar phantom was LASER-cut to form groups of slits 1mm wide and 5mm deep, to determine the spatial resolution and contrast ratio that could be achieved in a (67)Ga citrate nuclear medicine examination. The (67)Ga-citrate solution was injected into the slits to form an active radioactive line source which was placed between regular acrylic plates for optimization. Then, nine combinations of four operating factors: L9 (3((4)), of the gamma camera imaging system were used and followed the Taguchi's analysis. The four operating factors were: a) the type of collimator in front of the NaI(Tl) detector, b) the region of interest of (67)Ga gamma rays spectrum, c) the scanning speed of NaI(Tl) detector head and d) the activity of (67)Ga. The original judged grade of the planar phantom image quality was increased 36% and factors a) and b) were confirmed to dominate. The cross interaction among factors was also discussed. Our results showed that the optimal factor settings of the gamma camera imaging system were verified by performing a routine nuclear medicine examination in ten cases. Nine cases showed the same optimal settings as estimated by three highly trained radio-diagnostic physicians. Additionally, the optimal setting yielded clearer images with greater contrast than did the conventional settings. In conclusion, this work suggests for practical use an optimized process for determining both the spatial resolution and the contrast ratio of a gamma camera imaging system using Taguchi's optimal analysis and a planar phantom. The Taguchi's method is most effective in targeting a single quality characteristic but can also be extended to satisfy multiple requirements under specific conditions by revising the definition of signal to noise ratio. PMID:23529390

  5. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY: TREATMENT IS WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE OR CALCIUM CITRATE?

    PubMed Central

    BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; RODRIGUES, Arieli Luz; MENDES, Silvana Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background : Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, can cause serious nutritional complications arising from poor absorption of essential nutrients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one such complications that leads to increased parathyroid hormone levels due to a decrease in calcium and vitamin D, which may compromise bone health. Aim : To compare calcium carbonate and calcium citrate in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Method : Patients were selected on the basis of their abnormal biochemical test and treatment was randomly done with citrate or calcium carbonate. Results : After 60 days of supplementation, biochemical tests were repeated, showing improvement in both groups. Conclusion : Supplementation with calcium (citrate or carbonate) and vitamin D is recommended after surgery for prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26537273

  6. [Fenibut and its citrate prevent psychoneurological disorders caused by chronic stress (paradoxical sleep deprivation)].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Borodkina, L E; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2012-01-01

    The antistress protective action of two structural analogs of GABA, fenibut and its salt with citric acid (fenibut citrate, citrocard, RGPU-147), has been studied using a model of chronic stress caused by seven-fold 24-h deprivation of paradoxical sleep phase at an interval of 24 h between the deprivations. It is established that fenibut and fenibut citrate produce a protective action by (i) reducing the intensity of emotional disorders in the open-field test and elevated plus maze test, (ii) decreasing cognitive disorders in the tests for conditioned avoidance response and extrapolatory deliverance; and (iii) limiting stress reaction due to a decrease in the intensity of adrenal hypertrophy, thymus involution, and stomach mucous membrane ulceration. Fenibut citrate surpasses fenibut in the intensity of antistress protective action. PMID:22891435

  7. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  8. The routine measurement of platelet size using sodium citrate alone as the anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Bath, P M

    1993-10-18

    Mean platelet volume (MPV), a measure of platelet size, is becoming recognised as an important marker of platelet function. However, platelets swell in edetic acid (EDTA), the standard haematology anticoagulant, in a time-dependent manner making such measurements potentially unreliable. The effect of incubation time on MPV, and platelet distribution width (PDW), as measured in EDTA, low (1:9 volume/volume with blood) or high (1:4 v/v with blood) concentration sodium citrate was studied. MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate did not change with time in contrast to MPV measured in either low concentration sodium citrate or EDTA which both increased in an inverse exponential fashion. MPV and PDW, measured in high concentration sodium citrate, had similar within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variation as other platelet, red cell and white cell haematology variables measured in EDTA: MPV 1.4%, 2.1%; PDW 1.4%, 1.5%; MCV 0.4%, 0.7%; PC 3.1%, 6.1%; WCC 1.5%, 7.3%; Hb 2.1%, 2.4% respectively. MPV measured in EDTA and corrected for incubation time approximated to, but was higher than, the MPV measured in high concentration sodium citrate. PDW correlated inversely with platelet count (r = -0.415, 2p < 0.001). MPV may be measured in sodium citrate (at 1:4 v/v with blood) alone with a better accuracy and reproducibility than similar measurements made in EDTA. Furthermore, such measurements are not influenced by incubation time, unlike for EDTA. PMID:8115997

  9. Comparison of Elaeagnus angustifolia Extract and Sildenafil Citrate on Female Orgasmic Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zeinalzadeh, Sanaz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background Orgasmic disorder can create a feeling of deprivation and failure and provide mental problems, incompatibility and marital discord. This study aimed to compare the effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia flower extract and sildenafil citrate on female orgasmic disorder in women in 2013. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 125 women between 18-40 years old who suffered from orgasmic disorder were divided into three E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate and control groups. The data were gathered using Female Sexual Function Index and through measurement of TSH and prolactin. The first intervention group had to consume 4.5 gr E. angustifolia extract in two divided doses for 35 days and the second one had to use 50 mg sildenafil citrate tablets for 4 weeks one hour before their sexual relationship. However, the control group had to consume the placebo. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Bonferroni posthoc test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The frequency of orgasmic disorder before the intervention was 41.5%, 40.5%, and 57.1% in E. angustifolia, sildenafil citrate, and control groups, respectively (p=0.23). However, these measures were respectively 29.3%, 16.7%, and 50% after the intervention (p=0.004). A significant difference between the two groups regarding sexual satisfaction after the intervention (p=0.003) compared to the beginning of the study (p=0.356). Besides, the highest reduction of changes after the intervention (58.82%) was observed in the sildenafil citrate group. Conclusion Both E. angustifolia extract and sildenafil citrate were effective in reduction of the frequency of orgasmic disorder in women. PMID:25473627

  10. Modulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization by citrate through selective binding to atomic steps

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, S R; Wierzbicki, A; Salter, E A; Zepeda, S; Orme, C A; Hoyer, J R; Nancollas, G H; Cody, A M; De Yoreo, J J

    2004-10-19

    The majority of human kidney stones are composed primarily of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Thus, determining the molecular mechanisms by which urinary constituents modulate calcium oxalate crystallization is crucial for understanding and controlling urolithiassis in humans. A comprehensive molecular-scale view of COM shape modification by citrate, a common urinary constituent, obtained through a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling is now presented. We show that citrate strongly influences the growth morphology and kinetics on the (-101) face but has much lower effect on the (010) face. Moreover, binding energy calculations show that the strength of the citrate-COM interaction is much greater at steps than on terraces and is highly step-specific. The maximum binding energy, -166.5 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, occurs for the [101] step on the (-101) face. In contrast, the value is only -56.9 kJ {center_dot} mol-1 for the [012] step on the (010) face. The binding energies on the (-101) and (010) terraces are also much smaller, -65.4 and -48.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} respectively. All other binding energies lie between these extremes. This high selectivity leads to preferential binding of citrate to the acute [101] atomic steps on the (-101) face. The strong citrate-step interactions on this face leads to pinning of all steps, but the anisotropy in interaction strength results in anisotropic reductions in step kinetics. These anisotropic changes in step kinetics are, in turn, responsible for changes in the shape of macroscopic COM crystals. Thus, the molecular scale growth morphology and the bulk crystal habit in the presence of citrate are similar, and the predictions of molecular simulations are fully consistent with the experimental observations.

  11. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that

  12. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate-cyclodextrin nanosuspension complexes for use in metered-dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Phetmung, Hirihattaya; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-10-15

    Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate was complexed with α-, hydroxypropyl-β- and γ-cyclodextrin (α-CD, HP-β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to enhance its water solubility. The complexes of sildenafil citrate monohydrate with all types of CDs were characterized by phase solubility diagrams, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and dielectric constants. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate complexed with CDs was developed as nanosuspensions for use in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations were prepared by a bottom-up process using dried ethanol as a solvent and HFA-134a as an antisolvent and propellant in order to form nanosuspensions. A 3×3 factorial design was applied for the contents of the dried ethanol and HFA-134a propellant. The phase solubility profiles of the sildenafil and cyclodextrins were described as AL type with a mole ratio 1:1. The piperazine moiety of sildenafil formed an inclusion in the cavity of the CDs. The particle diameters of the sildenafil citrate monohydrate suspensions in pMDIs were all within a nanosuspension size range. An assay of the sildenafil content showed that the formation of complexes with CDs was close to 100%. In the case of the formulations with CDs, the emitted doses varied within 97.4±10.8%, the fine particle fractions (FPFs) were in a range of 45-81%, the fine particle dose (FPD) was 12.6±2.0 μg and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were 1.86±0.41 μm. In contrast, the formulations without CDs produced a low emitted dose of sildenafil (<60%). Therefore, only sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations containing CDs were suitable for use as aerosols. PMID:23876498

  13. Morphology control of hydroxyapatite microcrystals: Synergistic effects of citrate and CTAB.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-05-01

    Using hydrothermal treatment and with the synergistic regulating effects of citrate and CTAB, various 3D hierarchical superstructure of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microcrystals were synthesized by simply adjusting the Ct/CTAB ratio and calcium-citrate complex (CC) morphology. The resulting superstructure was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc. With the shape transformation of CC from sphere-like colloid, nano-needle to lamellar-like particles, the final products were hollow spheres, bunched-like microrods and nanorod clusters, respectively. A possible mechanism for the formation of HAp hierarchical microstructure was proposed. PMID:26952410

  14. [Automatic platelets numbering with citrate as anticoagulant: is the result valid?].

    PubMed

    Védy, Serge; Boom, Bruno; Perez, Pascale; Schillinger, Sarah; Ragot, Céline; Bakkouch, Sylvie; Puyhardy, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Platelets count is usually realised on EDTA anticoagulant. This one is sometimes able to generate platelets agregats. That is the reason why the first thing to do encountering thrombopenia is to check for agregats on blood thin smear. In case of positive result, a control can be asked using another anticoagulant. The most used is sodium citrate. A correction has to be applied to the automat result because blood is diluted in anticoagulant. But no one says those haematological automats are exact on citrate as they are on EDTA. That's what we wanted to check. PMID:21896411

  15. Interfacial properties of asymmetrically functionalized citrate-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles related to molecular adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Won

    A detailed understanding of the conformation of adsorbed molecules and regional surface functionalization of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is challenging for nanometer-size (10 -- 100 m) materials and necessary for fundamental studies and applications. The studies are motivated by open questions related to surface chemistry of noble MNPs. Although citrate-stabilized gold NPs (AuNPs) have been widely used, the citrate layer is not well-understood. Thiols have been suggested to displace citrate anions adsorbed on metal surfaces due to strong gold-sulfur interaction, but quantitative experimental evidence of the extent of ligand-exchange has not been reported. Whereas asymmetrically-functionalized AuNPs are utilized for nanoparticle assembly due to the interparticle coupling of localized surface plasmons, the interface between asymmetric nanoparticles in single assemblies has not been studied. Noble MNPs with sizes smaller than citrate-stabilized AuNPs also need to be surface-modified for stability in water for biological applications. The dissertation presents investigations of the chemical and physical properties of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) related to ligand adsorption at the metal surface. Firstly, self-assembled layers of citrate adsorbed on AuNP (111), (110), and (100) surfaces were proposed, based on geometric considerations and spectroscopic investigations by infrared (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption characteristics of citrate are the unique structure of adsorbed species, intermolecular interactions through hydrogen bonds and van der Waals attractions, bilayer formation, surface coverage, nanoparticle-stabilization role, and chirality. Secondly, IR and XPS studies showed coadsorption of thiolate on the surface of citrate-stabilized AuNPs. Steric, chelating effects and intermolecular interactions are the origins of the strong adsorption of citrate on AuNP surfaces. Surface coverage was determined from XPS analyses. Thirdly, an

  16. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    PubMed

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I - newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II - clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III - newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group I treated with clomiphene citrate in comparison to Group II clomiphene citrate resistant cases treated with letrozole. The rate of ovulation was higher in Group I than that of Group III treated with letrozole, but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically

  17. A tri-serine tri-lactone scaffold for the quantification of citrate in urine.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, Ali; Caglayan, Mehmet Gokhan; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-01-31

    Tri-serine tri-lactone based C3 symmetry fluorescent sensors were synthesized. Citrate is shown to bind to sensors, while displaying an increase in fluorescence intensity for the sensor with thiourea and a quenching for the sensor with sulfonamide. Information-rich responses of the sensors enable us to discriminate structurally similar anions, including mono-, di- and tri-carboxylates with 100% correct classification. A simple two-sensor array enables the determination of the concentration of citrate in urine without any sample preparation with high accuracy (error < 2%). PMID:26669653

  18. The influence of 1-butanol and trisodium citrate ion on morphology and chemical properties of chitosan-based microcapsules during rigidification by alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Salaün, Fabien; Campagne, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Linseed oil which has various biomedical applications was encapsulated by chitosan (Chi)-based microcapsules in the development of a suitable carrier. Oil droplets formed in oil-in-water emulsion using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as emulsifier was stabilized by Chi, and microcapsules with multilayers were formed by alternate additions of SDS and Chi solutions in an emulsion through electrostatic interaction. No chemical cross-linker was used in the study and the multilayer shell membrane was formed by ionic gelation using Chi and SDS. The rigidification of the shell membrane of microcapsules was achieved by alkali treatment in the presence of a small amount of 1-butanol to reduce aggregation. A trisodium citrate solution was used to stabilize the charge of microcapsules by ionic cross-linking. Effects of butanol during alkali treatment and citrate in post alkali treatment were monitored in terms of morphology and the chemical properties of microcapsules. Various characterization techniques revealed that the aggregation was decreased and surface roughness was increased with layer formation. PMID:25474188

  19. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer. PMID:23648093

  20. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters encoded by distinct Al tolerance genes function independently in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) -activated malate and citrate exudation from roots plays an important role in conferring Al tolerance to many plant species. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of AtMATE, the gene encoding an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that functions in Arabid...

