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Sample records for citratus ocimum gratissimum

  1. In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Tchoumbougnang, F; Zollo, P H; Dagne, E; Mekonnen, Y

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 %), beta-phellandrene (21.1 %), limonene (11.4 %) and thymol (11.2 %), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 %), neral (29.0 %), myrcene (16.2 %) and beta-pinene (10.5 %). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 %, 81.7 % and 86.6 %. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 %, 75.2 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %. PMID:15678368

  2. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils. PMID:19268382

  3. Eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotypes of essential oil of species Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum campechianum Mill. from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pino Benitez, Nayive; Meléndez León, Erika M; Stashenko, Elena E

    2009-10-01

    Essential oils chemical constituents of leaves of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum of the Lamiaceae family, collected in Chocó of northwest Colombian, were obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 33 and 37 compounds were identified in the essential oil of O. gratissimum and O. campechianum, respectively. O. gratissimum's main essential oils were eugenol (43.2%), 1,8-cineole (12.8%) and beta-selinene (9.0%); in the O. campechianum essential oil, the main components were methyl eugenol (12.0%), germacrene D (10.1%), and eugenol (9.0%). Main distribution of compounds in these essential oils are 25.0% monoterpenes hydrocarbons, 15.0% monoterpenes oxygenated, 35.0% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, 7.5% other oxygenated components for O. gratissimum, 33.9% sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, and 10.7% their respective oxygenated derivates; for O. campechianum, the distribution was 10.7% monoterpenes hydrocarbons and 7.1% their respective oxygenated derivates and 3.6% phenylpropanes. According to the essential oils chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum and O. campechianum, they are classified as eugenol and methyl eugenol chemotype, respectively. PMID:19835692

  4. Protective effects of Ocimum gratissimum polyphenol extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yieng-How; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Shyu, Jyh-Cherng; Tsai, Chin-Chiu; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hung, Chuan-Chen; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hong

    2015-02-28

    Ocimum gratissimum found in tropical regions is a traditional herb commonly which prevents free radical damage and protects liver from oxidative stress and fibrosis. Ocimum gratissimum polyphenol extract (OGPE) was purified by resin tube to 33.24% polyphenol and 8.2% flavonoid, which were three-fold higher compared with the pre-purification concentrations. The abstract was used to determine if the antioxidant components in the O. gratissimum extract (OGE) were responsible for protective effects on liver fibrosis. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the content levels of catechin, caffeic acid and epicatechin in OGPE also increased three-fold. Male Wistar rats were administered with carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) and varying amounts of OGPE doses [0-12 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or OGE dose (40 mg/kg BW) for 8 weeks. Results showed that OGPE at 12 mg/kg BW, similar to OGE at 40 mg/kg BW, maintained the liver weight, significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced steatosis, and mitigated other pathological changes. OGPE (12 mg/kg BW) also maintained the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the levels of malondialdehyde, catalase and α-smooth muscle actin in liver tissues from CCl₄-induced changes. These findings suggest that antioxidant components in OGPE were the major factors that prevented liver fibrosis. Moreover, higher polyphenol concentrations were necessary for higher effectiveness. PMID:25687492

  5. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic evaluation of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, a culinary herb

    PubMed Central

    Okoli, C. O.; Ezike, A. C.; Agwagah, O. C.; Akah, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of leaf extracts and fraction of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) were studied using seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol and open-field tests in mice. The results showed that the extracts and fraction increased the latency of tonic and tonic-clonic seizures and death and elicited 50% protection against mortality. In the open-field test, the extracts and fraction decreased the frequency of line crossing, center square entries, rearing against a wall and grooming, whereas grooming duration and freezing frequency and duration were increased. Acute toxicity test in mice gave an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg for the methanol extract. These findings suggest that extracts of this plant possess anticonvulsant and anxiolytic-like properties. PMID:21808537

  6. The anthelmintic effects of the leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.).

    PubMed

    Njoku, C J; Asuzu, I U

    1998-12-01

    The leaf extract (F005) of Ocimum gratissimum was isolated by a bioassay-guided chromatographic separation technique using the brine shrimp lethality test assay. The effects of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/ml) of F005 were tested in vitro on infective larvae (L(3)) of Haemonchus contortus and Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Cockerels experimentally infected with Ascaridia galli infective eggs were also treated with various doses (500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg) of F005 in vivo. F005 produced 15% and 16.6% paralysis of H. contortus and H. polygyrus larvae, respectively, at 8 mg/ml. It induced significant anthelmintic effect in chicks infected with A. galli in a dose-dependent manner with 1,500 mg/kg producing the highest effect (55.8%). PMID:23196034

  7. Ocimum gratissimum retards breast cancer growth and progression and is a natural inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Li, Hong; Balan, Vitaly; Makker, Hemanckur; Fridman, Rafael; Maddipati, Krishnarao; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum genus (a.k.a holy basil or tulsi) is a dietary herb used for its multiple beneficial pharmacologic properties including anti-cancer activity. Here we show that crude extract of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) and its hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions (HB and HL) differentially inhibit breast cancer cell chemotaxis and chemoinvasion in vitro and retard tumor growth and temporal progression of MCF10ADCIS.com xenografts, a model of human breast comedo-ductal carcinoma in situ (comedo-DCIS). OG-induced inhibition of tumor growth was associated with decreases in basement membrane disintegration, angiogenesis and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as confirmed by in situ gelatin zymography and cleavage of galectin-3. There was also decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned media of OG-treated MCF10AT1 and MCF10AT1-EIII8 premalignant human breast cancer cells as compared with control. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities of OG were verified in vitro using gelatin, a synthetic fluorogenic peptide and recombinant galectin-3 as MMP substrates. Mice fed on OG-supplemented drinking water showed no adverse effects compared with control. These data suggest that OG is non-toxic and that the anti-cancer therapeutic activity of OG may in part be contributed by its MMP inhibitory activity. PMID:23380593

  8. Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptotic Signalling in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell A549

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Min; Lee, Mu-Jang; Kuo, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Pei-Lin; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is widely used as a traditional herb for its antibacterial activity in Taiwan. Recently, antitumor effect of OG on breast cancer cell is also reported; however, the effects of OG on human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell A549 remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether aqueous OG extract (OGE) affects viability of A549 cells and the signals induced by OGE in A549 cells. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of A549 cell but not that of BEAS-2B cell. Morphological examination and DAPI staining indicated that OGE induced cell shrinkage and DNA condensation for A549 cells. Further investigation showed that OGE enhanced activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and caspase-8 and increased protein level of Apaf-1 and Bak, but diminished the level of Bcl-2. Additionally, OGE inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) yet enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase (p38). In conclusion, our findings indicate that OGE suppressed the cell viability of A549 cells, which may result from the activation of apoptotic signaling and the inhibition of anti-apoptotic signaling, suggesting that OGE might be beneficial to lung carcinoma treatment. PMID:20953389

  9. Improvement in nutrient handling in STZ induced diabetic rats treated with Ocimum gratissimum

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Davies, Koofreh Godwin; Olubobokun, Titilope Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alteration in digestive and absorptive enzymatic activities has been reported in diabetes mellitus (DM), but not with Ocimum gratissimum (OG) treatment. This study was, therefore, designed to indirectly assess the effect of DM and treatment with OG on nutrient digestion and absorption, through estimation of their fecal excretion. Materials and Methods: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of six per group for control, DM and diabetic mellitus treated (DMT). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in the test groups. OG was administered to the DMT group at dose of 1500 mg/kg once daily for 28 days. Fecal glucose, protein and cholesterol were determined. Results: Fecal glucose was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group compared to the control and DMT groups, with the DMT groups significantly (P < 0.001) lower than the control. Fecal protein was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the DM group than the control whereas it was significantly lower in the DMT groups than the DM. Fecal cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the DM than the DMT and control groups with DMT significantly (P < 0.01) higher than the control. Conclusion: This result indicates the propensity of OG to reverse impairment of nutrient digestion and absorption in DM. PMID:25664269

  10. Beneficial Effects of Ocimum gratissimum Aqueous Extract on Rats with CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Yi-Wen; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum (OG) is known as a food spice and traditional herb, which has been recommended for the treatment of various diseases. To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of OG aqueous extract (OGAE), male Wistar rats challenged by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used as the animal model of chronic hepatic injury. Significantly increased serum catalase and DPPH levels were detected in CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or silymarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. In contrast, significantly decreased stress proteins including HSP70 and iNOS were observed in livers of CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or sylimarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. Moreover, significant decreases of MMP-9/MMP-2 ratio, uPA, phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) and NF-κB (p-P65) were detected in livers of CCl4-administrated rats that were treated with OGAE or sylimarin as compared to those rats that were treated with saline or CCl4. These findings imply that OGAE can efficiently inhibit CCl4-induced liver injuries in rats and may therefore be a potential food or herb for preventing liver injuries. PMID:22792126

  11. Anti-inflammatory, Anti-nociceptive and Total polyphenolic Content of Hydroethanolic Extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, AM; Tanayen, JK; Ezeonwumelu, JOC; Dare, S; Okwanachi, A; Adzu, B; Ademowo, OG

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum gratissimum has been reported in several ethnopharmacological surveys as a plant readily accessible to the communities and widely used with a lot of therapeutic potentials. In this study, we aimed to experimentally evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of hydro-ethanolic extract in animal models of inflammation and nociception and membrane stabilization assay. O gratissimum leaves hydroethanolic extract was subjected to phytochemical screening and spectrophotometric quantification of polyphenolics. The extract was investigated for anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan –induced paw oedema and cotton pellet - induced granuloma in rats. The antinociceptive effects were investigated in acetic acid –induced writhing in mice and formalin test in rats. Animals were randomly divided into groups; negative control, extract treated (200 -800 mg/kg) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg) standard reference groups. In- vitro anti-inflammatory activity was performed by testing for membrane stability in heat/hypotonic solution –induced rat erythrocytes destabilization assay. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and cardenolides. Quantification of the polyphenolic content revealed the presence of appreciable quantities of phenolics and flavonoids. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema, cotton-pellet granuloma, acetic acid –induced writhing and formalin induced paw licking tests showed that hydroethanolic extract of O gratissimum possess anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects. The extract did not induce gastric lesion formation in stomach of cotton-pellet granuloma rats. The extract was more efficient at reducing membrane destabilization than indomethacin in the membrane stability assay. These results suggest that hydroethanolic extract of O gratissimum leaves exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in the animals. PMID:26689550

  12. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  13. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    PubMed Central

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. PMID:24995776

  14. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens. PMID:25522548

  15. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  16. Aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum improves hematological parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats via its antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Shehu-Tijani Toyin; Oyeyemi, Wahab A; Lasisi, Taye J; Shittu, Seyid Alli-Siise; Lawal, Temitope T; Olujobi, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on hematological parameters and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five male rats (150–200 g) were randomly grouped into five as control, normal + OG, diabetic untreated, diabetic + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups. Diabetes was induced by 100 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in the diabetic untreated and diabetic + OG groups followed by treatment with distilled water and 400 mg/kg OG, respectively, whereas control, normal + OG, and diabetic + glibenclamide groups were treated with distilled water, 400 mg/kg OG, and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, respectively. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored weekly. After 28 days of treatments, under anesthesia induced by 50 mg/kg sodium thiopental i.p., blood samples were obtained for hematological analysis, malondialdehyde (MDA) level determination, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Data were compared using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic + OG animals compared to the diabetic untreated and the initial reduction in weight observed in this group was reversed at the end of the experiments. Packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the diabetic + OG when compared with the untreated group. The MDA concentration was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) in the diabetic + OG group when compared with diabetic untreated while SOD activity was significantly reduced in the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: It was concluded that OG reverses anemia secondary to alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats probably via its antioxidant activity. PMID:27127737

  17. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts. PMID:23334722

  18. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. PMID:25881633

  19. Creams Formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. Crude Extracts and Fractions as Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm2 in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. PMID:25881633

  20. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    PubMed

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the dry matter, moisture content, ash, crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat contents of the leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p < 0.05) decreased the carbohydrate and the calorific value of the leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures. PMID:24494518

  1. Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protection

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Das, Subhasis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (ME-Og) was tested against nicotine-induced murine peritoneal macrophage in vitro. Phytochemical analysis of ME-Og shown high amount of flavonoid and phenolic compound present in it. The cytotoxic effect of ME-Og was studied in murine peritoneal macrophages at different concentrations (0.1 to 100 µg/ml) using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. To establish the protective role of ME-Og against nicotine toxicity, peritoneal macrophages from mice were treated with nicotine (10 mM), nicotine + ME-Og (1 to 25 µg/ml) for 12 h in culture media. The significantly (p < 0.05) increased super oxide anion generation, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in ME-Og supplemented groups in concentration dependent manner. More over, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status due to nicotine exposure was effectively ameliorated by ME-Og supplementation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Among the different concentration of ME-Og, maximum protective effect was observed by 25 µg/ml, which does not produce significant cell cytotoxicity in murine peritoneal macrophages. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of O. gratissimum as a modulator of nicotine-induced free radical generation, lipid-protein damage and antioxidant status in important immune cell, peritoneal macrophages. PMID:20716908

  2. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (p<0.05) in oxidative stress parameters (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and malondialdehyde, MDA) and increased expression of the apoptotic initiator caspase 8 in the heart and kidneys. There was significant reduction (p<0.05) in reduced glutathione (GSH) in cardiac and renal tissues; reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the kidneys and adaptive increases in Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). CoCl2 also produced significant reduction (p<0.05) in systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures. Oral COG and gallic acid treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) the levels of H2O2 and MDA; with reduced expression of caspase 8 and restoration of GSH levels, GPx, SOD and CAT activities, howbeit, to varying degrees in the heart and kidneys. COG (200mg/kg) was most effective in restoring the blood pressures in the rats to near control levels. CoCl2-induced histopathological lesions including myocardial infarction and inflammation and renal tubular necrosis and inflammation were effectively ameliorated by the treatments administered. This study provides evidence for the protective roles of O. gratissimum and gallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats. PMID:27259349

  3. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the synthesis of essential oils and the isomerization of methyl chavicol and trans-anethole in Ocimum gratissimum L.

    PubMed

    Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Moustakime, Youssef; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Basil (O. gratissimum L) is a aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine in Morocco. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three plant growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the content and composition of essential oils of this plant, especially on the main compound (methyl chavicol) and its isomer (the trans-anethole). The results showed a wide variation on yield, content and range of the molecule constituent of oil, with a balance of appearances and/or disappearances of a few molecules. GA caused a slight decrease in the oil yield (0.2%), but it increased the diversity of compounds (17 molecules) with the appearance of four new compounds (naphthalene, camphor, germacrene-D, and ledene) and disappearance of (β cedrene, azulene). This variation also caused a very important decrease in the main compound (methyl chavicol) and increases its isomer (trans-anethole). IAA and BAP caused an increase in the yield of essential oil (0.30% and 0.32% respectively) without much influence on the main compounds, but with some change in the composition such as the appearance of (germacrene-D) and the disappearance of (aristolene). PMID:25045609

  4. Larvicidal efficacy and chemical constituents of O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sumitha, K V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-02-01

    The current study accentuates the use of botanicals as an alternative to the chemical compounds in vector control by estimating the mosquito larvicidal potential of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf essential oil against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of essential oil from leaves was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. GC/MS revealed that the essential oil of O. gratissimum contained 51 compounds. The major chemical constituents identified were 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (19.30%), 4-(5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo (2, 2, 2) octan-2) (16.82%), 1-(2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-propanol (12.23%) and 1-(1-hydroxybutyl)-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene (5.53%). The essential oil showed pertinent larvicidal effect, and the LC50 value in 24 h was 26.10 ppm (LC90 = 82.83 ppm). Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used for different applications, and they are more promising pesticides or insecticides for control of mosquito populations than synthetic ones. The results of the present investigation justify the larvicidal potential of leaf essential oil of O. gratissimum as a safer and more effective larvicide against A. albopictus. PMID:26462801

  5. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils of Ocimum species on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae.

    PubMed

    Hüe, T; Cauquil, L; Fokou, J B Hzounda; Dongmo, P M Jazet; Bakarnga-Via, I; Menut, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of essential oils from three Ocimum species. Acaricidal activity of five essential oils extracted from Ocimum gratissimum L. (three samples), O. urticaefolium Roth, and O. canum Sims was evaluated on 14- to 21-day-old Rhipicephalus microplus tick larvae using larval packet test bioassay. These essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing great variations of their chemical compositions according to the botanical species and even within the O. gratissimum species; the acaricidal activity of their main compounds was also evaluated. The essential oils of O. urticaefolium and O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon were the most efficient with respective LC50 values of 0.90 and 0.98%. The two essential oils obtained from O. gratissimum collected in New Caledonia were partially active at a dilution of 5% while the essential oil of O. canum collected in Cameroon showed no acaricidal activity. The chemical analysis shows five different profiles. Whereas the essential oils of O. urticaefolium from Cameroon and O. gratissimum from New Caledonia contain high amounts of eugenol (33.0 and 22.3-61.0%, respectively), 1,8-cineole was the main component of the oil of an O. canum sample from Cameroon (70.2%); the samples of O. gratissimum oils from New Caledonia are also characterized by their high content of (Z)-β-ocimene (17.1-49.8%) while the essential oil of O. gratissimum collected in Cameroon is mainly constituted by two p-menthane derivatives: thymol (30.5%) and γ-terpinene (33.0%). Moreover, the essential oil of O. urticaefolium showed the presence of elemicin (18.1%) as original compound. The tests achieved with the main compounds confirmed the acaricidal activity of eugenol and thymol with residual activity until 0.50 and 1%, respectively, and revealed the acaricidal property of elemicin

  6. Antibacterial properties of the Vietnamese cajeput oil and ocimum oil in combination with antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Jedlicková, Z; Mottl, O; Serý, V

    1992-01-01

    Main antibacterially active agents obtained from plants-Cajeput essential oil--1,8 cineol, linalool, alpha-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, for example from Melalleuce leucadendron (Myrtaceae) as well as essential oil from Ocimum gratissimum (Labiatae) were combined in tests in vitro with selected antibiotics. Above mentioned plant products were found to be effective medicaments for local application in modern medical practice. Combinations with antibiotics potentiated their therapeutical action. On the basis of tests in vitro the synergistic action of these two kinds of medicaments, i.e., preparations traditionally used for a few last decades--antibiotics--might be well applied for therapeutical needs. PMID:1293213

  7. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species. PMID:25844828

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lima, E O; Gompertz, O F; Giesbrecht, A M; Paulo, M Q

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:8015567

  9. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application. PMID:25308098

  10. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  11. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P < 0.05). OB was a little more effective than OG, despite the lower content of chicoric acid in OB. This result strongly suggests that components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. PMID:27218231

  12. Yield and Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum sanctum L. Grown at Four Locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) are the most widely grown basil species in the world, either for the fresh market or for essential oil production. Both species are considered as promising essential oil crops in the Southeastern US, however, research on oil produ...

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant. PMID:26444058

  14. [A new lanostane-type triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Meng; Sun, Li-Li; Li, Cheng; Gao, Wan; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus, isolation and purification of constituents were carried out on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and prepatative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicchemical properties and spectral data analysis. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 3beta-methoxy lanosta-9(11)-en-27-ol (1), 3beta-hydroxylanosta-9 (11)-en (2), (24S) -3beta-methoxylanosta-9(11), 25-dien-24-ol (3), 8-hydroxyl-neo-menthol (4), (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1, 6-diol (5), (+)-citronellol (6), 7-hydroxymenthol (7) and ethyl nonadecanoate(8). Compounds 1 is a new one. Compounds 2-3 are obtained from C. citratus for the first time. PMID:25282891

  15. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    PubMed

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

  16. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract induces drought stress tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, M W; Tula, Suresh; Sahoo, R K; Bains, Gurdeep; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra; Shukla, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum leaves are highly enriched in antioxidant components. Thus, its leaf extract, if applied in plants, is believed to efficiently scavenge ROS, thereby preventing oxidative damage under drought stress. Thus, the present study was performed in kharif 2013 and rabi 2014 season to evaluate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum against drought stress in 2 rice genotype under glass house conditions. Here we show that various morpho- physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf rolling score, leaf tip burn, number of senesced leaves and total dry matter) and biochemical parameters (proline, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase content) were amended by Ocimum treatment in both the seasons. Application of Ocimum extract increased expression of dehydrin genes, while reducing expression of aquaporin genes in drought stressed rice plant. Thus, application of Ocimum leaf extract under drought stress can be suggested as a promising strategy to mitigate drought stress in economical, accessible and ecofriendly manner. PMID:26890603

  17. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf extracts.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest; Nyoh, Azah

    2015-05-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a widely distributed perennial herb belonging to the Poaceae family and has been extensively consumed for its medicinal, cosmetic, and nutritional effects for centuries. A large number of reports have been published describing the pharmacological, biological, and therapeutic actions of this herb. In this review, we summarized the literatures on related studies (up to January, 2014) that highlighted the pharmacologic and biological effects of the major phytochemicals isolated from C. citratus extracts and its essential oil. The components of the essential oils found in C. citratus have a similar pharmacokinetic properties, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. They are quickly absorbed following oral, pulmonary, and dermal administration. Based on the published reports, it can also be inferred that, after absorption from the small intestine, some phytochemicals in C. citratus can undergo oxidation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and/or O-methylation. Excretion is through urine, feces and/or expired volatiles. The biotransformation reactions of C. citratus bioactive constituents are essential for its relatively safe consumption and therapeutic applications. The data available so far warrant further studies evaluating C. citratus pharmacokinetics. Reliable pharmacokinetic data in humans would be critical for a better understanding of the the systemic handling of C. citratus. PMID:25986281

  18. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguefack, J; Leth, V; Amvam Zollo, P H; Mathur, S B

    2004-08-01

    Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica, Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus, and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C. citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm, respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory. These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH. We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel scientific information. PMID:15246244

  19. [Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rogério Santos; Sumita, Tânia Cristina; Furlan, Marcos Roberto; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Ueno, Mariko

    2004-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii. PMID:15122392

  20. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect ofOcimum sanctum.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Sood, Sushma; Seth, Shashi; Talwar, Anjana

    2004-07-01

    Ocimum sanctum leaves have been traditionally used in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Dietary supplementation of fresh tulsi leaves in a dose of 2 gm/kg BW for 30 days led to significant lowering of blood glucose levels in test group. Intake ofOcimum sanctum also led to significant increase in levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and total thiols, but marked reduction in peroxiodised lipid levels as compared to untreated control group. The leaves were found to possess both superoxide and hydroxyl free radical scavenging action. The present observations establish the efficacy ofOcimum sanctum leaves in lowering blood glucose levels and antioxidant property appears to be predominantly responsible for hypoglycemic effect. PMID:23105475

  1. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gagan; Shri, Richa; Panchal, Vivek; Sharma, Narender; Singh, Bharpur; Mann, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The essential oil of the plant is used in aromatherapy. The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are essential oils that contain Citral α, Citral β, Nerol Geraniol, Citronellal, Terpinolene, Geranyl acetate, Myrecene and Terpinol Methylheptenone. The plant also contains reported phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which consist of luteolin, isoorientin 2’-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, kaempferol and apiginin. Studies indicate that Cymbopogon citratus possesses various pharmacological activities such as anti-amoebic, antibacterial, antidiarrheal, antifilarial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Various other effects like antimalarial, antimutagenicity, antimycobacterial, antioxidants, hypoglycemic and neurobehaviorial have also been studied. These results are very encouraging and indicate that this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. PMID:22171285

  2. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tayeboon, Ghazaleh S; Tavakoli, Fatemeh; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sabzevari, Omid; Ostad, S Nasser

    2013-10-01

    Many of CNS diseases can lead to a great quantity of release of glutamate and the extreme glutamate induces neuronal cell damage and death. Here, we wanted to investigate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and Ferula assa-foetida extracts treatment on glutamate-induced cell damage in a primary culture of rat cerebellar granule neurons. Cerebellums were collected from 7-d rat brains and cerebellar granule neurons were obtained after 8-d culture. CGN cells were treated with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts at concentration of 100 μg/ml before, after, and during exposure to 30 μM glutamate. The cellular viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5-dimethytthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) staining. The flow cytometry assay was used to examine cell cycle and apoptosis. MTT assay showed a glutamate-induced reduction in cellular viability while treatment with C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts before, during, and after exposure to glutamate was increased. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that F. assa-foetida extracts treatment significantly (p < 0.001) attenuated glutamate-induced apoptotic/necrotic cell death and the necrotic rate was decreased by C. citratus essential oil treatment compared to glutamate group, significantly (p < 0.001). The results show that C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts display neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. These extracts exert antiapoptotic activity in cerebellar granule neurons due to cell cycle arrest in G0G1 phase, which explain the beneficial effects of C. citratus essential oil and F. assa-foetida extracts as therapies for neurologic disorders. PMID:23949776

  3. Protective effect of Cymbopogon citratus on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh M; Taha, Ekhlass M; Mubark, Zaid M; Aziz, Salam S; Simon, K D; Mazlan, A G

    2013-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of C. citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and injury in the reproductive system of male rats. The twenty-five rats used in this study were divided into five groups, comprised of five rats each. The control group received standard food and drink. The H2O2 group received standard food and water with 0.5% H2O2. The rats in the H2O2 + C. citratus group and H2O2 + vitamin E group received standard food, H2O2, and C. citratus [100 mg·kg(-1) body weight (bw)], or vitamin E as an antioxidant reference (500 mg·kg(-1) bw), respectively. The C. citratus group was given C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) bw) in addition to the standard food and drink. The treatments were administered for 30 days. The H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body, testicular, and epididymal weight, as well as glutathione (GSH) level, but markedly increased malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and testes homogenates. The rats treated with H2O2 exhibited testicular degeneration and significant reduction in sperm viability, motility, count, and rate of normal sperm. The C. citratus, vitamin E, and H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the body, testicular, and epididymal weight, testosterone level, the values of the various sperm characteristics, and GSH. However, this treatment markedly reduced MDA in serum and testes homogenates, as well as testicular histopathological alterations in the H2O2-treated rats. The C. citratus aqueous extract reduced oxidative stress and protected male rats against H2O2-induced reproductive system injury. PMID:23957393

  4. Cymbopogon citratus Protects against the Renal Injury Induced by Toxic Doses of Aminoglycosides in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ullah, N; Khan, M A; Khan, T; Ahmad, W

    2013-03-01

    Renal injury is the most common side-effect of aminoglycosides. These antimicrobial drugs are particularly effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. The present study was conducted to investigate the renal protective activity of Cymbopogon citratus in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6) including group 1 (0.9% saline treated), group 2 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin-treated), group 3 (200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated) and group 4 (80 mg/kg/day gentamicin and 200 mg/kg/day Cymbopogon citratus treated). Biochemical kidney functioning parameters, urinary enzymes and histopathological examination were performed. The results of the present study showed that simultaneous administration of Cymbopogon citrates and gentamicin significantly protected alteration in body weight, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, serum uric acid, serum electrolytes, urinary volume, urinary protein, urinary lactate dehydrogenase and urinary alkaline phosphatase induced by gentamicin. Histological examination of the kidney also suggested the same. It is concluded from the current study that co-administration of Cymbopogon citratus with gentamicin for 3 weeks successfully prevented renal damage associated with aminoglycosides. PMID:24019578

  5. Spasmolytic effect of citral and extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on isolated rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ramachandran Chitra; Sim, Si Mui; Ismail, Rosnah

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial and chemo-protective properties. Citral, a monoterpenoid, is the major constituent of C. citratus that gives off a lemony scent and is postulated to be responsible for most of its actions. In addition, C. citratus has been traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal discomforts, however, the scientific evidence for this is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the extracts of various parts of C. citratus (leaves, stems and roots) and citral on the visceral smooth muscle activity of rabbit ileum. The effect of the test substances were tested on the spontaneous contraction, acetylcholine (ACh)- and KCl-induced contractions. Citral at doses between 0.061 mM to 15.6 mM and the extract of leaves at doses between 0.001 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL significantly reduced the spontaneous, ACh- and KCl-induced ileal contractions. When the ileum was incubated in K(+)-rich-Ca(2+)-free Tyrode's solution, it showed only minute contractions. However, the strength of contraction was increased with the addition of increasing concentrations of CaCl(2). The presence of citral almost abolished the effect of adding CaCl(2), while the leaf extract shifted the calcium concentration-response curve to the right, suggesting a calcium antagonistic effect. These results were similar to that elicited by verapamil, a known calcium channel blocker. In addition, the spasmolytic effect of citral was observed to be reduced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. In conclusion, citral and the leaf extract of C. citratus exhibited spasmolytic activity and it appeared that they may act as calcium antagonists. Furthermore, the relaxant effect of citral, but not that of the leaf extract may be mediated by nitric oxide suggesting the presence of other chemical components in the leaf extract other than citral. PMID:22104376

  6. Effectiveness of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil to inhibit the growth of some filamentous fungi and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Korukluoglu, Mihriban

    2009-02-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus L.) oil has been known as having therapeutic and antibacterial properties, and its antifungal activity is currently the subject of renewed interest. This study aimed to verify the effectivenesses of C. citratus essential oil to inhibit the growth/survival of some fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium roquefortii) and yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida oleophila, Hansenula anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces uvarum, and Metschnikowia fructicola). C. citratus essential oil showed effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of all fungi by disc diffusion and broth dilution bioassay. Minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations between 0.062 and 20 microL/mL were determined. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute agar-based method was also applied for A. niger and C. albicans. Data show the strong antifungal properties of lemon grass oil (C. citratus) in vitro. PMID:19298215