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Re-Citrate Synthase in Dehalococcoides Strain CBDB1▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Paul, Steffanie; Khodaverdi, Viola; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Kretzschmar, Utta; Adrian, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    The genome annotations of all sequenced Dehalococcoides strains lack a citrate synthase, although physiological experiments have indicated that such an activity should be encoded. We here report that a Re face-specific citrate synthase is synthesized by Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1 and that this function is encoded by the gene cbdbA1708 (NCBI accession number CAI83711), previously annotated as encoding homocitrate synthase. Gene cbdbA1708 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified. The enzyme catalyzed the condensation of oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to citrate. The protein did not have homocitrate synthase activity and was inhibited by citrate, and Mn2+ was needed for full activity. The stereospecificity of the heterologously expressed citrate synthase was determined by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESI LC/MS). Citrate was synthesized from [2-13C]acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate by the Dehalococcoides recombinant citrate synthase and then converted to acetate and malate by commercial citrate lyase plus malate dehydrogenase. The formation of unlabeled acetate and 13C-labeled malate proved the Re face-specific activity of the enzyme. Shotgun proteome analyses of cell extracts of strain CBDB1 demonstrated that cbdbA1708 is expressed in strain CBDB1. PMID:21784924

  2. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). This review covers the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'')....

  3. 77 FR 33399 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Administrative Review, 77 FR 1455 (January 10, 2012). \\10\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the... Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011) (``Initiation''). \\3\\ See Letter...

  4. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Republic of China: Final Results of the First Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  5. Bright luminescence of Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutants reveals a connection between citrate and the Gac/Csr regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Whistler, Cheryl; Stabb, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    The Gac/Csr regulatory system is conserved throughout the γ-proteobacteria and controls key pathways in central carbon metabolism, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and virulence in important plant and animal pathogens. Here we show that elevated intracellular citrate levels in a Vibrio fischeri aconitase mutant correlate with activation of the Gac/Csr cascade and induction of bright luminescence. Spontaneous or directed mutations in the gene that encodes citrate synthase reversed the bright luminescence of aconitase mutants, eliminated their citrate accumulation and reversed their elevated expression of CsrB. Our data elucidate a correlative link between central metabolic and regulatory pathways, and they suggest that the Gac system senses a blockage at the aconitase step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either through elevated citrate levels or a secondary metabolic effect of citrate accumulation, and responds by modulating carbon flow and various functions associated with host colonization, including bioluminescence. PMID:25402589

  6. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Imani, Farnad; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ziaeefard, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases and the knee is the most commonly affected joint. Intra-articular prolotherapy is being utilized in acute and chronic pain management setting. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three methods of intra-articular knee joint therapies with erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency. Materials and Methods: After approval by the Ethics Committee and explaining the therapeutic method to volunteers, 70 patients who were suffering from primary knee osteoarthrosis went through one of the treatment methods (erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency). The study was double-blind randomized clinical trial performed from December 2012 to July 2013. Patients’ pain level was assessed through the visual analog pain scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometric method. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction was assessed before and after different treatment methods in weeks 2, 4, and 12. For analysis, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA were utilized. Results: The demographic results among the three groups did not indicate any statistical difference. The mean VAS in erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 3.15 ± 1.08, 3.15 ± 1.08, and 3.5 ± 1.23, respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Knee joint ROM in the erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 124 ± 1.50, 124 ± 1.4, and 123 ± 1.53 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Satisfaction score in the 12th week in erythropoietin group was extremely satisfied 15%, satisfied 55%, and moderately satisfied 30%, (P = 0.005). No specific side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin was more effective in terms of pain level reduction and ROM improvement compared with dextrose and pulsed radiofrequency. PMID:25422652

  7. Recognition of silver nanoparticles surface-adsorbed citrate anions by macrocyclic polyammonium cations: a spectrophotometric approach to study aggregation kinetics and evaluation of association constant.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Rupasree; Purkayastha, Atanu; Debnath, Diptanu; Misra, Tarun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In this report, we have studied the recognition of citrate anions adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles (cit-Ag-NPs), by macrocyclic polyammonium cations (MCPACs): Me6 [14]ane-N4 H8 (4+) (Tet-A/Tet-B cations) and [32]ane-N8 H16 (8+) , which are well reputed anion recognizers and are treated as to mimic of biological polyamines. The study was monitored on ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy by performing a titration of the aqueous dispersion of the cit-Ag-NPs by the aqueous solution of MCPACs. The ultraviolet-visible time-scan plots over the reduction of the absorption band of surface plasmon resonance of cit-Ag-NPs at 390 nm are well fitted with fourth-order polynomial equation and are employed to determine the initial aggregation rate constants. It has been stated that the aggregation is the result in electrostatic attraction followed by H-bond formation between the surface-adsorbed citrate anions and added MCPACs. The atomic force microscopy results have evidenced aggregation of cit-Ag-NPs in presence of MCPACs. The evaluated H-bonded association constant (Kasso ) using Benesi-Hildebrand method reveals that [32]ane-N8 H16 (8+) cations form stronger association complex, as expected, with the citrate anions than the Me6 [14]ane-N4 H8 (4+) cations. The study would thus provide the insight of molecular interactions involved in nanoparticle surface-adsorbed anions with biological polyamines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146323

  8. Does Potassium Citrate Medical Therapy Increase the Risk of Calcium Phosphate Stone Formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitao, Victor; Haleblian, George E.; Robinson, Marnie R.; Pierre, Sean A.; Sur, Roger L.; Preminger, Glenn M.

    2007-04-01

    Potassium citrate has been extensively used in the treatment of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Recent evidence suggests that it may contribute to increasing urinary pH and, as such, increase the risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. We performed a retrospective review of our patients to further investigate this phenomenon.

  9. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  10. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  11. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  12. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... suspension. 520.763c Section 520.763c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... piperazine citrate). (b) Sponsor. See 000010 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) NAS/NRC status....

  13. Direct effect of vanadium on citrate uptake by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV).

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Akino, Hironobu; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenichiro

    2002-07-01

    Vanadium pentoxide is used as a catalyst and a ferrovanadium alloy ingredient in automotive steels and in jet engines and airframes. In addition, vanadium is found in fuel oils. Thus, occupational exposures to vanadium pentoxide and trioxide may occur during the cleaning of oil-fired ship boilers, and from oil-fired power station boilers. Occupational exposure to vanadium pentoxide induces green tongue, asthmatic symptoms and albuminuria with cast. Urinary citrate is freely filtered at the glomerulus, and its reabsorption in the proximal tubule is the major determinant of the rate of renal excretion. In this study, we exposed rat renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) to vanadium pentoxide and examined their citrate uptake characteristics. The preincubation of BBMV with 1 mM V2O5 for 8 hours significantly inhibited citrate uptake compared with that of BBMV without V2O5, preincubation. These findings indicate that the preincubation of BBMV with vanadium pentoxide results in a time-dependent inhibition of citrate uptake by BBMV. These findings might contribute to nephrotoxicity in vanadium exposure. PMID:12141377

  14. Beliefs and social norms about sildenafil citrate (Viagra) misuse and perceived consequences among Houstonian teenage males.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ronald J; Johnson, Regina J; Kelder, Steve; Meshack, Angela F; Jefferson, Troy

    2007-09-01

    In the current study, a qualitative approach was used to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) consumption, initiation, and perceived consequences. Focus groups were conducted with 43 young men aged 18 and 19 years who identified themselves as lifetime sildenafil citrate users. The majority of focus group participants believed that "curiosity" and "peer pressure" contributed to their initial use. Most revealed that they first heard about sildenafil citrate from television advertisements, family members, friends, or sporting events, and they were able to obtain the drug from their friends and family members or they stole it from their father or grandfather. These findings may highlight the relative importance of exposure to prescription drug messages among those to whom the message is not specifically targeted, that is, young men. It is possible that the sildenafil citrate television messages are recalled by not only older male audiences but also by teenagers and younger men, producing similar cognitive processing and curiosity in both age cohorts. PMID:19482799

  15. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in men with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zesiewicz, T A; Helal, M; Hauser, R A

    2000-03-01

    Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is a phosphodiesterase type V inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction. Ten men with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction were prescribed 50-100 mg sildenafil citrate to use in eight sexual encounters over a 2-month period. Patients underwent Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) evaluations and completed a Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and a Sexual Health Inventory-M version (SHI-M) at baseline and after 8 weeks. There was statistically significant improvement in total SHI-M scores (23.8 +/- 2.0 vs 16.6 +/- 2.8; p = 0.01), overall sexual satisfaction (p = 0.03), satisfaction with sexual desire (p = 0.04), ability to achieve erection (p = 0.02), ability to maintain erection (p = 0.03), and ability to reach orgasm (p = 0.04) with use of sildenafil citrate. UPDRS and BDI scores were not significantly changed. Side effects included headache in one patient during three sexual encounters. In this open-label study, sildenafil citrate significantly improved sexual function in men with PD and erectile dysfunction. PMID:10752581

  16. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  17. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results...

  18. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 5782... Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This clarification will apply to entries of... Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009). These deposit requirements...

  19. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Part, and Final Determination to Not Revoke Order in Part: Canned Pineapple Fruit from Thailand, 68 FR... Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 37759 (June 30, 2010). Also on June 30, 2010... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada, 74 FR 16843 (April 13, 2009) (Citric Acid LTFV)....

  20. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24850836

  1. Citrate metabolism in blood transfusions and its relationship due to metabolic alkalosis and respiratory acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Xu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alkalosis commonly results from excessive hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium (K+) and water (H2O) loss from the stomach or through the urine. The plasma anion gap increases in non-hypoproteinemic metabolic alkalosis due to an increased negative charge equivalent on albumin and the free ionized calcium (Ca++) content of plasma decreases. The mean citrate load in all patients was 8740±7027 mg from 6937±6603 mL of transfused blood products. The citrate load was significantly higher in patients with alkalosis (9164±4870 vs. 7809±3967, P < 0.05). The estimated mean total citrate administered via blood and blood products was calculated as 43.2±34.19 mg/kilogram/day. In non-massive and frequent blood transfusions, the elevated carbon dioxide output has been shown to occur. Due to citrate metabolism causes intracellular acidosis. As a result of intracellular acidosis compensation, decompensated metabolic alkalosis + respiratory acidosis and electrolyte imbalance may develop, blood transfusions may result in certain complications. PMID:26131288

  2. Stability of Diluted Adenosine Solutions in Polyolefin Infusion Bags

    PubMed Central

    Almagambetova, Elise; Hutchinson, David; Blais, Danielle M.; Zhao, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intravenous or intracoronary adenosine is used in the cardiac catherization lab to achieve maximal coronary blood flow and determine fractional flow reserve. Objective: To determine the stability of adenosine 10 and 50 µg/mL in either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection in polyolefin infusion bags stored at 2 temperatures, refrigeration (2°C-8°C) or controlled room temperature (20°C-25°C). Methods: Adenosine 10 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL solutions were prepared in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at controlled room temperature or under refrigeration. Each combination of concentration, diluent, and storage was prepared in triplicate. Samples were assayed using stability-indicating, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography immediately at time 0 and at 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, and 14 days. Stability was defined as retaining 90% to 110% of the initial adenosine concentration. The samples were also visually inspected against a light background for clarity, color, and the presence of particulate matter. Results: After 14 days, all samples retained 99% to 101% of the initial adenosine concentration. No considerable change in pH or visual appearance was noted. The stability data indicated no significant loss of drug due to chemical degradation or physical interactions during storage. Conclusion: Adenosine solutions of 10 and 50 µg/mL were stable for at least 14 days in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at controlled room temperature and refrigerated conditions. PMID:24421510

  3. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an

  4. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for citrate synthase from a thermotolerant Bacillus sp

    SciTech Connect

    Schendel, F.J.; August, P.R.; Anderson, C.R.; Flickinger, M.C. ); Hanson, R.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Acetate salts are emerging as potentially attractive bulk chemicals for a variety of environmental applications, for example, as catalysts to facilitate combustion of high-sulfur coal by electrical utilities and as the biodegradable noncorrosive highway deicing salt calcium magnesium acetate. The structural gene coding for citrate synthase from the gram-positive soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain C4 (ATCC 55182) capable of secreting acetic acid at pH 5.0 to 7.0 in the presence of dolime has been cloned from a genomic library by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic mutant lacking citrate synthase. The nucleotide sequence of the entire 3.1-kb HindIII fragment has been determined, and one major open reading frame was found coding for citrate synthase (ctsA). Citrate synthase from Bacillus sp. strain C4 was found to be a dimer (M{sub r}, 84,500) with a sub unit with an M{sub r} of 42,000. The N-terminal sequence was found to be identical with that predicted from the gene sequence. The kinetics were best fit to a bisubstrate enzyme with an ordered mechanism. Bacillus sp. strain C4 citrate synthase was not activated by potassium chloride and was not inhibited by NADH, ATP, ADP, or AMP at levels up to 1 mM. The predicted amino acid sequence was compared with that of the E. coli, Acinetobacter anitratum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rickettsia prowazekii, porcine heart, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes.

  5. Structural comparison between the open and closed forms of citrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Eiji; Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures of citrate synthase from the thermophilic eubacteria Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtCS) were determined for an open form at 1.5 Å resolution and for closed form at 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. In the absence of ligands TtCS in the open form was crystalized into a tetragonal form with a single subunit in the asymmetric unit. TtCS was also co-crystallized with citrate and coenzyme-A to form an orthorhombic crystal with two homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Citrate and CoA are found in the active site situated between the large domain and the small domain in all subunit whereas the complex shows two distinct closed conformations, the fully closed form and partially closed form. Structural comparisons are performed to describe conformational changes associated with binding of products of TtCS. Upon binding of citrate, basic residues in the active site move toward citrate and make a hydrogen bond network in the active site, inducing a large-scale rotation of the small domain relative to the large domain. CoA is sandwiched between the small and large domains and then the cysteamine tail is inserted into the active site with a cooperative rotation around mainchain dihedrals in the hinge region connecting helices M and N. According to this rotation these helices are extended to close the active site completely. The considerable flexibility and structural rearrangements in the hinge region are crucial for an ordered bibi reaction in catalysis for microbial CSs. PMID:27493854

  6. Clinical anti-microbial efficacy of a new zinc citrate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, P K; Furgang, D; Markowitz, K; McKiernan, M; Tischio-Bereski, D; Devizio, W; Fine, D

    2009-06-01

    This crossover design clinical study compared the anti-microbial effects of a new 1% zinc citrate dentifrice with a control formulation. Thirty adults completed a washout phase and baseline samples of dental plaque, buccal mucosa, tongue, saliva, and plaque collected to enumerate anaerobes and streptococci. Subjects were randomly assigned a test dentifrice to use for the next 13 days. Oral samples similar to the baseline were collected on day 14 prior to oral hygiene for microbial analysis. The subject then placed a custom intra-oral stent with hydroxyapatite (HA) squares and brushed their teeth with their assigned dentifrice. Oral samples and HA squares were collected 5 h later for microbial analyses. This completed the study with one test dentifrice. The entire study was repeated with the alternate dentifrice after a second washout phase. Whereas baseline samples demonstrated no significant differences in microbial parameters between the two treatment groups (p > 0.05), subjects provided the zinc citrate dentifrice demonstrated 24-52% reductions in anaerobic bacteria and streptococci on day 14 versus the control paste (p < 0.05). In the 5-h post-brushing samples, subjects provided the zinc citrate toothpaste demonstrated 27-49% reductions for anaerobic bacteria and streptococci (p < 0.05). Additionally, in situ microbial biofilm formation on HA disks was significantly inhibited amongst the zinc citrate group (p < 0.05). Significant reductions in anaerobic bacteria and streptococci were observed amongst all intra-oral locations along with in situ biofilm formation after use of the zinc citrate dentifrice. PMID:18850117

  7. Citrate Attenuates Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats by Modulating the Th17/Treg Cell Balance.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Gui, Baosong; Yao, Ganglian; Ma, Liqun; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Rongguo; Ge, Heng; Wang, Li; Jia, Lining; Tian, Lifang; Duan, Zhaoyang

    2016-02-01

    Citrate is commonly used as an anticoagulant in hemodialysis for chronic renal failure (CRF) and for the regulation of the immune dysfunction in CRF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of citrate on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in CRF. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Scr) were significantly increased in the CRF model group compared to the control group, and were decreased in the citrate-treated groups. Citrate treatment inhibited the viability of Th17 cells while elevating the viability of Treg cells in CRF rats. Moreover, Th17-related cytokines significantly decreased while the Treg-related cytokines significantly increased with citrate treatment. Moreover, citrate had a negative influence on the deviation of Th17/Treg cells in CRF rats. Therefore, our study suggests that citrate had an anti-inflammatory effect on CRF through the modulation of the Th17/Treg balance. PMID:26253296

  8. Citrate occurs widely in healthy and pathological apatitic biomineral: mineralized articular cartilage, and intimal atherosclerotic plaque and apatitic kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Duer, Melinda J; Jackson, Graham E; Murray, Rachel C; Rodgers, Allen L; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2013-09-01

    There is continuing debate about whether abundant citrate plays an active role in biomineralization of bone. Using solid state NMR dipolar dephasing, we examined another normally mineralized hard tissue, mineralized articular cartilage, as well as biocalcifications arising in pathological conditions, mineralized intimal atherosclerotic vascular plaque, and apatitic uroliths (urinary stones). Residual nondephasing ¹³C NMR signal at 76 ppm in the spectra of mineralized cartilage and vascular plaque indicates that a quaternary carbon atom resonates at this frequency, consistent with the presence of citrate. The presence, and as yet unproven possible mechanistic involvement, of citrate in tissue mineralization extends the compositional, structural, biogenetic, and cytological similarities between these tissues and bone itself. Out of 10 apatitic kidney stones, five contained NMR-detectable citrate. Finding citrate in a high proportion of uroliths may be significant in view of the use of citrate in urolithiasis therapy and prophylaxis. Citrate may be essential for normal biomineralization (e.g., of cartilage), play a modulatory role in vascular calcification which could be a target for therapeutic intervention, and drive the formation of apatitic rather than other calcific uroliths, including more therapeutically intractable forms of calcium phosphate. PMID:23780351

  9. Availability of zinc and the ligands citrate and histidine to wheat: does uptake of entire complexes play a role?

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Anja; Tandy, Susan; Frossard, Emmanuel; Eikenberg, Jost; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Organic ligands in soils affect the availability of trace metals such as Zn to plants. This study investigated the effects of two of these ligands, citrate and histidine, on Zn uptake by wheat under hydroponic conditions. Uptake of (65)Zn in the presence of these ligands was compared to uptake in the presence of EDTA at the same free Zn concentration (Zn(2+) ~ 50 nM). In the presence of citrate Zn root uptake was enhanced ~3.5 times and in the presence of histidine, by a factor of ~9, compared to the EDTA treatments. Citrate uptake was slightly reduced in the treatment containing ligands and Zn compared to the treatment containing the same ligand concentration but no Zn. In addition, a higher uptake of Zn than of citrate was observed. This suggests that the enhanced Zn uptake was primarily due to increased supply of Zn(2+) by diffusion and dissociation of Zn-citrate complexes at the root surface. Histidine uptake was much higher than citrate uptake and not influenced by the presence of Zn. As histidine forms stronger complexes with Zn than citrate, the results suggest that the enhancement of Zn uptake in the presence of histidine was in part due to the uptake of undissociated Zn-histidine complexes. PMID:24147770

  10. Adsorption of doxorubicin on citrate-capped gold nanoparticles: insights into engineering potent chemotherapeutic delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Dennis; Cameron, Amanda; MacDonald, Bruce; Nganou, Collins; Scheller, Hope; Marsh, James; Beale, Stefanie; Lu, Mingsheng; Shan, Zhi; Kaliaperumal, Rajendran; Xu, Heping; Servos, Mark; Bennett, Craig; Macquarrie, Stephanie; Oakes, Ken D.; Mkandawire, Martin; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    . Here, for the first time, we propose empirical and theoretical evidence suggestive of the main adsorption process where (1) hydrophobic forces drive doxorubicin towards the gold nanoparticle surface before (2) cation-π interactions and gold-carbonyl coordination between the drug molecule and the cations on AuNP surface facilitate DOX adsorption. In addition, biologically relevant compounds, such as serum albumin and glutathione, were shown to enhance desorption of loaded drug molecules from AuNP at physiologically relevant concentrations, providing insight into the drug release and in vivo stability of such drug conjugates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: DOX-AuNP absorption spectra and colored solution images, citrate displacement data, original DOX-AuNP loading isotherm, XPS data and TEM micrographs, modelling data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05826k

  11. Compatibility considerations in parenteral nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, P W; Vanderveen, T W

    1984-05-01

    Information on compatibility of nutrients and drugs with parenteral nutrient (PN) solutions is reviewed and evaluated. Precipitation of calcium phosphate when calcium and phosphate salts are added can be affected by pH, amino acid concentration, amino acid product, temperature, sequence of additives, specific salt used, and time since admixture; precipitate formation can occur gradually over 24 hours. Insulin is chemically stable in PN solutions, but adsorption to the infusion system can cause decreased availability. Poor delivery of vitamin A via PN solutions has been reported. The sodium bisulfite content of amino acid injections may cause degradation of thiamine, but studies simulating clinical use are needed. Folic acid stability in PN solutions has been demonstrated, and phytonadione appears to be stable. Drug administration via PN solutions may be advantageous when fluid intake is restricted or peripheral vein access is limited and in home PN therapy. Summarized are results of studies involving heparin, cimetidine hydrochloride, aminophylline, amphotericin B, iron dextran, hydrochloric acid, corticosteroids, narcotics, metoclopramide, digoxin, and fluorouracil. Many antibiotics are probably stable, especially when administered by co-infusion rather than by direct mixture in the PN solution container. When lipids are mixed in the same container with amino acid-dextrose solutions, compatibility and stability of electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements must be reassessed. Practical research is needed, and availability of additives should be studied in specific patient populations and for specific PN formulations. Valid conclusions are dependent on careful study design. PMID:6328980

  12. Observational multicentric study to evaluate efficacy, adverse effects and acceptance of bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy with sodium picosulfate / magnesium citrate formulation CitraFleet®.

    PubMed

    Janisch, H D; Koppold, B; Deissler, H; Riemann, J F

    2016-01-01

    The various efficient methods available for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy differ in patient acceptance. Combining the laxative sodium picosulfate with hyperosmotic magnesium citrate, used in this study in the formulation CitraFleet(®), allows the uptake of the purgative substances as a solution of low volume. This observational study with 737 patients evaluated efficacy of bowel preparation, potential side or adverse effects and patient acceptance of this medicinal product when used by resident physicians in Germany.Colon cleansing with CitraFleet(®) was considered very good to sufficient in 95.2 % of the patients and inadequate in only 4.8 %. In 75 % of the colonoscopies, bowel preparation was rated very good or good. Compared to the standard regimen of two portions taken the day before endoscopy, cleaning efficacy was better when patients received one of the doses on the morning of the day of colonoscopy. The quality of bowel preparation was rated lower by gastroenterologists without any prior experience with sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate. The overall assessment of the colon cleansing procedure by the 76 participating physicians was very positive and patient acceptance was also very high which can be considered a clear advantage over alternative methods. Efficacy of colon cleansing with CitraFleet(®) was not substantially affected by typical deviations from the recommended standard procedure, emphasizing the robustness of the method. Only one of the patients reported a mild adverse effect potentially caused by the cleansing agents. PMID:26751113

  13. Inactivation of citrate lyase from Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa by a specific deacetylase and inhibition of this inactivation by L-(+1-glutamate.