  7. Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of an Ocimum sanctum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mahesh; Chintalwar, Gajanan J; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of two polysaccharides isolated from the Indian medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora malabarica, was studied. Only the O. sanctum polysaccharide (OSP) showed significant activity. OSP could prevent oxidative damage to liposomal lipids and plasmid DNA induced by various oxidants such as iron, AAPH and gamma-radiation, besides scavenging important ROS such as the superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide and inhibiting xanthine oxidase. In addition, OSP could prevent gamma-radiation-mediated cell deaths in mouse splenocytes. PMID:16354414

  8. Sacred tulsi (ocimum sanctum L.) in traditional medicine and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Khosla, M K

    1995-07-01

    Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations. PMID:22556721

  9. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol. PMID:26471526

  10. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus and Citral on Vascular Smooth Muscle of the Isolated Thoracic Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Devi, R Chitra; Sim, S M; Ismail, R

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus has been shown to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic and chemo-protective properties. Citral, is the major constituent of C. citratus. This study investigated the effects of methanolic extracts of leaves (LE), stems (SE), and roots (RE) of C. citratus and citral on vascular smooth muscle and explored their possible mechanisms of action. The experiment was conducted using isolated tissue preparations, where citral, LE, SE, and RE were added separately into a tissue bath that contained aortic rings, which were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Citral, LE, and RE exhibited a dose-dependent relaxant effect on the PE-induced contractions. Citral appeared to partially act via NO as its vasorelaxant effect was attenuated by L-NAME. However, the effect of LE may involve prostacyclin as indomethacin reversed the relaxant effect of LE on the PE-induced contraction. Furthermore, citral, LE, and RE abolished the restoration of PE-induced contraction caused by the addition of increasing doses of calcium in both endothelium intact and denuded rings. These findings suggest that the relaxation effect of citral, LE, and RE is endothelium-independent and may be mainly by affecting the intracellular concentration of calcium. Citral may partially act through the NO pathway while a vasodilator prostaglandin may mediate the effect of LE. PMID:22675383

  11. Investigation of the Mechanisms Underlying the Gastroprotective Effect of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, CN; De Souza, HF; De Oliveria, G; Costa, JGM; Kerntopf, MR; Campos, AR

    2012-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus is a medicinal plant popularly used in Brazil for the treatment of various diseases, and the research interest in this plant is justifiable because of its potential medicinal value in stomachache and gastric ulcer. This study was aimed to test the validity of this practice by using experimental models of gastric ulcer and to clarify the mechanisms of gastroprotection by C. citratus leaves essential oil (EOCC). EOCC was evaluated for the ability to protect the gastric mucosa against injuries caused by necrotizing agents (absolute ethanol and aspirin) in rodents. The results of this study revealed that EOCC posses a dose-independent anti-ulcer effect against the different experimental models. EOCC pretreatment depicted a higher preventive index in ethanol-(88%) and aspirin-induced (76%) acute ulceration. On pretreatment of mice with indomethacin, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor slightly suppressed the gastroprotective effect of EOCC (48.5%). Furthermore, EOCC gastroprotection was not attenuated in mice pretreated with L-NAME (85.2%), glibenclamide (100%), or yohimbine (79.7%), the respective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, K+ATP channel activation, and α2 receptors. These results confirmed the traditional use of C. citratus for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Thus, we provide the first evidence that EOCC reduces gastric damage induced by ethanol, at least in part, by mechanisms that involve endogenous prostaglandins. PMID:22523457

  12. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  13. Scientific validation of synergistic antioxidant effects in commercialised mixtures of Cymbopogon citratus and Pterospartum tridentatum or Gomphrena globosa for infusions preparation.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are examples of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties on their own, but that can be improved when mixed. In the present work, the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were determined in the infusions prepared from the individual plants, and from mixtures of these plants in different proportions. P. tridentatum > C. citratus > G. globosa was the order observed for antioxidant efficacy, which can be related to their different composition in phenolic compounds. Synergism was the main effect observed among the tested mixtures, mainly for the infusions prepared from the plants in proportion 40%:60% (either P. tridentatum and C. citratus; or G. globosa and C. citratus). The infusion obtained with 40% of P. tridentatum and 60% of C. citratus gave the highest antioxidant properties. The present study validates the commercialisation of the studied plants combined in specific proportions. PMID:25952836

  14. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  15. Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) Sacc. In yellow passion fruit using Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

    PubMed

    Anaruma, Nina Duarte; Schmidt, Flávio Luís; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Delarmelina, Camila; Benato, Liane Aparecida; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2010-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is limited when compared to their applications in human and veterinary medicine. On the other hand, the use of antimicrobials in agriculture contributes to the drug resistance of human pathogens and has stimulated the search for new antibiotics from natural products. Essential oils have been shown to exert several biological activities including antibacterial and antifungal actions. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of 28 essential oils from medicinal plants cultivated at CPMA (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Collection), CPQBA/UNICAMP, against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc., the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg), as well as evaluating their effect in the control of post-harvest decay. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined by the micro-dilution method. According to the results, 15 of the 28 essential oils presented activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and the following four oils presented MIC values between 0.25 and 0.3 mg/mL: Coriandrum sativum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Lippia alba. The evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of post-harvest decay in yellow passion fruit showed that the disease index of the samples treated with the essential oil did not differ (P ≤ 0.05) from that of the samples treated with fungicide. The present study shows the potential of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil in the control of the anthracnose agent in yellow passion fruit. PMID:24031465

  16. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2007-02-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus Link was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek's liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 65% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. flavus hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter decreased and hyphal wall appeared as precipitates and disappeared in some regions. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased. One of the most important results obtained during this study was the ability of C. citratus essential oil at its sublethal dose to completely inhibit aflatoxin B(1) production from A. flavus. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegradation and storage contaminating fungi and also in fruit juice preservation. PMID:17304618

  17. Antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus extract: alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Koh, Pei Hoon; Mokhtar, Ruzaidi Azli Mohd; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Cymbopogon citratus against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-mediated hepatic oxidative damage in rats. Rats were administrated with C. citratus extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days before the challenge of CCl(4) (1.2 ml/kg b.w. p.o) on 13th and 14th days. Hepatic damage was evaluated by employing serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase-ALT, aspartate aminotransferase-AST and lactate dehydrogenase-LDH), malondialdehye (MDA) level, reduced GSH and antioxidant enzymes (catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPX, quinone reductase: QR, glutathione S-transferase: GST, glutathione reductase: GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehyrogenase: G6PD). In addition, CCl(4)-mediated hepatic damage was further evaluated by histopathological examination. However, most of these changes were alleviated by prophylactic treatment of animals with C. citratus dose dependently (p < 0.05). The protection was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in liver. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of C. citratus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property. PMID:21508074

  18. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. PMID:24702929

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens. PMID:25909251

  20. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies. PMID:20509321

  1. Mitotic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus in Allium cepa root tips.

    PubMed

    Williams, G O; Omoh, L E

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus, were used to clear the malaria parasite in infected mice, although they died some days later. Allium cepa roots grown in aqueous extracts from 3, 6, 12 and 20 g of chopped leaves for 1, 3, and 6 h, showed some mitotic abnormalities including c-mitotic and mitodepressive effects. The abnormalities were not peculiar to any concentration or duration of extract treatment. The highest frequency of affected cells was 0.75% in the treatment with the 20 g concentration, but the 3 h treatment group had the greatest variety of effects. The mitodepressive effect of the extract increased significantly with concentration and time, and persisted even after 24 h in tap water. The chromosomal effects of the extract occur at a very low frequency but the mitodepressive effects may have implications for man. PMID:9172394

  2. Antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus in mice.

    PubMed

    Viana, G S; Vale, T G; Pinho, R S; Matos, F J

    2000-06-01

    The essential oil (EO) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus increased the reaction time to thermal stimuli both after oral (25 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (25-100 mg/kg) administration. EO (50-200 mg/kg, p.o. or i.p.) strongly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhings in mice. In the formalin test, EO (50 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited preferentially the second phase of the response, causing inhibitions of 100 and 48% at 200 mg/kg, i.p. and 100 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. On the other hand, the opioid antagonist naloxone blocked the central antinociceptive effect of EO, suggesting that EO acts both at peripheral and central levels. PMID:10837994

  3. Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.

    PubMed

    Onawunmi, G O; Yisak, W A; Ogunlana, E O

    1984-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., commonly known as lemon grass and used, over many years, for medicinal purposes in West Africa, produces a volatile oil on steam extraction of its leaves. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil have been studied. These activities are shown in two of the three main components of the oil identified through chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. While the alpha-citral (geranial) and beta-citral (neral) components individually elicit antibacterial action on gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, the third component, myrcene, did not show observable antibacterial activity on its own. However, myrcene provided enhanced activities when mixed with either of the other two main components identified. PMID:6442749

  4. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively. PMID:16647001

  5. Anti-Proliferative Effect and Phytochemical Analysis of Cymbopogon citratus Extract

    PubMed Central

    Halabi, Mohammed F.; Sheikh, Bassem Y.

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278 μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9 μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800 μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31 μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30 μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68 μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6 μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines. PMID:24791006

  6. Anti-proliferative effect and phytochemical analysis of Cymbopogon citratus extract.

    PubMed

    Halabi, Mohammed F; Sheikh, Bassem Y

    2014-01-01

    The antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass) extracts were investigated. The extracts were isolated by solvent maceration method and thereafter subjected to antiproliferative activity test on five different cancer cells: human colon carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3 and COAV), and a normal liver cell line (WRL 68). The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. The DPPH radical scavenging assay revealed a concentration dependent trend. A maximum percentage inhibition of 45% and an IC50 of 278  μg/mL were observed when aqueous extract was evaluated. In contrast, 48.3% and IC50 of 258.9  μg/mL were observed when 50% ethanolic extract was evaluated. Both extracts at concentration of 50 to 800  μg/mL showed appreciative metal chelating activity with IC50 value of 172.2 ± 31  μg/mL to 456.5 ± 30  μg/mL. Depending on extraction solvent content, extract obtained from 50% ethanolic solvent proved to be more potent on breast cancer MCF-7 cell line (IC50 = 68  μg/mL). On the other hand, 90% ethanolic extract showed a moderate potency on the ovarian cancer (COAV) and MCF-7 cells having an IC50 of 104.6  μg/mL each. These results suggested antiproliferative efficacy of C. citratus ethanolic extract against human cancer cell lines. PMID:24791006

  7. Comparative functional characterization of eugenol synthase from four different Ocimum species: Implications on eugenol accumulation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Atul; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Beedkar, Supriya D; Singh, Priyanka A; Joshi, Rakesh S; Mulani, Fayaj A; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Punekar, Sachin A; Gade, Wasudeo N; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-11-01

    Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids are the major secondary metabolite constituents in Ocimum genus. Though enzymes from phenylpropanoid pathway have been characterized from few plants, limited information exists on how they modulate levels of secondary metabolites. Here, we performed phenylpropanoid profiling in different tissues from five Ocimum species, which revealed significant variations in secondary metabolites including eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, estragole and methyl cinnamate levels. Expression analysis of eugenol synthase (EGS) gene showed higher transcript levels especially in young leaves and inflorescence; and were positively correlated with eugenol contents. Additionally, transcript levels of coniferyl alcohol acyl transferase, a key enzyme diverting pool of substrate to phenylpropanoids, were in accordance with their abundance in respective species. In particular, eugenol methyl transferase expression positively correlated with higher levels of eugenol methyl ether in Ocimum tenuiflorum. Further, EGSs were functionally characterized from four Ocimum species varying in their eugenol contents. Kinetic and expression analyses indicated, higher enzyme turnover and transcripts levels, in species accumulating more eugenol. Moreover, biochemical and bioinformatics studies demonstrated that coniferyl acetate was the preferred substrate over coumaryl acetate when used, individually or together, in the enzyme assay. Overall, this study revealed the preliminary evidence for varied accumulation of eugenol and its abundance over chavicol in these Ocimum species. Current findings could potentially provide novel insights for metabolic modulations in medicinal and aromatic plants. PMID:27519164

  8. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying. PMID:25182725

  9. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-α-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. Conclusions The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts. PMID:21936953

  10. Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, lipid content and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 70% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter and hyphal wall appeared markedly thinner. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca+2, K+ and Mg+2 leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage contaminating fungi and in fruit juice preservation. PMID:17139611

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus essential oils alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Bassolé, I H N; Lamien-Meda, A; Bayala, B; Obame, L C; Ilboudo, A J; Franz, C; Novak, J; Nebié, R C; Dicko, M H

    2011-09-15

    As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose. PMID:21665450

  12. Cymbopogon citratus-synthesized gold nanoparticles boost the predation efficiency of copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against malaria and dengue mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Jeyalalitha, Tirupathi; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Suresh, Udaiyan; Madhiyazhagan, Pari

    2015-06-01

    Plant-borne compounds can be employed to synthesize mosquitocidal nanoparticles that are effective at low doses. However, how they affect the activity of mosquito predators in the aquatic environment is unknown. In this study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuN) using the leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. AuN were characterized by a variety of biophysical methods and sorted for size in order to confirm structural integrity. C. citratus extract and biosynthesized AuN were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. LC₅₀ of C. citratus extract ranged from 219.32 ppm to 471.36 ppm. LC₅₀ of AuN ranged from 18.80 ppm to 41.52 ppm. In laboratory, the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi larvae was 26.8% (larva I) and 17% (larva II), while against A. aegypti was 56% (I) and 35.1% (II). Predation against late-instar larvae was minimal. In AuN-contaminated environment,predation efficiency against A. stephensi was 45.6% (I) and 26.7% (II), while against A. aegypti was 77.3% (I) and 51.6% (II). Overall, low doses of AuN may help to boost the control of Anopheles and Aedes larval populations in copepod-based control programs. PMID:25819295

  13. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Sembulingam, K; Sembulingam, P; Namasivayam, A

    1997-04-01

    Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress, indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise. PMID:9142558

  14. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  15. Assessment of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf essential oil as herbal preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, and antiochratoxin activities and in vivo efficacy during storage.