    PubMed Central

    Giffhorn, F; Gottschalk, G

    1975-01-01

    A previously unrecognized enzyme, citrate lyase deacetylase, has been purified about 140-fold from cell extracts of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa. It catalyzed the conversion of enzymatically active acetyl-S-citrate lyase into the inactive HS-form and acetate. The enzyme exhibited an optimal rate of inactivation at pH 8.1. Because of the instability of acetyl-S-citrate lyase at acidic and alkaline pH values, all assays were carried out at pH 7.2, where the spontaneous hydrolysis of the acetyl-S-citrate lyase was negligible and deacetylase showed 70% of the activity at pH 8.1. The apparent Km value for citrate lyase was 10(-7) M at pH 7.2 and 30 C. The activity of the deacetylase was restricted to the citrate lyase from R. gelatinosa. The corresponding lyases from Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Klebsiella aerogenes) and Streptococcus diacetilactis were not deacetylated; likewise, thioesters such as acetyl-S coenzyme A, acetoacetyl-S coenzyme A, and N-acetyl-S-acetyl-cysteamine were also not hydrolyzed. Citrate lyase deacetylase was present in very small amounts in cells of R. gelatinosa grown with acetate or succinate; it was induced by citrate along with the citrate lyase. L-(+)-Glutamate strongly inhibited the deacetylase. Fifty percent inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 1.4 X 10(-4) L-(+)-glutamate. D-(-)-Glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, L-alpha-hydroxyglutarate, L-(-)-proline, and other metabolites were less effective. PMID:356

  14. Chrono-lume and magnesium potentiate aggregation of canine but not human platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Callan, M B; Shofer, F S; Wojenski, C; Giger, U

    1998-07-01

    The effects of Chrono-lume (CL) and magnesium sulfate (Mg2+), a component of this luciferin-luciferase reagent, on platelet aggregation were studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate from humans, dogs, cats, horses, and cows. The final added Mg2+ concentration of both solutions ranged from 0.75-3.7 mM. CL and Mg2+ had no effect on maximum aggregation of platelets from humans induced by sub-threshold concentrations of collagen and ADP. In contrast, addition of CL or Mg2+ to canine PRP resulted in a dose-dependent and equal potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to sub-threshold concentrations of collagen, ADP, and thrombin in normal and thrombopathic dogs. The effect of CL on platelet aggregation induced by sub-threshold concentrations of agonists was less pronounced and varied in other species according to the agonist. The reason for the marked difference in sensitivity of human and canine platelets to CL or Mg2+ is not clear, although a difference in releasable cation pools of the platelets from these two species has been recognized. Platelet aggregation studies of animals with suspected thrombopathias should be performed without CL to prevent masking of a platelet function defect. PMID:9684806

  15. An active site-tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jesse R; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that `close' the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an `open' structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site-tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS. PMID:26457521

  16. An active site–tail interaction in the structure of hexahistidine-tagged Thermoplasma acidophilum citrate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jesse R.; Donini, Stefano; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Citrate synthase (CS) plays a central metabolic role in aerobes and many other organisms. The CS reaction comprises two half-reactions: a Claisen aldol condensation of acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) and oxaloacetate (OAA) that forms citryl-CoA (CitCoA), and CitCoA hydrolysis. Protein conformational changes that ‘close’ the active site play an important role in the assembly of a catalytically competent condensation active site. CS from the thermoacidophile Thermoplasma acidophilum (TpCS) possesses an endogenous Trp fluorophore that can be used to monitor the condensation reaction. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TpCS fused to a C-terminal hexahistidine tag (TpCSH6) reported here is an ‘open’ structure that, when compared with several liganded TpCS structures, helps to define a complete path for active-site closure. One active site in each dimer binds a neighboring His tag, the first nonsubstrate ligand known to occupy both the AcCoA and OAA binding sites. Solution data collectively suggest that this fortuitous interaction is stabilized by the crystalline lattice. As a polar but almost neutral ligand, the active site–tail interaction provides a new starting point for the design of bisubstrate-analog inhibitors of CS. PMID:26457521

  17. Structural and electrical properties of Cu doped NiFe2O4 nanoparticles prepared through modified citrate gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoo, Khalid Mujasam

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles of polycrystalline NiFe2-xCuxO4 (0.0≤x≤0.05) ferrites were prepared through the modified citrate-gel method. The samples were obtained as dried gel after the successful chemical reaction of their respective metal nitrate solutions in the midst of citric acid as catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selective area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed the single phase nature of all the samples with an average particle size of 19.8 (±1). Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows the presence of two broad vibrational bands between 400 and 1000 cm-1 corresponding to the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites. The variation of dielectric properties (ɛ‧, ɛ″, tan δ) and ac conductivity (σac), with frequency reveals that the dispersion is due to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization in general and due to hopping of charges between Fe+2 and Fe+3 as well as between Ni+2 and Ni+3 ions at B-sites. The complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of all the ferrite nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis and properties of samaria-doped ceria electrolyte for IT-SOFCs by EDTA-citrate complexing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Chang; Huang, Jui-Ting; Chiba, Atsushi

    An ultra-fine samaria-doped ceria (Ce 0.8Sm 0.2O 1.9, SDC) electrolyte prepared by a non-ion selective EDTA-citric complexing method is developed herein for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The rigid agglomerates due to organic compounds that exist in the SDC precursors during the EDTA-citrate complexing synthesis process inhibit crystalline growth and grain growth, leading to the generation of ultra-fine grain following the sintering procedure. Calcination is necessary above 500 °C for all precursors. The average grain size of the pellets after sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h is submicron in scale (from 200 nm to 600 nm) with various pH values, and the pellets are smaller than those obtained from other synthesis processes. Dense pellets with pH values of 10 (relative density of 99%) are obtained with precursor powder calcination at 900 °C for 3 h. Electrical conductivity is dependent on the calcination temperature and pH value of the solution, and the maximum electrical conductivity is 0.01 S cm -1 at 700 °C with a pH value of 10.

  19. Stability of etoposide solutions in disposable infusion devices for day hospital cancer practices.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Alison; Kessari, Romain; Mercier, Lionel; Valade, Cyril; Grill, Jacques; Desmaris, Romain; Paci, Angelo

    2014-03-01

    In a context of day hospital care of cancer patients, a protocol combining etoposide and carboplatin is used in paediatrics. Disposable infusion devices can be used to improve patient quality of life and to optimize nursing time. Stability data are available for carboplatin in these devices but not for etoposide. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of etoposide solutions in these devices by monitoring the changing etoposide concentration. To study the changing etoposide concentration, we investigated three different concentrations, each in two different solvents: sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9 % and dextrose 5 %, in Intermate(®) disposable infusion devices. Quantitative analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection on samples collected over a 24-h study period. The results showed that 100 mg/L etoposide solutions were stable for 24 h in NaCl 0.9 % and for 12 h in dextrose 5 %, whatever the temperature. The 400-mg/L solutions were stable for 24 h in both diluents, whatever the temperature, whereas the 600-mg/L solutions when diluted in NaCl 0.9 % and dextrose 5 % in water were stable for 8 and 6 h, respectively. We found that precipitation was the main phenomenon responsible for decreased etoposide concentrations. This study allowed us to conclude that etoposide solutions prepared in Intermate(®) infusion devices are stable for day hospital administration in paediatrics. It will also allow us to conduct a future clinical study that will focus on the medico-economic feasibility of this protocol and on the evaluation of patient and nurse satisfaction. PMID:24627337

  20. Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia Complicated by EDTA- and/or Citrate-Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is a well-known phenomenon. However, confusion may occur due to unusual characteristics. Case Reports Two patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and long-lasting PTCP are described. Initially, only the diagnosis of ITP was confirmed. During observation, discrepancies were recognized between clinical findings and platelet counts. Re-examination resulted in the additional diagnosis of EDTA-dependent PTCP. Subsequently, the latter diagnosis was changed to citrate-dependent PTCP in both cases. Interestingly, PTCP was observed to change again and became recognizable in citrate or heparin, and only during the first 20-30 min following phlebotomy in EDTA specimens. Conclusion The incidence of concomitant ITP with PTCP might be higher than previously reported, and PTCP may have variable dynamics and characteristics. PMID:26696805

  1. Women taking the “blue pill” (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    PubMed Central

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option. PMID:25422584

  2. Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2014-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the β-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

  3. Technetium-99m HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes in detection of inflammatory lesions: Comparison with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Soini, I.; Lantto, T.; Paakkinen, S. )

    1989-08-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected benign, inflammatory, or infectious diseases were imaged with ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO-labeled leukocytes and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate. Technetium-99m leukocytes showed 22 true-positive, no false-positive, 19 true-negative, and two false-negative findings and ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 23, 7, 12 and 1, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes were 92%, 100%, and 95%, and with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate 96%, 63%, and 81%. Technetium-99m leukocyte scintigraphy has a promising future in comparison with ({sup 67}Ga)citrate because of the ready availability of ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO, the good image quality, more rapid results (within few hours), and the lower radiation exposure to the patient with {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes. The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes in chronic osteomyelitis needs further evaluation.

  4. Autonomic dysreflexia during sperm retrieval in spinal cord injury: influence of lesion level and sildenafil citrate.

    PubMed

    Sheel, A William; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Inglis, J Timothy; Elliott, Stacy L

    2005-07-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) can occur during penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury, but this is variable, and the association with lesion level is unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular responses to penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that those with cervical injuries would demonstrate a greater degree of AD compared with men with thoracic injuries. We also questioned whether the rise in blood pressure could be attenuated by sildenafil citrate. Participants were classified as having cervical (n = 8) or thoracic (n = 5) injuries. While in a supine position, subjects were instrumented with an ECG, and arterial blood pressure was determined beat by beat. Subjects reported to the laboratory twice and received an oral dose of sildenafil citrate (25-100 mg) or no medication. Penile vibratory stimulation was performed using a handheld vibrator to the point of ejaculation. At ejaculation during the nonmedicated trials, the cervical group had a significant decrease in heart rate (-5-10 beats/min) and increase in mean arterial blood pressure (+70-90 mmHg) relative to resting conditions, whereas the thoracic group had significant increases in both heart rate (+8-15 beats/min) and mean arterial pressure (+25-30 mmHg). Sildenafil citrate had no effect on the change in heart rate or mean arterial pressure in either group. In summary, men with cervical injuries had more pronounced AD during penile vibratory stimulation than men with thoracic injuries. Administration of sildenafil citrate had no effect on heart rate or blood pressure during penile vibratory stimulation in men with spinal cord injury. PMID:15790691

  5. Substrate Specificity of the Citrate Transporter CitP of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Pudlik, Agata M.

    2012-01-01

    The citrate transporter CitP of lactic acid bacteria catalyzes electrogenic precursor-product exchange of citrate versus l-lactate during citrate-glucose cometabolism. In the absence of sugar, l-lactate is replaced by the metabolic intermediates/end products pyruvate, α-acetolactate, and acetate. In this study, the binding and translocation properties of CitP were analyzed systematically for a wide variety of mono- and dicarboxylates of the form X-CR2-COO−, where X represents OH (2-hydroxy acid), O (2-keto acid), or H (acid) and R groups differ in size, hydrophobicity, and composition. It follows that CitP is a very promiscuous carboxylate transporter. A carboxylate group is both essential and sufficient for recognition by the transporter. A C-2 atom is not essential, formate is a substrate, and C-2 may be part of a ring structure, as in benzoate. The R group may be as bulky as an indole ring structure. For all monocarboxylates of the form X-CHR-COO−, the hydroxy (X = OH) analogs were the preferred substrates. The preference for keto (X = O) or acid (X = H) analogs was dependent on the bulkiness of the R group, such that the acid was preferred for small R groups and the 2-ketoacid was preferred for more bulky R groups. The C4 to C6 dicarboxylates succinate, glutarate, and adipate were also substrates of CitP. The broad substrate specificity is discussed in the context of a model of the binding site of CitP. Many of the substrates of CitP are intermediates or products of amino acid metabolism, suggesting that CitP may have a broader physiological function than its role in citrate fermentation alone. PMID:22563050

  6. Tumor affinity of radiolabeled peanut agglutinin compared with that of Ga-67 citrate in animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, K.; Aburano, T.; Watanabe, N.; Kawabata, S.; Ishida, H.; Mukai, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1985-05-01

    Peanut agglutinin (PNA) binds avidly to the immunodominant group of the tumor associated T antigen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oncodiagnostic potential of radiolabeled PNA in animal models. PNA was labeled with I-125 or I-131 by Iodogen and also with In-111 by cyclic DTPA anhydride. The biological activity of PNA was examined by a hemaglutination titer with a photometer before and after labeling. Animal tumor models used were Lewis Lung Cancer(LLC), B-16 Melanotic Melanoma(MM), Yoshida Sarcoma(YS), Ehrlich Ascites Tumor(EAT and Hepatoma AH109A(HAH). Inflammatory tissue induced by turpentine oil was used as an abscess model. Serial scintigraphic images were obtained following IV injections of 100 ..mu..Ci of I-131 or In-111-DTPA-PNA. The tumor affinity of Ga-67 citrate was studied to compare that of radiolabeled PNA. Tissue biodistribution was studied in EAT bearing mice. All of these tumor models except HAH were clearly visible by radiolabeled PNA without subtraction techniques. In the models of LLC and EAT, PNA showed the better accumulation into the tumor tissue than Ga-67 citrate. In YS and MM, PNA represented almost the same accumulation as Ga-67 citrate. The localization of PNA into abscess tissue wasn't found although Ga-67 citrate markedly accumulated into abscess tissue as well as tumor tissue. The clearance of PNA from tumor was slower than those from any other organs. Tumor to muscle ratio was 5.1 at 48hrs. and tumor to blood ratio increased with time to 2.3 at 96hrs. These results suggested that radiolabeled PNA may have a potential in the detection of tumor.

  7. Scintigraphic detection of osteomyelitis with Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate: concise communication. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Frederick, R.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Berger, D.E.

    1983-11-01

    Using both Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate and gallium-67 citrate, images of the lower extremities in New Zealand white rabbits were obtained on sequential days after inoculation of tibias with Staphylococcus aureus. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was positive earlier in the course of infection than Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. In addition to 4-hr Ga-67 scintigrams, 24-hr and 48-hr scintigrams were obtained contributing substanitally to interpretation. However, 72-hr Ga-67 scintigrams contributed little additional information.

  8. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, V. N.; Farrell, R. A.; Sexton, A. M.; Morris, M. A.

    2006-02-01

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects.