    PubMed

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, N N

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-five randomly collected samples of stored table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from different markets of Gorakhpur city, Uttar Pradesh, India, revealed occurrence of 11 types of fungi. Of which, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus ochraceus were dominant causing severe decay of grapes with 58%, 52%, and 67% incidence, respectively. On screening of 15 essential oils at 0.33 μL/mL, Cymbopogon citratus oil caused 100% mycelial inhibition against aforesaid dominant fungi. Oil was fungistatic at 0.29 μL/mL and exhibited broad fungitoxicity against other fruit rotting fungi associated with collected samples. C. citratus oil completely inhibited the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of the aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of A. flavus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus at 0.8 μL/mL. E-Citral (52.9%) and Z-Citral (39.38%) were the major components of C. citratus oil during gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Application of 200 and 300 μL of C. citratus oil on 1 kg of stored grapes showed enhancement of shelf life up to 10 d. The oil did not exhibit any phytotoxic effect on fruits. These results confirm that C. citratus oil could be a natural alternative to commercial fungicide for control of fruit rotting fungi of stored grapes. PMID:24547889

  16. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  17. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  18. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  19. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  20. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  1. In situ detection of salicylate in Ocimum basilicum plant leaves via reverse iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, M I; Lee, P T; Guy, R H; Compton, R G

    2015-11-28

    The quantitative analysis of salicylate provides useful information for the evaluation of metabolic processes in plants. We report a simple, noninvasive method to measure salicylate in situ in Ocimum basilicum leaves using reverse iontophoresis in combination with cyclic voltammetry at disposable screen-printed electrodes and the concentration of salicylate in basil leaves was found to be 3 mM. PMID:26419728

  2. Exploring the potential effect of Ocimum sanctum in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathic pain in rats. Peripheral neuropathy was induced in rats by administration of vincristine sulfate (50 μg/kg i.p.) for 10 consecutive days. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Vincristine administration was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia. Furthermore, vincristine administration was also associated with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated vincristine-induced neuropathic pain along with decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating chemotherapy induced-painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. Furthermore, saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum may be responsible for its noted beneficial effect in neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:20181005

  3. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  4. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  5. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  6. Yield and Oil Composition of Thirty-Eight Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been grown as an essential oil crop in many countries; however, the herbage yield, oil content, composition, and bioactivity of basil grown in Mississippi and other Southern U.S. states has not been explored. The hypothesis of this study was that certain basil ...

  7. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from Cymbopogon citratus and its biological activities.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-04-01

    In this study the extraction of hot water soluble polysaccharides (HWSPs) from Cymbopogon citratus using hot water decoction was discussed. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a three level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was employed to obtain best possible combination of extraction time (X1: 30-180 min), extraction temperature (X2: 70-100 °C) and water to the raw material ratio (X3: 10-60) for maximum HWSPs extraction. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time was around 113.81 min, extraction temperature at 99.66 °C and the ratio of water to raw material was 33.11 g/mL. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 13.24±0.23%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by RSM model yield (13.19%). The basic characterization of HWSPs was determined by using the FTIR. These preliminary in vitro biological studies indicated that lemongrass polysaccharides were useful for anticancer therapy. PMID:24508090

  8. In Vitro Mass Propagation of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf., a Medicinal Gramineae.

    PubMed

    Quiala, Elisa; Barbón, Raúl; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Naivy; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. is a medicinal plant source of lemon grass oils with multiple uses in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Conventional propagation in semisolid culture medium has become a fast tool for mass propagation of lemon grass, but the production cost must be lower. A solution could be the application of in vitro propagation methods based on liquid culture advantages and automation. This chapter provides two efficient protocols for in vitro propagation via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of this medicinal plant. Firstly, we report the production of shoots using a temporary immersion system (TIS). Secondly, a protocol for somatic embryogenesis using semisolid culture for callus formation and multiplication, and liquid culture in a rotatory shaker and conventional bioreactors for the maintenance of embryogenic culture, is described. Well-developed plants can be achieved from both protocols. Here we provide a fast and efficient technology for mass propagation of this medicinal plant taking the advantage of liquid culture and automation. PMID:27108335

  9. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-04-01

    Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL. PMID:15796587

  10. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  11. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table. PMID:27419197

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mosha, Franklin W; Lowassa, Asanterabi; Mahande, Aneth M; Mahande, Michael J; Massenga, Charles P; Tenu, Filemoni; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Temu, Emmanuel A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd) and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke) materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton), An. gambiae ss (Giles) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET), a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence). Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting while the burning of

  13. Anti-acetylcholinesterase potential and metabolome classification of 4 Ocimum species as determined via UPLC/qTOF/MS and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Farag, M A; Ezzat, S M; Salama, M M; Tadros, M G

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum (sweet basil) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine worldwide as well as for the flavor and food industry. The goal of this study was to examine Ocimum extracts anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and to correlate the activity with their secondary metabolites profiles via a metabolome based ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach coupled to chemometrics. The metabolomic differences in phenolics from leaves derived from 4 Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum americanum and Ocimum minimum were assessed. Under optimized conditions, 81 metabolites were identified including 21 hydroxy cinnamic acids, 4 benzoic acid conjugates, 14C/O flavonoid conjugates, 2 alcohols, 5 acyl sugars, 4 triterpenes and 12 fatty acids. Several salviolanic acid derivatives including salviolanic acid A, B, C & I found in Salvia, were found in Ocimum herein for the first time. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were further used for comparing and classification of samples. A clear separation among the four investigated Ocimum species was revealed, with O. africanum samples found most enriched in hydroxy cinnamates conjugates (HC) and flavonoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for compositional differences among Ocimum leaves via a metabolomic approach revealing that among examined species O. africanum leaves present a better source of Ocimum bioactive metabolites. The anticholinesrase activity of examined species was further assessed with a potent IC50 values for O. americanum, O. africanum, O. basilicum ranging from 2.5 to 6.6mg/ml, whereas O. minimum was least active with IC50 of 31.4mg/ml. Furthermore, major HC i.e., caftaric, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids identified in extracts via UPLC-MS analysis exhibited IC50 values of 24, 0.5 and 7.9mg/ml respectively

  14. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf - therapeutic pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; Pereira, Fillipe de Oliveira; Cavalcante, Neuza Maria; Gayoso, Carla Wanderley; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83%) volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07%) using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p <0.05) for the group treated with essential oil of C. citratus and over 80% (p <0.05) for the group treated with ketoconazole formulations. CONCLUSIONS Notwithstanding the safety and antifungal effects observed in this study after application of formulations containing the essential oil of C. citratus, further studies with larger populations should be performed to confirm the actual potential of these formulations in the treatment of patients with Pityriasis versicolor. PMID:23793205

  15. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). PMID:17708453

  16. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  17. Antimicrobial constituents and synergism effect of the essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Alpinia galanga.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Kamkaen, Narisa

    2014-02-01

    From the fresh leaf sheathes of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and rhizomes of galanga (Alpinia galanga) light yellow and colorless oils, respectively, were obtained by hydrodistillation and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) in yields of 0.24% and 0.03%, and 0.11% and trace (w/w), respectively. By GC/MS analysis, five major constituents were identified in lemongrass oil, E-citral, Z-citral, beta-myrcene, selina-6-en-4-ol, and cis-ocimene, and five in galanga oil, 1,8-cineole, phenol 4-(2-propenyl)-acetate, dl-limonene, alpha-pinene, and a-terpineol. Three major components of the combined lemongrass and galanga oils (ratio 7:3, 1:1, 3:7) were 1,8-cineole (46.3%, 31.5%, 19.3%), E-citral (12.8%, 22.7%, 32.8%) and Z-citral (8.5%, 15.2%, 21.6%). The MICs of lemongrass and galanga oils were: against Staphylococcus aureus 0.5% and 4%, v/v, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40% and >40%,v/v, against Streptococcus bovis 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v, and against Candida albicans 0.25% and 0.5%, v/v. Citral (from lemongrass oil) gave greater potentiation than 1,8-cineole (from galanga oil). The combination profiles of galanga oil with lemongrass oil (volume ratios 3:7, 1:1, and 7:3) were tested against the four pathogenic microorganisms. Synergistic activity was best noted for only one ratio (volume ratio 3:7) as the sigmafic< 1 against all tested microorganisms. The present investigation provides evidenc that the utilization of two essential oils in combination should be assessed for synergistic antimicrobial activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose. PMID:24689310

  18. Influence of extraction methodologies on the analysis of five major volatile aromatic compounds of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) grown in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infusions of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) have been commonly used in folk medicine in Thailand and other Asian countries. This study focuses on a systematic comparison of two extraction methods for major volatile aromatic compounds (VACs) of citronella g...

  19. Monoterpenic aldehydes as potential anti-Leishmania agents: activity of Cymbopogon citratus and citral on L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major.

    PubMed

    Machado, M; Pires, P; Dinis, A M; Santos-Rosa, M; Alves, V; Salgueiro, L; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C

    2012-03-01

    In order to contribute for the search of new drugs for leishmaniasis, we study the susceptibility of Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major to Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and major compounds, mrycene and citral. C. citratus and citral were the most active inhibiting L. infantum, L. tropica and L. major growth at IC(50) concentrations ranging from 25 to 52 μg/ml and from 34 to 42 μg/ml, respectively. L. infantum promastigotes exposed to essential oil and citral underwent considerable ultrastructural alterations, namely mitochondrial and kinetoplast swelling, autophagosomal structures, disruption of nuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin condensation. C. citratus essential oil and citral promoted the leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. In fact, the leishmanicidal activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by externalization of phosphatidylserine, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell-cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase. Taken together, ours findings lead us to propose that citral was responsible for anti-Leishmania activity of the C. citratus and both may represent a valuable source for therapeutic control of leishmaniasis. PMID:22227102

  20. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples. PMID:20401550

  1. Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum linn) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Hussain, E H; Jamil, K; Rao, M

    2001-07-01

    Effect of oral administration of 200 mg/Kg body weight of the aqueous extract ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed with diet for eight weeks to diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats was studied. There was significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, (LPO) and improvement in glucose tolerance. The aqueous extract also decreased LPO formation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) and increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GT) and one antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and rat liver, lung, kidney and brain. The decrease in TBARS and increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPX, and GT clearly shows the antioxidant property ofOcimum sanctum. PMID:23105316

  2. Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Sushma

    2002-07-01

    In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities. PMID:12597545

  3. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K

    1993-01-01

    The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion. PMID:8449557

  4. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retention. The best response was achieved with 400 mg/Kg of the extract. Also, results showed that sweet basil extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased memory retrieval and the best result was achieved with 400 mg/Kg too. It can be concluded that memory enhancing effects of green Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. PMID:23661866

  5. Phytoremediatory effect and growth of two species of Ocimum in endosulfan polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sandoval, M; Melchor-Partida, G N; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Girón-Pérez, M I; Rojas-García, A E; Medina-Díaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Velázquez-Fernández, J B

    2011-08-15

    Endosulfan is a hazardous organochlorine pesticide banned or restricted in several countries. However, it has been found in the environment and in animal samples. To study a potential way to bioremediate soils contaminated with this pesticide, two plant species of the genus Ocimum were studied: Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum minimum L., since they are economically feasible and well adapted to the climatic conditions of the Nayarit zone (Mexican pacific coast). Young plants were transplanted into soil experimentally polluted with endosulfan. Growth of both species was not affected by endosulfan, the plants grew, flourished, and produced seeds; 30 days later, endosulfan concentration was lower in the soil with O. basilicum than in the soil without plants. On day 90, no differences in endosulfan concentrations were found between soil with or without O. minimum. At day 1, plants in the polluted soil showed lipoperoxidation, as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS). Interestingly, a higher TBARS value was observed at day 3 in transplanted plants as compared to non-transplanted plants. In conclusion, both species can endure endosulfan pollution (as high as 1 g kg(-1)) in soils. O. basilicum seems to be an adequate candidate for bioremediation of soils polluted with endosulfan. PMID:21664049

  6. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress) and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimum sanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels. PMID:25673470

  7. Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gbenou, Joachin D; Ahounou, Judith F; Akakpo, Huguette B; Laleye, Anatole; Yayi, Eléonore; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Darboux, Raphael; Dansou, Pierre; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2013-02-01

    Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora are widely used herbs/plants as a source of ethnomedicines in tropical regions of the world. In this work, we studied the anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of C. citratus and E. citriodora essential oils on formol-induced edema, and acetic acid induced abdominal cramps in Wistar rats. To fully understand the chemically induced anti-inflammatory properties of these plants, we first analyzed the chemical composition of the essential oils. A total of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 93.69 % of the oil, were identified in C. citratus among which, Geranial (27.04 %), neral (19.93 %) and myrcene (27.04 %) were the major constituents. For E. citriodora, 19 compounds representing 97.2 % of the extracted oil were identified. The dominant compound of E. citriodora essential oil was citronellal (83.50 %). In vivo analysis and histological assay showed that the two essential oils displayed significant dose dependent edema inhibition effect over time. They displayed strong analgesic and antipyretic properties similar to that induced by 50 mg/kg of acetylsalicylate of lysine. However, the E. citriodora essential oil was more effective than that of C. citratus. We identified significant numbers of aldehyde molecules in both essential oils mediating antioxidant activity that may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed on the rats. Altogether, this work demonstrates the anti-inflammatory property of C. citratus and E. citriodora suggesting their potential role as adjuvant therapeutic alternatives in dealing with inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:23065287

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS FROM A COLLECTION OF OCIMUM SPECIES (NCRPIS, AMES, USA); INVESTIGATION OF THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES AND EFFECTS ON FUNGAL POLYAMINES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station conserves germplasm of aromatic plants, including extensive collections of Ocimum providing valuable sources of key genes for developing new basil cultivars. We conducted chemical analyses of essential oils of 73 Ocimum accessions, comparing our...

  9. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Boukhatem, Mohamed Nadjib; Ferhat, Mohamed Amine; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Saidi, Fairouz; Kebir, Hadjer Tchoketch

    2014-01-01

    Background Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO) was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%), and neral (31.5%). The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs) (35–90 mm). IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg), which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of

  10. Functional characterization and transient expression manipulation of a new sesquiterpene synthase involved in β-caryophyllene accumulation in Ocimum.

    PubMed

    Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Anand, Atul; Beedkar, Supriya D; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Punekar, Sachin A; Kalunke, Raviraj M; Gade, Wasudeo N; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-04-22

    The genus Ocimum has a unique blend of diverse secondary metabolites, with major proportion of terpenoids including mono- and sesquiterpenes. Although, β-Caryophyllene, bicyclic sesquiterpene, is one of the major terpene found in Ocimum species and known to possess several biological activities, not much is known about its biosynthesis in Ocimum. Here, we describe isolation and characterization of β-caryophyllene synthase gene from Ocimum kilimandscharicum Gürke (OkBCS- GenBank accession no. KP226502). The open reading frame of 1629 bp encoded a protein of 542 amino acids with molecular mass of 63.6 kDa and pI value of 5.66. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed 50-70% similarity with known sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. Recombinant OkBCS converted farnesyl diphosphate to β-caryophyllene as a major product (94%) and 6% α-humulene. Expression variation of OkBCS well corroborated with β-caryophyllene levels in different tissues from five Ocimum species. OkBCS transcript revealed higher expression in leaves and flowers. Further, agro-infiltration based transient expression manipulation with OkBCS over-expression and silencing confirmed its role in β-caryophyllene biosynthesis. These findings may potentially be further utilized to improve plant defense against insect pests. PMID:27005818

  11. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Chandra, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the efficacy of three different concentrations of Ocimum sanctum extract against various microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was prepared by the hot extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain 3 different concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl sul-foxide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 3 different concentrations of extract gave a wider inhibition zone against S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguis, L. acidophilus. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Results: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract demonstrated maximum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible for dental caries at the 10% concentration level although 5 and 2.5% were also effective. Maximum activity was seen against S. mutans and S. sanguis with 10% extract. Conclusion: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was effective against all the microorganisms. How to cite this article: Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Chandra J. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum Sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):99-101. PMID:26379375

  12. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum.