  9. Dietary sodium citrate supplementation enhances rehydration and recovery from rapid body mass loss in trained wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Timpmann, Saima; Burk, Andres; Medijainen, Luule; Tamm, Maria; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Vähi, Mare; Unt, Eve; Oöpik, Vahur

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary sodium citrate supplementation during a 16 h recovery from 5% rapid body mass loss (RBML) on physiological functions, affective state, and performance in trained wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers performed an upper body intermittent sprint performance (UBISP) test under three conditions: before RBML, after RBML, and after a 16 h recovery from RBML. During recovery, the subjects ate a prescribed diet supplemented with sodium citrate (600 mg·kg(-1); CIT group, N = 8) or placebo (PLC group, N = 8) and drank water ad libitum. RBML reduced (p < 0.05) UBISP mean power and increased urine specific gravity (USG). Reduction in mean power was associated with changes in plasma volume (PV) (r = 0.649, p = 0.006) and USG (r = -0.553, p = 0.026). During the 16 h recovery, increases in body mass (BM) and PV were greater (p < 0.05) in the CIT group than in the PLC group. BM gain was associated with water retention in the CIT group (r = 0.899, p = 0.002) but not in the PLC group (r = 0.335, p = 0.417). Blood pH, HCO(3)(-) concentration, and base excess increased (p < 0.05) only in the CIT group. Changes in UBISP, general negative affect, and general positive affect did not differ in the two groups. In conclusion, ingestion of sodium citrate increases blood buffering capacity and PV and stimulates BM regain during a 16 h recovery from RBML in trained wrestlers. However, sodium citrate does not improve UBISP nor does it have an impact on the affective state. PMID:22871128

  10. Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticle-Quercetin Complexes By Citrate Reduction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajat; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin is an important flavonoid and possesses strong antioxidant property. The aim of the present study is to formulate and characterize quercetin coated gold nanoparticles. Quercetin was conjugated with gold nanoparticle during synthesis of the particle by citrate reduction of chloroauric acid. The conjugates were characterized by different techniques like Atomic Force Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Absorption Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. All these studies suggest formation of stable quercetin-gold nanoparticle complex.

  11. Extensive skeletal involvement detected by gallium-67 citrate in a patient with multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Morand, T.M.; Seiwert, V.J.

    1988-03-01

    Extensive skeletal involvement of multiple myeloma was detected by Ga-67 citrate imaging while searching for infectious foci. The case was unique in that a radiographic skeletal survey showed typical lytic lesions only in the skull, and extensive myeloma involvement in the skeletal system was an incidental finding. A high tumor cell burden was presumed to be present, which led to a rapid and fulminant clinical course in this patient.

  12. Suppression of neutrophil superoxide production by conventional peritoneal dialysis solution.

    PubMed

    Ing, B L; Gupta, D K; Nawab, Z M; Zhou, F Q; Rahman, M A; Daugirdas, J T

    1988-09-01

    The pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution is normally in the range of 5.0 to 5.5, because acid has been added during the manufacturing process to prevent caramelization of dextrose during sterilization. We studied the effects of normalizing the pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution on superoxide production by normal human neutrophils. At a pH of 6.0, superoxide generation was 4.07 +/- 2.56 (SD) nanomoles per million cells. With normalization of pH to 7.4, superoxide production was 19.3 +/- 7.3 (p less than 0.001). The results suggest that the unphysiologic acidity of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution has deleterious consequences on neutrophil superoxide formation. PMID:2847987

  13. Non-Parasitic Chyluria: Our Experience With Sclerotherapy With Solution of Povidone-Iodine and Destrose and A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guttilla, Andrea; Beltrami, Paolo; Bettin, Laura; Galantini, Andrea; Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Zattoni, Filiberto

    2016-09-01

    Chyluria is the passage of chyle in the urine. The cause seems to be the rupture of retroperitoneal lymphatics into the pyelocaliceal system, giving urine a milky appearance. This condition if left untreated it leads to significant morbidity because of hematochyluria, recurrent renal colic, nutritional problems due to protein losses and immunosuppression resulting from lymphocyturia. We report our experience with the use of povidone iodine with dextrose solution as a sclerosing agent in the management of chyluria in two patients. PMID:27413693

  14. Functional Analysis of the Citrate Activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis Implicates a Divalent Metal in Ligand Binding.

    PubMed

    Blancato, Víctor S; Pagliai, Fernando A; Magni, Christian; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (K D = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM), while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni(2+), and Zn(2+) to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation. PMID:26903980

  15. Functional Analysis of the Citrate Activator CitO from Enterococcus faecalis Implicates a Divalent Metal in Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Blancato, Víctor S.; Pagliai, Fernando A.; Magni, Christian; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2016-01-01

    The regulator of citrate metabolism, CitO, from Enterococcus faecalis belongs to the FCD family within the GntR superfamily. In the presence of citrate, CitO binds to cis-acting sequences located upstream of the cit promoters inducing the expression of genes involved in citrate utilization. The quantification of the molecular binding affinities, performed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), indicated that CitO has a high affinity for citrate (KD = 1.2 ± 0.2 μM), while it did not recognize other metabolic intermediates. Based on a structural model of CitO where a putative small molecule and a metal binding site were identified, it was hypothesized that the metal ion is required for citrate binding. In agreement with this model, citrate binding to CitO sharply decreased when the protein was incubated with EDTA. This effect was reverted by the addition of Ni2+, and Zn2+ to a lesser extent. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis was conducted and it was found that changes to alanine in residues Arg97 and His191 resulted in decreased binding affinities for citrate, as determined by EMSA and ITC. Further assays using lacZ fusions confirmed that these residues in CitO are involved in sensing citrate in vivo. These results indicate that the molecular modifications induced by a ligand and a metal binding in the C-terminal domain of CitO are required for optimal DNA binding activity, and consequently, transcriptional activation. PMID:26903980

  16. Structure, function, and expression pattern of a novel sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT) cloned from mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Katsuhisa; Zhuang, Lina; Maddox, Dennis M; Smith, Sylvia B; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2002-10-18

    Citrate plays a pivotal role not only in the generation of metabolic energy but also in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoprenoids, and cholesterol in mammalian cells. Plasma levels of citrate are the highest ( approximately 135 microm) among the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of a plasma membrane transporter (NaCT for Na+ -coupled citrate transporter) from rat brain that mediates uphill cellular uptake of citrate coupled to an electrochemical Na+ gradient. NaCT consists of 572 amino acids and exhibits structural similarity to the members of the Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter/Na+ -sulfate cotransporter (NaDC/NaSi) gene family including the recently identified Drosophila Indy. In rat, the expression of NaCT is restricted to liver, testis, and brain. When expressed heterologously in mammalian cells, rat NaCT mediates the transport of citrate with high affinity (Michaelis-Menten constant, approximately 20 microm) and with a Na+:citrate stoichiometry of 4:1. The transporter does interact with other dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates but with considerably lower affinity. In mouse brain, the expression of NaCT mRNA is evident in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. NaCT represents the first transporter to be identified in mammalian cells that shows preference for citrate over dicarboxylates. This transporter is likely to play an important role in the cellular utilization of citrate in blood for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol (liver) and for the generation of energy (liver and brain). NaCT thus constitutes a potential therapeutic target for the control of body weight, cholesterol levels, and energy homeostasis. PMID:12177002

  17. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Rana; Desai, Kavita; Parekh, Hetal; Ganla, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. PMID:27563258

  18. Citrate coated silver nanoparticles change heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulation of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Injeong; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Kim, Sang Don; Hwang, Yu-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Citrate-coated AgNPs (c-AgNPs) have negatively charged surfaces and their surface interactions with heavy metals can affect metal toxicity in aquatic environments. This study used Daphnia magna to compare the acute toxicities and bioaccumulation of As(V), Cd, and Cu when they interact with c-AgNPs. The 24-h acute toxicities of As(V) and Cu were not affected by the addition of c-AgNPs, while bioaccumulation significantly decreased in the presence of c-AgNPs. In contrast, both the 24-h acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd increased in the presence of c-AgNPs. These toxicity and bioaccumulation trends can be attributed to the interactions between the AgNP surface and the heavy metals. As(V) and c-AgNPs compete by negative charge, decreasing As(V) toxicity. Copper adheres readily to c-AgNP citrate, decreasing Cu bioavailability, and thus reducing Cu toxicity and bioaccumulation. Citrate complexes with divalent cations such as Ca and Mg reduce the competition between divalent cations and Cd on biotic ligand, increasing toxicity and bioaccumulation of Cd. This study shows that surface properties determine the effect of c-AgNPs on heavy metal toxicities and bioaccumulations; hence, further studies on the effect of nanoparticle by it surface properties are warranted. PMID:26188498

  19. Dietary fat and hepatic lipogenesis: mitochondrial citrate carrier as a sensor of metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Zara, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrate carrier (CIC) is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane that has a fundamental role in hepatic intermediary metabolism. Its primary function is to catalyze the transport of citrate from mitochondria, where this molecule is formed, to cytosol, where this molecule is used for fatty acid (FA) and cholesterol synthesis. Therefore, mitochondrial CIC acts upstream of cytosolic lipogenic reactions, and its regulation is particularly important in view of the modulation of hepatic lipogenesis. Although a great deal of data are currently available on the dietary modulation of cytosolic lipogenic enzymes, little is known about the nutritional regulation of CIC transport activity. In this review, we describe the differential effects of distinct FAs present in the diet on the activity of mitochondrial CIC. In particular, polyunsaturated FAs were powerful modulators of the activity of mitochondrial CIC by influencing its expression through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. On the contrary, saturated and monounsaturated FAs did not influence mitochondrial CIC activity. Moreover, variations in CIC activity were connected to similar alterations in the metabolic pathways to which the transported citrate is channeled. Therefore, CIC may be considered as a sensor for changes occurring inside the hepatocyte and may represent an important target for the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis. The crucial role of this protein is reinforced by the recent discovery of its involvement in other cellular processes, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, inflammation, tumorigenesis, genome stability, and sperm metabolism. PMID:24829468

  20. Textural and cargo release attributes of trisodium citrate cross-linked starch hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Abhari, Negar; Madadlou, Ashkan; Dini, Ali; Hosseini Naveh, Ozra

    2017-01-01

    An alkaline starch suspension was charged with citric acid and incubated for different durations (0, 8.5 or 17h). The suspension was then supplemented with caffeine and gelatinized to fabricate hydrogels which were subsequently stored for varying periods (0, 24 or 48h). Charging of the well-dissolved alkaline starch suspension with citric acid decreased at first both the flow index and consistency coefficient (K); however, starch cross-linking over time by the generated trisodium citrate increased the K value. The latter also inhibited gel syneresis and increased its water-holding capacity. Trisodium citrate did not nonetheless influence the gel hardness except for the sample incubated for maximum duration and stored for the longest period. The amount of the caffeine released from hydrogel decreased by citrate cross-linking and was higher at neutral pH than pH 2.0. Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy suggested that caffeine was enclosed within the gel network via non-covalent interactions. PMID:27507442

  1. Simultaneous treatment with citrate prevents nephropathy induced by FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Takeo; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Nakazawa, Takashi; Nagata, Osamu

    2005-09-01

    The possible mechanism of the underlying nephropathy found in the rat toxicity study of FYX-051, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, was investigated. Rats received oral treatment of either 1 or 3 mg/kg of FYX-051, with and without citrate for four weeks to elucidate whether nephropathy could be caused by materials deposited in the kidney. Furthermore, analysis of the renal deposits in rats was also performed. Consequently, interstitial nephritis comprising interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, dilatation, basophilia and epithelial necrosis of renal tubules and collecting ducts, deposits in renal tubules and collecting ducts, and so forth was seen in six of the eight rats and in all eight rats in the 1 and 3 mg/kg FYX-051 alone groups, respectively, with the intensity in the 3 mg/kg group being moderate to severe. In the simultaneous treatment with citrate group, however, no alterations were observed in the kidney, except for minimal interstitial nephritis in one instance in the 3 mg/kg FYX-051 + citrate group along with an increased urinary pH, leading to an increase in xanthine solubility. Analysis of intrarenal deposits showed that the entity would be composed of xanthine crystals. The present study, therefore, showed that nephropathy in rats occurring after the administration of FYX-051 was a secondary change caused by xanthine crystals being deposited in the kidney, and no other causes could be implicated in this kidney lesion. PMID:15933230

  2. Plant uptake of depleted uranium from manure-amended and citrate treated soil.

    PubMed

    Sevostianova, Elena; Lindemann, William C; Ulery, April L; Remmenga, Marta D

    2010-08-01

    Six plant species were tested for their ability to accumulate depleted uranium in their above-ground biomass from deployed munitions contaminated soil in New Mexico. In greenhouse experiments, Kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L) were grown with steer manure added at rates of 22.4, 44.8, and 89.6 Mg ha(-1). Citric acid and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) applied at the end of the growing season increased DU concentrations from 2.5 to 17 times. Leaf and stem DU concentrations in kochia increased from 17.0 to 41.9 mg kg(-1) and from 3.5 to 18.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. In pigweed, leaf and stem DU concentrations increased from 1.0 to 17.3 and from 1.0 to 4.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. Manure generally decreased or had no effect on DU uptake. The effect of citric acid and ammonium citrate on DU uptake by kochia, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), and sweet corn (Zea mays L) was also studied. Ammonium citrate was just as effective in enhancing DU uptake as citric acid. This implies that the citrate ion is more important in DU uptake and translocation than the solubilization of DU through acidification. In both experiments, leaves had higher DU concentrations than stems. PMID:21166280

  3. Sildenafil citrate for the management of fetal growth restriction and oligohydramnios.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Rana; Desai, Kavita; Parekh, Hetal; Ganla, Kedar