    PubMed

    Bharavi, K; Reddy, A Gopala; Rao, G S; Reddy, A Rajasekhara; Rao, S V Rama

    2010-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues. PMID:21170246

  13. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    PubMed Central

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G. S.; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues. PMID:21170246

  14. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies. PMID:27173561

  15. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  16. Oviposition Deterrence Induced by Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum suave Extracts to Gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s (Diptera: Culicidae) in Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Lyatuu, Ester E; Mboya, Michael A; Mwang’onde, Beda J; Mahande, Aneth M

    2010-01-01

    Background: In most of the past decades, mosquito control has been done by the use of indoor residual spray and insecticides-treated bed nets. The control of mosquitoes by targeting the breeding sites (larval habitat) has not been given priority. Disrupting the oviposition sensory detection of mosquitoes by introducing deterrents of plant origin, which are cheap resources, might be add value to integrated vector control. Such knowledge is required in order to successfully manipulate the behavior of mosquitoes for monitoring or control. Materials and Methods: Twenty gravid mosquitoes were placed in a cage measuring 30 × 30 × 30 cm for oviposition. The oviposition media were made of different materials. Experiments were set up at 6:00 pm, and eggs were collected for counting at 7:30 am. Mosquitoes were observed until they died. The comparisons of the number of eggs were made between the different treatments. Results: There was significant difference in the number of eggs found in control cups when compared with the number of eggs found in water treated with Ocimum kilimandscharicum (OK) (P=0.02) or Ocimum suave (OS) (P=0.000) and that found in water with debris treated with OK (P=0.011) or OS (P=0.002). There was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid in treated water and the number of eggs laid in water with debris treated either with OK (P=0.105) or OS (P=0.176). Oviposition activity index for both OS and OK experiments lay in a negative side and ranged from -0.19% to -1%. The results show that OS and OK deter oviposition in An.gambiae s.s. Conclusions: Further research needs to be done on the effect of secondary metabolites of these plant extracts as they decompose in the breeding sites. In the event of favorable results, the potential of these plant extracts can be harnessed on a larger scale. PMID:20927285

  17. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product. PMID:22955501

  18. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments. PMID:25495934

  19. AROMA CONTENT OF FRESH BASIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM L.) LEAVES IS AFFECTED BY LIGHT REFLECTED FROM COLORED MULCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb that is used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. Aroma compounds emitted from fully-expanded fresh leaves that were grown in drip-irrigated field plots covered with different colors of polyethylene mulch were compared. The colors were selected to ...

  20. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  1. Inhibition of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis by a medicinal herb: Ocimum sanctum

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Tait, Larry; Hogan, Victor; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) is a traditionally used medicinal herb, which shows anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, radio-protective and free radical scavenging properties. So far no detailed studies have been reported on its effects on human cancers. Thus, we analyzed its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies. Aqueous extracts were prepared from the mature leaves of Ocimum sanctum cultivated devoid of pesticides. Tumor progression and angiogenesis related processes like chemotaxis, proliferation, apoptosis, 3-dimensional growth and morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth were studied in the presence or absence of the extract and in some experiments a comparison was made with purified commercially available eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid. Aqueous OS leaf extract inhibits proliferation, migration, anchorage independent growth, three dimensional growth and morphogenesis, and induction of COX-2 protein in breast cancer cells. A comparative analysis with eugenol, apigenin and ursolic acid showed that the inhibitory effects on chemotaxis and three dimensional morphogenesis of breast cancer cells were specific to OS extract. In addition, OS extracts also reduced tumor size and neoangiogenesis in a MCF10 DCIS.com xenograft model of human DCIS. This is the first detailed report showing that OS leaf extract may be of value as a breast cancer preventive and therapeutic agent and might be considered as additional additive in the arsenal of components aiming at combating breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:17437270

  2. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application. PMID:25850748

  3. Insecticidal Potential of Defense Metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.; Giri, Ashok P.

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  4. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  5. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  7. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

    2005-04-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant. PMID:16170979

  8. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Jain, Ankita; Singh, Rajeshwar; Karim, Wahaja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo). Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1) Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36); (2) Chlorhexidine (active control) (n = 36); (3) normal saline (negative control) (n = 36). Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance) and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine. PMID:24948862

  9. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed. PMID:11801384

  10. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. PMID:19441070

  11. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ML2-strain.

    PubMed

    Helal, G A; Sarhan, M M; Abu Shahla, A N K; Abou El-Khair, E K

    2006-01-01

    The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was completely inhibited using 2.0 microl/ml or 4.0 microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Sabouraud's broth medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 3.0 microl/ml inhibited about 98% of yeast growth after 24 hr of incubation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed morphogenic and ultrastructure changes in the fumigated cells with 1.0 microl/ml of the oil. These changes including decrease in cell size, depressions on the surface of the cells, alteration in cell wall thickness and disruption of plasma membrane. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated cells and its total lipid content decreased. Also, the fatty acid composition was altered with decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acids and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:17009293

  12. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25652784

  13. Influence of viral infection on essential oil composition of Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Nagai, Alice; Duarte, Ligia M L; Santos, Déborah Y A C

    2011-08-01

    Ocimum basilicum L., popularly known as sweet basil, is a Lamiaceae species whose essential oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids. The contents of these compounds can be affected by abiotic and biotic factors such as infections caused by viruses. The main goal of this research was an investigation of the effects of viral infection on the essential oil profile of common basil. Seeds of O. basilicum L. cv. Genovese were sowed and kept in a greenhouse. Plants presenting two pairs of leaves above the cotyledons were inoculated with an unidentified virus isolated from a field plant showing chlorotic yellow spots and foliar deformation. Essential oils of healthy and infected plants were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GCMS. Changes in essential oil composition due to viral infection were observed. Methyleugenol and p-cresol,2,6-di-tert-butyl were the main constituents. However, methyleugenol contents were significantly decreased in infected plants. PMID:21922932

  14. Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Subba Rao, Y; Kotakadi, Venkata S; Prasad, T N V K V; Reddy, A V; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-02-15

    A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of tulasi leaf with AgNO(3) solution within 15 min. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using physic-chemical techniques viz., UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Characterization data reveals that the particles were crystalline in nature and triangle shaped with an average size of 42 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs were found to be -55.0 mV. This large negative zeta potential value indicates repulsion among AgNPs and their dispersion stability. PMID:23257344

  15. Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, Y.; Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Reddy, A. V.; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-02-01

    A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of tulasi leaf with AgNO3 solution within 15 min. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using physic-chemical techniques viz., UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Characterization data reveals that the particles were crystalline in nature and triangle shaped with an average size of 42 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs were found to be -55.0 mV. This large negative zeta potential value indicates repulsion among AgNPs and their dispersion stability.

  16. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ∼30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

  17. Bio-conjugated silver nanoparticles: from Ocimum sanctum and role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Zoya; Rafiuddin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we have reported the spectrophotometeric and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) data to the shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the green extra-cellular synthesis of bio-conjugated Ag-nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum leaves extract. TEM images revealed that the nanoparticles are mostly spherical (average particle size ranged from 18 to 35nm) with some truncated triangular nanoplates, aggregated in a beautiful manner to yield locket-like silver and capped by a thin layer of biomolecules of O. sanctum, whereas nanoparticles are highly poly-dispersed in presence of CTAB. The shape and position of wavelength maxima strongly depends on the reaction time, [leaves extract] and [CTAB]. The visual observations also suggest that the prefect transparent silver sol becomes turbid in presence of CTAB after some time. PMID:23524081

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against ovine gastrointestinal nematodes in India.

    PubMed

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Ocimum sanctum have been traditionally used for various ethno-veterinary practices as well as medicinal purpose. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal potential of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the bulb of O. sanctum was investigated. Alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids and tannins were identified in phytochemical analyses. The various blood parameters coupled marker enzymes and antioxidant status were also evaluated during in vivo trial. Aqueous extract showed better EC50 and EC99 values in comparison with methanolic extract in egg hatch assay and larval development test, respectively. However, in the larval paralysis test, both aqueous and methanolic extracts showed almost similar efficacy. A 77.64% reduction in fecal egg output was observed on day 14. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the hematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. PMID:25687816

  19. Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Gogul

    2014-01-01

    Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant (*P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer. PMID:25431779

  20. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  1. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. PMID:26880438

  2. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  3. Antinociceptive action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Khanna, N; Bhatia, Jagriti

    2003-10-01

    The alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OS, Tulsi) was tested for analgesic activity in mice. In the glacial acetic acid (GAA)-induced writhing test, OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.; and 50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of writhes. OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the tail withdrawal latency in mice. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an opioid antagonist, and DSP-4 (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a central noradrenaline depletor, attenuated the analgesic effect of OS in both the experimental models, whereas, PCPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the action of OS on tail flick response in mice. The results of our study suggest that the analgesic action of OS is exerted both centrally as well as peripherally and involves an interplay between various neurotransmitter systems. PMID:12963158

  4. Use of dimethyldioxirane in the epoxidation of the main constituents of the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora.

    PubMed

    Veloza, Luz A; Orozco, Lina M; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Dimethyldioxirane (DMDO), a widely used oxidant in organic synthesis is considered an environmentally friendly oxygen transfer reagent because acetone is the only byproduct formed in its oxidation reactions. This work describes the isolation of the main constituents (terpenes) in the essential oils obtained from Tagetes lucida, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba and Eucalyptus citriodora, their epoxidation with DMDO in acetone solution and the characterization of the resulting epoxides by GC-MS (EI) and NMR. This is one of the first reports involving the application of dioxirane chemistry to essential oils in order to generate modified compounds with potential uses in several areas of medicine and industry. PMID:21834225

  5. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  6. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  7. Inhibitory activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in bovine ground meat.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; de Araújo Soares, Rodrigo; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf; Tebaldi, Victor Maximiliano Reis

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 growth added to bovine ground meat stored under refrigeration (5 ± 2 °C) for three days. The EOs, extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were tested in vitro using an agar well diffusion methodology for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC concentrations for both essential oils on culture tested of L. monocytogenes were 1.56%. The EOs concentrations applied in contaminated ground beef were 1.56, 3.125 and 6.25% (w/v) based on MIC levels and possible activity reductions by food constituents. The bacteria populations were significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05) after one day of storage in ground meat samples treated with clove and lemongrass EOs at concentrations of 1.56%. There were no significant counts of L. monocytogenes in samples at the other concentrations of the two oils applied after the second day of storage. The sensory acceptability evaluation of the bovine ground meat samples treated with EOs showed that the addition at concentrations higher than 1.56% promote undesirable alterations of taste, odor and characteristic color. The application of EOs at low concentrations in food products can be used in combination with other preservation methods, such as refrigeration, to control pathogens and spoilage bacteria during shelf-life; which goes according to current market trends, where consumers are requesting natural products. PMID:24294222

  8. Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    PubMed

    Jothie Richard, Edwin; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandhakumar, Senthilkumar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Chinampudur Velusami, Chandrasekaran; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered O. sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a period of 16 days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of O. sanctum and ursolic acid on cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body weight gain and higher immobility time than O. sanctum administered groups, while oral administration of O. sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the immobility time. Further, O. sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory activity towards 11β-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, O. sanctum was found to be effective in the management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11β-HSD1 and COMT activities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26899341

  9. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P < 0.05). The present study indicates that the secondary metabolites of O. basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  10. Role of Ocimum sanctum as a Genoprotective Agent on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Asha; Shukla, Poonam; Tabassum, Shajiya

    2011-01-01

    Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on chlorpyrifos-induced genotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro models. Two different concentrations of pesticide were taken, i.e., 1/5 and 1/15 of LD50 of chlorpyrifos for the in vivo study. Rats were pre-treated orally with O. sanctum extract (OE) at 50 mg/kg b.wt. For the in vitro studies, human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 75 μg/ml chlorpyrifos with and without OE. Structural and numerical (both aneuploidy and euploidy types) chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index (MI) was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The same concentration of the pesticide (75 μg/ml) was taken to study the DNA damage by comet assay. Results showed that lymphocytes treated with the pesticide exhibited increased DNA damage but the increase was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). In rats pretreated with OE, a significant (P<0.01) increase in MI was observed and there was a significant decrease in the frequency of aberrant cells as compared to the rats treated with chlorpyrifos alone. A significant (P<0.05) increase in CA was observed in cultures treated with 75 μg/ml chlorpyrifos as compared to controls, which decreased significantly (P<0.05) with OE pretreatment. PMID:21430913

  11. Role of Ocimum sanctum as a Genoprotective Agent on Chlorpyrifos-Induced Genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Asha; Shukla, Poonam; Tabassum, Shajiya

    2011-01-01

    Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on chlorpyrifos-induced genotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro models. Two different concentrations of pesticide were taken, i.e., 1/5 and 1/15 of LD(50) of chlorpyrifos for the in vivo study. Rats were pre-treated orally with O. sanctum extract (OE) at 50 mg/kg b.wt. For the in vitro studies, human lymphocyte cultures were exposed to 75 μg/ml chlorpyrifos with and without OE. Structural and numerical (both aneuploidy and euploidy types) chromosomal aberrations (CAs) were scored for the assessment of induced genotoxic effects, while the variation in mitotic index (MI) was considered as a monitor for induced cellular toxicity. The same concentration of the pesticide (75 μg/ml) was taken to study the DNA damage by comet assay. Results showed that lymphocytes treated with the pesticide exhibited increased DNA damage but the increase was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). In rats pretreated with OE, a significant (P<0.01) increase in MI was observed and there was a significant decrease in the frequency of aberrant cells as compared to the rats treated with chlorpyrifos alone. A significant (P<0.05) increase in CA was observed in cultures treated with 75 μg/ml chlorpyrifos as compared to controls, which decreased significantly (P<0.05) with OE pretreatment. PMID:21430913

  12. Effect of chitosan on the biological properties of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Chen, Feng; Wang, Xi; Rajapakse, Nihal C