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia are the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, which affect up to 8% of all pregnancies. The pathogenesis in FGR is an abnormal trophoblastic invasion leading to compromised uteroplacental circulation. However, in spite of this understanding and identification of high-risk patients, the management options are limited. There are some new studies which have demonstrated the role of sildenafil citrate in improving vasodilatation of small myometrial vessels and therefore improvement in amniotic fluid index, fetal weight, and even uterine and umbilical artery Doppler patterns. We report here the case of a 31-year-old female with infertility and preconceptional thin endometrium responding well to sildenafil citrate, followed by conception. However, she presented with an early-onset FGR at 26 weeks of gestation, and again after treatment with sildenafil citrate, showed improvement in amniotic fluid index and fetal weight, finally resulting in delivery of a full-term healthy baby with uneventful neonatal course. PMID:27563258

  4. Binding constant determination of uranyl-citrate complex by ACE using a multi-injection method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiding; Li, Linnan; Huang, Hexiang; Xu, Linnan; Li, Ze; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-04-01

    The binding constant determination of uranyl with small-molecule ligands such as citric acid could provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of the study of uranyl complexation, which is of considerable importance for multiple purposes. In this work, the binding constant of uranyl-citrate complex was determined by ACE. Besides the common single-injection method, a multi-injection method to measure the electrophoretic mobility was also applied. The BGEs used contained HClO4 and NaClO4 , with a pH of 1.98 ± 0.02 and ionic strength of 0.050 mol/L, then citric acid was added to reach different concentrations. The electrophoretic mobilities of the uranyl-citrate complex measured by both of the two methods were consistent, and then the binding constant was calculated by nonlinear fitting assuming that the reaction had a 1:1 stoichiometry and the complex was [(UO2 )(Cit)](-) . The binding constant obtained by the multi-injection method was log K = 9.68 ± 0.07, and that obtained by the single-injection method was log K = 9.73 ± 0.02. The results provided additional knowledge of the uranyl-citrate system, and they demonstrated that compared with other methods, ACE using the multi-injection method could be an efficient, fast, and simple way to determine electrophoretic mobilities and to calculate binding constants. PMID:25598434

  5. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  6. Quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredient and impurities in sildenafil citrate obtained from the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Nutan, Mohammad T.; Dodla, Uday Krishna Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The accessibility of prescription drugs produced outside of the United States, most notably sildenafil citrate (innovator product, Viagra®), has been made much easier by the Internet. Of greatest concern to clinicians and policymakers is product quality and patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued warnings to potential buyers that the safety of drugs purchased from the Internet cannot be guaranteed, and may present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether generic sildenafil citrate tablets from international markets obtained via the Internet are equivalent to the US innovator product regarding major aspects of pharmaceutical quality: potency, accuracy of labeling, and presence and level of impurities. This will help identify aspects of drug quality that may impact public health risks. Methods: A total of 15 sildenafil citrate tablets were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis: 14 generic samples from international Internet pharmacy websites and the US innovator product. According to US Pharmacopeial guidelines, tablet samples were tested using high-performance liquid chromatography for potency of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and levels of impurities (impurities A, B, C, and D). Impurity levels were compared with International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) limits. Results: Among the 15 samples, 4 samples possessed higher impurity B levels than the ICH qualification threshold, 8 samples possessed higher impurity C levels than the ICH qualification threshold, and 4 samples possessed more than 1% impurity quantity of maximum daily dose (MDD). For API, 6 of the samples failed to fall within the 5% assay limit. Conclusions: Quality assurance tests are often used to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing and/or storage process. Results suggest that manufacturing standards for sildenafil citrate generic drug

  7. Chemical characterization of fatty acids, alkanes, n-diols and alkyl esters produced by a mixed culture of Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum grown aerobically on undecanoic acid, potatoe dextrose and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Carlos M; Chahal, Amarpreet; Schnitzer, Morris; Rowland, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other. On average, the mixed fungal species produced mostly fatty acids (28% of total ion intensity, TII) > alkanes (2% of TII) > n-diols (2% of TII) > and alkyl esters (0.8% of TII) when fed with UDA, PDB or UDA+PDB. The cell culture accumulated aliphatics extracellularly, although most of the identified compounds accumulated intracellularly. The mixed fungal culture produced high-value chemicals from the metabolic conversion of simple and complex carbon substrates. PMID:26852878

  8. Gene delivery using calcium phosphate nanoparticles: Optimization of the transfection process and the effects of citrate and poly(l-lysine) as additives.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed A; Wu, Victoria M; Ghosh, Shreya; Uskoković, Vuk

    2016-06-01

    Despite the long history of nanoparticulate calcium phosphate (CaP) as a non-viral transfection agent, there has been limited success in attempts to optimize its properties for transfection comparable in efficiency to that of viral vectors. Here we focus on the optimization of: (a) CaP nanoparticle precipitation conditions, predominantly supersaturation and Ca/P molar ratios; (b) transfection conditions, mainly the concentrations of the carrier and plasmid DNA; (c) the presence of surface additives, including citrate anion and cationic poly(l-lysine) (PLL). CaP nanoparticles significantly improved transfection with plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells compared to a commercial non-viral carrier. At the same time they elicited significantly lesser cytotoxicity than the commercial carrier. Plasmid DNA acted as a nucleation promoter, decreasing the nucleation lag time of metastable CaP solutions and leading to a higher rate of nucleation and a lower size of the precipitated particles. The degree of supersaturation (DS) of 15 was found to be more optimal for transfection than that of 12.5 or 17.5 and higher. Because CaP particles precipitated at DS 15 were spherical, while DS 17.5 and 21 yielded acicular particles, it was concluded that spherical particle morphologies were more conducive to transfection than the anisotropic ones. Even though the yield at DS 15 was 10 and 100 times lower than that at DS 17.5 and 21, respectively, transfection rates were higher using CaP nanoparticle colloids prepared at DS 15 than using those made at higher or lower DS, indicating that the right particle morphology can outweigh the difference in the amount of the carrier, even when this difference is close to 100×. In contrast to the commercial carrier, the concentration of CaP-pDNA delivered to the cells was directly proportional to the transfection rate. Osteosarcoma K7M2 cells were four times more easily transfectable with

  9. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM OTHER METAL VALUES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SELECTIVE COMPLEXING AND ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating tri- or tetravalent plutonium from fission products in an aqueous solution by complexing the fission products with oxalate, tannate, citrate, or tartrate anions at a pH value of at least 2.4 (preferably between 2.4 and 4), and contacting a cation exchange resin with the solution whereby the plutonium is adsorbed while the complexed fission products remain in solution.

  10. Discovery and characterization of novel inhibitors of the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5)

    PubMed Central

    Huard, Kim; Brown, Janice; Jones, Jessica C.; Cabral, Shawn; Futatsugi, Kentaro; Gorgoglione, Matthew; Lanba, Adhiraj; Vera, Nicholas B.; Zhu, Yimin; Yan, Qingyun; Zhou, Yingjiang; Vernochet, Cecile; Riccardi, Keith; Wolford, Angela; Pirman, David; Niosi, Mark; Aspnes, Gary; Herr, Michael; Genung, Nathan E.; Magee, Thomas V.; Uccello, Daniel P.; Loria, Paula; Di, Li; Gosset, James R.; Hepworth, David; Rolph, Timothy; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Erion, Derek M.

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints. PMID:26620127

  11. Sildenafil citrate as a medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteric stones: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Shokeir, Ahmed A.; Tharwat, Mohamed A.; Abolazm, Ahmed Elhussein; Harraz, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of sildenafil citrate on spontaneous passage of distal ureteric stones (DUS). Patients and methods This was a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled study of 100 patients with DUS. Inclusion criteria were: male, age 18–65 years, normal renal function, and a single radiopaque unilateral DUS of 5–10 mm. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups, one that received placebo and the other that received 50 mg sildenafil citrate once daily. Both investigators and patients were masked to the type of treatment. Patients self-administered the medication until spontaneous passage of the DUS. In patients where there was uncontrolled pain, fever, an increase in serum creatinine of >1.8 mg/dL, progressive hydronephrosis or no further progress after 4 weeks, a decision was taken for further treatment. Results In all, 47 and 49 patients were available for analysis in both the placebo and sildenafil citrate groups; respectively. Both groups were comparable for age and stone characteristics. Spontaneous expulsion occurred in 19 of 47 patients (40.4%) in the placebo group and in 33 of 49 (67.3%) in the sildenafil citrate group (P = 0.014). The mean time to stone expulsion was significantly shorter in the sildenafil citrate group (P < 0.001). A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model showed that receiving sildenafil citrate was the only independent factor that had a significant impact on stone passage with a hazard ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.5–4.8; P < 0.001). Conclusion Sildenafil citrate enhances spontaneous passage of 5–10 mm DUS. PMID:26966585

  12. Mitochondrial citrate synthase crystals: novel finding in Sengers syndrome caused by acylglycerol kinase (AGK) mutations.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, Komudi; Mackay, Nevena; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Blaser, Susan; Raiman, Julian; Kantor, Paul F; Ackerley, Cameron; Robinson, Brian H; Schulze, Andreas; Cameron, Jessie M

    2013-01-01

    We report on two families with Sengers syndrome and mutations in the acylglycerol kinase gene (AGK). In the first family, two brothers presented with vascular strokes, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and cataracts, abnormal muscle cell histopathology and mitochondrial function. One proband had very abnormal mitochondria with citrate synthase crystals visible in electron micrographs, associated with markedly high citrate synthase activity. Exome sequencing was used to identify mutations in the AGK gene in the index patient. Targeted sequencing confirmed the same homozygous mutation (c.3G>A, p.M1I) in the brother. The second family had four affected members, of which we examined two. They also presented with similar clinical symptoms, but no strokes. Postmortem heart and skeletal muscle tissues showed low complex I, III and IV activities in the heart, but normal in the muscle. Skin fibroblasts showed elevated lactate/pyruvate ratios and low complex I+III activity. Targeted sequencing led to identification of a homozygous c.979A>T, p.K327* mutation. AGK is located in the mitochondria and phosphorylates monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid. Disruption of these signaling molecules affects the mitochondria's response to superoxide radicals, resulting in oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, lipids and proteins, and stimulation of cellular detoxification pathways. High levels of manganese superoxide dismutase protein were detected in all four affected individuals, consistent with increased free radical damage. Phosphatidic acid is also involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and its loss will result in changes to the lipid composition of the inner mitochondrial membrane. These effects manifest as cataract formation in the eye, respiratory chain dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy in heart tissue. These two pedigrees confirm that mutation of AGK is responsible for the severe neonatal presentation of Sengers syndrome. The

  13. Citrate-Based Biphasic Scaffolds for the Repair of Large Segmental Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ying; Tran, Richard T.; Xie, Denghui; Nguyen, Dianna Y.; Gerhard, Ethan; Guo, Jinshan; Wang, Yuchen; Tang, Jiajun; Zhang, Zhongming; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to replicate native tissue architecture have lead to the design of biomimetic scaffolds focused on improving functionality. In this study, biomimetic citrate-based poly (octanediol citrate) – click hydroxyapatite (POC-Click-HA) scaffolds were developed to simultaneously replicate the compositional and architectural properties of native bone tissue while providing immediate structural support for large segmental defects following implantation. Biphasic scaffolds were fabricated with 70% internal phase porosity and various external phase porosities (between 5–50%) to mimic the bimodal distribution of cancellous and cortical bone, respectively. Biphasic POC-Click-HA scaffolds displayed compressive strengths up to 37.45 ± 3.83 MPa, which could be controlled through the external phase porosity. The biphasic scaffolds were also evaluated in vivo for the repair of 10-mm long segmental radial defects in rabbits and compared to scaffolds of uniform porosity as well as autologous bone grafts after 5, 10, and 15 weeks of implantation. The results showed that all POC-Click-HA scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and extensive osteointegration with host bone tissue. Biphasic scaffolds significantly enhanced new bone formation with higher bone densities in the initial stages after implantation. Biomechanical and histomorphometric analysis supported a similar outcome with biphasic scaffolds providing increased compression strength, interfacial bone ingrowth, and periosteal remodeling in early time points, but were comparable to all experimental groups after 15 weeks. These results confirm the ability of biphasic scaffold architectures to restore bone tissue and physiological functions in the early stages of recovery, and the potential of citrate-based biomaterials in orthopedic applications. PMID:24829094

  14. Ferric ammonium citrate decomposition--a taxonomic tool for gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, A; Lányi, B

    1986-01-01

    The iron uptake test of Szabó and Vandra has been modified and used for the differentiation of Gram-negative bacteria. Nutrient agar containing 20 g per litre of ferric ammonium citrate was distributed into narrow tubes and solidified so as to form butts and slants. Considering the localization of the rusty-brown coloration produced after seeding and incubation, 2367 strains were classified into four groups. (1) Unchanged medium: Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Hafnia alvei and Morganella morganii 100% each, Klebsiella spp., 50%, Enterobacter cloacae 37%, Proteus vulgaris 59%, Acinetobacter spp. 42%, Pseudomonas fluorescens 19%, some other bacteria 2-12%. (2) Rusty-brown slant, unchanged butt: Salmonella subgenera II, III and IV 98%, Citrobacter freundii 65%, E. cloacae 55%, P. vulgaris 41%, Proteus mirabilis 98%, Providencia rettgeri 100%, urease-negative Providencia 96%, Acinetobacter spp. 58%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 100%, P. fluorescens 81%, UFP (unclassified fluorescent pseudomonads) 100%, other Pseudomonas spp. 55%. (3) Unchanged slant, brown butt: S. typhi 88%, Salmonella subgenus I 3%, Klebsiella spp. 31%, some other bacteria 2-3%. (4) Rusty-brown slant, brown butt: Salmonella subgenus I 75%, C. freundii 20%, Klebsiella spp. 12%, some other bacteria 1-5%. Colour reactions in ferric ammonium citrate agar are associated with the accumulation of ferric hydroxide: bacteria giving positive reactions on the slant took up as an average, 63 times more iron than those with negative test. The localization of colour reaction correlated partly with aerobic and anaerobic citrate utilization or decomposition in Simmons' minimal and in Kauffmann's peptone water medium. PMID:3529797

  15. A Projector-Embedding Approach for Multiscale Coupled-Cluster Calculations Applied to Citrate Synthase.

    PubMed

    Bennie, Simon J; van der Kamp, Marc W; Pennifold, Robert C R; Stella, Martina; Manby, Frederick R; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2016-06-14

    Projector-based embedding has recently emerged as a robust multiscale method for the calculation of various electronic molecular properties. We present the coupling of projector embedding with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics modeling and apply it for the first time to an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Using projector-based embedding, we combine coupled-cluster theory, density-functional theory (DFT), and molecular mechanics to compute energies for the proton abstraction from acetyl-coenzyme A by citrate synthase. By embedding correlated ab initio methods in DFT we eliminate functional sensitivity and obtain high-accuracy profiles in a procedure that is straightforward to apply. PMID:27159381

  16. Gallium citrate Ga 67 scintigraphic detection of chronic osteomyelitis in children with leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Ettinger, L.J.