    2005-05-01

    The effect of the treatment of chitosan at various concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) upon sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) before seeding and transplanting was investigated in aspects of the amount of phenolic and terpenic compounds, antioxidant activity, and growth of the basil, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity. The total amount of the phenolic and terpenic compounds increased after the chitosan treatment. Especially, the amounts of rosmarinic acid (RA) and eugenol increased 2.5 times and 2 times, respectively, by 0.1% and 0.5% chitosan treatment. Due to the significant induction of phenolic compounds, especially RA, the corresponding antioxidant activity assayed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging test increased at least 3.5-fold. Also, the activity of PAL, a key regulatory enzyme for the phenylpropanoid pathway, increased 32 times by 0.5% chitosan solution. Moreover, after the elicitor chitosan treatment, the growth in terms of the weight and height of the sweet basil significantly increased about 17% and 12%, respectively. Our study demonstrates that an elicitor such as chitosan can effectively induce phytochemicals in plants, which might be another alternative and effective means instead of genetic modification. PMID:15853422

  13. Chloroplast DNA Phylogeography of Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Pooja

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil “Tulsi”, is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10−4. However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km2 encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  14. In-silico identification of miRNAs and their regulating target functions in Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Noopur; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    microRNA is known to play an important role in growth and development of the plants and also in environmental stress. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a well known herb for its medicinal properties. In this study, we used in-silico approaches to identify miRNAs and their targets regulating different functions in O. basilicum using EST approach. Additionally, functional annotation, gene ontology and pathway analysis of identified target transcripts were also done. Seven miRNA families were identified. Meaningful regulations of target transcript by identified miRNAs were computationally evaluated. Four miRNA families have been reported by us for the first time from the Lamiaceae. Our results further confirmed that uracil was the predominant base in the first positions of identified mature miRNA sequence, while adenine and uracil were predominant in pre-miRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the relation between O. basilicum and other plant pre-miRNAs. Thirteen potential targets were evaluated for 4 miRNA families. Majority of the identified target transcripts regulated by miRNAs showed response to stress. miRNA 5021 was also indicated for playing an important role in the amino acid metabolism and co-factor metabolism in this plant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in silico study describing miRNAs and their regulation in different metabolic pathways of O. basilicum. PMID:25256277

  15. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations. PMID:24903358

  16. In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts.

    PubMed

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the anti-diabetic effects of methanol, hexane and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and to analyze their phytochemical composition. Phytochemical analysis of the three extracts by GC/MS using the silylation derivatization technique revealed 53 compounds, 17 of them were found for the first time in OB. Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts were evaluated using L6-GLUT4myc muscle cells stably expressing myc epitope at the exofacial loop (GLUT4). No cytotoxic effects were observed in treated cells up to 0.25 mg/ml extract as measured with MTT and LDH-leakage assays. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was elevated by 3.5 and 7 folds (-/+ insulin) after treatment with OB extracts for 20 h. Our findings suggest that the observed anti-diabetic properties of OB extracts are possibly mediated in part through one or more of the 17 new identified compound. PMID:26593590

  17. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) in Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; Rani, Pooja; Meena, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum tenuiflorum L., holy basil "Tulsi", is an important medicinal plant that is being grown and traditionally revered throughout Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years; however, DNA sequence-based genetic diversity of this aromatic herb is not yet known. In this report, we present our studies on the phylogeography of this species using trnL-trnF intergenic spacer of plastid genome as the DNA barcode for isolates from Indian subcontinent. Our pairwise distance analyses indicated that genetic heterogeneity of isolates remained quite low, with overall mean nucleotide p-distance of 5 × 10(-4). However, our sensitive phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood framework was able to reveal subtle intraspecific molecular evolution of this species within the subcontinent. All isolates except that from North-Central India formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, notwithstanding low bootstrap support and collapse of the clade in Bayesian Inference. North-Central isolates occupied more basal position compared to other isolates, which is suggestive of its evolutionarily primitive status. Indian isolates formed a monophyletic and well-supported clade within O. tenuiflorum clade, which indicates a distinct haplotype. Given the vast geographical area of more than 3 million km(2) encompassing many exclusive biogeographical and ecological zones, relatively low rate of evolution of this herb at this locus in India is particularly interesting. PMID:24523650

  18. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  19. Pharmacological and phytochemical evaluation of Ocimum sanctum root extracts for its antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anant; Agarwal, Karishma; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Bushra, Umme; Tandon, Sudeep; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases risk of having a range of gastrointestinal problems. Therefore, new anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic drugs having lesser side effects are being searched all overthe world as alternatives to NSAIDs. Aims: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic profile of Ocimum sanctum root extracts. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory profile of hexane (STH), chloroform (STC), ethyl acetate (STE), butanol (STB) and water (STW) extracts of OS was carried out by using carrageenan induced paw edema. STE a most active extract was further validated in dose dependent manner for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity as well as oral toxicity profile in small laboratory animals. Identification of bioactives flux and chemical signature of most active fraction STE was developed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting. Results: An ethyl acetate fraction (STE) exhibit most potent anti-inflammatory activity followed by STB, STW, STC and STH. Dose response study of STE showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic potential in dose-dependent manner without any toxic effect at dose 2000 mg/kg. Chemical fingerprint revealed the presence of flavanoids. Conclusions: The present research revealed that STE possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic properties. However, future research is advocated to evaluate the pharmacological properties of isolated bioactive compounds. PMID:26109769

  20. Specificity of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase modified by its expression in different heterologous systems.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc J C; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Perrin, Mireille; Ginglinger, Jean François; Gertz, Claude; Masson, Jean E; Werck-Reinhardt, Danièle; Hugueney, Philippe; Karst, Francis

    2013-01-10

    Numerous aromatic plant species produce high levels of monoterpenols, using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as a precursor. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) geraniol synthase (GES) was used to evaluate the monoterpenol profiles arising from heterologous expressions in various plant models. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) calli were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefasciens and the plants were regenerated. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was transformed using the floral dip method. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves were agro-infiltrated for transient expression. Although, as expected, geraniol was the main product detected in the leaves, different minor products were observed in these plants (V. vinifera: citronellol and nerol; N. benthamiana: linalool and nerol; A. thaliana: none). O. basilicum GES expression was also carried out with microbial system yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the functional properties of a monoterpenol synthase depend not only on the enzyme's amino-acidic sequence, but also on the cellular background. They also suggest that some plant species or microbial expression systems could induce the simultaneous formation of several carbocations, and could thus have a natural tendency to produce a wider spectrum of monoterpenols. PMID:23108028

  1. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  2. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (-)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(-)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (-)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (-)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (-)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (-)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (-)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (-)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  3. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent. PMID:27072205

  4. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents. PMID:24558334

  5. Leishmanicidal active constituents from Nepalese medicinal plant Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Shirota, Osamu; Mori, Kanami; Sekita, Setsuko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Takano, Akihito; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

    2009-03-01

    In the course of screening leishmanicidal active compounds from Asian and South American medicinal plants, a Nepalese medicinal plant, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.), showed strong activity. We therefore studied the isolation and structural elucidation of the active constituents from O. sanctum L. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the plant, seven new novel neolignan derivatives were isolated along with 16 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds (1-7) were elucidated as 6-allyl-3',8-dimethoxy-flavan-3,4'-diol (1), 6-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3',8-dimethoxyflavan-4'-ol (2), 5-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxymethyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), 1,2-bis(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxypropane (4), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-tris(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)propane (5), 1-allyl-4-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-5-methoxybenzene (6), and 3-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-prop-1-ene (7) by means of (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectral data. Some of these compounds showed leishmanicidal activity. PMID:19252314

  6. Antifungal activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil and its lead molecules.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman A

    2010-02-01

    Aqueous extracts and oils of five Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for their antimicrobial activities, were evaluated against two of the most prevalent Candida species causing candidiasis, C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Of these plant materials, three showed varying degrees of antifungal activity against both species. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil (TEO) was found to be the most effective, followed by Peppermint essential oil, and Aloe vera aqueous leaf extract. The product with the lowest MIC was further studied along with its lead molecules to explore the possible mechanism of action of the most active constituents. Eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, and 1, 8-cineole, along with TEO were then evaluated at the same. The pattern and extent of inhibition was studied using growth and WST1 cytotoxicity assays. Proton pumps are important for growth and metabolism of Candida species and so H+ extrusion studies were performed to explore the possible mechanism of the test compounds. Linalool was the most active constituent of TEO, whereas inhibition of H+ extrusion appeared to be a synergistic function of the lead molecules. PMID:20334156

  7. Rapid biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum for water electrolysis applications.

    PubMed

    Soundarrajan, C; Sankari, A; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Ravichandran, S; Sozhan, G; Palaniswamy, N

    2012-06-01

    The leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles from an aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)·6H(2)O). A greater conversion of platinum ions to nanoparticles was achieved by employing a tulsi leaf broth with a reaction temperature of 100 °C. Energy-dispersive absorption X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the platinum particles as major constituent in the reduction process. It is evident from scanning electron microscopy that the reduced platinum particles were found as aggregates with irregular shape. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, terpenoids, certain proteins and amino acids act as reducing agents for platinum ions reduction. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy suggested the associated forms of platinum with other molecules and the average particle size of platinum nanoparticle was 23 nm, calculated using Scherer equation. The reduced platinum showed similar hydrogen evolution potential and catalytic activity like pure platinum using linear scan voltammetry. This environmentally friendly method of biological platinum nanoparticles production increases the rates of synthesis faster which can potentially be used in water electrolysis applications. PMID:22167464

  8. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease in blood sugar level was observed after 30 days of dietary supplementation of O. sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p < 0.05) in the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione) antioxidants was observed in the test group after the treatment with O. sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties. PMID:17922070

  9. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

  10. Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial Activities of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oils at Different Harvest Stages

    PubMed Central

    Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Kamyab, Amir Alam; Kazerani, Narges Khatoon; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential Oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and represent a natural source to treat infections and prevent food spoilage. Their chemical composition might be affected by the environmental condition and the developmental growth stages of the plant. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the variations in chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the EOs of Ocimum sanctum L. at different stages of harvesting. Materials and Methods: The oils constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effects of three different harvest stages of O. sanctum EOs against most common causes of food-borne were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: The analysis of the EOs indicated that eugenol was the major compound of the EOs at all developmental stages which reached its maximum level at the second stage. The results showed that the tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against all of the examined pathogens at concentrations of 0.125-32 µL/mL, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was only inhibited by high concentrations of the floral budding and full flowering EOs. EO distilled from the second developmental growth stage (floral budding) of O. sanctum exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against the food borne bacteria. Conclusions: Considering the wide range of antimicrobial activities of the examined EOs, they might have the potential to be used to manage infectious diseases or extend the shelf life of food products. PMID:25763132

  11. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern.

    PubMed

    Anal, Jasha Momo H

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  12. Conversion of natural aldehydes from Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, and Lippia multiflora into oximes: GC-MS and FT-IR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Igor W; Boulvin, Michael; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Yvonne L

    2009-01-01

    Three carbonyl-containing extracts of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Gramineae) and Lippia multiflora (Verbenaceae) were used for the preparation of oximes. The reaction mixtures were analyzed by GC-MS and different compounds were identified on the basis of their retention times and mass spectra. We observed quantitative conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding oximes with a purity of 95 to 99%. E and Z stereoisomers of the oximes were obtained and separated by GC-MS. During GC analysis, the high temperature in the injector was shown to cause partial dehydratation of oximes and the resulting nitriles were readily identified. Based on FT-IR spectroscopy, that revealed the high stability and low volatility of these compounds, the so-obtained oximes could be useful for future biological studies. PMID:19783925

  13. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Anal, Jasha Momo H.

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration. PMID:25525430

  14. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

    PubMed Central

    Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated. PMID:25550747

  15. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production. PMID:27275253

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and are grouped into 17 families (PR-1 to PR-17). PR-5 family includes proteins related to thaumatin and osmotin, with several members possessing antimicrobial properties. In this study, a PR-5 gene showing a high degree of homology with osmotin-like protein was isolated from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A complete open reading frame consisting of 675 nucleotides, coding for a precursor protein, was obtained by PCR amplification. Based on sequence comparisons with tobacco osmotin and other osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), this protein was named ObOLP. The predicted mature protein is 225 amino acids in length and contains 16 cysteine residues that may potentially form eight disulfide bonds, a signature common to most PR-5 proteins. Among the various abiotic stress treatments tested, including high salt, mechanical wounding and exogenous phytohormone/elicitor treatments; methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and mechanical wounding significantly induced the expression of ObOLP gene. The coding sequence of ObOLP was cloned and expressed in a bacterial host resulting in a 25kDa recombinant-HIS tagged protein, displaying antifungal activity. The ObOLP protein sequence appears to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with signatures of secretory pathway. Further, our experimental data shows that ObOLP expression is regulated transcriptionally and in silico analysis suggests that it may be post-transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated through microRNAs and post-translational protein modifications, respectively. This study appears to be the first report of isolation and characterization of osmotin-like protein gene from O. basilicum. PMID:25550044

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of 2% Ocimum sanctum gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosadurga, Rajesh Ramesh; Rao, Sudarshan Narayan; Edavanputhalath, Rejeesh; Jose, Jobin; Rompicharla, Narayana Charyulu; Shakil, Moidin; Raju, Shashidhara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the options for the treatment of periodontitis is local drug delivery systems (LDD). Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), a traditional herb, has many uses in medicine. It could be a suitable agent as LDD for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: The aim was to formulate, evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity; assess duration of the action and the efficacy of 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis in Wistar Albino rat model. Settings and Design: Thirty six Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Periodontitis was induced using ligature model. Group 1-control; Group 2-Plain gel and Group 3-2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel. Materials and Methods: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity and duration of action were assessed. Silk ligature 5-0 was used to induce periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth were measured. Treatment was done. The rats were sacrificed. Morphometric analysis was done using Stereomicroscope and ImageJ software. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test, Wilcoxon's test for intergroup comparison, Mann-Whitney test for P value computation was used. The observations are mean ± standard deviation and standard error of the mean. P < 0.01 as compared to control was considered as statistically significant. Results: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel showed 33.66% inhibition of edema and peak activity was noted at 24 h. There was statistically significant change in the GI and probing pocket depth. Morphometric analysis did not show any significant difference between groups. No toxic effects were seen on oral administration of 2000 mg/kg of Tulsi extract. Conclusions: 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel was effective in the treatment of experimental periodontitis. PMID:25599031

  18. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment. PMID:26345053

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum) on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%). Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. Results: At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05). P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable “adjunct” along with the standard care in the management of

  20. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  1. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum. PMID:27417228

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) leaves

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Layzon Antonio Lemos; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Soares, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. Objective: The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3) complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material), using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: The effects of (1) the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL), (2) stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL) and (3) AlCl3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL) on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. Results: The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD%) lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD%) and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods), coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl3. However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Conclusion: Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material. PMID:25709217

  3. Apoptosis Induction by Ocimum sanctum Extract in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dhandayuthapani, Sivanesan; Azad, Hasan; Rathinavelu, Appu

    2015-07-01

    Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn), commonly known as "holy basil," has been used for the treatment of a wide range of ailments in many parts of the world. This study focuses on apoptosis-inducing ability of tulsi extract on prostate cancer cells. For this purpose LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of 70% ethanolic extract of tulsi (EET) and then the cytotoxicity was determined after 24 and 48 h. After treatment with EET externalization of phosphatidyl serine (PS) from the inner membrane to outer leaflet of the plasma membrane was clearly evidenced by the results obtained from both flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V-FITC and pSIVA-IANBD binding fluorescence microscopy assay. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential was also evidenced by the presence of 5,5',6,6'-tetrachlolo-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimedazolyl carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) monomeric form in the EET-treated cells that emitted the green fluorescence when compared with the control cells that emitted the red fluorescence due to aggregation of JC-1. Furthermore, the level of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and Bcl-2 were determined using western blot analysis. When compared to the control cells the level of cleaved PARP was found to be higher with a concomitant decrease in the Bcl-2 level after 24 h of treatment of cells with EET. In addition, treatment with EET significantly elevated the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in LNCaP cells compared with the control. Also, after 48 h of treatment all doses used in this study showed clear fragments of DNA, which is one of the hallmarks of apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that, EET can effectively induce apoptosis in LNCaP cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 that can eventually lead to DNA fragmentation and cell death. PMID:25692494

  4. Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil--an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surender; Taneja, Manish; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2007-05-01

    Seeds of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae; popularly known as 'Tulsi' in Hindi and 'Holy Basil' in English) contain a pale yellow colored fixed oil. The oil possesses antiinflammatory activity due to dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism supplemented by antihistaminic activity. The antiinflammatory activity is not dependent on the pituitary adrenal axis. The oil possesses antipyretic activity due to prostaglandin inhibition and peripherally acting analgesic activity. The oil has been found to be effective against formaldehyde or adjuvant induced arthritis and turpentine oil induced joint edema in animals. Lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory activities of the oil contribute towards antiulcer activity. The oil can inhibit enhancement of vascular capillary permeability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus. The LD50 of the oil is 42.5 ml/kg and long-term use of oil at 3 ml/kg dose does not produce any untoward effects in rats. The oil contains a-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, which on metabolism produces eicosapentaenoic acid and the same appears to be responsible for the biological activity. The oil has hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities. Antioxidant property of the oil renders metabolic inhibition, chemoprevention and hypolipidaemic activity. Presence of linolenic acid in the oil imparts antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The oil alone or in combination with cloxacillin, a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, has been found to be beneficial in bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection. Existence of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities in single entity i.e. fixed oil appears to be unique. PMID:17569280

  5. Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Jimmy, Rosmy; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Sunitha, Venkatesh; Bhat, Neeta Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Rao, Suresh; Rao, Pratima; Arora, Rajesh; Palatty, Princy L

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. or Ocimum tenuiflorum L, commonly known as the Holy Basil in English or Tulsi in the various Indian languages, is a important medicinal plant in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia. Scientific studies have shown it to possess antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antistress, and immunomodulatory activities. Preclinical studies have also shown that Tulsi and some of its phytochemicals eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol, and carnosic acid prevented chemical-induced skin, liver, oral, and lung cancers and to mediate these effects by increasing the antioxidant activity, altering the gene expressions, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. The aqueous extract of Tulsi and its flavanoids, orintin, and vicenin are shown to protect mice against γ-radiation-induced sickness and mortality and to selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. The other important phytochemicals like eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and carnosic acid are also shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. This review summarizes the results related to the chemopreventive and radioprotective properties of Tulsi and also emphasizes aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility in cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:23682780

  6. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies. PMID:25275827

  7. Effect ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) and vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Halim, Eshrat M; Mukhopadhyay, A K

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out to see the effect of the aqueous extract ofOcitum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with Vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino male rats. Adult albino male rats weighing 150-200 gm were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in the dose 60 mg/kg in citrate buffer (pH 6.3). The diabetic animals were left for one month to develop retinopathy. Biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1c), were measured along with lipid profile, and enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in normal, untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated withOcimum sanctum L extracts and vitamin E. Fluorescein angiography test was done for assessing retinopathy. Results on biochemical parameters were analyzed statistically by using ANOVA followed by Dunnet's 't'-test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Evaluation of biochemical profile in treated groups showed statistically significant reduction in plasma levels of glucose, HbA(1c), lipid profile and LPO, and elevation of GPX, SOD, CAT and GST. Treatment of the diabetic animals withOcimum sanctum and Vitamin E, alone and in combination for 16 weeks showed reversal of most of the parameters studied including plasma glucose levels. Angiography showed improvement in retinal changes following combined antidiabetic treatment. PMID:23105641

  8. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli. PMID:24423518

  9. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  10. Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  11. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  12. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  13. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India’s Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-03-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12-17 and 200-250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design. PMID:24804073

  15. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic

  16. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12–17 and 200–250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design. PMID:24804073

  17. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  18. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  19. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-01

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

  20. Improved shelf life of protein-rich tofu using Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) extracts to benefit Indian rural population.

    PubMed

    Anbarasu, K; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2007-10-01

    A nutrition survey carried out in India revealed that the diets of the rural population are inadequate and deficient in most of the nutrients especially protein. India being the 5th-largest producer of soybean, a protein-rich cereal, can redress protein-energy malnutrition through diversification of soybean uses by developing high-value and health-based food products. Tofu, a nonfermented soybean product rich in high-quality protein, B-vitamins, and isoflavones, could be an excellent substitute for meat in Indian recipes. Tofu being rich in protein has a very short shelf life. Hence an attempt was made to improve the shelf life using extracts of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) commonly available in rural areas. Tofu was prepared traditionally using MgCl(2):CaSO(4) as coagulating agents. Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) was added during the preparation and storage of tofu to prolong its shelf life. Water used in this study was free from microflora, plant extract used contained mesophilic count of 2.527 x 10(4) CFU/g, and no yeasts and molds were detected. Tofu with tulsi extract had 76.4% moisture and was softer than control. Not much difference in mesophilic count was observed between control and treated samples during storage; however, treated tofu was organoleptically good until the end of the study with less lipid-peroxidation and exhibited 50% (4.7 units) less protease activity than control (9.6 units) after 7 d. By using extracts of naturally available, easily cultivable tulsi, the shelf life was successfully extended to 7 to 8 d from 3 to 4 d of normal storage without refrigeration. PMID:17995609

  1. Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Vetiveria zizanioides on Cu mine tailings amended with chicken manure and manure-soil mixtures: a pot scale study.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The Rakha Cu mines are located at East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India and their activities ceased in 2001. The tailings (residue) were permanently stored in tailings ponds that require vegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A pot scale study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Ex Nees and Vetiveria zizanioides (L) Nash for the reclamation of Cu tailings and to evaluate the effects of chicken manure and soil-manure mixtures on the revegetation of such tailings. Application of manure and soil-manure mixtures resulted in significant increase in pH, EC, OC, CEC and nutritional status of Cu tailings. The environmentally available and DTPA extractable Cu and Ni concentration reduced in amended tailings, while Mn and Zn content increased significantly. Plants grown on amended tailings accumulated lesser Cu and Ni but higher Mn and Zn. Plant biomass increased proportionally to manure and soil-manure mixtures application rates. Lemon grass produced more biomass than vetiver grass in either of the amended tailings. From the pot experiment, it can be suggested that application of chicken manure @ 5% (w/w) and in combination with lemon grass, could be a viable option for reclamation (phytostabilization) of toxic tailings. PMID:19810596

  2. Preventive efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus against radiation-induced DNA damage on V79 cells and free radical scavenging ability against radicals generated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rao, B S S; Shanbhoge, R; Rao, B N; Adiga, S K; Upadhya, D; Aithal, B K; Kumar, M R S

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the findings of free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cymbopogon citratus (CCE). The CCE at a concentration of 60 microg/mL resulted in a significant scavenging ability of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH; (85%), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS; 77%), hydroxyl (70%), superoxide (76%), nitric oxide (78%) free radicals generated using in vitro and also a moderate anti-lipid peroxidative effect (57%). Further, the radiation-induced antigenotoxic potential of CCE was assessed in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) using micronucleus assay. The CCE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the yield of radiation-induced micronuclei, with a maximum effect at 125 microg/mL CCE for 1 h before 2 Gy of radiation. Similarly, there was a significant (P < 0.05-0.0001) decrease in percentage of micronuclei when V79 cells were treated with optimal dose of CCE (125 microg/mL) before exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, that is, 0.5-4 Gy, compared with radiation alone groups. The results of the micronucleus study indicated antigenotoxic effect demonstrating the radioprotective potential of CCE and, which may partly due to its and antioxidant capacity as it presented its ability to scavenge various free radicals in vitro and anti-lipid peroxidative potential. PMID:19734270

  3. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides. PMID:26796022

  4. Angolan Cymbopogon citratus used for therapeutic benefits: nutritional composition and influence of solvents in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Alves, Rita C; Pires, Pedro C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Vinha, Ana F

    2013-10-01

    Folk medicine is a relevant and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems which are, in practice, totally dependent on traditional healers. An outstanding coincidence between indigenous medicinal plant uses and scientifically proved pharmacological properties of several phytochemicals has been observed along the years. This work focused on the leaves of a medicinal plant traditionally used for therapeutic benefits (Angolan Cymbopogon citratus), in order to evaluate their nutritional value. The bioactive phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts prepared with different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were also evaluated. The plant leaves contained ∼60% of carbohydrates, protein (∼20%), fat (∼5%), ash (∼4%) and moisture (∼9%). The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in all extracts. Methanolic extracts also contained alkaloids and steroids. Several methods were used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (DPPH·, NO·, and H₂O₂ scavenging assays, reducing power, and FRAP). Ethanolic extracts presented a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05) except for FRAP, in which the best results were achieved by the aqueous extracts. Methanolic extracts showed the lowest radical scavenging activities for both DPPH· and NO· radicals. PMID:23911554

  5. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion. Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of different components of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils and their synergism against oral pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    H Gopalkrishna, Aparna; M, Seshagiri; Muddaiah, Sunil; R, Shashidara

    2016-01-01

    Background. Opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are common in the oral cavity. In recent years Candida species have shown resistance against a number of synthetic drugs. This study assessed the antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils against six common pathogenic Candida strains. Synergistic activity of the major oil components was also studied. Methods. Antifungal activity of Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctum seed oils were tested against six oral fungal pathogens, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Candida krusei 6258, Candida tropicalis 13803, Candida parapsilosis22019, Candida glabrata 90030 and Candida dubliniensis MYA 646, by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods to determine the diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), respectively. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus from seeds subjected to columnchromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) and major components were separated and quantified. Results. All the six Candida strains showed growth inhibition to a variable degree when tested with both seed oils. Both seed oils showed antifungal activity. For Centratherum anthelminticum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was recorded at 75.7 mm for Candida albicans ATCC 90028, and the least DIZ was 45.7 mm for Candida dubliniensis MYA 646. For Ocimum sanctum seed oil maximum DIZ at 7 μL was 61.0 mm for Candida krusei ATCC 6258 and the least DIZ was 46.7 mm for Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803. The mixtures of phospholipids and unsaponifiable matter exhibitedMIC values at 1.25 μL for both oils, whereas neutral lipids fraction and unsaponifiable matter exhibited similar MIC at 2.5 μL against Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Conclusion.Centratherum anthelminticum and Ocimum sanctumseed oils exhibited strong antifungal activity against six different species of Candida and this may be attributed to various active components in the oil and their

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO. PMID:26818981

  8. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in extract pre-treated rats. The enhanced mRNA expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein and receptor for leukotriene B4 on MI induction, were considerably reduced (P < 0.001) on extract pre-treatment. Histopathological analysis also confirmed the findings. The results also revealed the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. PMID:26665293

  9. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediates the Antifibrogenic Action of Ocimum bacilicum Essential Oil against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ogaly, Hanan A; Eltablawy, Nadia A; El-Behairy, Adel M; El-Hindi, Hatim; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to evaluate the antifibrogenic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OBE) and further to explore some of its underlying mechanisms. Three groups of rats were used: group I (control), group II (CCl4 model) and group III (OBE-treated) received CCl4 and OBE 2 weeks after the start of CCl4 administration. Oxidative damage was assessed by the measurement of MDA, NO, SOD, CAT, GSH and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Liver fibrosis was assessed histopathologically by Masson's trichrome staining and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunostaining. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and cytochrome P450 (CYP2EI isoform) was estimated using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. OBE successfully attenuated liver injury, as shown by histopathology, decreased serum transaminases and improved oxidative status of the liver. Reduced collagen deposition and α-SMA immuopositive cells indicated an abrogation of hepatic stellate cell activation by OBE. Furthermore, OBE was highly effective in stimulating HGF mRNA and protein expression and inhibiting CCl4-induced CYP2E1 down-regulation. The mechanism of antifibrogenic action of OBE is hypothesized to proceed via scavenging free radicals and activating liver regeneration by induction of HGF. These data suggest the use of OBE as a complementary treatment in liver fibrosis. PMID:26213907

  10. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  11. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. PMID:26485843

  12. Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Mejdi; Dehmani, Ameni; Noumi, Emira; Flamini, Guido; Papetti, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of parsley and basilic essential oils tested against Vibrio strains and their abilities to inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm using the XTT assay. Petroselinum crispum essential oil was characterized by 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (24.2%), β-phellandrene (22.8%), apiol (13.2%), myristicin (12.6%) and terpinolene (10.3%) as a major constituents. While, in the basilic oil, linalool (42.1%), (E)-methylcinnamate (16.9%) and 1-8 cineole (7.6%) were the main ones. These two essential oils exhibit high anti-Vibrio spp. activity with varying magnitudes. All microorganisms were strongly affected indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of basilic with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 8.67 to 23.33 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from (0.023-0.047 mg/ml) and (>3->24 mg/ml), respectively. The two essential oils can inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm formed on polystyrene surface even at low concentrations, with high magnitude for Ocimum basilicum essential oil. This study gives a better insight into the anti-Vibrio activity of parsley and basilc oils and the possibility of their use to prevent and eradicate contamination of sea products by these strains. PMID:26596707

  13. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum. PMID:25382467

  14. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs. PMID:22223305

  15. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26243945

  16. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  17. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  18. The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.