    1986-03-01

    Chronic osteomyelitis producing unexplained fevers without localizing symptomatology may present difficulty in detection and differentiation in patients with leukemia. Gallium citrate Ga 67 scintigraphy offers a method of detection and localization of both the osseous and extraosseous manifestations of such a process. Once identified, further evaluation by conventional radiographic or sectional imaging techniques may further define the process. We describe three patients with leukemia and unexplained fever in whom occult chronic osteomyelitis was diagnosed by 67Ga scintigraphy, which offers an ideal screening procedure and should be utilized in this clinical setting.

  17. Physical Property of Magnesium Doped Barium Hexaferrite Particles By Citrate Precursor Route In Presence Of Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Paladiya, Snehal; Chauhan, C. C.; Jotania, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    M-type Barium Magnesium hexaferrite with the composition BaMg{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was successfully prepared with and without surfactant by using a citrate precursor route. The obtained precursors were calcined at various temperatures. The crystalline structure, phase analysis and particle size were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. It is observed that the surfactant addition controls the microstructure of the formed Barium Magnesium hexaferrite particles and the type of surfactant plays a crucial role in deciding the morphology of particles.

  18. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Nanosized Magnesium Doped Zinc Ferrite Synthesized by Citrate Precursor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Bansal, Shweta Dikshu; Singh, Simranjit

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles of MgxZn1-xFe2O4 ferrite (where x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.5,) are synthesized via citrate precursor method and then all the samples are sintered at 600 °C for 1 hour. The prepared samples are characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscope) and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). The M-H curves show evidence of a superparamagnetic (SPM) regime in the synthesized ferrites.

  19. Citrate substitutes for homocitrate in nitrogenase of a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jihong; Madden, M.; Shah, V.K.; Burris, R.H. )

    1990-09-18

    An organic acid extracted from purified dinitrogenase isolated from a nifV mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae has been identified as citric acid. H{sub 2} evolution by the citrate-containing dinitrogenase is partially inhibited by CO, and by some substrates for nitrogenase. The response of maximum velocities to changes in pH for both the wild-type and the NifV{sup {minus}} dinitrogenase was compared. No substantial differences between the enzymes were observed, but there are minor differences. Both enzymes are stable in the pH range 4.8-10, but the enzyme activities dropped dramatically below pH 6.2.

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Sildenafil Citrate (Viagra) on Vertebral Artery Blood Flow in Patients with Vertebro-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Berilgen, Sait; Ozdemir, Huseyin; Tekatas, Aslan; Ogur, Erkin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on the vertebral artery blood flow of patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency (VBI) using color duplex sonography (CDS). Materials and Methods The study included 21 patients with VBI (aged 31-76; mean 61.0 ± 10.5 yrs). We administered a 50 mg oral dose of sildenafil citrate to all patients. Next, we measured the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), end diastolic velocity (Vmin), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), diameter, area, and flow volume (FV) of vertebral arteries using CDS before the administration of sildenafil citrate; 45 minutes after, and 75 minutes after administration. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The statistical test used to determine the outcome of the analysis was the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results Compared to the baseline values, the vertebral artery diameter, area, and FV increased significantly following the administration of sildenafil citrate. The diameter, area and FV increased from 3.39 mm at 45 minutes to 3.64 mm at 75 minutes, 9.43 cm2 to 10.80 cm2 at 45 minutes and 10.81 cm2 at 75 minutes, as well as from 0.07 L/min at baseline to 0.09 L/min at 45 minutes and unchanged at 75 minutes, respectively. Conclusion Sildenafil citrate elicited a significant effect on vertebral artery diameter, area and FVs. PMID:19039262

  1. Cost-effectiveness of treatment strategies in women with PCOS who do not conceive after six cycles of clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed

    Moolenaar, Lobke M; Nahuis, Marleen J; Hompes, Peter G; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who ovulate on clomiphene citrate but do not conceive after six cycles. A decision-analytic framework was developed for six scenarios: (1) three cycles of IVF; (2) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, followed by three cycles of IVF in case of no birth; (3) six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (4) 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (5) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, six cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF; (6) continuation of clomiphene citrate for six cycles, 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and three cycles of IVF. Two-year cumulative birth rates were 58%, 74%, 89%, 97%, 93% and 98% and costs per couple were € 9518, € 7530, € 9711, € 9764, € 7651 and € 7684 for scenarios 1-6, respectively. Scenario 2 was the lowest cost option. The extra cost for at least one live birth in scenario 5 was € 629 and in scenario 6 € 630. In these subjects, continuation of treatment for six cycles of clomiphene citrate, 6 or 12 cycles of gonadotrophins and IVF is potentially cost-effective. These results should be confirmed in a randomized clinical trial. PMID:24656560

  2. Allatostatin-C reversibly blocks the transport of citrate out of the mitochondria and inhibits juvenile hormone synthesis in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-02-01

    Aedes aegypti allatostatin-C (AeaAST-C or PISCF-AST) is a strong and fast reversible inhibitor of juvenile hormone III (JH III) synthesis by the corpora allata (CA) of mosquitoes; however, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. AeaAST-C showed no inhibitory activity in the presence of any of the intermediate precursors of JH III indicating that the AeaAST-C target is located before the entry of acetyl-CoA in the pathway. Stimulation experiments using different sources of carbon (glucose, pyruvate, acetate and citrate) suggest that AST-C acts after pyruvate is transformed to citrate in the mitochondria. In vitro inhibition of the citrate mitochondrial carrier (CIC) mimicked the effect of AeaAST-C, and was overridden by addition of citrate or acetate. Our results provide compelling evidence that AeaAST-C inhibits JH III synthesis by blocking the CIC carrier that transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol, obstructing the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA that sustains JH III synthesis in the CA of mosquitoes. PMID:25500428

  3. The FRD3 Citrate Effluxer Promotes Iron Nutrition between Symplastically Disconnected Tissues throughout Arabidopsis Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Séguéla-Arnaud, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    We present data supporting a general role for FERRIC REDICTASE DEFECTIVE3 (FRD3), an efflux transporter of the efficient iron chelator citrate, in maintaining iron homeostasis throughout plant development. In addition to its well-known expression in root, we show that FRD3 is strongly expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana seed and flower. Consistently, frd3 loss-of-function mutants are defective in early germination and are almost completely sterile, both defects being rescued by iron and/or citrate supply. The frd3 fertility defect is caused by pollen abortion and is associated with the male gametophytic expression of FRD3. Iron imaging shows the presence of important deposits of iron on the surface of aborted pollen grains. This points to a role for FRD3 and citrate in proper iron nutrition of embryo and pollen. Based on the findings that iron acquisition in embryo, leaf, and pollen depends on FRD3, we propose that FRD3 mediated-citrate release in the apoplastic space represents an important process by which efficient iron nutrition is achieved between adjacent tissues lacking symplastic connections. These results reveal a physiological role for citrate in the apoplastic transport of iron throughout development, and provide a general model for multicellular organisms in the cell-to-cell transport of iron involving extracellular circulation. PMID:21742986

  4. Adaptive responses of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in fast-twitch muscle of voluntary running rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, E. J.; Halseth, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein, hexokinase, and citrate synthase (proteins involved in oxidative energy production from blood glucose catabolism) increase in response to chronically elevated neuromuscular activity. It is currently unclear whether these proteins increase in a coordinated manner in response to this stimulus. Therefore, voluntary wheel running (WR) was used to chronically overload the fast-twitch rat plantaris muscle and the myocardium, and the early time courses of adaptative responses of GLUT-4 protein and the activities of hexokinase and citrate synthase were characterized and compared. Plantaris hexokinase activity increased 51% after just 1 wk of WR, whereas GLUT-4 and citrate synthase were increased by 51 and 40%, respectively, only after 2 wk of WR. All three variables remained comparably elevated (+50-64%) through 4 wk of WR. Despite the overload of the myocardium with this protocol, no substantial elevations in these variables were observed. These findings are consistent with a coordinated upregulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase in the fast-twitch plantaris, but not in the myocardium, in response to this increased neuromuscular activity. Regulation of hexokinase in fast-twitch muscle appears to be uncoupled from regulation of GLUT-4 and citrate synthase, as increases in the former are detectable well before increases in the latter.

  5. Studies on the effect of toothpaste rinses on plaque regrowth. (II). Triclosan with and without zinc citrate formulations.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S; Addy, M; Newcombe, R

    1989-07-01

    Encouraging findings have been reported for the effects of Triclosan/zinc citrate toothpastes on plaque regrowth and in some studies gingival health. To date, commercially-available toothpastes contain 0.2% Triclosan with or without 0.5% zinc citrate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on 4-day plaque regrowth, of a number of 0.2% Triclosan toothpastes with or without zinc citrate. All of the toothpastes contained varying levels of anionic detergent sodium lauryl sulphate and were compared with a commercially available toothpaste without Triclosan or zinc citrate and a 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The toothpastes were used as slurry twice a day and plaque regrowth scored by area and the criteria of the debris index. Plaque inhibition was significantly greater with the chlorhexidine mouthrinse than with all of the toothpastes. There were no significant differences in plaque scores between any of the toothpastes. It would appear that at the concentration of 0.2% Triclosan with or without 0.5% zinc citrate provides little if any additional benefit to plaque inhibition to that produced by a conventional toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulphate. PMID:2760251

  6. Ferric Citrate

    PubMed Central

    Cada, Dennis J.; Cong, Jasen; Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The February 2015 monograph topics are netupitant/palonosetron, naltrxone SR/bupropion SR, nintedanib, pirfenidone, and ivabradine. The Safety MUE is on netupitant/palonosetron. PMID:25717210

  7. Ferric citrate.

    PubMed

    Cada, Dennis J; Cong, Jasen; Baker, Danial E

    2015-02-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The February 2015 monograph topics are netupitant/palonosetron, naltrxone SR/bupropion SR, nintedanib, pirfenidone, and ivabradine. The Safety MUE is on netupitant/palonosetron. PMID:25717210

  8. Soy polysaccharide as a novel superdisintegrant in sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Mosli, Hisham Ahmed; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SC), a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays inadequate aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of its action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of SC include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to prepare SC as a sublingual tablet utilizing soy polysaccharide as novel superdisintegrant to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of SC in various hydrophilic carrier solutions was estimated in order to prepare the drug as a coprecipitate. Sublingual tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time, dissolution rate, and stability study. The pharmacokinetic study of the tablets was carried out on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the co-precipitation of SC with polyvinylpyrollidone K30 enhanced the solubility of SC by more than eight folds. The tablet contained 8% soy polysaccharide as a superdisintegrant and provided a wetting time of 25 seconds, and in vitro dispersion times of 55 seconds. The drug release was found to be 95.6%. The prepared SC sublingual tablet also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced 1.68-fold compared with that of the marketed tablets. It can be concluded that SC sublingual tablet is a promising formulation that results in higher solubility, faster dispersion and onset of action, higher release rate, and higher systemic bioavailability. PMID:25624751

  9. Soy polysaccharide as a novel superdisintegrant in sildenafil citrate sublingual tablets: preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Khaled Mohamed; Mosli, Hisham Ahmed; Hassan, Ali Habiballah

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate (SC), a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction, is available in tablet form but has three major problems. First, the drug displays inadequate aqueous solubility, which delays the onset of its action. Second, the drug undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low (40%) bioavailability. Third, the gastrointestinal effects of SC include dyspepsia and a burning sensation. The aim of this research was to prepare SC as a sublingual tablet utilizing soy polysaccharide as novel superdisintegrant to mitigate the abovementioned problems. The solubility of SC in various hydrophilic carrier solutions was estimated in order to prepare the drug as a coprecipitate. Sublingual tablets were prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time, dissolution rate, and stability study. The pharmacokinetic study of the tablets was carried out on healthy volunteers. The results indicated that the co-precipitation of SC with polyvinylpyrollidone K30 enhanced the solubility of SC by more than eight folds. The tablet contained 8% soy polysaccharide as a superdisintegrant and provided a wetting time of 25 seconds, and in vitro dispersion times of 55 seconds. The drug release was found to be 95.6%. The prepared SC sublingual tablet also exhibited a rapid onset of action, and its bioavailability was enhanced 1.68-fold compared with that of the marketed tablets. It can be concluded that SC sublingual tablet is a promising formulation that results in higher solubility, faster dispersion and onset of action, higher release rate, and higher systemic bioavailability. PMID:25624751

  10. Irrigation with N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine (NVC-422) in a citrate buffer maintains urinary catheter patency in vitro and prevents encrustation by Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Rani, Suriani Abdul; Celeri, Chris; Najafi, Ron; Bley, Keith; Debabov, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Long-term use of indwelling urinary catheters can lead to urinary tract infections and loss of catheter patency due to encrustation and blockage. Encrustation of urinary catheters is due to formation of crystalline biofilms by urease-producing microorganisms such as Proteus mirabilis. An in vitro catheter biofilm model (CBM) was used to evaluate current methods for maintaining urinary catheter patency. We compared antimicrobial-coated urinary Foley catheters, with both available catheter irrigation solutions and investigational solutions containing NVC-422 (N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine; a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial). Inoculation of the CBM reactor with 10(8) colony-forming units of P. mirabilis resulted in crystalline biofilm formation in catheters by 48 h and blockage of catheters within 5 days. Silver hydrogel or nitrofurazone-coated catheters did not extend the duration of catheter patency. Catheters irrigated daily with commercially available solutions such as 0.25 % acetic acid and isotonic saline blocked at the same rate as untreated catheters. Daily irrigations of catheters with 0.2 % NVC-422 in 10 mM acetate-buffered saline pH 4 or Renacidin maintained catheter patency throughout 10-day studies, but P. mirabilis colonization of the CBM remained. In contrast, 0.2 % NVC-422 in citrate buffer (6.6 % citric acid at pH 3.8) resulted in an irrigation solution that not only maintained catheter patency for 10 days but also completely eradicated the P. mirabilis biofilm within one treatment day. These data suggest that an irrigation solution containing the rapidly bactericidal antimicrobial NVC-422 in combination with citric acid to permeabilize crystalline biofilm may significantly enhance catheter patency versus other approved irrigation solutions and antimicrobial-coated catheters. PMID:26282899

  11. Safety and efficacy of sildenafil citrate in reversal of cerebral vasospasm: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Kanchan K.; Singh, Shrawan K.; Khosla, Virender K.; Mohindra, Sandeep; Salunke, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Cerebral vasospasm is the commonest cause for mortality and morbidity in patients following clipping of a ruptured aneurysm. Selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor like sildenafil acts as a vasodilator. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of oral sildenafil citrate in patients with symptomatic refractory vasospasm. Methods: A total of 832 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid bleed were operated in 4 years. Two hundred and seventy-three patients had vasospasm. Of these, 72 patients had refractory cerebral vasospasm. Vasospasm was defined as refractory when institution of “HHH” failed to reverse the transcranial Doppler (TCD) values even after 24 hours. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed no infarct, hematoma, or hydrocephalus, and the serum electrolytes were within normal limits. They received 100–150 mg of sildenafil every 4 hours. Response was evaluated by 2-hourly TCD. Results: Eight patients had sustained (TCD values normal for >48 hours) and four had temporary relief in vasospasm, as suggested. Four patients developed complications significant enough to terminate the therapy. Conclusions: Sildenafil citrate may be effective in patients with refractory symptomatic vasospasm. It calls upon the pharmacologists and scientists to discover newer supraselective PDE inhibitors, specific to PDE receptors in brain vessels. PMID:22347673

  12. Fine-tuning citrate synthase flux potentiates and refines metabolic innovation in the Lenski evolution experiment.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Gollihar, Jimmy; Blount, Zachary D; Ellington, Andrew D; Georgiou, George; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations that enable organisms to colonize new ecological niches are rare compared to gradual evolutionary changes in existing traits. We discovered that key mutations in the gltA gene, which encodes citrate synthase (CS), occurred both before and after Escherichia coli gained the ability to grow aerobically on citrate (Cit(+) phenotype) during the Lenski long-term evolution experiment. The first gltA mutation, which increases CS activity by disrupting NADH-inhibition of this enzyme, is beneficial for growth on the acetate and contributed to preserving the rudimentary Cit(+) trait from extinction when it first evolved. However, after Cit(+) was refined by further mutations, this potentiating gltA mutation became deleterious to fitness. A second wave of beneficial gltA mutations then evolved that reduced CS activity to below the ancestral level. Thus, dynamic reorganization of central metabolism made colonizing this new nutrient niche contingent on both co-opting and overcoming a history of prior adaptation. PMID:26465114

  13. Fine-tuning citrate synthase flux potentiates and refines metabolic innovation in the Lenski evolution experiment

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Erik M; Gollihar, Jimmy; Blount, Zachary D; Ellington, Andrew D; Georgiou, George; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations that enable organisms to colonize new ecological niches are rare compared to gradual evolutionary changes in existing traits. We discovered that key mutations in the gltA gene, which encodes citrate synthase (CS), occurred both before and after Escherichia coli gained the ability to grow aerobically on citrate (Cit+ phenotype) during the Lenski long-term evolution experiment. The first gltA mutation, which increases CS activity by disrupting NADH-inhibition of this enzyme, is beneficial for growth on the acetate and contributed to preserving the rudimentary Cit+ trait from extinction when it first evolved. However, after Cit+ was refined by further mutations, this potentiating gltA mutation became deleterious to fitness. A second wave of beneficial gltA mutations then evolved that reduced CS activity to below the ancestral level. Thus, dynamic reorganization of central metabolism made colonizing this new nutrient niche contingent on both co-opting and overcoming a history of prior adaptation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09696.001 PMID:26465114

  14. Discovery of an iron-regulated citrate synthase in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Johnson; Murphy, Michael E P; Heinrichs, David E

    2012-12-21

    Bacteria need to scavenge iron from their environment, and this is no less important for bacterial pathogens while attempting to survive in the mammalian host. One key strategy is the synthesis of small iron chelators known as siderophores. The study of siderophore biosynthesis systems over the past several years has shed light on novel enzymology and, as such, has identified new therapeutic targets. Staphylococcus aureus, a noted human and animal pathogen, produces two citrate-based siderophores, termed staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B. The iron-regulated gene cluster for the biosynthesis of staphyloferrin B, sbnA-I, contains several yet uncharacterized genes. Here, we report on the identification of an enzyme, SbnG, which is annotated in the genome sequence as a metal-dependent class II aldolase. In contrast to this prediction, we report that, instead, SbnG has evolved to catalyze metal-independent citrate synthase activity using oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA as substrates. We describe an in vitro assay to synthesize biologically active staphyloferrin B from purified enzymes and substrates, and identify several SbnG inhibitors, including metals such as calcium and magnesium. PMID:23261600

  15. The Metabolic Reprogramming Evoked by Nitrosative Stress Triggers the Anaerobic Utilization of Citrate in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Christopher; Lemire, Joseph; Cecchini, Dominic; Bignucolo, Adam; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrosative stress is an ongoing challenge that most organisms have to contend with. When nitric oxide (NO) that may be generated either exogenously or endogenously encounters reactive oxygen species (ROS), it produces a set of toxic moieties referred to as reactive nitrogen species (RNS). As these RNS can severely damage essential biomolecules, numerous organisms have evolved elaborate detoxification strategies to nullify RNS. However, the contribution of cellular metabolism in fending off nitrosative stress is poorly understood. Using a variety of functional proteomic and metabolomic analyses, we have identified how the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens reprogrammed its metabolic networks to survive in an environment enriched by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a generator of nitrosative stress. To combat the RNS-induced ineffective aconitase (ACN) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the microbe invoked the participation of citrate lyase (CL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) to convert citrate, the sole source of carbon into pyruvate and ATP. These enzymes were not evident in the control conditions. This metabolic shift was coupled to the concomitant increase in the activities of such classical RNS detoxifiers as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NIR) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). Hence, metabolism may hold the clues to the survival of organisms subjected to nitrosative stress and may provide therapeutic cues against RNS-resistant microbes. PMID:22145048

  16. Nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots from ammonium citrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Xu, Minghan; Liu, Yun; He, Fengjiao; Gao, Feng; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis.The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The curve of photoluminescence and absorbance of N-doped CDs and quinine sulfate, and the table showing XPS detailed information. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05380f

  17. Sublingual fentanyl citrate for cancer-related breakthrough pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G

    2001-07-01

    The effects of sublingual fentanyl citrate (SLFC) were assessed in 11 hospice inpatients with cancer-related breakthrough pain. Patients were asked to rate their pain, using a visual analogue scale, before SLFC, then after 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Six patients (55%) had reductions in pain scores at 10 min and nine patients (82%) at 15 min. Ratings for SLFC were very good (18%), good (36%), moderate (28%), and bad (18%). Compared to the usual breakthrough medication, SLFC was better (46%), the same (36%), or worse (18%). Advantages of SLFC included ease of use, quick onset of action and no associated drowsiness. No systemic adverse events were noted, but two patients reported dry mouth and two a bitter taste. Two patients found it difficult to retain the medication under the tongue. Seven patients (64%) said they would continue to use SLFC. Sublingual fentanyl citrate appears safe and well tolerated by these patients. Randomized placebo-controlled and dose ranging studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:12054149

  18. Influence of citrate-nitrate reaction mixture packing on ceramic powder properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupan, Klementina; Kolar, Drago; Marinšek, Marjan

    Lanthanum chromite-based materials have a good prospect for use in various high temperature applications, as well as an SOFC separator. A citrate-nitrate gel combustion reaction was used for the preparation of submicron crystalline strontium-substituted lanthanum chromite (LSC). The effect of the fuel-oxidant molar ratio and sample form prior to combustion was investigated in terms of reaction period, phase formation, particle size, morphology and agglomerate formation. Several characterization methods including scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, BET measurement, X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis were used to evaluate the influence of reaction mixture packing on powder characteristics for different citrate-nitrate (c/n) ratios. It was shown that the reaction period depends on the fuel/oxidant ratio and reaction mixture packing. The LSC powders prepared via the combustion route exhibited surface areas of about 12 m 2/g for the loose packed layer prepared samples and 7 to 11 m 2/g for samples prepared from a pellet. The nature of the agglomerates was studied from the pore size distribution in the green compacts pressed at different pressures. The sintering behaviour of powders and some of the electrical properties of sintered samples are reported. Sintering tests on LSC powders prepared via the combustion route showed that the sintering process started at about 900°C and proceeded in two steps in the presence of a liquid phase.

  19. Control of phosphofructokinase from rat skeletal muscle. Effects of fructose diphosphate, AMP, ATP, and citrate.

    PubMed

    Tornheim, K; Lowenstein, J M

    1976-12-10

    Under conditions used previously for demonstrating glycolytic oscillations in muscle extracts (pH 6.65, 0.1 to 0.5 mM ATP), phosphofructokinase from rat skeletal muscle is strongly activated by micromolar concentrations of fructose diphosphate. The activation is dependent on the presence of AMP. Activation by fructose diphosphate and AMP, and inhibition by ATP, is primarily due to large changes in the apparent affinity of the enzyme for the substrate fructose 6-phosphate. These control properties can account for the generation of glycolytic oscillations. The enzyme was also studied under conditions approximating the metabolite contents of skeletal muscle in vivo (pH 7.0, 10mM ATP, 0.1 mM fructose 6-phosphate). Under these more inhibitory conditions, phosphofructokinase is strongly activated by low concentrations of fructose diphosphate, with half-maximal activation at about 10 muM. Citrate is a potent inhibitor at physiological concentrations, whereas AMP is a strong activator. Both AMP and citrate affect the maximum velocity and have little effect on affinity of the enzyme for fructose diphosphate. PMID:12161

  20. Supplementation of clomiphene citrate cycles with Cimicifuga racemosa or ethinyl oestradiol--a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Ahmed Y; Ismail, Alaa M; Shaaban, Omar M

    2009-10-01

    The anti-oestrogenic activity of clomiphene citrate (CC) on the cervical mucous and endometrium may be the reason for the relatively low pregnancy rates in CC induction cycles. Various follicular-phase supplements have been tried to improve cycle outcome in these patients. This study compared follicular-phase supplementation with either phytoestrogen (PE) or ethinyl oestradiol (EE) in CC induction cycles for the treatment of unexplained infertility. A total of 134 patients were randomly allocated to each treatment group (67 each). The PE group needed significantly fewer days for adequate follicular maturation, had a thicker endometrium and higher oestradiol concentration at the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin injection (all P < 0.001). The PE group had higher luteal-phase serum progesterone compared with the EE group. No significant difference was found regarding clinical pregnancy rates (14.0% versus 21.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the cycle characteristics in unexplained infertility women treated with clomiphene citrate induction and timed intercourse improved after follicular-phase supplementation with PE compared with EE supplementation. Further studies are needed to confirm the mechanism beyond these effects. PMID:19909590