    PubMed

    Lachowicz, K J; Jones, G P; Briggs, D R; Bienvenu, F E; Wan, J; Wilcock, A; Coventry, M J

    1998-03-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from five different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. plants (Anise, Bush, Cinnamon, Dark Opal and a commercial sample of dried basil) were examined for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of foodborne Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds by an agar well diffusion method. All five essential oils of basil showed antimicrobial activity against most of the organisms tested with the exception of Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Pseudomonas species. The inhibitory effect of Anise oil, in comparison with mixtures of the predominant components of pure linalool and methyl chavicol, against the acid-tolerant organisms, Lactobacillus curvatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was examined in broth by an indirect impedance method. Synergistic effects between Anise oil, low pH (pH 4.2) and salt (5% NaCl) were determined. The antimicrobial effect of Anise oil was also assessed in a tomato juice medium by direct viable count, showing that the growth of Lact. curvatus and S. cerevisiae was completely inhibited by 0.1% and 1% Anise oil, respectively. The results of the current study indicate the need for further investigations to understand the antimicrobial effects of basil oils in the presence of other food ingredients and preservation parameters. PMID:9569711

  19. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

  20. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products. PMID:24786688

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  3. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  5. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−)-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros Venancio, Antonio; da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; de Carvalho Pimentel, Hugo; Macêdo Lima, Matheus; Fraga de Santana, Michele; Batista da Silva, Givanildo; Marchioro, Murilo

    2016-01-01

    The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−)-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb) derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−)-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−)-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP). EOOb and (−)-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38 ± 0.2 and 0.17 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−)-LIN, these values were 0.23 ± 0.0 and 0.13 ± 0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−)-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−)-LIN in the essential oil. PMID:27446227

  6. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:27585258

  7. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  8. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Imrana; Siddiqui, Zeba N.; Rizvi, Shamim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result: Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion: O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. PMID:21206619

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Anita; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; Ferreira E Castro, Fyama; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Martins Fernandes, Maria Neyze; Fernandes da Silva, Bruno Anderson; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Barbosa, Roseli; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose

    2016-09-25

    The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine. PMID:27474066

  10. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone. PMID:25624694

  11. Restraint stress-induced central monoaminergic & oxidative changes in rats & their prevention by novel Ocimum sanctum compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ausaf; Rasheed, Naila; Chand, Kailash; Maurya, Rakesh; Banu, Naheed; Palit, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Ocimum sanctum (OS) is known to possess various therapeutic properties. We have earlier isolated and characterized three OS compounds; Ocimarin, Ocimumoside A and Ocimumoside B. However, their role in modulating stress-induced central changes is unexplored. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of these OS compounds on restraint stress (RS)-induced changes in the monoaminergic and antioxidant systems in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of rats. Methods: RS was produced by immobilizing (restraining) the Sprague Dawley rats for a period of 2.5 h inside cylindrical steel tubes. The monoamine levels and the in vivo antioxidant status in brain regions were evaluated by HPLC-EC and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Results: RS significantly increased the dopamine levels in the frontal cortex and decreased in the striatum and hippocampus, and accompanied with selective increase of dopamine metabolites compared to the NS control group. The serotonin and its metabolite levels were significantly increased, while noradrenaline levels were decreased by RS in the three brain regions studied. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex and striatum were significantly increased by RS with decreased glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. Pre-treatment with Ocimumoside A and B (40 mg/kg po) for a period of 3 days prevented the RS-induced changes with an efficacy similar to that of standard anti-stress (Panax quinquefolium; 100 mg/kg po) and antioxidant (Melatonin; 20 mg/kg ip) drugs, while, Ocimarin failed to modulate these changes. OS compounds per se had no effect on these parameters. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed the anti-stress potential of Ocimumoside A and B in relation to their simultaneous modulatory effects on the central monoaminergic and antioxidant systems implicating their therapeutic importance in stress

  12. The Influence of Cultivars and Phenological Phases on the Accumulation of Nevadensin and Salvigenin in Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Botond; Bernáth, Jenő; Gere, Attila; Kókai, Zoltán; Komáromi, Bonifác; Tavaszi-Sárosi, Szilvia; Varga, László; Sipos, László; Szabó, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    According to the earlier literature the optimum harvest time for basil is at the full flowering stage if accumulation of essential oil is taken into account. In this research we have investigated our gene-bank stored basil accessions to determine whether the harvest timing is variety specific or not considering their flavonoid accumulation pattern. In our work we have determined by HPLC the content of two main flavonoid compounds, salvigenin and nevadensin, of eight different gene bank accessions from 2013 of Ocimum basilicum L. Data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple pairwise comparisons were made using the Conover-Iman procedure where the significance level was 5%. We have observed that the optimum harvest time is at the full flowering stage in the case of accessions 'Genovese' and 'Piros', but this was not verified for the others. The result of our experiment has shown that the maximum salvigenin and nevadensin content was detected both at the full- and early flowering period. Almost in all phenological phases the accession 'M. Grünes' accumulated the highest level of nevadensin, while accession 'Lengyel' produced the lowest results in all phenological phases. Generally it could be observed that compared with nevadensin more salvigenin is accumulated, and it is independent of the phenological phases. In the case of salvigenin, 'M. Grünes' accession produced the largest quantity and accession 'Dark Opal' showed the lowest values. Our analyses demonstrated that harvest at different phenological phases may result in different amounts of active agents according to the cultivar. PMID:26669105

  13. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

    PubMed Central

    Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Mudili, Venkataramana; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai K.; Natarajan, Gopalan; Sreepathi, Murali H.; Vardhan, Batra H.; Putcha, Venkata L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC–MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 μg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 μg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250–1500 μg/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers. PMID:26388846

  14. Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Ipseeta; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Background In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in an ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury. Methods Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily (sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl-IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os-IR) respectively for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl-IR and Os-IR groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive (+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (-) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure decline)} were monitored at pre-set points throughout the experimental duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and histopathological studies. Results Chronic treatment with Cl significantly reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic {(+)LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP, LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group. Conclusion In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance. PMID:16504000

  15. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains.

    PubMed

    Kalagatur, Naveen K; Mudili, Venkataramana; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai K; Natarajan, Gopalan; Sreepathi, Murali H; Vardhan, Batra H; Putcha, Venkata L R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO) on growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%). DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of OSEO was determined to be 8.5 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 and 1800 μg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 μg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 μg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13) revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250-1500 μg/mL) significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers. PMID:26388846

  16. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing rhizobacteria protect Ocimum sanctum plants during waterlogging stress via reduced ethylene generation.

    PubMed

    Barnawal, Deepti; Bharti, Nidhi; Maji, Deepamala; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Kalra, Alok

    2012-09-01

    Ocimum sanctum grown as rain-fed crop, is known to be poorly adapted to waterlogged conditions. Many a times the crop suffers extreme damages because of anoxia and excessive ethylene generation due to waterlogging conditions present under heavy rain. The usefulness of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria was investigated under waterlogging stress. The comparison of herb yield and stress induced biochemical changes of waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants with and without ACC deaminase-containing microbiological treatments were monitored in this study. Ten plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strains containing ACC-deaminase were isolated and characterized. Four selected isolates Fd2 (Achromobacter xylosoxidans), Bac5 (Serratia ureilytica), Oci9 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) and Oci13 (Ochrobactrum rhizosphaerae) had the potential to protect Ocimum plants from flood induced damage under waterlogged glass house conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of these ACC deaminase-containing selected strains for reducing the yield losses caused by waterlogging conditions. Bacterial treatments protected plants from waterlogging induced detrimental changes like stress ethylene production, reduced chlorophyll concentration, higher lipid peroxidation, proline concentration and reduced foliar nutrient uptake. Fd2 (A. xylosoxidans) induced maximum waterlogging tolerance as treated waterlogged plants recorded maximum growth and herb yield (46.5% higher than uninoculated waterlogged plants) with minimum stress ethylene levels (53% lower ACC concentration as compared to waterlogged plants without bacterial inoculation) whereas under normal non-waterlogged conditions O. rhizosphaerae was most effective in plant growth promotion. PMID:22846334

  17. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    SUANARUNSAWAT, THAMOLWAN; ANANTASOMBOON, GUN; PIEWBANG, CHUTCHAI

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using hexane, and the various fatty acid contents of the oil were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups (n=7 per group): Normal control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats fed daily with the fixed oil for three weeks. The results showed that α-linolenic acid was the primary fatty acid contained in the fixed oil of OS. After 3 weeks of diabetic induction, the rats exhibited increased blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile, in addition to elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB subunit (CK-MB), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The fixed oil significantly decreased the elevated levels of blood glucose, the serum lipid profile and the levels of serum creatinine and BUN (P<0.001), without exerting significant effects on the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, LDH and CK-MB. Furthermore, the fixed oil increased the diabetically-reduced levels of serum insulin and decreased the rat kidney weight. Fixed oil suppressed the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and increased the activity of various antioxidative enzymes in the rat renal tissue. By contrast, the fixed oil had no effect on the elevated TBARS level and the inhibited activity of the antioxidative enzymes in the rat liver and cardiac tissues. Histopathological results indicated that the fixed oil preserved the renal tissue

  18. Altered growth and polyamine catabolism following exposure of the chocolate spot pathogen Botrytis fabae to the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Oxenham, Senga K; Svoboda, Katja P; Walters, Dale R

    2005-01-01

    Biomass of the fungal pathogen Botrytis fabae in liquid culture amended with two chemotypes of the essential oil of basil, Ocimum basilicum, was reduced significantly at concentrations of 50 ppm or less. The methyl chavicol chemotype oil increased the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), but polyamine concentrations were not significantly altered. In contrast, the linalol chemotype oil decreased AdoMetDC activity in B. fabae, although again polyamine concentrations were not altered significantly. However activities of the polyamine catabolic enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) were increased significantly in B. fabae grown in the presence of the essential oil of the two chemotypes. It is suggested that the elevated activities of DAO and PAO may be responsible, in part, for the antifungal effects of the basil oil, possibly via the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent triggering of programmed cell death. PMID:16392245

  19. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswary, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with an LC(50) values of 14.01, 11.97 and 9.75 ppm and an LC(90) values of 23.44, 21.17 and 18.56 ppm, respectively. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus. PMID:23391742

  20. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  1. In Vitro Antiplasmodial Activities and Synergistic Combinations of Differential Solvent Extracts of the Polyherbal Product, Nefang

    PubMed Central

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Eunyoung; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S.; Agbor, Gabriel A.; Okalebo, Faith A.; Guantai, Anastasia N.

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μg/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  2. In vitro antiplasmodial activities and synergistic combinations of differential solvent extracts of the polyherbal product, Nefang.

    PubMed

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Franzoi, Kathrin Diehl; Lee, Sukjun; Lee, Eunyoung; Vivarelli, Diego; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Liuzzi, Michel; Nolé, Tsabang; Ayong, Lawrence S; Agbor, Gabriel A; Okalebo, Faith A; Guantai, Anastasia N

    2014-01-01

    Nefang, a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), is a potential therapy against P. falciparum malaria. In vitro antiplasmodial activities of its constituent solvent extracts were analyzed on CQ-sensitive (3D7) and multidrug resistant (Dd2) P. falciparum strains. The interactions involving the differential solvent extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Effective concentration 50 (EC50) values were determined by nonlinear regression curve-fitting of the dose-response data and used in calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration 50 (FIC50) and combination indices (CI) for each pair. The derived EC50 values (3D7/Dd2, μ g/mL) are Nefang-96.96/55.08, MiB-65.33/34.58, MiL-82.56/40.04, Pg-47.02/25.79, Cp-1188/317.5, Cc-723.3/141, Cs-184.4/105.1, and Og-778.5/118.9. Synergism was obtained with MiB/Pg (CI = 0.351), MiL/Pg (0.358), MiB/Cs (0.366), MiL/Cs (0.482), Pg/Cs (0.483), and Cs/Og (0.414) when analyzed at equipotency ratios. Cytotoxicity testing of Nefang and the solvent extracts on two human cell lines (Hep G2 and U2OS) revealed no significant toxicity relative to their antiplasmodial activities (SI > 20). Taken together, our data confirm the antimalarial activities of Nefang and its constituent plant extracts and identified extract pairs with promising synergistic interactions for exploitation towards a rational phytotherapeutic and evidence-based antimalarial drug discovery. PMID:24877138

  3. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

  4. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  5. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    PubMed

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-01-01

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma. PMID:27537869

  6. Antigenotoxic effect of green-synthesised silver nanoparticles from Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes—in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya, P. P.; Rekha, B.; Mathew, Anu Thersa; Syed Ali, M.; Yogananth, N.; Anuradha, V.; Kalitha Parveen, P.

    2014-04-01

    The present study was aimed to identify the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesised silver nanoparticles (SNP) of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against cyclophosphamide (CP). We tested the antigenotoxic effect of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles of O. sanctum leaf extract on human lymphocytes against CP by using chromosomal aberration assay (CAA). Silver nanoparticles was first synthesized from fresh leaf extract of O. sanctum and characterised. Their quality was checked by XRD technique and morphology by SEM. Three different doses of the bio-synthesised SNPs namely, 50, 100 and 200 μl/ml were selected and CP (100 μg/ml) was used as a positive control for CAA. CP administration to human lymphocytes culture caused reduction in mitotic index (MI) and increase in chromosomal damages. The three doses (50, 100 and 200 μl/ml) significantly ( P < 0.005) reduced the chromosomal damages by CP and there was increase in MI. The biological way of synthesising SNPs has advantages like cost effectiveness and eco-friendly. Also the bio-synthesised SNPs of O. sanctum leaf extract was found to be an powerful genoprotectant. Furthermore works are to be carried out in future to find the extract mechanism of its genoprotective nature.

  7. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kunjal S.; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. Results: All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. Conclusions: The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus. PMID:24966766

  8. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Murugan, R Senthil; Abbas, H; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Four different concentrations of ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to Wistar rats by intragastric intubation for five consecutive days followed by intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (35 mg/kg of body weight) 90 minutes after the final dose of the extract. Administration of DMBA increased bone marrow micronuclei, phase I enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl formation. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activities of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in the liver, erythrocytes, and bone marrow. Pretreatment with ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg of body weight significantly reduced micronuclei formation and phase I enzymes as well as lipid and protein oxidation with enhanced antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract inhibits DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, reducing the extent of lipid and protein oxidation and up-regulating antioxidant defenses. PMID:17887944

  9. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450˚C and 550˚C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X - Ray diffraction (XRD), UV - Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  10. Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ram Chandra; Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Parveen; Negi, Mahendra P. Singh; Saxena, Vinod S.; Geetharani, Periasamy; Allan, Joseph Joshua; Venkateshwarlu, Kudiganti

    2012-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. in symptomatic control of general stress. The participants received either placebo (n = 79) or OciBest (n = 71; 1200 mg of actives per day) for six weeks. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the trial period using a symptom rating scale. After six weeks of intervention, scores of symptoms such as forgetfulness, sexual problems of recent origin, frequent feeling of exhaustion, and frequent sleep problems of recent origin decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in OciBest group as compared with placebo group. Also, the total symptom scores of OciBest group revealed significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) as compared to placebo group. The overall improvement in OciBest group was found to be 1.6 times or 39% more in the control of general stress symptoms with respect to placebo. No adverse events were reported during the study. The findings revealed that OciBest was found to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients over the six weeks of study period. PMID:21977056